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AUTOMATIC CLUTCH AND BRAKING SYSTEM

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

DIPLOMA
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BY

Under the guidance of ------------------------

2005-2006

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


CERTIFICATE

Register number:
_________________________

This is to certify that the project report titled


“AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC CLUTCH AND BRAKING
SYSTEM” submitted by the following students for the
award of Diploma engineering is record of bonafide work
carried out by them.

Done by
Mr. /Ms._______________________________

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

Diploma in Mechanical Engineering


During the Year – (2004-2005)

_________________ _______________
Head of Department Guide

Coimbatore –641651.
Date:

Submitted for the university examination held on ___________

_________________ ________________
Internal Examiner External
Examiner
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At this pleasing moment of having successfully


completed our project, we wish to convey our
sincere thanks and gratitude to the management
of our college and our beloved chairman
…………………………………………………, who provided all
the facilities to us.
We would like to express our sincere thanks to
our principal ………………………………………, for
forwarding us to do our project and offering
adequate duration in completing our project.
We are also grateful to the Head of
Department Prof. …………………………………….., for
her constructive suggestions & encouragement
during our project.
With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our
earnest & sincere thanks to our guide
…………………………………………………….., Department
of Mechanical for her kind guidance &
encouragement during this project.
We also express our indebt thanks to our
TEACHING and NON TEACHING staffs of
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,
……………………….(COLLEGE NAME).

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AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC CLUTCH
AND BRAKING SYSTEM
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CONTENTS
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CONTENTS

ADKNOWLEDGEMENT

1. SYNOPSIS

2. INTRODUCTION

3. LITERATURE SURVEY

4. TYPES OF BRAKING

5. IR SENSOR

6. MICROCONTROLLER

7. COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION

8. BLOCK DIAGRAM

9. WORKING PROCEDURE

10. APPLICATION AND ADVANTAGES

11. LIST OF MATERIAL

12. COST ESTIMATION


13. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PHOTOGRAPHY

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Chapter-1
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SYNOPSIS
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CHAPTER-1
SYNOPSIS

The technology of pneumatics has gained tremendous importance in the field of

workplace rationalization and automation from old-fashioned timber works and coal

mines to modern machine shops and space robots. It is therefore important that

technicians and engineers should have a good knowledge of pneumatic system, air

operated valves and accessories. The air is compressed in an air compressor and from the

compressor plant the flow medium is transmitted to the pneumatic cylinder through a

well laid pipe line system. To maintain optimum efficiency of pneumatic system, it is of

vital importance that pressure drop between generation and consumption of compressed

air is kept very low.

The aim is to design and develop a control system based an intelligent

electronically controlled automotive braking system is called “INTELLIGENT

REVERSE BRAKING SYSTEM”. Sensor Operated Pneumatic Brake is consists of


IR transmitter and Receiver circuit, Control Unit, Pneumatic breaking system. The IR

sensor is used to detect the obstacle. There is any obstacle in the path, the IR sensor

senses the obstacle and giving the control signal to the breaking system. The pneumatic

breaking system is used to break the system.

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Chapter-2
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INTRODUCTION
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CHAPTER-2

INTRODUCTION

We have pleasure in introducing our new project “AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC

CLUTCH AND BRAKING SYSTEM”, which is fully equipped by IR sensors circuit

and Pneumatic breaking circuit. It is a genuine project which is fully equipped and

designed for Automobile vehicles. This forms an integral part of best quality. This

product underwent strenuous test in our Automobile vehicles and it is good.

The “PNEUMATIC BRAKEING CIRCUIT” can stop the vehicle within 2 to 3

seconds running at a speed of 50 KM. The intelligent breaking system is a fully

automation project.

This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual

effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an


essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as the

degree of mechanization is increased.

Degrees of automation are of two types, viz.

Full automation.

Semi automation.

In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is

required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.

NEED FOR AUTOMATION:

Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics,

etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost automation.

The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and simplicity. Automation

plays an important role in mass production.

For mass production of the product, the machining operations decide the

sequence of machining. The machines designed for producing a particular product are

called transfer machines. The components must be moved automatically from the bins to

various machines sequentially and the final component can be placed separately for
packaging. Materials can also be repeatedly transferred from the moving conveyors to the

work place and vice versa.

Nowadays almost all the manufacturing process is being atomized in order to

deliver the products at a faster rate. The manufacturing operation is being atomized for

the following reasons.

 To achieve mass production

 To reduce man power

 To increase the efficiency of the plant

 To reduce the work load

 To reduce the production cost

 To reduce the production time

 To reduce the material handling

 To reduce the fatigue of workers

 To achieve good product quality

 Less Maintenance
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Chapter-3
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LIERATURE SURVEY
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CHAPTER-3

LITERATURE SURVEY

SAFETY SYSTEM:
The aim is to design and develop a control system based on pneumatic breaking

system of an intelligent electronically controlled automotive braking system. Based on

this model, control strategies such as an 'antilock braking system' (ABS) and improved

maneuverability via individual wheel braking are to be developed and evaluated.

There have been considerable advances in modern vehicle braking systems in

recent years. For example, electronically controlled ABS for emergency braking,

electronically controlled hydraulically actuated individual brake-by-wire (BBW) systems

for saloon cars and electronically controlled pneumatically actuated systems for heavy

goods vehicles. The work of recent years shall form the basis of a system design

approach to be implemented. The novelty of the proposed research programmed shall lie

in the design and evaluation of control systems for achieving individual wheel motion

control facilitated by BBW. In the case of BBW the brake pedal is detached from the

hydraulic system and replaced by a 'brake pedal simulator'. The simulator provides an

electrical signal for the electronic control system.

Preliminary modeling and simulation work considers a quarter cars initially

followed by a natural progression to the half car and full four wheel station cases. The

model is to be constructed in modular form thus allowing the replacement / interchange

of the various blocks and their associated technologies. Upon completion of the full

vehicle braking model, sensitivity analyses will be carried out. Once the preliminary
simulation model has been thoroughly benchmarked and existing control system

strategies evaluated, an audit of the technology used is to take place and this will provide

a basis for comparison of iterative technologies / techniques.

The final phase of the new modern vehicle shall include:

 Development of improved ABS control systems

 Development and assessment of an electro-hydraulic-BBW (EH-BBW) system

 Individual wheel braking combined with traction control

 Assessing sensor failure and fault tolerant control system design

 Preliminary studies into an electrically actuated system

 Re-engineering using simplified models.


PNEUMATICS

The word ‘pneuma’ comes from Greek and means breather wind. The word

pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the word

pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of air as a

working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of machines and

equipment.

Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out the

simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has played a more important role in the

development of pneumatic technology for automation.


Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be made

available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the system. When

the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it wills indeed the

necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.

The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using

reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a certain

pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.

Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered and the

volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at atmosphere pressure

and normal ambient temperature.

The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robert Boyle in 1962 and

that found that the product of pressure and volume of a particular quantity of gas.

The usual written as

PV = C (or) PıVı = P2V2

In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about 14.7

Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 30 inches high

in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the mostly

used system now a days.


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Chapter-4
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TYPES OF BRAKING
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CHAPTER-4

TYPES OF BRAKING

The brakes for automotive use may be classified according the following considerations.

1. PURPOSE

2. LOCATION

3. CONSTRUCTION

4. METHOD OF ACTUATION

5. EXTRA BRAKING EFFORT

Based on the above considerations, brakes are classified with respect to following

factors.

1. With respect to application,

a. Foot brake

b. Hand brake

2. With respect to the number of wheels,

a. Two wheel brakes

b. Four wheel brakes


3. With respect to the method of braking contact

a. Internal expanding brakes

b. External contracting brakes

4. With respect to the method of applying the braking force.

a. Single acting brake

b. Double acting brakes.

5. With respect to the brake gear,

a. Mechanical brake

b. Power brakes

6. With respect to the nature of power employed

a. Vacuum brake

b. Air brake

c. Hydraulic brake

d. Hydrostatic brake

e. Electric brake
7. With respect to power transmission,

a. Direct acting brakes

b. Geared brakes

8. With respect to power unit,

a. Cylinder brakes

b. Diaphragm brake

The foot brake or service brake is always applied by a pedal, while the parking

brake is applied by a hand lever. The parking brake is intended chiefly to hold the car in

position. The parking brake can be set in the “ON” position by means of a latch while the

service brake remains on only as long as the driver presses down on the pedal.

The hand brake is normally used only after the driver has stopped the car by using

the foot brake. Its other use is as an emergency brake to stop the car if the foot braked

system should fail. The hand or parking brakes operates on a pair of wheels, frequently

the rear wheels. When drum type rear brakes are used, the same shoes can be used for

both hand and foot control.


The drum type of brake may either be a band brake or a shoe brake. Both band

brakes and shoe brakes may be either external or internal. The band brakes generally are

external and shoe brakes internal. In drum brakes the drum is attached to the wheel and

revolves with it. Friction to slow the drum is applied from inside by the shoes which do

not rotate but are mounted on a stationary metal back plate. There are different types of

drum brakes such as a two leading shoe arrangement – which gives an augmented

response to pedal effort because of its self applying arrangement. A leading-trailing shoe

is a cheaper and better alternative as it is equally effective whether the car is going

forward or backwards.

Manufacturers design drum brakes so that rain, show or ice or grit cannot get

inside and decrease braking efficiency for moisture greatly reduces the friction between

the linings and the drum.

The dissipate quickly the considerable amount of heat generated when braking a

fast moving heavy car large brake drums would be required. Disc brakes do the job more

efficiently, for the cooling air can get to the rubbing between each piston and the disc,

there is a friction pad held in position by retaining pins, spring plates etc. Passages are

drilled in the caliper for the fluid to enter or leave the each housing. These passages are

also connected to another one for bleeding. Each cylinder contains a rubber selling ring

between the cylinder and the piston.


The brakes are applied, hydraulically actuated piston move the friction pads into

contact with the disc, applying equal and opposite forces on the later. On releasing the

brakes, the rubber sealing rings act as return springs and retract the pistons and the

friction pads away from the disc.

Now let us see in detail about different braking systems in automobiles.

MECHANICAL BRAKE:

In a motor vehicle, the wheel is attached to an auxiliary wheel called drum. The

brake shoes are made to contact this drum. In most designs, two shoes are used with each

drum to form a complete brake mechanism at each wheel. The brake shoes have bake

linings on their outer surfaces. Each brake shoe is hinged at one end by on anchor pin;

the other end is operated by some means so that the brake shoe expands outwards. The

brake linings come into contact with the drum. Retracting spring keeps the brake shoe

into position when the brakes are not applied. The drum encloses the entire mechanism

to keep out dust and moisture. The wheel attaching bolts on the drum are used to contact

wheel and drum. The braking plate completes the brake enclosure, holds the assembly to

car axie, and acts the base for fastening the brake shoes and operating mechanism. The

shoes are generally mounted to rub against the inside surface of the drum to form as

internal expanding brake as shown in the figure.


HYDRAULIC BRAKES:

The hydraulic brakes are applied by the liquid pressure. The pedal force is

transmitted to the brake shoe by means of a confined liquid through a system of force

transmission.

The force applied to the pedal is multiplied and transmitted to brake shoes by a

force transmission system. This system is based upon Pascal’s principle, which states

that “The confined liquids transmit pressure without loss equally in all directions”.

It essentially consists of two main components – master cylinder and wheel

cylinder the master cylinder is connected by the wheel cylinders at each of the four

wheels. The system is filled with the liquid under light pressure when the brakes are not

in operation. The liquid is known as brake fluid, and is usually a mixture of glycerin and

alcohol or caster-oil, denatured alcohol and some additives Spring pressure, and thus the

fluid pressure in the entire system drops to its original low valve, which allows retracting

spring on wheel brakes to pull the brake shoes out of contact with the brake drums into

their original positions. This causes the wheel cylinder piston also to come back to its

original inward position. Thus, the brakes are released.


AIR BRAKE:

Air brakes are widely used in heavy vehicle like buses and trucks which require a

heavier braking effort that can be applied by the driver’s foot. Air brakes are applied by

the pressure of compressed air, instead of foot pressure, acting against flexible

diaphragms in brake chamber. The diaphragms are connected to the wheel brakes. These

diaphragms are controlled through a hand or foot operated valve. The brake valve

controls brake operation by directing the flow of air from a reservoir against diaphragms

in the brake chamber when the brakes are applied and from brake chambers to tube

atmosphere when the brakes are released. The air compressor, driven by the engine

furnishes compressed air to the reservoir fall below a set valve.

ELECTRIC BRAKE:

Electric Brakes are also used in some motor vehicles, although these are not very

popular. Warner electric brake is one of the examples of such brakes. An electric brake

essentially consists of an electromagnet within the brake drum. The current from the

battery is utilized to energize the electromagnet, which actuates the mechanism to expand

the brake shoe against the brake drum, thus applying the brakes. The severity of braking

is controlled by means of a rheostat, which is operated by the driver through the foot

pedal.
Electric brakes are simpler. These brakes do not require complicated operating

linkage. Only cable is required to take current from the battery to the electromagnet.

Also, these are very quick in action as compared to other types of brakes.

VACUUM BRAKES / SERVO BRAKES:

A serve mechanism fitted to the braking system reduces the physical effort the

driver has to use on the brake pedal most servo mechanisms are of the vacuum assistance

type. A pressure differential can be established by subjecting one side of the piston to

atmospheric pressure and the other side to a pressure below atmospheric pressure by

exhausting air from the corresponding end of the servo cylinder.

REGENERATIVE BRAKING:

Electricity powered vehicles use regenerative braking for stopping the vehicle.

With regenerative braking pressing the brake pedal does not necessarily activate a

conventional friction brake. The motor controller controlling the vehicle is treated as a

generator which slows the vehicle and simultaneously provides an output for charging the

battery. The effectiveness of regenerative braking falls of with vehicle speed. Electric

vehicles will have to be fitted with conventional hydraulic friction brakes as well as with

regenerative systems.
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Chapter-5
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IR SENSOR
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CHAPTER-5

IR SENSOR

SENSORS

A sensor is a transducer used to make a measurement of a physical variable. Any

sensor requires calibration in order to be useful as a measuring device. Calibration is the

procedure by which the relationship between the measured variable and the converted

output signal is established.

Care should be taken in the choice of sensory devices for particular tasks. The

operating characteristics of each device should be closely matched to the task for which it

is being utilized. Different sensors can be used in different ways to sense same

conditions and the same sensors can be used in different ways to sense different

conditions.

TYPES OF SENSOR:

Passive sensors detect the reflected or emitted electro-magnetic radiation from

natural sources, while active sensors detect reflected responses from objects which are

irradiated from artificially generated energy sources, such as radar. Each is divided

further in to non-scanning and scanning systems.


A sensor classified as a combination of passive, non-scanning and non-imaging

method is a type of profile recorder, for example a microwave radiometer. A sensor

classified as passive, non-scanning and imaging method, is a camera, such as an aerial

survey camera or a space camera, for example on board the Russian COSMOS satellite.

Sensors classified as a combination of passive, scanning and imaging are classified

further into image plane scanning sensors, such as TV cameras and solid state scanners,

and object plane scanning sensors, such as multi-spectral scanners (optical-mechanical

scanner) and scanning microwave radiometers.

An example of an active, non-scanning and non-imaging sensor is a profile

recorder such as a laser spectrometer and laser altimeter. An active, scanning and imaging

sensor is radar, for example synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which can produce high

resolution, imagery, day or night, even under cloud cover.

The most popular sensors used in remote sensing are the camera, solid state

scanner, such as the CCD (charge coupled device) images, the multi-spectral scanner and

in the future the passive synthetic aperture radar.

Laser sensors have recently begun to be used more frequently for monitoring air

pollution by laser spectrometers and for measurement of distance by laser altimeters.


CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL SENSOR:

Optical sensors are characterized specified by spectral, radiometric and geometric

performance

The spectral characteristics are spectral band and band width, the central

wavelength, response sensitivity at the edges of band, spectral sensitivity at outer

wavelengths and sensitivity of polarization.

Sensors using film are characterized by the sensitivity of film and the

transmittance of the filter, and nature of the lens. Scanner type sensors are specified by

the spectral characteristics of the detector and the spectral splitter. In addition, chromatic

aberration is an influential factor. The radiometric characteristics of optical sensors are

specified by the change of electro-magnetic radiation which passes through an optical

system. They are radiometry of the sensor, sensitivity in noise equivalent power,

dynamic range, signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio) and other noises, including

quantification noise.

The geometric characteristics are specified by those geometric factors such as field

of view (FOV), instantaneous field of news (IFOV), band to band registration, MTF,

geometric distortion and alignment of optical elements.


IFOV is defined as the angle contained by the minimum area that can be detected

by a scanner type sensor. For example in the case of an IFOV of 2.5 milli radians, the

detected area on the ground will be 2.5 meters x 2.5 meters, if the altitude of sensor is

1,000 m above ground.

In our project IR transmitter and IR receiver are used to detect the obstacle. These

sensors are fitted at the front side of the vehicle.


IR TRANSMITTER:

The IR transmitting circuit is used in many projects. The IR transmitter sends 40

kHz (frequency can be adjusted) carrier under 555 timer control. IR carriers at around 40

kHz carrier frequencies are widely used in TV remote controlling and ICs for receiving

these signals are quite easily available.

IR RECEIVER:

The transmitted signal reflected by the obstacle and the IR receiver circuit receives

the signal and giving control signal to the control unit. The control unit activates the

pneumatic breaking system, so that break was applied.

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Chapter-6
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MICROCONTROLLER

CHAPTER-6
MICROCONTROLLER

CONTROL UNIT -89C52

In our project 89C52 Microcontroller is used as a control


unit.

INTRODUCTION ABOUT MICRO CONTROLLER:

A microcontroller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory


(RAM, ROM or EPROM), various I/O features such as serial port(s), parallel
port(s), Timer/Counter(s), Interrupt controller, Data Acquisition interfaces-Analog
to Digital Converter (ADC), Digital to Analog Converter (DAC), everything
integrated onto a single silicon chip.

It does not mean that any micro controller should have above said features
on-chip. Depending on the need and area of application for which it is designed,
the on-chip features present in it may or may not include all the individual sections
said above. Any micro computer system requires memory to store a sequence of
instructions making up a program, parallel port or serial port for communicating
with an external system, timer/counter for control purposes like generating time
delays, baud rate for the serial port, apart from the controlling unit called the
Central Processing Unit.

MEMORY ASSOCIATED WITH AT-89C52:

PROGRAM MEMORY:
A program memory is a block of memory, which can be used to store a
sequence of program codes (by using special EPROM / PROM programmers). It
can only be read from and not written into, under normal operating conditions.

There can be up to 64 k bytes of program memory in AT-89C52. in ROM


and EPROM versions of the MCS-351 family of devices, the lower 4K are
provided on-chip whereas in ROM fewer versions, all program memory is external.

In ROM and EPROM versions of this device, if the special control signals
EA (External Access enable) is strapped off Vcc, and then program fetches to
addresses 0000 to 0FFF are directed to the internal ROM. The program fetch will
be from external memory, where EA* is grounded.

After reset, the CPU begins execution from address location 0000 of the
program memory.

Figure shows a map of the AT-89C52-program memory

FFFF
FFFF
1000 OR
60K Bytes 0FFF
Internal 0000
0000 4 K Bytes 64 K Bytes
Internal External

DATA MEMORY:
Data memory is the Read/Write memory. Hence, it can be both read from and written into. AT-89C52 has got 128 bytes of
internal data memory and 64K of external data memory.

FF
80 FFFF
7F AND
SFRS 0000 64 K Bytes
DIRECT
00 DIRECT External
ADDRESS
AND
SING
INDIRECT
ONLY
ADDRESS
ING

INTERNAL DATA MEMORY:

Internal data memory addresses are one byte wide, which includes 128 bytes of

on-chip RAM plus a number of special Function Registers. The 128 bytes of RAM can

be accessed either by direct addressing (MOV data address) or by indirect addressing

(MOV @Ri).

The lowest 32bytes (00-1F) of on-chip RAM are grouped into 4 banks of 8

registers each. Program instructions call out these registers as R0 through R7 > Bits 3

and 4 (PSW.3 and PSW.4) in register program status word (PSW) select which register

bank is n use. This allows more efficient use of code space, since register instructions are

shorter than instructions that use direct addressing.

Reset initializes the stack pointer register to 7 and its incremented once to start

from locating 08, which is register R0 of second register bank. Hence, in order to use
more than one register bank, the stack pointer should be initialized to a different location

of RAM if it is not used for data storage.

The next 16 bytes (20-2F) from a block of bit addressable memory space, which

can also byte addressed.

Bytes 30 through 7F are available to the user as data RAM. However, is the stack

pointer has been initialized to this area, enough number of bytes should be left a side to

prevent stack overflow.

I/O STRUCTURE OF AT-89C52:

AT-89C52 has four 8-bit parallel ports (hence 8*4=32 I/O lines are
available). All four parallel ports are bi-directional. Each line consists of a latch,
an output driver and an input buffer.

The four ports are named as port 0 (po), port 1 (p1), port 2 (p2) and port
3(p3). They are bit addressable and has to be represented in the form PX.Y is i.e.
bit Y of port X while using bit addressing mode. PX.0 is the LSB (least significant
Bit) of port x and px.7 is the MSB (Most Significant Bit) of that port.
Out of the four ports, port 0 and port 2 are used in accesses to external
memory. All the port 3 pins are multifunctional. Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional
with internal pull-ups.

Port pin Alternate Functions

P3.0 RXD (Serial input port)

P3.1 TXD (Serial output port)

P3.2 INTO (External Interrupt 0)

P3.3 INT1 (External Interrupt 1)

P3.4 T0 (Timer 0 External input)

P3.5 T1 (Timer 1 External Input)

P3.6 WR (External Data memory write strobe)

P3.7 RD (External Data memory Read Strobe)

PORT 0:

Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. It is also the


multiplexed low order address and data bus during access to external
memory.

It also receives the instruction bytes during EPROM programming and


outputs instruction bytes during program verification. (External pull-ups are
required during verification). Port 0 can sink (and operation and source) eight
LS TTL input.

PORT 1:

Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional with internal pull-ups. It receives the low


order address byte during EPROM program verification. The port-1 output
buffers can sink/source four LS TTL inputs.

PORT 2:

Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional with external pull-ups. It emits the high


order address byte during accesses to external memory.

It also receives, these high-order address bits during EPROM


programming Verification. Port 2 can sink/source four LS TTL inputs.

RST:

While the oscillator is running a high on this pin for two machine cycles
resets the device. A small external pull down resistor (8.2k) from RST to Vss
permits power on reset when a capacitor (10 micro frequencies) also
connected from this pin to Vcc.
ALE/PROG:

Address latch enable is the output for latching low byte of the address,
during access 10 external memory. ALE is activated at a constant rate of 1/6
the oscillator frequency except during an external data memory access at
which time one ALE pulse is skipped. ALE can sink/source eight LS TTL
inputs. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM
programming.

PSEN:

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory.


PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, during fetches form external
program memory. PSEN is not activated during fetches from internal
program memory. PSEN can sink/source 8 LS TTL inputs.

EA/Vpp:

When external access enable (EA) is held high, the AT-89C52 execute
out of internal program memory (Unless the program counter exceeds OFF
(H)). When EA is held low, the AT-89C52 H executes only out of external
program memory. This pin also receives the 21 Volts programming. Supply
Voltage (Vpp) during EPROM programming. This pin should not be floated
during normal.
XTAL1:

It is inputs to the inverting amplifier that forms the oscillator. XTAL1


should be grounded when an external oscillator is used.

XTAL 2:

It is Outputs to the inverting amplifier that forms the oscillator, and


input to the internal clock generator, receives the external oscillator signal
when an external oscillator is used.

Vss - Circuit ground potential

Vcc - Supply Voltage during Programming Verification and


normal Operation.

TIMERS/COUNTERS:

AT-89C52 has two 16-bit timer/counter 0, and timer/counter 1. They can


be configured in any of the four operating modes, which are selected by bit-
pars (m1, 0) in register TMOD (Timer/counter Mode control). Modes 0, 1 and
2 are the same for the timer/counters. Mode 3 is different.

FEATURES OF AT-89C52:

Now a days an 8-bit AT-89C52/8031/8751 and 16 bit 8097 micro


controllers available in the form of kits. Its special features are summarized
as:-

4k Bytes of Flash

128 Bytes of RAM

32 I/O lines

A five vector two level interrupt architecture.

A full duplex serial port

On chip Oscillator and clock circuitry.

ADDRESSING MODES:

The AT-89C52 instructions operate on data stored in internal CPU


registers, external memory or on the I/O ports. There are a number of
methods (modes) in which these registers, memory (internal or external) and
I/O Ports (Internal / External) can be addressed, called addressing modes.
This section gives a brief summary of the various types of addressing modes
available in AT-89C52.

These Modes are:

Immediate

Direct

Indirect

Register

Register Specific

Indexed

IMMEDIATE ADDRESSING:

In this mode, the data to be operated upon is in the location immediately


following the opcodes. For example, the instruction,

MOV A, # 41

-Loads the accumulator with the hex value 41.

‘//’ Signifies IMMEDIATE ADDRESSING.


DIRECT ADDRESSING:

In direct addressing, the operand is specified by an 8-bit address field in


the instruction. For example, the instruction,

INC 20

Increments the contents of the On-Chip data address 20 by one.

INDIRECT ADDRESSING:

In indirect addressing, the instruction specifies a register, which


contains the address of the operand. Both internal and external RAM can be
indirectly addressed.

The address register for 8-bit address can be R0 or R1 of the selected


register bank or the stack pointer. The address register for 16-bit address can
only be the 16-bit “data pointer” register, DPTR. For example, the instruction,

MOVX @DPTR, A

-Writes the contents of the accumulator to the address held by the


DPTR register.

RESISTOR ADDRESSING:
The register banks, containing resistors R0 through R7, can be accessed
by certain instructions, which carry a 3-bit register specification within the
opcode of the instruction. Instructions that access the registers this way are
code efficient, since this mode eliminates an address byte.

When the instruction is executed, one of the eight resistors in the


selected bank at the execution time by two bank select bits is selected at the
execution time by the two bank select bits in the PSW. For example, the
instruction,

MOV A, R0

-Copies the contents of the resistor R0 (of the selected bank) to the
accumulator.

INDEXED ADDRESSING:

Only program memory can be accessed with indexed intended for


reading look-up tables in program memory. A 16-bit base resistor (Either
DPTR or the Program counter) points to the base of the table and
accumulator is set up with the table entry number. The address of the table
entry in program memory is formed by adding the accumulator data to the
base pointer. The instruction,

MOVC A,@A+DPTRThis function reads the contents


of program memory, whose address is obtained by adding the content of
DPTR and accumulator copies it to the accumulator.
PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89C52:

PDIP

1 40
P1.0 Vcc
2 39
P1.1 P 0.0(AD 0)

P1.2 3 38 P 0.1 (AD 1)

P1.3 4 37 P 0.2 (AD 2)

P1.4 5 36 P 0.3 (AD 3)

P1.5 6 35 P 0.4 (AD 4)

P1.6 7 34 P 0.5 (AD 5)

P1.7 8 33 P 0.6 (AD 6)

RST 9 32 P 0.7 (AD 7)

(R X D) P3.0 EA / VPP
10 31
(T X D) P3.1 ALE/PROG
11 30
(INT 0) P3.2 PSEN
12 29
(INT 1) P3.3 P2.7 (A 15)
13 28
(T 0) P3.4 P2.6 (A 14)
14 27
(T1) P3.5 P2.5 (A 13)
15 26
(WR) P3.6 P2.4 (A 12)
16 25
(RD) P3.7 P2.3 (A 11)
17 24
XTAL 2 P2.2 (A 10)

XTAL 1 18 23 P2.1 (A 9)
19 22

20 21
GND P2.0 (A 8)

PLCC
P 0. 0 – P 0 . 7 P2.0 – P2.7

Vcc
PORT 0 DRIVERS PORT 2 DRIVERS

GND
RAM ADDR RAM PORT 0 PORT 2 FLASH
RESISTOR LATCH LATCH

B STACK PROGRAM
REGISTER ACC POINTER ADDRESS
REGISTER

TMP 2 TMP 1 BUFFER

PC
INCREME
N-TER
ALU
INTERRUPT SERIAL PORT
AND TIMER BLOCKS
PSW PROGRAM
COUNTER

PSEN TIMING INSTRUCT DPTR


ALE/ AND -ION
PROG CONTROL REGISTER
EA/Vpp
PORT 1 PORT 3
RST
LATCH LATCH

OSC PORT 1 DRIVERS PORT 3 DRIVERS


P1.0 – P1.7 P3.0 – P3.7

ACCUMULATOR:

Accumulator is the Accumulator register mnemonics for Accumulator. Specific

instruction however, refer to the Accumulator simply A.

B REGISTER:

The B register is used during multiply and divide operations. For other

instructions can be treated as another scratch pad register.

PROGRAM STATUS WORD:

The PSW resistor contains program status information. The program status word

(PSW) contains several status bits that reflect the current state of the CPU. The PSW

resides in SFR space. It contains the carry bit, the auxiliary carry 9for BCD operations),

the two register bank select bits, the overflow flag a parity bit and two user definable

status flags. The carry bit other than serving the functions of a carry bit in arithmetic

operations, also serves as the ‘Accumulator’ for a number of Boolean operations. The bits

and RSI are used to select one of the register bans. A number instruction refers of their
RAM location R0 through R7. The selection of which the four banks is being referred to

is made on the bass of the bits RS0 and RS1 execution time.

The lower 32B are grouped into 4 banks of 8 resistors. Program instructions call

out there resistors as R0 through R7 bits in the PSW select which register is n use. The

parity bit reflects the number is in the accumulator. P=1 if the accumulator contains an

old number of 1 s and p=0 if the accumulator contains an even number of 1 s. Thus the

number of 1 s in the accumulator plus P is always even. Two bits in the PSW are

uncommitted and may be used as general-purpose status flags.

PROGRAM STATUS WORD OF AT89C52 DEVICES:

C AC FO RS1 RS0 OV P

Carry flag receives carry Parity of accumulator by hard


out from bit-1 of ALU ware to 1 bit if it contains an old
operation number of 1 s otherwise set to 0

Auxiliary carry flag User Definable Flag


receives carry out from bit-
1 of addition operands

Overflow Flag set by


Arithmetic Operation
General Purpose Status Flag

Resistor Bank Select bit- 0

Register Bank Select bit-1


THE LOWER 128 BYTES OF INTERNAL RAM

7F (H)

2F (H) Bit addressable Space


20 (H) Bit address 0-7F (H)
Bank Select Bit 11 Bank-3 1F (H)
18 (H)
In PSW
Bank-2 17 (H)
10 (H)
10 4 Banks of 8 resistors
Bank-1 0F (H)
08 (H) R0 - R7
01 Bank-0 07 (H)
00 00 (H)

STACK POINTER:

The stack pointer resistor is 8-bit wide. It is incremented before data is stored

during PUSH and CALL execution while the stack may where in on-chip RAM. The

stack pointer is initialized to 07(H) after a reset. This causes the stack to begin at location

08(H).
DATA POINTER:

The data pointer (DPTR) consists of a high byte (DPH) and a low byte (DPL).

Its intended function is to hold a 16-bit address. It may be manipulated as a 16-bit resistor

or 08 two independent bit registers. Ports 0 to 3 – p0, p1, p2 and p3 are the SFR latches

for ports 0, 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

SERIAL DATA BUFFER:

The serial data buffer is actually two separate resistors transmit buffer and a

receive buffer resistor. When data is moved to SBUF, it goes to the transmit buffer where

it is held for serial transmission. (Moving a byte to SBUF is what initiates the

transmission) When data is moved from SBUF, it comes from the receive buffer.

TIME RESISTORS:

Resistors pairs (TH0, TL), (TH1, TL1) and (TH2, TL2) are the 16-bits counting

resistors for the interrupt system, the timer counters and the serial port.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-7
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-7

COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION

SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS:

Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by

mechanical power. Pneumatics is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization

particularly for sequential or repetitive operations. Many factories and plants already

have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing both the power or energy

requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic control systems may be

economic and can be advantageously applied to other forms of power).

The main advantages of an all-pneumatic system are usually economy and

simplicity, the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. It can also have out standing

advantages in terms of safety.

PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS AND ITS DESCRIPTION


The pneumatic bearing press consists of the following components to fulfill the

requirements of complete operation of the machine.

1) PNEUMATIC SINGLE ACTING CYCLINDER

2) SOLENOID VALVE

3) FLOW CONTROL VALVE

4) IR SENSOR UNIT

5) WHEEL AND BRAKE ARRANGEMENT

6) PU CONNECTOR, REDUCER, HOSE COLLAR

7) STAND

8) SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1) PNEUMATIC SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER:

Pneumatic cylinder consist of

A) PISTON B) CYLINDER

The cylinder is a Single acting cylinder one, which means that the air pressure

operates forward and spring returns backward. The air from the compressor is passed

through the regulator which controls the pressure to required amount by adjusting its

knob.
A pressure gauge is attached to the regulator for showing the line pressure.

Then the compressed air is passed through the single acting 3/2 solenoid valve for

supplying the air to one side of the cylinder.

One hose take the output of the directional Control (Solenoid) valve and they are

attached to one end of the cylinder by means of connectors. One of the outputs from the

directional control valve is taken to the flow control valve from taken to the cylinder. The

hose is attached to each component of pneumatic system only by connectors.

CYLINDER TECHNICAL DATA:

Piston Rod:
M.S. hard Chrome plated

Seals:
Nitrile (Buna – N) Elastomer

End Covers:
Cast iron graded fine grained from 25mm to 300mm

Piston:
-Aluminium.

Media:
-Air.
Temperature Range:
0^c to 85^c

Parts of Pneumatic Cylinder

Piston:

The piston is a cylindrical member of certain length which reciprocates inside the

cylinder. The diameter of the piston is slightly less than that of the cylinder bore diameter

and it is fitted to the top of the piston rod. It is one of the important parts which convert

the pressure energy into mechanical power.

The piston is equipped with a ring suitably proportioned and it is relatively soft

rubber which is capable of providing good sealing with low friction at the operating

pressure. The purpose of piston is to provide means of conveying the pressure of air

inside the cylinder to the piston of the oil cylinder.

Generally piston is made up of

 Aluminium alloy-light and medium work.

 Brass or bronze or CI-Heavy duty.


The piston is single acting spring returned type. The piston moves forward when

the high-pressure air is turned from the right side of cylinder.

The piston moves backward when the solenoid valve is in OFF condition. The

piston should be as strong and rigid as possible. The efficiency and economy of the

machine primarily depends on the working of the piston. It must operate in the cylinder

with a minimum of friction and should be able to withstand the high compressor force

developed in the cylinder and also the shock load during operation.

The piston should posses the following qualities.

a. The movement of the piston not creates much noise.

b. It should be frictionless.

c. It should withstand high pressure.

Piston Rod

The piston rod is circular in cross section. It connects piston with piston of other

cylinder. The piston rod is made of mild steel ground and polished. A high finish is

essential on the outer rod surface to minimize wear on the rod seals. The piston rod is
connected to the piston by mechanical fastening. The piston and the piston rod can be

separated if necessary.

One end of the piston rod is connected to the bottom of the piston. The other end

of the piston rod is connected to the other piston rod by means of coupling. The piston

transmits the working force to the oil cylinder through the piston rod. The piston rod is

designed to withstand the high compressive force. It should avoid bending and withstand

shock loads caused by the cutting force. The piston moves inside the rod seal fixed in the

bottom cover plate of the cylinder. The sealing arrangements prevent the leakage of air

from the bottom of the cylinder while the rod reciprocates through it.

Cylinder Cover Plates

The cylinder should be enclosed to get the applied pressure from the compressor

and act on the pinion. The cylinder is thus closed by the cover plates on both the ends

such that there is no leakage of air. An inlet port is provided on the top cover plate and an

outlet ports on the bottom cover plate. There is also a hole drilled for the movement of

the piston.
The cylinder cover plate protects the cylinder from dust and other particle and

maintains the same pressure that is taken from the compressor. The flange has to hold the

piston in both of its extreme positions. The piston hits the top plat during the return

stroke and hits the bottom plate during end of forward stroke. So the cover plates must

be strong enough to withstand the load.

Cylinder Mounting Plates:

It is attached to the cylinder cover plates and also to the carriage with the help of

‘L’ bends and bolts.

2. SOLENOID VALVE WITH CONTROL UNIT:

The directional valve is one of the important parts of a pneumatic system.

Commonly known as DCV, this valve is used to control the direction of air flow in the

pneumatic system. The directional valve does this by changing the position of its internal

movable parts.

This valve was selected for speedy operation and to reduce the manual effort and

also for the modification of the machine into automatic machine by means of using a

solenoid valve. A solenoid is an electrical device that converts electrical energy into
straight line motion and force. These are also used to operate a mechanical operation

which in turn operates the valve mechanism. Solenoids may be push type or pull type.

The push type solenoid is one in which the plunger is pushed when the solenoid is

energized electrically. The pull type solenoid is one is which the plunger is pulled when

the solenoid is energized.

The name of the parts of the solenoid should be learned so that they can be

recognized when called upon to make repairs, to do service work or to install them.

Parts of a Solenoid Valve

1. Coil

The solenoid coil is made of copper wire. The layers of wire are separated by

insulating layer. The entire solenoid coil is covered with an varnish that is not affected by

solvents, moisture, cutting oil or often fluids. Coils are rated in various voltages such as

115 volts AC, 230 volts AC, 460 volts AC, 575 Volts AC, 6 Volts DC, 12 Volts DC, 24

Volts DC, 115 Volts DC & 230 Volts DC. They are designed for such frequencies as 50

Hz to 60 Hz.

2. Frame

The solenoid frame serves several purposes. Since it is made of laminated sheets,

it is magnetized when the current passes through the coil. The magnetized coil attracts
the metal plunger to move. The frame has provisions for attaching the mounting. They

are usually bolted or welded to the frame. The frame has provisions for receivers, the

plunger. The wear strips are mounted to the solenoid frame, and are made of materials

such as metal or impregnated less fiber cloth.

3. Solenoid Plunger

The Solenoid plunger is the mover mechanism of the solenoid. The plunger is

made of steel laminations which are riveted together under high pressure, so that there

will be no movement of the lamination with respect to one another. At the top of the

plunger a pin hole is placed for making a connection to some device. The solenoid

plunger is moved by a magnetic force in one direction and is usually returned by spring

action. Solenoid operated valves are usually provided with cover over either the solenoid

or the entire valve. This protects the solenoid from dirt and other foreign matter, and

protects the actuator. In many applications it is necessary to use explosion proof

solenoids.

WORKING OF 3/2 SINGLE ACTING SOLENOID (OR) CUT OFF VALVE:

The control valve is used to control the flow direction is called cut off valve or

solenoid valve. This solenoid cut off valve is controlled by the emergency push button.
The 3/2 Single acting solenoid valve is having one inlet port, one outlet port and one

exhaust port. The solenoid valve consists of electromagnetic coil, stem and spring. The

air enters to the pneumatic single acting solenoid valve when the push button is in ON

position.
Technical Data:

Size : ¼”
Pressure : 0 to 7 kg / cm2
Media : Air
Type : 3/2
Applied Voltage : 230V A.C
Frequency : 50 Hz

3. FLOW CONTROL VALVE:

1. Technical Data:

Size : ¼”
Pressure : 0 to 10 kg / cm2
Media : Air

(b) Purpose:

This valve is used to speed up the piston movement and also it acts as an one – way

restriction valve which means that the air can pass through only one way and it can’t

return back. By using this valve the time consumption is reduced because of the faster

movement of the piston.


4. IR SENSOR UNIT:-

The IR transmitter and IR receiver circuit is used to sense the obstacle. It is fixed

to the back side of the frame stand with a suitable arrangement. The pneumatic cylinder is

controlled by the flow control valve, single acting solenoid valve and control unit.

IR TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT:

+Vcc

R4 (47Ω) T1 (BD140) 150K


3 1
2 1 8
C3 (100µ/25V) R1
2 7
R2 (47Ω) IC 555 1.5K
3 6
R5 4.7Ω
4 5

L1 IR LED C2 C1
0.01pF 0.1pF
IR RECEIVER CIRCUIT:

1K

+12V

RELAY
R12 (680Ω) R1 (4.7K)
RL1 L1 (IR SENSOR)
D2 R10 C3 (100µ) C2 (100µ) L2 (IR SENSOR)
L3 (LED) 1N4007 4.7K R3 R2
R7 (100K) 4.7K 4.7K

D1 (1N 4007) T3 C4 (0.1pF) C1 (0.01 pF)


T5 (BC547B) R9 (4.7K) R8 BC 557
T4 (BC 547B) T2 (BC549C) R13
120Ω C8 (47 pF) 120Ω
R5
T1 (BC 549C)
R11 C7
22µF (50V) R6
22K 2.2K C5 (0.1pF)
AT NORMAL CONDITION:

The IR transmitter sensor is transmitting the infrared rays with the help of 555 IC

timer circuit. These infrared rays are received by the IR receiver sensor. The Transistor

T1, T2 and T3 are used as an amplifier section. At normal condition Transistor T5 is OFF

condition. At that time relay is OFF, so that the vehicle running continuously.

AT OBSTACLE CONDITION:

At Obstacle conditions the IR transmitter and IR receiver, the resistance across the

Transmitter and receiver is high due to the non-conductivity of the IR waves. So the

output of transistor T5 goes from OFF condition to ON stage. In that time the relay is ON

position. In that time, the solenoid valve is on so that the vehicle stops.

5. WHEEL AND BRAKING ARRANGEMENT:

The simple wheel and braking arrangement is fixed to the frame stand. Near the

brake drum, the pneumatic cylinder piston is fixed.


6. PU CONNECTIORS, REDUCER AND HOSECOLLAR:

In our pneumatic system there are two types of connectors used; one is the hose

connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally comprise an adapter

(connector) hose nipple and cap nut. These types of connectors are made up of brass or

Aluminium or hardened steel. Reducers are used to provide inter connection between two

pipes or hoses of different sizes. They may be fitted straight, tee, “V” or other

configurations. These reducers are made up of gunmetal or other materials like hardened

steel etc.

7. STAND:

This is a supporting frame and made up of mild steel.

8. SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR:-

It is found to drive the roller shaft which fixed on the end of the frame structure.

The free end of the shaft in the motor a large pulley is found around which the belt runs.

The other specification about the motor is discussed in design part of the machine.
Single-Phase Theory

Because it has but a single alternating current source, a single-phase motor can

only produce an alternating field: one that pulls first in one direction, then in the opposite

as the polarity of the field switches. A squirrel-cage rotor placed in this field would

merely twitch, since there would be no moment upon it. If pushed in one direction,

however, it would spin.

The major distinction between the different types of single-phase AC motors is

how they go about starting the rotor in a particular direction such that the alternating field

will produce rotary motion in the desired direction. This is usually done by some device

that introduces a phase-shifted magnetic field on one side of the rotor.

The figure the performance curves of the four major types of single-phase AC

motors. They are described below.


1. Split-Phase Motors:

The split phase motor achieves its starting capability by having two separate

windings wound in the stator. The two windings are separated from each other. One

winding is used only for starting and it is wound with a smaller wire size having higher

electrical resistance than the main windings. From the rotor's point of view, this time

delay coupled with the physical location of the starting winding produces a field that

appears to rotate. The apparent rotation causes the motor to start.


A centrifugal switch is used to disconnect the starting winding when the motor

reaches approximately 75% of rated speed. The motor then continues to run on the basis

of normal induction motor principles.

2. Capacitor-Start Motors

Capacitor start motors form the largest single grouping of general purpose single

phase motors. These motors are available in a range of sizes from fractional through 3HP.
The winding and centrifugal switch arrangement is very similar to that used in a

split phase motor. The main difference being that the starting winding does not have to

have high resistance. In the case of a capacitor start motor, a specialized capacitor is

utilized in a series with the starting winding.

The addition of this capacitor produces a slight time delay between the

magnetization of starting poles and the running poles. Thus the appearance of a rotating

field exists. When the motor approaches running speed, the starting switch opens and the

motor continues to run in the normal induction motor mode.

This moderately priced motor produces relatively high starting torque, 225 to

400% of full load torque. The capacitor start motor is ideally suited for hard to start loads

such as conveyors, air compressors and refrigeration compressors. Due to its general

overall desirable characteristics, it also is used for many applications where high starting

torque may not be required.

The capacitor start motor can usually be recognized by the bulbous protrusion on

the frame where the starting capacitor is located.


Permanent-Split Capacitor Motors

The capacitor of this motor is left in series with the starting winding during normal

operation. The starting torque is quite low, roughly 40% of full-load, so low-inertia loads

such as fans and blowers make common applications.

Running

performance

and speed
regulation can be tailored by selecting an appropriate capacitor value. No centrifugal

switch is required.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BLOCK DIAGRAM
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-8

BLOCK DIAGRAM

IR
TRANSMITTER
POWER CONTROL
SUPPLY UNIT
IR RECEIVER

FLOW SOLINOID
CONTROL VALVE
VANVE

PNEUMATIC BREAK
CYLINDER ARRANGEME
AIR TANK NT
(COMPRESSOR)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-9
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
WORKING OPERATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-9

WORKING OPERATION

The impartant components of our project are,

IR transmitter

IR receiver

Control Unit with Power supply

Solenoid Valve

Flow control Valve

Air Tank (Compressor)

The IR TRANSMITTER circuit is to transmite the Infra-Red rays. If any obstacle

is there in a path, the Infra-Red rays reflected. This reflected Infra-Red rays are received

by the receiver circuit is called “IR RECEIVER”.


The IR receiver circuir receives the reflected IR rays and giving the control signal

to the control circuit. The control circuit is used to activate the solenoid valve. The

operating principle of solenoid valve is already explained in the above chapter.


If the solenoid valve is activated, the compressed air passes to the Single Acting

Pneumatic Cylinder. The compressed air activate the pneumatic cylinder and moves the

piston rod.

If the piston moves forward, then the breaking arrangement activated. The

breaking arrangement is used to break the wheel gradually or suddenly due to the pistion

movement. The breaking speed is varied by adjesting the valve is called “FLOW

CONTROL VALVE”. The clutch plate is activated at the time of braking by using link

between the pneumatic cylinder and clutch plate.

In our project, we have to apply this breaking arrangement in one wheel as a

model. The compressed air drawn from the compressor in our project. The compressed

air floe through the Polyurethene tube to the flow control valve. The flow control valve is

connected to the solenoid valve as mentioned in the block diagram.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-10
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPLICATIONS AND ADVANTAGES


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-10

APPLICATIONS AND ADVANTAGES

APPLICATION:

For automobile application

Industrial application

ADVANTAGES

Brake cost will be less.

Free from wear adjustment.

Less power consumption

Less skill technicians is sufficient to operate.

It gives simplified very operation.

Installation is simplified very much.

To avoid other burnable interactions viz.… (Diaphragm) is not

used.

Less time and more profit.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter-11
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LIST OF MATERIALS
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CHAPTER-11

LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No. PARTS Qty.


i. Single Acting Pneumatic Cylinder 1
ii. Flow Control Valve 1
iii. Wheel 1
iv. Solenoid Valve 1
v. Single Phase induction motor 1
vi. Sensor Unit 1
vii. Pulley 2
viii. Polyethylene Tube -
ix. Hose Collar and Reducer -
x Stand (Frame) 1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-12
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

COST ESTIMATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-12

COST ESTIMATION

1. MATERIAL COST:
Sl. No. PARTS Qty. Amount (Rs)
i. Single Acting Pneumatic Cylinder 1
ii. Flow Control Valve 1
iii. Wheel 1
iv. Solenoid Valve 1
v. Single Phase induction motor 1
vi. Sensor Unit 1
vii. Pulley 2
viii. Polyethylene Tube -
ix. Hose Collar and Reducer -
x Stand (Frame) 1

2. LABOUR COST

LATHE, DRILLING, WELDING, GRINDING, POWER HACKSAW, GAS CUTTING:


Cost =

3. OVERHEAD CHARGES

The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost”

Manufacturing Cost = Material Cost + Labour cost


=
=

Overhead Charges = 20% of the manufacturing cost


=
TOTAL COST

Total cost = Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges


=
=

Total cost for this project =

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chapter-13
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONCLUSION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CHAPTER-13

CONCLUSION
This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience, to use

our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding, planning,

purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We feel that the

project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries.

We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully.

The INTELLIGENT PNEUMATIC BRAKE is working with satisfactory conditions.

We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality.

We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities.

In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few more lines about our

impression project work. Thus we have developed an “AUTOMATIC PNEUMATIC

CLUTCH AND BRAKING SYSTEM” which helps to know how to achieve low cost

automation. The application of pneumatics produces smooth operation. By using more

techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. G.B.S. Narang, “Automobile Engineering”, Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 1991,

pp 671.

2. William H. Crowse, “Automobile Engineering”.

3. Donald. L. Anglin, “Automobile Engineering”.

4. Pneumatic Control System----Stroll & Bernaud, Tata Mc Graw Hill

Publications, 1999.

5. Pneumatic System----Majumdhar, New Age India International (P) Ltd

Publishers, 1997.

Web sites:

www. Profc.udec.cl/~gabriel/tutorials.com

www.carsdirect.com/features/safetyflatures

www.hwysafety.org
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PHOTOGRAPHY
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PHOTOGRAPHY