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Submitted to:

Ms. Menvyluz S. Macalalad

Department of Management Studies

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements in General Economic w/ TAR

Submitted by:



A.Y. 2017-2018
In studying of our report, we found out that Agrarian reform and Land reform can
define as follows:

Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning)
involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land
ownership.[1] Land reform may consist of a government-initiated or government-
backed property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. Land reform can,
therefore, refer to transfer of ownership from the more powerful to the less
powerful, such as from a relatively small number of wealthy (or noble) owners
with extensive land holdings plantations, large ranches, or agribusiness plots) to
individual ownership by those who work the land. Such transfers of ownership
may be with or without compensation; compensation may vary from token
amounts to the full value of the land.

Land reform may also entail the transfer of land from individual ownership—
even peasant ownership in smallholdings—to government-owned collective
farms; it has also, in other times and places, referred to the exact opposite:
division of government-owned collective farms into smallholdings.[4] The common
characteristic of all land reforms, however, is modification or replacement of
existing institutional arrangements governing possession and use of land. Thus,
while land reform may be radical in nature, such as through large-scale transfers
of land from one group to another, it can also be less dramatic, such as
regulatory reforms aimed at improving land administration.

Nonetheless, any revision or reform of a country's land laws can still be an

intensely political process, as reforming land policies serves to change
relationships within and between communities, as well as between communities
and the state. Thus even small-scale land reforms and legal modifications may
be subject to intense debate or conflict.[6]

Land ownership and tenure can be perceived as controversial in part because

ideas defining what it means to access or control land, such as through "land
ownership" or "land tenure", can vary considerably across regions and even
within countries.[7] Land reforms, which change what it means to control land,
therefore create tensions and conflicts between those who lose and those who
gain from these redefinitions (see next section).[8]

Western conceptions of land have evolved over the past several centuries to
place greater emphasis on individual land ownership, formalized through
documents such as land titles. Control over land, however, may also be
perceived less in terms of individual ownership and more in terms land use, or
through what is known as land tenure. Historically, in many parts of Africa for
example, land was not owned by an individual, but rather used by an extended
family or a village community. Different people in a family or community had
different rights to access this land for different purposes and at different times.
Such rights were often conveyed through oral history and not formally

These different ideas of land ownership and tenure are sometimes referred to
using different terminology. For example, "formal" or "statutory" land systems
refer to ideas of land control more closely affiliated with individual land
ownership. "Informal" or "customary" land systems refer to ideas of land control
more closely affiliated with land tenure.

Terms dictating control over and use of land can therefore take many forms.
Some specific examples of present-day or historic forms of formal and informal
land ownership include.

What is Agrarian Reform?

Agrarian reform is a relatively new term that encompasses all the meanings of
land reform but also includes other aspects redirecting agricultural system of an
economy to a better situation. While it was land reform alone that topped the
priority lists of all governments earlier, it is the agrarian reform that is the
buzzword among the authorities in recent decades. This is because of the
changing role of the land and agriculture in the development process of a
country. Land reform has now merged into agrarian reform because of its
relevance and importance in the present scenario. It is not just land redistribution
that is sufficient for achieving optimum development though it is more than
enough in bringing about social equality and the desired changes in patterns of
ownership of land.

Agrarian reform includes land reform as well as changes in farm operations, rural
credit, training or farmers, marketing or products, and implementation of the
latest technology to enhance the productivity of the farmers.

What is the difference between Land Reform and Agrarian Reform?

• Land reform is a term that was used earlier to bring about changes in the
ownership of land, in rural areas.

• Land reform was initiated by governments to achieve their social and political
objectives and also to bring about changes in the lives of the poor landless

• Over the years, it has dawned upon the experts and governments that land
reform alone is not sufficient for optimal development. This has led to the
introduction of agrarian reform that is a broader term than land reform.

Agrarian reform includes land reform and also addresses education and training
of farmers for better produce and marketing, rural credit, easier access to
markets, and so

The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, more commonly known

as CARP, is an agrarian reform law of the Philippines whose legal basis is the
Republic Act No. 6657,[1]otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian
Reform Law (CARL).[2] It is the redistribution of private and public agricultural
lands to help the beneficiaries survive as small independent farmers, regardless
of the “tenurial” arrangement. Its goals are to provide landowners equality in
terms of income and opportunities, empower land owner beneficiaries to have an
equitable land ownership, enhance the agricultural production and productivity,
provide employment to more agricultural workers, and put an end to conflicts
regarding land ownership.

۞Qualified beneficiaries in the following order of priority are the

agriculture lessees and share tenants, regular farm workers, seasonal farm
workers, actual tillers or occupants of public lands, collectives or cooperatives of
the aforementioned beneficiaries, and others directly working on the land.

۞The distribution of all lands covered by CARP shall be implemented

within 10 years effective immediately upon signing of the law by Pres. Corazon
Aguino on June 10, 1988 However, the application of CARP on private
commercial lands, such as livestock, poultry, piggery, agua-culture (fishponds,
saltbed and prawn ponds), plantations, has been deferred for 10 tears.

۞Exemtions and exclusions include lands for wildlife, forest reserves,

reforestation, fish sanctuaries and breeding grounds, watersheds and
mangroves, nation defense, school sites and campuses, experimental farm
stations seeds and seedling research and pilot production centers, church sites
and convents, mosque and private research and quarantine centers.

۞Payments to landowners: 25% cash and 75% government bonds for

above 50 hectares; 30% cash and 70% government bonds for above 24 hectares
and up to 50 hectares; and 35% cash and 65% government bonds for 24
hectares and below. Payments ar made in 10 yaers at 10% interest per annum.

۞Beneficiaries pay Land Bank of the Phillipines in 30 annual amortization

at six percent (6%) interest per annum.
۞Valuation of lands is determined by PARC (Presidential Agrarian
Reform Council), headed by the President of the Philippines. The value of the
lands depend on the cost of their acquisition, current values, tax declarations,
sworn valuation by the owners, and government assessment.