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Makalah Prinsip Stratigrafi

Oleh :

Nama : Ega Muhammad Satriono

NPM : 270110140126

Kelas : B

Fakultas Teknik Geologi


Jurusan Teknik Geologi
Universitas Padjadjaran
2015/2016
Daftar Isi

Daftar isi …………………………………………………………… 1

I. History of Geology and Stratigraphy Developments …………… 3


A. Modification From Traditional Concept to Modern …… 3
a. The pregeologic period …………………………………… 3
b. Time scales …………………………………………... 6
B. Geological Sciences Revolution …………………………… 12
a. Plate tectonics …………………………………………… 12
b. Sequence Stratigraphy …………………………………… 19
II. Stratigraphic Elements : Rock Processing …………………… 24
A. Sedimentary Rocks …………………………………………… 24
a. Structures Sediment Deposition …………………… 24
b. Sediment erosional structure …………………………… 25
B. Igneous Rocks …………………………………………… 28
a. Teminology …………………………………………… 28
b. The Location of Freezing …………………………… 28
c. The Color of Igneous Rocks …………………………… 28
d. The Texture of Igneous Rocks …………………………… 29
e. The Visualization Level Granularity …………………… 29
f. The Level of Crystallization or Crystallity …………… 29
g. The Level of Uniformity of Grain …………………… 30
h. Crystal Form …………………………………………… 30
C. Metamorphic Rocks …………………………………………… 33
a. The Role of Pressure …………………………………… 33
b. Metamorphic Minerals …………………………………… 35
c. Foliation …………………………………………………… 36
d. Metamorphic Rock Textures …………………………… 37
e. Type of Metamorphic Rocks …………………………… 37
III. The Taditional Principles of Stratigraphy …..……………….. 37
A. Superposition …………………………………………… 39
B. Horizontality …………………………………………… 39

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C. Original Continuity …………………………………………… 40
D. Uniformatirisme …………………………………………… 40
E. Catatropisma …………………………………………… 41
F. Faunal Succession …………………………………………… 42
G. Strata Identified by Fossils …………………………………… 42
H. Cross-Cutting Relationship …………………………… 43
IV. Modification From Traditional Concept to Modern...…………. 43
A. Traditional vs. modern (Sequence Stratigraphy) depositional models …… 43
B. Superposition vs Concept of Bedding …………………… 44
C. Law of Lateral Continuity vs Lateral Termination …… 45
D. Law of Horizontality vs Clinoform …………………… 46
E. Law of Vertical Accumulation vs Lateral Accumulation …………… 46
F. Concept Unconformity and Stratal Discontinuity …… 47
G. Recycling (CYCLICITY OF STRATA) and Stratigraphic Classification System …… 49

Daftar Pustaka …………………………………………………… 52

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I. History of Geology and Stratigraphy Developments
A. The Developments of Geological Science
Geology is a science which focuses on the study of solid Earth, the rocks
of which it is composed and the processes by which it changes. It provides
insight into the Earth's past including the evolutionary history of life and past
climates.
Geology is commercially important for mineral exploration and for
evaluating natural resources. It also helps find solutions to environmental
problems and both predict and understand natural hazards.

Geologic history of Earth, evolution of the continents, oceans,


atmosphere, and biosphere. The layers of rock at Earth’s surface contain evidence
of the evolutionary processes undergone by these components of the terrestrial
environment during the times at which each layer was formed. By studying this
rock record from the very beginning, it is thus possible to trace their development
and the resultant changes through time.

a. The pregeologic period

From the point at which the planet first began to form, the history of Earth
spans approximately 4.6 billion years. The oldest known rocks—the faux
amphibolites of the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in Quebec, Canada—however,
have an isotopic age of 4.28 billion years. There is in effect a stretch of
approximately 300 million years for which no geologic record for rocks exists,
and the evolution of this pregeologic period of time is, not surprisingly, the
subject of much speculation. To understand this little-known period, the following
factors have to be considered: the age of formation at 4.6 billion years ago, the
processes in operation until 4.3 billion years ago, the bombardment of Earth by
meteorites, and the earliest zircon crystals.

It is widely accepted by both geologists and astronomers that Earth is


roughly 4.6 billion years old. This age has been obtained from the isotopic

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analysis of many meteorites as well as of soil and rock samples from the Moon by
such dating methods as rubidium–strontium and uranium–lead. It is taken to be
the time when these bodies formed and, by inference, the time at which a
significant part of the solar system developed. When the evolution of the isotopes
of lead-207 and lead-206 is studied from several lead deposits of different age on
Earth, including oceanic sediments that represent a homogenized sample of
Earth’s lead, the growth curve of terrestrial lead can be calculated, and, when this
is extrapolated back in time, it is found to coincide with the age of about 4.6
billion years measured on lead isotopes in meteorites. Earth and the meteorites
thus have had similar lead isotope histories, and so it is concluded that over a
period of about 30 million years they condensed or accreted as solid bodies from a
primeval cloud of interstellar gas and dust—the so-called solar nebula from which
the entire solar system is thought to have formed—at about the same time.

Models developed from the comparison of lead isotopes in meteorites and


the decay of hafnium-182 to tungsten-182 in Earth’s mantle, however, suggest
that approximately 100 million years elapsed between the beginning of the solar
system and the conclusion of the accretion process that formed Earth. These
models place Earth’s age at approximately 4.5 billion years old.

Particles in the solar nebula condensed to form solid grains, and with
increasing electrostatic and gravitational influences they eventually clumped
together into fragments or chunks of rock. One of these planetesimals developed
into Earth. The constituent metallic elements sank toward the centre of the mass,
while lighter elements rose toward the top. The lightest ones (such as hydrogen
and helium) that might have formed the first, or primordial, atmosphere probably
escaped into outer space. In these earliest stages of terrestrial accretion heat was
generated by three possible phenomena: (1) the decay of short-lived radioactive
isotopes, (2) the gravitational energy released from the sinking of metals, or (3)
the impact of small planetary bodies (or planetesimals). The increase in
temperature became sufficient to heat the entire planet. Melting at depth produced
liquids that were gravitationally light and thus rose toward the surface and

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crystallized to form the earliest crust. Meanwhile, heavier liquids rich in iron,
nickel, and perhaps sulfur separated out and sank under gravity, giving rise to the
core at the centre of the growing planet; and the lightest volatile elements were
able to rise and escape by outgassing, which may have been associated with
surface volcanic activity, to form the secondary atmosphere and the oceans. This
chemical process of melting, separation of material, and outgassing is referred to
as the differentiation of the Earth. The earliest thin crust was probably unstable
and so foundered and collapsed to depth. This in turn generated more
gravitational energy, which enabled a thicker, more stable, longer-lasting crust to
form. Once Earth’s interior (or its mantle) was hot and liquid, it would have been
subjected to large-scale convection, which may have enabled oceanic crust to
develop above upwelling regions. Rapid recycling of crust–mantle material
occurred in convection cells, and in this way the earliest terrestrial continents may
have evolved during the 300-million-year gap between the formation of Earth and
the beginning of the rock record. It is known from direct observation that the
surface of the Moon is covered with a multitude of meteorite craters. There are
about 40 large basins attributable to meteorite impact. Known as maria, these
depressions were filled in with basaltic lavas caused by the impact-induced
melting of the lunar mantle. Many of these basalts have been analyzed
isotopically and found to have crystallization ages of 3.9 to 4 billion years.
Research has shown that Earth, with a greater attractive mass than the Moon,
must have undergone more extensive meteorite bombardment. According to the
English-born geologist Joseph V. Smith, a minimum of 500 to 1,000 impact
basins were formed on Earth within a period of about 100 to 200 million years
prior to 3.95 billion years ago. Moreover, plausible calculations suggest that this
estimate represents merely the tail end of an interval of declining meteorite
bombardment and that about 20 times as many basins were formed in the
preceding 300 million years. Such intense bombardment would have covered
most of Earth’s surface, with the impacts causing considerable destruction of the
terrestrial crust up to 4 billion years ago.

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An exciting discovery was made in 1983 by William Compston and his
research group at the Australian National University with the aid of an ion
microprobe. Compston and his associates found that a water-laid clastic
sedimentary quartzite from Mount Narryer in western Australia contained detrital
zircon grains that were 4.18 billion years old. In 1986 they further discovered that
one zircon in a conglomerate only 60 km (about 37 miles) away was 4.276 billion
years old; 16 other grains were determined to be the same age or slightly younger.
In 2014 American geochemist John Valley and colleagues discharged lead atoms
at one of the zircon crystals discovered in western Australia’s Jack Hills and
discovered that the crystals are more than 4.4 billion years old. This mineral is the
oldest dated material on Earth. The rocks from which the zircons in the quartzites
and conglomerates were derived have either disappeared or have not yet been
found. The ages of these single zircon grains are at least roughly 100 million
years older than those of the oldest known intact rocks.

b. Time scales

The geologic history of Earth covers more than 4.5 billion years of time.
Different types of phenomena and events in widely separated parts of the world
have been correlated using an internationally acceptable, standardized time scale.
There are, in fact, two geologic time scales. One is relative, or
chronostratigraphic, and the other is absolute, or chronometric. The
chronostratigraphic scale has evolved since the mid-1800s and concerns the
relative order of strata. Important events in its development were the realization
by English engineer and geologist William Smith that in a horizontal sequence of
sedimentary strata what is now an upper stratum was originally deposited on a
lower one and the discovery by Scottish geologist James Hutton that an
unconformity (discontinuity) indicates a significant gap in time. Furthermore, the
presence of fossils throughout Phanerozoic sediments has enabled paleontologists
to construct a relative order of strata. As was explained earlier, at specific
stratigraphic boundaries certain types of fossils either appear or disappear or both

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in some cases. Such biostratigraphic boundaries separate larger or smaller units of
time that are defined as eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages.

The chronometric scale is of more recent origin. It was made possible by the
development of mass spectrometers during the 1920s and their use in
geochronological laboratories for radiometric dating (see above). The
chronometric scale is based on specific units of duration and on the numerical
ages that are assigned to the aforementioned chronostratigraphic boundaries. The
methods used entail the isotopic analyses of whole rocks and minerals of element
pairs, such as potassium–argon, rubidium–strontium, uranium–lead, and
samarium–neodymium. Another radiometric time scale has been developed from
the study of the magnetization of basaltic lavas of the ocean floor. As such lavas
were extruded from the mid-oceanic ridges, they were alternately magnetized
parallel and opposite to the present magnetic field of Earth and are thus referred to
as normal and reversed. A magnetic-polarity time scale for the stratigraphy of
normal and reversed magnetic stripes can be constructed back as far as 280–260
million years ago, which is the age of the oldest extant segment of ocean floor.

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Once upon a time, exactly 2300 years ago, the Greeks have made posts
about gemstones, volcanoes, fossils, and earthquakes. A famous philosopher
named Aristotle says that the rocks formed due to the result of the influence of the
stars and the earthquake that occurred because of the explosion of the air that is
solid on the earth by the heating process by the central fire.
Can we imagine a center fire that heats the air is dense in earth explode thereby
affecting the stars and earthquakes and form rocks. Amazing!

At the end of the 18th century, a Scottish physicist named James Hutton
(1795) published the book Theory of the Earth. He is the father of modern

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geology. And in the same century is the beginning of modern geology. The book
that he published spark that
"The present is the key to the past"
Which means these events are happening at the moment, takes place also
in the past. This theory is often referred to as a theory Uniformitarianism.
One theory History of Geological Sciences extremely logical. All products
geology today is the result of the past.

In other words, the forces and processes that we observe shaping our
planet today have been at work for a very long time. Thus, to understand ancient
rocks, we must first understand present day processes and their results. This idea
is commonly stated as the present is the key to the past.

Prior to Hutton’s Theory of the Earth, no one had effectively demonstrated


that geological processes can continue over extremely long periods of time.
Hutton persuasively argued that forces that appear small could, over long spans of
time, produce effects just as great as those resulting from sudden catastrophic
events. Hutton carefully cited verifiable observations to support his ideas.

For example, when he argued that mountains are sculpted and ultimately
destroyed by weathering and the work of running water, and that their wastes are
carried to the oceans by processes that can be observed, Hutton said, “We have a
chain of facts which clearly demonstrates that the materials of the wasted
mountains have traveled through the rivers”; and further, “There is not one step in
all this progress that is not to be actually perceived.” He then went on to
summarize this thought by asking a question and immediately providing the
answer: “What more can we require? Nothing but time.”

Today the basic tenets of uniformitarianism are just as viable as in


Hutton’s day. We realize more strongly than ever that the present gives us insight
into the past and that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that govern
geological processes remain unchanged through time. However, we also

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understand that the doctrine should not be taken too literally. To say that
geological processes in the past were the same as those occurring today is not to
suggest that they always had the same relative importance or operated at precisely
the same Hutton made a statement that was to become his most famous. In
concluding his classic 1788 paper, published in the Transactions of the Royal
Society of Edinburgh, he stated, “The result, therefore, of our present enquiry is,
that we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.”

In 1810, a French national named Baron Georges Cuvier had a theory of


catastrophism. It reads:
"What is there at the moment is the result of disasters that happened in the
past"
In the past there has been a good extinction of the flora and fauna due to disasters
(catastroph) suddenly and lasts throughout the earth.
I think a good theory. Can be estimated in the past experienced many
natural disasters. This theory is one of the History of Geological Sciences.

Catastrophism is doctrine that explains the differences in fossil forms


encountered in successive stratigraphic levels as being the product of repeated
cataclysmic occurrences and repeated new creations. This doctrine generally is
associated with the great French naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).
One 20th-century expansion on Cuvier's views, in effect, a neocatastrophic school,
attempts to explain geologic history as a sequence of rhythms or pulsations of
mountain building, transgression and regression of the seas, and evolution and

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extinction of living organisms.
There have been dramatic changes in attitude towards catastrophism since
1980, stimulated by the hypothesis of Luis Alvarez and colleagues that high
iridium concentrations found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
throughout the world could be taken as evidence that the mass extinction episode
at the end of the Cretaceous Period had been caused by the impact of a large
asteroid. Alternatively, the iridium abundance anomaly might have been the result
of extensive vulcanism, which is known to have occurred at this time, but this
would also have to be regarded as a catastrophist mechanism, and could even be
linked to an impact.
In the case of catastrophism, as applied to geology (the study of the Earth)
or palaeontology (the study of fossils), there can be little doubt that, in the eyes of
the scientific establishment for a century or more, it has seemed as defunct as any
theory could be. Now, however, catastrophism is making a very real contribution
to geology and evolutionary theory. A resurrection would seem to have taken
place.
Catastrophism is supported by the evidential data. Catastrophism supports
the Noachian Flood. Dramatic evidence is everywhere except in the popular press.
For instance, who is aware that fossil remains of clams (found in the closed
position, indicating they were buried alive) have been found atop Mt. Everest?
What about whale fossils and petrified trees that stand upright through multiple
sedimentary layers supposedly separated by millions of years? It is a remarkable
time to reinvestigate the facts and determine your own position

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LyellCharles Charles Lyell (1797-1875) create an edition of a book
entitled Principles of Geology. This book explains that further changes of the
earth's surface, with the causes that to happen now. He also concluded the
geological processes that have now is applicable also in the past.

B. Geological Sciences Revolution


a. Plate Tectonic
Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics or (English: Plate Tectonics) is a
theory in the field of geology developed to provide an explanation for the
presence of evidence of large-scale movements performed by the lithosphere
of the earth. This theory has also replaced the cover and shift theory Continent
which first put forward in the first half of the 20th century and the concept of
seafloor spreading were developed in the 1960s.

The outermost part of the Earth's interior is made up of two layers. At the top
there lithosphere consists of the crust and the upper part of the mantle rigid
and solid. Below the lithosphere layers are asthenosphere which is solid but
can flow like a liquid with a very slow and the geological time scale is very
long because of the viscosity and shear strength (shear strength) is low.
Deeper, parts of the mantle below the asthenosphere nature becomes more
rigid again. The cause is not colder temperatures, but high pressure.

Layers of the lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates (tectonic plates). On

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earth, there are seven major plates and many plates were smaller. The
lithospheric plates ride on top of the asthenosphere. They move relative to one
another at plate boundaries, both divergent (away), convergent (collide), or
transform (sideways). Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and
the formation of oceanic trenches are all generally occur in areas along the
plate boundary. The lateral movement of the plates typically speed of 50-100
mm/a.

The development of Theory


In the late 19th century and early 20th century, geologists assumed that the
appearance-primary appearance earth permanent resident. Most of the
geological appearance as the mountains can be explained by the vertical
movement of the crust as described in geosyncline. Since 1596, it has been
observed that the Atlantic Ocean coast of the face-off between the African
continent and Europe with North America and South America have similar
shapes and seem to ever become one. This accuracy will be more obvious if
we look at the edges of the continental shelf there. Since then many theories
have been advanced to explain this, but everything is deadlocked because of
the assumption that the earth is completely solid complicate invention
corresponding explanations.

The discovery of radium and the properties of the heater in 1896 to encourage
a review of the age of the earth, having previously obtained estimates of the
rate of cooling and assuming the Earth's surface radiates like a black body.
From these calculations it can be concluded that even if in the beginning the
earth was a red-glowing object, temperatures will drop to as present in several
tens of millions of years. With the heat source of this newfound scientists
consider it plausible that the Earth is actually much older and core is still hot
enough to be in a liquid state.

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Plate Tectonics theory comes from the hypothesis Shifting Continent
(continental drift) proposed Alfred Wegener in 1912 and further developed in
his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans, published in 1915. He argued
that the continents that today there is a span advance before moving away thus
releasing the continents of the earth's core as 'iceberg' of a type of low-mass
granite floating on a sea of denser basalt. However, in the absence of detailed
evidence and the calculation of the forces involved, this theory marginalized.
Maybe the earth has a solid crust and a liquid core, but still it does not seem
possible that parts of the crust can be moving. Later, the theory proposed
dibuktikanlah British geologist Arthur Holmes in 1920 that links parts of the
crust is probably under the sea. Also proved his theory that convection
currents in the mantle of the earth are the driving force.

The first evidence that the plates did have movement gained from the
discovery of the different directions of magnetic fields in rocks of different
age. This discovery was first revealed at a symposium in Tasmania in 1956.
Initially, these findings incorporated into the theory of the Earth expansion,
but then it leads to the development of plate tectonics theory that explains the
expansion (spreading) as a consequence of vertical movement (upwelling)
rocks , but avoids the necessity of Earth's size continues to grow or expand
(expanding earth) by entering the subduction zone / hunjaman (subduction
zone), and cesarean translation (translation fault). At that time the theory of
plate tectonics changed from a radical theory becomes a theory commonly
used and then widely accepted among scientists. Further research on the
relationship between seafloor spreading and revert Earth's magnetic field
(geomagnetic reversal) by geologist Harry Hammond Hess and Ron G. Mason
oseanograf pinpointing the mechanisms that explain the vertical movement of
the new rock.

Along with the receipt of the Earth magnetic anomaly indicated by parallel
rows of symmetrical with the same magnetization in the bottom of the sea on

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both sides of the mid-oceanic ridge, plate tectonics became widely accepted.
Rapid advances in seismic imaging techniques initially in and around Wadati-
Benioff zones and various other geological observations shortly thereafter
solidified as the theory of plate tectonics that have exceptional ability in terms
of explanation and prediction.

Research on the deep ocean floor, a branch of the rapidly growing marine
geology in 1960 plays an important role in the development of this theory.
Accordingly, the plate tectonic theory was developed in the late 1960s and has
been accepted quite universal in all disciplines, as well as renew the world
geography to give an explanation for a wide variety of geological
phenomenon and its implications in other fields such as paleogeography and
paleobiology ,

Core Principles
Part of the outer layer, the interior of the Earth is divided into layers of the
lithosphere and the asthenosphere layer based on differences in the way the
mechanical and heat transfer. Llitosfer more cold and stiff, while the
asthenosphere is hotter and mechanically weak. In addition, the lithosphere
loses heat by conduction, while the asthenosphere also transfers heat through
convection and has a nearly adiabatic temperature gradient. This division is
very different from the chemical division of the earth into a core, mantle, and
crust. Lithosphere includes the crust itself and also most of the mantle.

A portion of the mantle may be part of the lithosphere or the asthenosphere at


different times, depending on the temperature, pressure, and shear strength.
The key principle is that the lithosphere plate tectonics separated into tectonic
plates are different. This slab moves a ride on top of the asthenosphere that
has viscoelastic so behave like a fluid. The movement of the slab could reach
10-40 mm / a (as fast as fingernails grow) as in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, or
could reach 160 mm / a (fast hair growth) as in the Nazca Plate.

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These plates thickness of about 100 km and consists of lithospheric mantle on
which is coated with a stretch of one of the two types of crust material.
The first one is the oceanic crust or often called the "Sima", a combination of
silicon and magnesium.

The second is the continental crust that is often called "bad luck", a
combination of silicon and aluminum.
Both types differ in terms of crust thickness where continental crust has a
thickness which is much higher than the oceanic crust. The thickness of the
continental crust reaches 30-50 km while the oceanic crust is only 5-10 km.

Two plates meet along the plate boundary (plate boundary), which is an area
where geological activity generally occurs as earthquakes and the formation of
topographic appearance such as mountains, volcanoes and oceanic trenches.
Most active volcanoes in the world was on the plate boundaries, such as the
Pacific Ring of Fire (Pacific Ring of Fire) at the Pacific Plate is the most
active and widely known.

Plate tectonics may be continental or oceanic crust, but usually one plate
consists of both. For example, the African Plate includes the continent itself
and part of the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian base.

The difference between the continental crust to oceanic crust is based on the
density of its constituent material.

Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust due to differences in the


comparison of the various elements, in particular silicon.
Continental crust is denser because the composition containing less silicon
and more heavy material. In this case, the oceanic crust is more mafic said
than felsik. Thus, the oceanic crust is generally located below sea level like

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most of the Pacific Plate, while the continental crust is raised above the
surface of the sea, following a principle known as isostacy.

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Types of Plate Boundaries

Three types of plate boundaries (plate boundary).

There are three different types of plate boundaries of the way the plates move
relative to one another. Three types are each associated with different
phenomena on the surface. Three types of plate boundaries are:

Limits transform (transform boundaries) occur when plates move and


experiencing friction with each other laterally along the transform faults
(transform faults). The relative movement of the two plates can be sinistral
(left on the opposite side of the observer) or dextral (right on the opposite side
to the observer). Examples of this kind of fault is the San Andreas Fault in
California.
Divergent boundaries / constructive (divergent / constructive boundaries)
occurs when two plates move away from each other. Mid-oceanic ridge and
fracture zones (rifting) enabled are examples of divergent boundaries
Convergent boundary / destructive (convergent / destructive boundaries)
occurs when two plates rub against approaching one another so as to form a
subduction zone when one plate moves under another, or collision continent
(continental collision) if the two plates contain continental crust. Deep ocean
trenches are usually located in subduction zones, where pieces of plate that
has taken root contains many hydrous (containing water), so that the water
content is released during the heating occurs mixed with mantle and lead to
melting, causing volcanic activity. An example of this can be seen in the

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Andes Mountains in South America and the island arc of Japan (Japanese
island arc)
.
b. Sequence Stratigraphy
Sequence Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that attempts to subdivide
and link sedimentary deposits into unconformity bound units on a variety of
scales and explain these stratigraphic units in terms of variations in sediment
supply and variations in the rate of change in accommodation space (often
associated with changes in relative sea level). The essence of the method is
mapping of strata based on identification of surfaces which are assumed to
represent time lines (e.g. subaerial unconformities, maximum flooding
surfaces), and therefore placing stratigraphy in chronostratigraphic
framework. Sequence stratigraphy is a useful alternative to a lithostratigraphic
approach, which emphasizes similarity of the lithology of rock units rather
than time significance. Sequence stratigraphy deals with genetically related
sedimentary strata bounded by unconformities. The 'sequence' part of the
name refers to cyclic sedimentary deprosits. Stratigraphy is the geologic
knowledge about the processes by which sedimentary deposits form and how
those deposits change through time and space on the Earth's surface.
In more than two decades there have been two scientific revolution in the
science of geology, namely the emergence of Global Plate Tectonics theory
and Sequence stratigraphy. Thomas Kuhn (1970) in his book The Structure of
Scientific Revolutions states that a scientific revolution occurs due to the
emergence of a new paradigm set or the emergence of a set of paradigm will
lead to a scientific revolution. Thomas Kuhn was the first to give a new
meaning to the term paradigm, which literally is an example, or something
that is used as an example. A paradigm is a set of principles, concepts,
formulas and procedures in a science that is believed to be true by masarakat
scientific widely, so it made a standard procedure for solving scientific
problems, so it can serve as an example, which is taught by and to the
members of the scientific masarakat. (Kuhn, 1974)

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The new paradigm does not need a scientific revolution is great, but can
also occur in a branch of science that are not so obvious to the general
population. In a broader sense as to say a worldview paradigm (welt-
anschaung), against the symptoms of scientific studies.
In stratigrapi sequence, it turns out the principles and concepts and
procedures that blaze in it has changed about the principles, concepts,
understanding and definitions and procedures in the science of traditional
stratigraphy.

HISTORY OF SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY


Some sequence stratigraphy concept may be said to have started to
emerge:
1. By the 19th century. The concept of change in sea level eustatic
including Darwin first proposed to explain the occurrence of the atoll,
saying that future sea level in the past (especially in the Pleistocene
glacial era) had dropped globally.
2. Blackwelder (1910) provide insight regarding the unconformity
including:
a. that is not a regional unconformity let alone global,
b. that unconformity in fact may disappear to a place becomes a
conformable relationship. As we know that, unconformity be the
basis of the division of sequence stratigraphy.
3. Barrel (1917) gives the concept of base level of erosion determined by
the coastline and shoreline change will also change the base level of
erosion that will control erosion (degradation) and sedimentation
(agradasi) on the ground, so the ups and downs sea levels will affect
the sedimentation on the mainland, an important concept for the
sequence-stratigraphic.
4. The term stratigraphic sequence as a unit that is bounded by
unconformity proposed by Sloss et al (1949), and this became the basis
of the principle of sequnce stratigraphy.

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5. Rich (1951) provide a better understanding of the deposition surface
(depositional surface), which he for as clinoform, un-daform and
fondoform. Precipitation in clinoform namely: the sloping surface has
resulted in the concept of the lateral accumulation of sediments, being
very basic, the concept of sequence stratigraphy.
6. Wheeler (1958) showed the presence of cyclicity properties on the
order of layers of sediment, among others, the concept cyclothems,
especially for the field containing coal deposits. Cyclothem concept
actually has been a long time coming.
7. In 1961 Schenk argues in his paper Principels Guiding principles of
stratigraphy confirmed stratigraphy based Steno as time-Honoured
principels, so that Steno principle is still valid, although with slight
modifications (see figure 1). In accordance with the development of
seismic methods, in the seventies, which gives a view being on the
order of layering regionally, compared with the data outcrop and
drilling, has changed its views on how the layers of sediment
accumulate.

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8. This was stated by Weimer ('72, '75) which shows that the principles
stratrigrafi which is based on the Law of Steno implicitly states that
generally accumulate sediment layers vertically, whereas in reality the
sediment layers generally accumulate lateral accretion, even though
the vertical component is still there, but in a much smaller scale.
Weimer ('71, '75) showed that in general the sediment accumulates
laterally by accretion on the outskirts of the exposure, so that the
vertical accumulation should be modified by the accumulation of the
lateral and vertical accumulation is only a component only. This is in
direct contradiction to the principles of stratigraphy long, at least
Steno's principles need to be modified.
9. In '77 comes the so-called seismic stratigraphy developed by Exxon
Research Center, which is based on seismic data in Atlantic Beach,
which was pioneered by Vail et al (1977) which is the students Sloss.
The concepts and principles that have been mentioned above then form
the basis of the new science of stratigraphy. By applying the principles
and concepts of the new stratigrafdi in outcrop and log the well, then
there was a stratigraphic new science which is called as sequence
stratigraphy.

VIEWS and BASIC CONCEPTS SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPI


Based on regional observations of seismic on the outskirts of
exposure to the Atlantic Ocean, it could be a view of the thick layer of
sediment accumulation (deposenter) is as follows:

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1. periphery exposure (shelf edge) is the center of the deposition
of sediments (Figure 2a and 2b). It is clearly changing the
previous view that the central deposition of sediments lap is a
basin.
2. Fringe exposure is key to understanding the relationship
stratrigrafi
3. Accumulated lateral and a shift in precipitation cycles.
4. Changes in sea level eustatik as the main controller looping
layers of sediment.

Although these principles are found in the outskirts


Exposure East Atlantic American coast, but these principles
can be applied to all of the accumulated sediment anywhere in
the world. This is not surprising, because the majority of
cekungangan-sedimentary basins located around the passive
margins, as well as exposure to America in the east. However,
the principles also apply to the banks is believed to be active
continental margins, such as in Indonesia and hollows Circum-

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Pacific, though, may be more complex, given the existence of
two sources of sediment in the island arc basin.

II. Stratigraphic Elements : Rock Processing


A. Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary rocks makes up to 66% of the earth’s crust, with 34 % being the
igneous and the metamorphics. Igneous rocks however, forms the majority of 34
% (Ehlers and Blatt, 1997).The reason why sedimentary rocks accounts for most
of the rocks on the earth’s surface is because they are mainly found ocean floor
basins which accounts to 70% of total area of the earth. The three rock types are
further classified based on chemistry, environment of formation and how they are
formed.
Sedimentary structures belong to the primary structure is the structure formed
during the formation of rocks (at the time of sedimentation).
The division of sedimentary structures:
a. Structures Sediment Deposition
Is a sedimentary structures that occur at the time of deposition of sedimentary
rocks.
1. Bedding / Laminates
Bedding is a similarity field time can be demonstrated by differences in
grain size or color of its constituent materials. Told bedding when
thickness> 1 cm and is said to be laminated when thickness <1 cm.
Bedding can be divided into 4 types:
1.1. layering / lamination parallel (Parallel Bedding / Lamination):
Form coating / lamination of rocks arranged horizontally and mutually
parallel to one another.
1.2. layering / lamination cross-maze (Cross Bedding / Lamination):
Form coating / lamination clipped on top by a layer / subsequent
lamination with different angles in one unit bedding.
1.3. bedding Stackable (Graded Bedding):

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Bedding rock formed by fine gradations grain growing toward the top
(normal graded bedding) or gradation of increasingly coarse grains
towards the top (reverse graded bedding). Normal graded bedding can
be used to determine the top or bottom layer of rock.
1.4. Gelembur wave (current ripple):
Bedding surface wavy shape due to sedimentation flow.
b. Sediment erosional structure
Is a sedimentary structures which occur as a result of the erosion process
at the time of deposition of sedimentary rocks.
Can be divided into two types, namely:
a. Flute cast: flute-shaped sedimentary structures and contained in a base
layer, can be used to determine the ancient flow.

Flute casts, in the Jurassic Fernie Formation

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b. Groove Marks, Gutter Cast, Impack Marks, Channels and scours, etc.

Casts on the bottom layer:

1. Pointed Flute Cast


2. bulbous Flute Cast
3. Grove Cast
4. Flute Mark
5. Impact Mark

c. Sediment structure Post-Deposition


Is a sedimentary structures that occur after the deposition of sedimentary
rocks.
- Load cast: sedimentary structures formed on the surface layer due to the
influence of the sediment load on it.
- Convolute Bedding: liukan form in sedimentary rocks as a result of the
deformation process.
- Sandstone dike: a layer of sand that is injectable in a layer of sediment in
it as a result of the deformation process.
- Another example: Ball-and-Pillow Structures, Dish-and-Pillar Structure,
Stylolites, etc

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Convolute laminations on Saltspring Island

Convolute bedding Appears as highly contorted, folded and disrupted


layers

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Load casts in Creston Formation, B.C

B. Igneous rock
a. Terminology
Igneous rock is formed as a result of freezing rather than magma. Magma
is molten material flare in the Earth, comes from the top or bottom of the sheath
of the Earth's crust, high-temperature (900 – 1300 ° c) as well as having a high
viscosity, easy move and likely heading to the surface of the Earth.

b. The Location Of freezing.


Igneous rocks in the igneous rocks are formed in the Earth; often called
igneous intrusion. Igneous rocks are igneous rocks beyond that form on the
surface of the Earth; often called extrusive igneous rocks. Hipabisal igneous
rocks are igneous intrusion near the surface, often called igneous rocks or
igneous korok gang, or sub volcanic intrusion.

c. The Color Of The Igneous Rock


The fresh color of igneous rocks varies from black, gray and white. This
color is very influenced by the composition of the minerals constituent of igneous
rock itself. If there is a mixture of dark-colored minerals with the light colored
minerals then black can igneous rock color speckled white, gray, or white

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berbercak white berbercak black, depending on the color of the mineral which is
dominant and which is less dominant. In certain igneous rocks which contain
many minerals are red meat then its color to white-red flesh.

d. The Texture Of Igneous Rocks


Texture is the relationships between the mineral constituents of rocks.
Thus textures include grain size visualization level or granularity, the degree of
crystallization of minerals or crystallinity, uniformity of grain level grain size
crystals, crystals, and Crystal form.

e. The Visualization Level Granularity


Based on observations with the naked eye loupe or wear, then the texture
of igneous rocks divided into two, namely afanitik and faneritik texture textures.

a. Afanitik was the sight of the igneous rock berbutir very subtle so that mineral
crystal/constituting not physically observable to the naked eye or with a loupe.

b. Fanerik (faneritik, = phyric firik) is when the rocks inside the visible mineral
constituting, include form crystals, grain size and relationship between grain
(Crystal one with other crystals or crystals with glass). In short, it has the
texture of igneous rocks fanerik in mineral constituting, either in the form of a
Crystal or glass/glass, can be observed.

When igneous rock have the texture of afanitik then her more detailed texture
cannot be known, so it must be stopped. Otherwise, once these igneous-textured
fanerik then further description can be forwarded.

f. The level of crystallization or crystallinity

a. Holokristalin, when everything is arranged by the rock crystal.

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b. Holohialin, in rocks composed entirely by glass or glass.

c. Hipokristalin, when the rock is composed partly by the glass and partly in the
form of crystals.

g. The Level Of Uniformity Of Grain

a. Equigranular, when Crystal grain size constituting relatively uniform.


Sakaroidal texture is a texture in which a uniform grain size such as sugar or
white sugar.

b. Inequigranular, if the Crystal grain size not constituting the same.

Crystal grain size: < 1 mm ———––– fine grained

1 – 5 mm ———–– medium grained

5 – 30 mm ———– coarse grained

> 30 mm ———––– very coarse grained

h. Crystal Form

a. Euhedral, if perfect/complete-shaped crystals, bounded by an ideal Crystal


field (firm, clear and regular). Igneous rocks are almost all composed by
minerals with euhedral crystals form, called idiomorfik or granular-textured
panidiomorfik granular.

b. Subhedral, if the Crystal is limited by the Crystal fields that are not so
obvious, most regular and most do not. Igneous rock textures with mineral

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constituents generally shaped crystals subhedral called granular or granular
subidiomorfik hipidiomorfik.

c. Anhedral, if the Crystal is bounded by fields of irregular crystals. The texture


of the rocks are composed by minerals with anhedral Crystal form called
granular or granular xenomorfik alotriomorfik.

In three dimensions, the Crystal form called:

a. Cube or third, if the dimensions are equidimensional same length.

b. Tabular or the Board, if the two dimensions of the Crystal is longer from one
dimension to another.

c. Prismatic or beams, if a two-dimensional Crystal is shorter than one


dimension to another. This form is nothing short prismatic (stubby) and long
prismatic (thin, sometimes like a needle).

In the igneous-textured holokristalin inequigranular and hipokristalin there is a


large grain-sized crystals, called fenokris, which is embedded in the masadasar
(groundmass). It seems so called texture porfir or porphyry or firik. Texture
holokristalin porfiritik is in igneous rocks in it there is a large Crystal (fenokris)
that are embedded in the masadasar crystals are more subtle. Texture hipokristalin
porfiritik reserved for igneous rocks that have an embedded fenokris in masadasar
glasses. Because the texture of holokristalin porfiritik and hipokristalin porfiritik
in the naked eye can be identified then the appearance can be called textured
faneroporfiritik. Conversely, if the embedded fenokrisnya in masadasar afanitik
then porfiroafanitik-textured rock. Vitrofirik texture is a texture in which the
mineral constituting glass was predominantly, being its only slightly (< 10%).

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Diabasik texture is a texture in which crystals of long prismatic-shaped plagioklas
(lath-like), the relative direction is parallel to and in between there is a grain
smaller than crystals of olivine and pyroxene. Gabroik textures are textures
holokristalin, berbutir'm – rough (Æ: 1 – 30 mm), composed predominantly by
mafik minerals (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole) and plagioklas base. Texture
granitik holokristalin berbutir texture is medium-coarse composed by plagioklas
acid, alkali felspar, and quartz. Pegmatitik texture is rough holokristalin texture –
very rough (Æ ³ 5 mm), composed by alkali felspar and quartz. Texture texture
comparable to dioritik gabroik and granitik but usually for medium sized igneous
rocks.

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C. Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks are basically rocks that have experience change due to
high pressure and temperature below zone of diagenesis. Protolith refers to the
original rock, prior to metamorphism. In low grade metamorphic rocks, original
textures are often preserved allowing one to determine the likely protolith. As the
grade of metamorphism increases, original textures are replaced with
metamorphic textures and other clues, such as bulk chemical composition of the
rock, are used to determine the protolith. Below is an examination of the role of
two agents of metamorphism.

Changes in temperature conditions during metamorphism cause several


important processes to occur. With increasing temperature, and thus higher
energy, chemical bonds are able to break and reform driving the chemical
reactions that changes the rock's chemistry during metamorphism. Increasing in
temperature can also result in the growth of crystals. In a rock, a small number of
large crystals have a higher thermodynamic stability than do a large number of
small crystals. As a result, increasing temperature during metamorphism, even in
the absence of any chemical change, will generally result in the amalgamation of
small crystals to produce a coarser grained rock. It is a fact that individual
minerals are only stable over specific temperature ranges. Thus, as temperature
changes, minerals within a rock become unstable and transform through chemical
reactions to new minerals. This property is very important to our interpretation of
metamorphic rocks. By observing the mineral assemblage (set of minerals) within
a metamorphic rock, it is often possible to make an estimate of the temperature at
the time of formation. That is, minerals can be used as thermometers of the
process of metamorphism.

a. The Role of Pressure

Pressure, the second of the two physical parameters controlling


metamorphism and occurs in two forms. The most widely experienced type of

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pressure is lithostatic. This "rock-constant" pressure is derived from the weight of
overlying rocks. Lithostatic pressure is experienced uniformly by a metamorphic
rock. That is, the rock is squeezed to the same degree in all directions. Thus, there
is no preferred orientation to lithostatic pressure and there is no mechanical drive
to rearrange crystals within a metamorphic rock experiencing lithostatic
conditions. The second pressure is the directed pressure, this is pressure of motion
and action. Plate tectonics provide the underlying mechanical control for all forms
of directed pressure. Thus, metamorphism is closely linked to the plate tectonic
cycle and many metamorphic rocks are the products of tectonic interactions. As
was the case with changes in temperature, changes in pressure, either lithostatic or
directed, have important impacts upon the stability of minerals. Every mineral is
stable over a range of pressures, if pressure conditions during metamorphism
exceed a mineral’s stability range the mineral will transform to a new phase.
Many of these solid-state reactions involve polymorphic transformation – changes
between minerals with the same chemistry and different crystallographic
structures. Just as with temperature, mineral assemblages within a metamorphic
rock can be used as a barometer to measure pressure at the time of formation.

Plate tectonics is the mechanisms behind motion of crustal plates. It is still


a controversial hypothesis though it explains very well volcanicity and igneous
activity. Through this mechanism heat is transferred from deeper levels of the
earth through plate margins (Kearey et al, 2009). At these environments igneous
activities and metamorphism is widespread. Figure 6 shows the two plate tectonic
environments

i.e. convergent plate margins and divergent plate tectonic margins.


Convergent tectonic margins are areas around ring of fire covering Indonesia,
Philippines and South America in the Andes region.

Divergent plate margins are the mid-Atlantic ridge and the African Rift
Valley. At these margins major geothermal resources occur e.g. in Philippines,

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Indonesia, Iceland and African countries within Rift valley. Below is a further
description of plate margins environments

b. Metamorphic Minerals

Metamorphic minerals are those that form only at the high temperatures
and pressures associated with the process of metamorphism. These minerals,
known as index minerals, include sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, andalusite,
and some garnet.

Other minerals, such as olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, feldspars,


and quartz, may be found in metamorphic rocks, but are not necessarily the
result of the process of metamorphism. These minerals formed during the
crystallization of igneous rocks. They are stable at high temperatures and
pressures and may remain chemically unchanged during the metamorphic
process. However, all minerals are stable only within certain limits, and the
presence of some minerals in metamorphic rocks indicates the approximate
temperatures and pressures at which they formed.

The change in the particle size of the rock during the process of
metamorphism is called recrystallization. For instance, the small calcite
crystals in the sedimentary rock limestone and chalk change into larger
crystals in the metamorphic rock marble, or in metamorphosed sandstone,
recrystallization of the original quartz sand grains results in very compact
quartzite, also known as metaquartzite, in which the often larger quartz
crystals are interlocked. Both high temperatures and pressures contribute to
recrystallization. High temperatures allow the atoms and ions in solid crystals
to migrate, thus reorganizing the crystals, while high pressures cause solution
of the crystals within the rock at their point of contact.

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c. Foliation

The layering within metamorphic rocks is called foliation (derived from


the Latin word folia, meaning "leaves"), and it occurs when a rock is being
shortened along one axis during recrystallization. This causes the platy or
elongated crystals of minerals, such as mica and chlorite, to become rotated
such that their long axes are perpendicular to the orientation of shortening.
This results in a banded, or foliated rock, with the bands showing the colors of
the minerals that formed them.

Textures are separated into foliated and non-foliated categories. Foliated


rock is a product of differential stress that deforms the rock in one plane,
sometimes creating a plane of cleavage. For example, slate is a foliated
metamorphic rock, originating from shale. Non-foliated rock does not have
planar patterns of strain.

Rocks that were subjected to uniform pressure from all sides, or those that
lack minerals with distinctive growth habits, will not be foliated. Where a rock
has been subject to differential stress, the type of foliation that develops
depends on the metamorphic grade. For instance, starting with a mudstone, the
following sequence develops with increasing temperature: slate is a very fine-
grained, foliated metamorphic rock, characteristic of very low grade
metamorphism, while phyllite is fine-grained and found in areas of low grade
metamorphism, schist is medium to coarse-grained and found in areas of
medium grade metamorphism, and gneiss coarse to very coarse-grained,
found in areas of high-grade metamorphism. Marble is generally not foliated,
which allows its use as a material for sculpture and architecture.

Another important mechanism of metamorphism is that of chemical


reactions that occur between minerals without them melting. In the process
atoms are exchanged between the minerals, and thus new minerals are formed.
Many complex high-temperature reactions may take place, and each mineral

36 | P a g e
assemblage produced provides us with a clue as to the temperatures and
pressures at the time of metamorphism.

Metasomatism is the drastic change in the bulk chemical composition of a


rock that often occurs during the processes of metamorphism. It is due to the
introduction of chemicals from other surrounding rocks. Water may transport
these chemicals rapidly over great distances. Because of the role played by
water, metamorphic rocks generally contain many elements absent from the
original rock, and lack some that originally were present. Still, the
introduction of new chemicals is not necessary for recrystallization to occur.

d. Metamorphic Rock Textures

The five basic metamorphic textures with typical rock types are slaty
(includes slate and phyllite; the foliation is called "slaty cleavage"), schistose
(includes schist; the foliation is called "schistosity"), gneissose (gneiss; the
foliation is called "gneissosity"), granoblastic (includes granulite, some
marbles and quartzite), and hornfelsic (includes hornfels and skarn).

e. Type of Metamorphic Rocks

1. Amphibolite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms through


recrystallization under conditions of high viscosity and directed pressure.
It is composed primarily of hornblende (amphibole) and plagioclase,
usually with very little quartz. The specimen shown above is about two
inches (five centimeters) across.
2. Gneiss is foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is
made up of granular mineral grains. It typically contains abundant quartz
or feldspar minerals. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.
3. Hornfels is a fine-grained nonfoliated metamorphic rock with no specific
composition. It is produced by contact metamorphism. Hornfels is a rock
that was "baked" while near a heat source such as a magma chamber, sill

37 | P a g e
or dike. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters)
across.
4. Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the
metamorphism of limestone or dolostone. It is composed primarily of
calcium carbonate. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.
5. Novaculite is a dense, hard, fine-grained, siliceous rock that breaks with a
conchoidal fracture. It forms from sediments deposited in marine
environments where organisms such as diatoms (single-celled algae that
secrete a hard shell composed of silicon dioxide) are abundant in the
water. The specimen shown above is about three inches across.
6. Phyllite is a foliated metamorphic rock that is made up mainly of very
fine-grained mica. The surface of phyllite is typically lustrous and
sometimes wrinkled. It is intermediate in grade between slate and schist.
The specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across
7. Quartzite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced by the
metamorphism of sandstone. It is composed primarily of quartz. The
specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.
8. Lapis Lazuli, the famous blue gem material, is actually a metamorphic
rock. Most people are surprised to learn that, so we added it to this photo
collection as a surprise. Blue rocks are rare and we bet that it captured
your eye. The round objects in the photo are lapis lazuli beads about 9/16
inch (14 millimeters in diameter).
9. Schist is metamorphic rock with well developed foliation. It often
contains significant amounts of mica which allow the rock to split into thin
pieces. It is a rock of intermediate metamorphic grade between phyllite
and gneiss. The specimen shown above is a "chlorite schist" because it
contains a significant amount of chlorite. It is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.
10. Slate is a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the
metamorphism of shale. It is a low grade metamorphic rock that splits into

38 | P a g e
thin pieces. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.
11. Soapstone is a metamorphic rock that consists primarily of talc with
varying amounts of other minerals such as micas, chlorite, amphiboles,
pyroxenes and carbonates. It is a soft, dense, heat-resistant rock that has a
high specific heat capacity. These properties make it useful for a wide
variety of architectural, practical and artistic uses.

III. The Taditional Principles of Stratigraphy


A. Superposisi (Steno, 1669)
At a sequence layering of rocks, the rock layer that lies beneath the relatively
older age than the layers above it during the rock layers have not been deformed.

B. Horizontality (Steno, 1669)


At the beginning of the sedimentation process, prior to exposure or change style,
sediment deposited horizontally

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C. Original Continuity (Steno, 1669)
The original continuity of water-laid sedimentary strata is terminated only by
pincing out againts the basin of deposition, at the time of their deposition
Layers of sediment deposited continuously and continuous (continuity), to the
extent that the sedimentation basin. Sediment layers may not be cut off suddenly,
and turned into another of rocks in normal circumstances. Basically the result of a
deposition of the bedding plane, will be sustained even if invisible.
Beheading caused by:
- Unconformity
-Erosion
-Morphology
- Lateral Continuity
At first the continuity of sediments experience but layers are separated by a
valley, or no areas of eroded

D. Uniformatirisme (Hutton, 1785)


Uniformitarianism is an event that occurs in the geological past period is
controlled by natural laws that control events in the present. This law is known as
the motto of "The Present is the key to the past." The point is that the natural
geological processes seen today is used as a basis for discussion of past geological
processes.

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E. Catastropisma
Catastrophism is the theory that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden,
short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in contrast to
uniformitarianism (sometimes described as gradualism), in which slow
incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth's geological features.
Uniformitarianism held that the present is the key to the past, and that all things
continued as they were from the indefinite past. Since the early disputes, a more
inclusive and integrated view of geologic events has developed, in which the
scientific consensus accepts that there were some catastrophic events in the
geologic past, but these were explicable as extreme examples of natural processes
which can occur. Catastrophism held that geological epochs had ended with
violent and sudden natural catastrophes such as great floods and the rapid
formation of major mountain chains. Plants and animals living in the parts of the
world where such events occurred were killed off, being replaced abruptly by the
new forms whose fossils defined the geological strata. Some catastrophists
attempted to relate at least one such change to the Biblical account of Noah's
flood. The concept was first popularised by the early 19th-century French scientist
Georges Cuvier, who proposed that new life forms had moved in from other areas

41 | P a g e
after local floods, and avoided religious or metaphysical speculation in his
scientific writings.

F. Faunal Succession (Abbe Giraud-Soulavic, 1777)


At each layer of different geological ages will be found fossils differently. In
simple terms it could be said to be fossils that are on the bottom layer will be
different from the fossils in the layers above it.
Fossils that lived in the past will be replaced (terlindih) with fossil thereafter, with
different physical appearance (due to evolution). This fossil difference can be
used as a barrier unit in the formation or in a correction lithostratigrafi
stratigraphy.

G. Strata Identified by Fossils (Smith, 1816)


Layering of rocks can be distinguished from one another by looking at the content
of the typical fossil

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H. Cross-cutting Relationship
Relationships intersect (cross-cutting relationship) is the relationship between the
occurrence of the rock cut / intruded by other rocks, where of rocks are cut /
broken formed earlier than the rocks that break through. If there is a spread of
laps. Rock (unit of rock layers), wherein one of the layers cut another layer, then
lithologies cut the relatively young age of the lithologies in the piece.

IV. Modification From Traditional Concept to Modern


A. Traditional vs. modern (Sequence Stratigraphy) depositional models
In the traditional model of existence deposition transgression and regression
occurred on the outskirts of the basin and facies change from land to sea, in the
middle of the basin. Transgression, and it only affects regression facies around the
coast., The accumulation of sedimentation occurs in the basin, where the outskirts
of the basin is somewhere division layer, and the layer will be piled vertically in
the middle of the basin.

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In the model the deposition of sequence stratigraphy, sediment accumulation
occurred on the outskirts of the exposure (shelf) or the coast. Clinoform presence
or slope on the edge of the shelf is an important symptom in controlling the
deposition and facies shift, not only in rural areas but also exposure to exposure
and away on land and at sea, the cycle is repeated

B. Superposition vs Concept of Bedding


Law of superposition states: layer under, age older than the layers above it. This
principle has not changed, but sharpen the sense of layers and bedding plane as
the interface deposition (depositional interface) as areas of commonality time
(isochronous time surface)
The concept of bedding In stratigraphy tradiosional sense layer was not
emphasized, even definisinyapun does not exist, except on the Law of
superposition, which is implicit that the surface layer or boundary lapisanadalah
limiting time (the layer above it always younger than the layers below) or
sebagaipermukaan similarity time (Law 1 of principle Steno)
Sequence stratigraphy, stating that a layer of sediment that is similar, propagated
by the medium (water / wind) in similar circumstances as well. More explicitly
stated that between the surface layer called as wellas depositional interface is
practically constitute a same fields and field time this happened because of the
cessation of the spread of sediment similar circumstances because:
1. Changed the type of sediment in endapkan
2. The absence of precipitation (non-depositional)
3. The existence of erosion

Thus the field of surface coating (stratal surface) represent a hiatus of at least
(minimum time gap) or a small hiatus, so for practical purposes can be considered
as the surface of time (isochronous time surface). In this case the seismic horizon
considered also as a surface layer or in common areas of time.

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In traditional stratigraphic layers that are often confused with the notion of
lithologic unit. In pengetiansikuen stratigraphic layers can be gradually changed.

C. Law of Lateral Continuity vs Lateral Termination


This law states that traditionally laterally continuous layer to layer it kepinggiran
wedge basin, or also in contact with beheading. Termination concept Layers
Termination concept layer. (Principles of stratal temination) this is not in
accordance with the second Steno Hk namely: the principle of kesinambuangan
layers laterally (Law of Lateral Conitnuity of strata) which menyatakanbahwa
ongoing layer laterally until the end at the edge of the basin. Sequence
stratigraphy teaches that the coating ends on landward or seaward (basin).

Therefore the term of the expiry of the following layers:


1. Termination layer to the bottom layer (termination base / base lapping),
among others: onlaping, downlap- ping, backstepping
2. Termination of a layer of the upper layer (termination to ward top /
toplapping), among others: toplapping / oflapping, and truncation

Thus the sequence stratigraphic stressed there is cessation suatuprinsip layers


laterally (lateral termination of strata) of the principle of lateral continuity of the
coating. 2nd Law dr Steno principle applies locally, where it is limited to past
observations of outcrop and drilling that is then projected on a regional basis.

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D. Law of Horizontality vs Clinoform
Traditionally sediments deposited horizontally in their original state, or not
aligned with a layer (or base basin) underneath. Later also recognized the original
slope, subpararel in case onlapping.

In sequence stratigraphy the deposition tilt at clinoform (although only a few


degrees only) in addition to the horizontal is a basic principle, because this
situation to control sedimentation and urutanstratigrafi in general. Clinoform
deposition on the principles clearly no longer compatible with the 3rd Steno's law
which states that the sediments in endapkan in its natural state in a state of flat or
horizontal (original Horizontality of strata). Sequence stratigraphy teaches that the
coating is generally diendapkanpada inclined surface or called clinoform, while
still recognizing the deposition in a horizontal state.

E. Law of Vertical Accumulation vs Lateral Accumulation


In traditional stratigraphy of sedimentary layers piled or accumulated vertically,
even though recognized the shift in facies laterally along the layer and the

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onlapping.
In sequence stratigraphy of sedimentary layers accumulate in principle not only
vertically but accumulated laterally is a predominant process. Sequnece
stratigraphy in principle recognize accumulated in agradasi (vertical),
retrogradation (vertical and lateral) and progradasi (lateral).
Lateral accumulation principle is also no longer in line with the principle of Steno
who implicitly stressed that the layer of sediment piled vertically, which is
derived the principle of original horizontality. Sequnce stratigraphy based on the
fact that the accumulation of sediment mainly occurred on the outskirts of
exposure or ledges daerahpantai, where accumulation occurs laterally. This
concept is also familiar with the accumulation vertically under certain
circumstances eg due to subsidence and compation. Thus the sequence
stratigraphy is actually the principle that the buildup of sediment has lateral and
vertical components, wherein the horizontal component is more dominant.
Because the two components of this accumulation, the accumulation principle
also gives lateral-stacking pattern of the various types of bedding such as:
1. Stacking progradasi (sigmoid pattern, tabular), which gives a shift in both
directions (onlaping and downlaping) or in one direction (toward the ocean)
(truncation or toplapping and downlapping)
2. Stacking retrogradation which provide stacking direction (to land, onlapping,
and backstepping)
3. Stacking agradasi (vertical stacking)

F. Concept Unconformity and Stratal Discontinuity


The concept unconformity / unconformity first proposed by James Hutton
(1785), in his ideas about the geological cycle (gelogical cycles). Unconformity is
ketidaklanjutan vertically evidence of sedimentation, caused by tectonic
symptoms (such as: folding, then followed by removal / orogenesa) or symptoms
of tectonic lifting and tilt or solely appointment only / epirogenesa.)

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The term unconformity later develop into various types, such as:
disconformity, agular unconformity, non-conformity and so on. In sequence
stratigraphy, misalignment is one of continued lack layer (stratal disconformity),
wherein the relative fluctuations is an important element. Here is emphasized the
existence of non menerusan vertically in layering or stratal discontinuity. In this
case stratal discontinuity implies the existence of hiatus or a time which is not
recorded premises long enough. Forms of stratal discontinuity it is able forms:
1. The non-erosion surface (non-erosional surfaces). And
2. Surface eroded

Forms of non-erosion surface in the form stratal discontinuity it is not known


in traditional stratigraphy. Non-erosion forms include:
1. Surface without precipitation (non-depositional surface), where
sediment through the surface without any significant precipitation or
pengerosian, referred to as sediment by passing, (depostional hiatus.)
2. Surface expiry layer (surface of stratal termination), so associated with
the Principles of stratal termination, sepertu onlap surface, downlap
surface, toplap surface and the apparent surface.

In sequence stratigraphy to note also that the absence of deposition (surface of


non-DEPOSITI) this is an important field of stratigraphy and principle called For
type 2, also known as type 2 unconformity.
Surface erosion includes disharmony in the classic sense (classical
unconformity) and is associated with subaerial exposure and the transgression.
But besides that includes the field of underwater erosion surface (surface of the
sub-marne erosion), a concept which does not exist in the traditional stratigraphy.
In the case of classical uniformity (surface of erosion with subaerial exposure),
also known as lack of harmony in the form of:
i. Diskordansi by beheading (discordance with truncation)
are in stratigraphic terms traditionally known sebaaig
angular unconformity.

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ii. Concordance with erosion valley (concordance with
incised valleys) are in stratigraphic terms traditionally
known as disconformity. Should be clarified that the
Indonesian term diskordansi (taken from bhs
Netherlands discordantie, among others hoek-
discordantie = angular unconformity) and
unconfornmity (English) translated as unconformity.
In this context discordance and concordance is defined as the
relationship between the layers, and do not need to be in a
relationship that implies the existence of unconformity hiatus.
One new concept is that the unconformity can continue laterally
into aligned surfaces (equivalent conformable surface) where
there is no stratal discontinuity. From the above discussion it is
clear that there has been a shift in the understanding or definition
of unconformity,
stratal discontinuity even include other concepts that never
existed in traditional stratigraphic principles.
G. Recycling (CYCLICITY OF STRATA) and Stratigraphic Classification
System
The existence of stratigraphic cycle, in fact has long been known and
mainly Wheeler (1958) specifically discussed the existence cyclotheme. However
stratigraphic sequence is explicitly stated that all sedimentary sequences can be
analyzed as cyclical. Although it also recognized the existence of cycles that
occur alone (autocyclus) as the displacement delta lobe, but most cycles can be
explained by the fluctuation in sea level that eustatik and globally. Recognized
also the process that is repeated (repetitive) attributable tectonics, and which are
episodic (at any time). In terms of the incident and recurrent cycle, the
stratigraphic sequence or order to recognize various levels, each of which has a
long or short period of time. In the case of the cycle at the level lapisanpun or
called parasequence, there is a high frequency cycle (order 4 or more), and low
frequency (order of 3 to 1), and this frequency is expressed in tens of thousands -

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hundreds of millions of years. Tersuperimposisikan high frequency at low
frequency so that the cycle is a complex shape that curves (convolution). One of
the important cycle in the stratigraphic sequence called sequence, which limits the
unconformity which is sedimentation in 1 cyclus down rising sea levels. Portions
of the cycle is called system tracts were divided into lowstand (LST), trangressive
(TST) and higstand system tracts (HST).

One system comprises a set parasequence tract, which is a genetically


related units are interpreted also as a small cycle, which limited the so-called
marine flooding surfaces (MFS). Each small cycles can be known in every
sequence stratigraphy, and is recycled order to 4 s / d to 6, while the cause is
interpreted to climate change and sea level on a small scale were associated with
symptoms of astronomical cycle as axial oblixity and orbit eccentricity and called
Milankovich cycles.

However stratigraphic sequence pay attention to the geological


phenomena that affect the order that is cyclic, such as tectonic symptoms
(orogenesa) that is looping (repetitive) and the symptoms are episodic
sedimentation process. Clear stratigraphic sequence has provided an
understanding of the new classification of the others at all with what we know in
stratigraphic traditional such as unit lithostratigrafi (formation, member, group),
and Chronostratigraphy (stage, epoch, etc.), which seems to be no connection at
all between units The stratigraphy, because the concept or the way we observe the
phenomenon was already another stratigraphic altogether, by using other criteria.

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Teknik, Universitas Pakuan
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evolution.html
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Koesomadinata, R.P,1997,SIKUEN STRATIGRAPI SUATU PERGESERAN PARADIGMA
DALAM ILMU GEOLOGI,Bogor:Universitas Pakuan

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