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Project Management

Human Resource Management

Text Book – PMBOK – 5E


PMP Exam Prep – Rita Mulcahy -7E
Human Resource Management Processes

Processes Process Group


Develop Human Resource Plan Planning
Acquire Project Team Executing
Develop Project Team Executing
Manage Project Team Executing

Any reason for HR process NOT existing in Project Closing?


Human Resource Management Process
Project Team Performance Appraisals
TNA Review TNA
Training Plans Rewards, recognitions
Project Scope Team Building Corrective actions
Activities
Product Scope
Activity resource
requirements Employee feedback
Project Roles
Activity duration Customer feedback
Responsibilities
estimates
Reporting relationships Supplier feedback
Previous data PM’s views
Staffing management plan
Lessons learnt
Talent Base
Hire policies
What is Human Resource Management?

• Improving Team performance


• Assigning roles and responsibilities
• Confirming resource availability
Human • Conduct team building activities
Resource • Track team members’ performance
Management • Create and Manage Reward and
Plan recognition systems
• Have Fun while work is being done
• Manage conflicts
• Encourage ethical behaviours
Rita’s book :P299-312
Roles in Brief - 1

• Ensures buy-in throughout the organisation


• Provides funding
• Prioritises constraints
• Helps in risk management
Project Sponsor
• Provides expert judgment
• Evaluates trade-offs between crashing and fast
tracking
• Protects project from outside changes

• Identify and involve stakeholders


• Identify requirements, constraints and
assumptions
• Create WBS, WBSD, work packages and activities Project Team
• Create network diagram, schedule
• Estimate time and costs
• Improve processes, Suggest changes
Roles in Brief - 2

• Creating project charter


• PM plan development
• Identifying requirements
• Risk Management Stakeholders
• Help manage changes
• May own risk response

• Negotiate and assign people


• Participate in initial planning
• Provide expert opinion
• Approve PM plan Functional Manager
• Suggest changes
• Resolve performance issues
Roles in Brief - 3

• Write project charter


• Influence team, stakeholders
• Plan training
• Influence Functional Managers
• Coordinate interactions
• Select processes
• Lead and direct planning process
Project • Produce realistic schedule
Manager • Anticipate and manage changes
• Monitors project , team performance
• Resolve variances, conflicts
• Develop time and cost reserves
• Integrate SCQT
• LEAD
• Ethical behaviour
ITTO – Develop HR Plan

Tools and
Techniques
Inputs • Organisation charts

• PM Plan
• Job /position descriptions Outputs
• Networking
• Activity Resource Requirements • Expert Judgement • HR Plan
• EEF, OPA • Organisation theory
• Meetings
Inputs – HR Plan
EEF

Inputs •Organisation culture


•Existing Human resources
• PM Plan •HR Administration policies
• Activity Resource Requirements
•Market place conditions
• EEF, OPA
•Geographical dispersion of team
OPA
•Standard processes , policies and role descriptions
•Templates for Organisation charts
•Templates for position/job descriptions
•Historical information about
•Organisation structure in previous projects
•Lessons learnt
•Escalation procedure to handle issues, conflicts
PM Plan
•Project life cycle and processes used for each phase
•Method of working to realise project objectives
•Plan to evaluate, decide, monitor and control changes
•How to manage configuration
•How to maintain integrity of project baselines
•Needs and methods of communication amongst stakeholders
Tools and Techniques – Develop HR Plan -1
Organisation Charts
•Hierarchical type
Tools and
•Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
Techniques
•Responsible, Accountable, Consult and Inform
• Organisation charts
• Job /position descriptions
matrix
• Networking
RACI
• Expert Judgement
Team Member
• Meetings Activity
Prakash Manoj Gurudas Meher
A A R C I
B I C R A

RAM
Team Member (P=Primary, S= Secondary
Activity
Prakash Manoj Gurudas Meher
A P S S P
B S P S P

More on – p312-315 of Rita’s book. PMBOK 5E, p261-263


Tools and Techniques – Develop HR Plan- 2
Organisation Charts
Tools and Organisation Breakdown Structure
Techniques
• Organisation charts
Project
Marketing Production

Product Specs Engineering BoM

Focus group Outputs Design TAKT


Time

Pricing Policy Time

Costing

More on – p268-275 of Rita’s book


Tools and Techniques – Develop HR Plan- 3

Tools and
Techniques •Preliminary List of required skills
• Expert Judgement
•Assess roles based on standard JDs
•Estimate preliminary
•Effort levels
•Number of people
•Reporting relationships
•Guideline for lead time to hire
•Identify risks associated with
•Staff acquisition
•Retention
•Release
•Complying with govt./union contracts
Tools and Techniques – Develop HR Plan - 4
Organisation Charts
Tools and Resource Breakdown Structure
Techniques
• Organisation charts Project

Designers Fabricators Erectors

Mechanical Skilled
Welders
Electrical
Unskilled
Assemblers
Programmers Specialists
Painters

More on – p268-275 of Rita’s book


Tools and Techniques – Develop HR Plan
Job/ Position Descriptions

Tools and Techniques •Environment


•Constraints
• Job /position descriptions
• Organisational Theory
•Skills required
•Desired
•Qualifications
•Experience
•PMBOK 5E, Fig9-4, p261
•Hays System
Organisational Theory
•Behavioural theories
•Theory X, Y and “Z”
•B α (P x S)
•B = Behaviour
•P = Personality
•S = Stimulus
More on – p268-275 of Rita’s book
Outputs – Develop HR Plan
Roles and Responsibilities – covered.
See Slide 47 for more information
Outputs
• HR Plan
• Roles and responsibilities
• Organisation Charts
Organisation Charts – covered.
• Staffing Management Plans
Staffing Management Plans
•Staff Acquisition
•Resource Calendars
Resource Histogram •Resource Histograms
•Staff release plans
•Training Needs
•Rewards and recognitions
•Compliance
•Safety
DO YOU HAVE A “LAURA” IN YOU?
ITTO – Acquire Project Team

Tools and
Inputs Techniques Outputs
• Pre assignment • Project Staff
• HRM plan Assignments
• EEF, OPA • Negotiations
• Resource Calendars
• Acquisitions • PM Plan Updates
• Virtual teams
• Multi-criteria decision analysis
Inputs – Acquire Project Team
HRM Plan
Inputs •Roles and responsibilities
•Positions, skills, competencies
• HRM Plan •Project Organisation Charts
• EEF, OPA •Staffing Management Plans
•Co-location Vs.Multilocation

EEF
•Existing information about people
•Who is available?
•Their skill sets, experience
•Their interest
•HR Admin Policies (outsourcing)
•Organisation Structure
•Location/s

OPA
•Standard policies
•Processes (Recruitment)
•Procedures
Tools and Techniques – Acquire Project Team - 1
Negotiations
•With functional managers
Tools and Techniques •With prospective team members
• Pre assignment •For outsourced resources
• Negotiations •External organisations
• Acquisitions •Influencing
• Virtual teams
Negotiations: Musts
•Project needs and priorities
•Explain benefit to resource provider
Acquisitions •Know WHO is needed and WHY?
•Hiring outside resources •Employee aspirations
•Terms and conditions •Good relationship
•Durations •Influencing
•Influencing
Virtual Teams Guard against
•Different locations, home office •“Halo” Effect
•Different shifts , disabilities •Peter’s Principal
•Special expertise
•Influencing Rita’s Book p316-317
Tools and Techniques – Acquire Project Team - 2

Tools and Techniques


• Multi-criteria analysis

Multi-criteria analysis
•Availability
•Cost /affordability
•Experience
•Ability
•Knowledge
•Skills
•Attitude
•International factors
Outputs – Acquire Project Team
Project Staff Assignments
•Who will do what?
Outputs •Project Team Directory
•RBS, OBS
• Project Staff Assignments
• Resource Calendars Resource Calendar
•Who will do what and when
• PM Plan Updates •Leave schedule
•Engagements with other projects

Project Management Plan Updates


•HR Plan (redefined roles)
•Schedule (if resources are scarce)
•Cost (if resources are “dear”)

Challenges in a “Matrix” Organisation


•Motivating team members
•Relations with functional managers
•“Non-Conflicting” reward and recognition system
•“Unbiased” appraisals
ITTO – Develop Project Team

Tools and
Techniques
Inputs • Interpersonal skills
• Training Outputs
• HRM Plan • Team Building Activities
• Project staff assignments • Team performance assessments
• Ground Rules
• Resource calendars • EEF Updates
• Co-location
• Recognition and
Rewards
• People assessment
tools
Tools and Techniques – Develop Project Team - 1
Interpersonal skills
•Soft skills
•Communicate honestly, effectively
•Maintain Trust
Tools and Techniques
•Collaborative decision making
• Interpersonal skills •Manage cultural diversities
• Training
•Provide knowledge
•Provide platform for interchange

Training
•Performance appraisals/ TNA
•Formal/ Informal/ On the job
•As defined in HR plan
•Mentoring/ coaching
Tools and Techniques – Develop Project Team - 2
Team Building Activities (TBA)
•Occur throughout the project
•WBS is a TBA
•Must start early
Tools and Techniques
• Team Building Activities
Team Building Process
Tuckman’s 5 stage Team Development Model

Forming Orientation Testing, independence

Storming Emotional Intergroup Conflict


Response to
Project demands

Norming Open Exchange Group Cohesion


Of information

Performing Solution Emerges Functional roles emerge

Adjourning Group Dissolves Group Cohesion


Tools and Techniques – Develop Project Team - 3
Ground Rules – see next slide
•Honesty in all communications
•How to resolve conflict
Tools and Techniques
•How to share a problem
• Ground Rules •Rule of conduct in a meeting
• Co-location •Rules for late arrivals
• Recognition and Rewards
•Authority to communicate with outsiders
• People assessment tools
•Authority to communicate with higher-ups
•Timelines for reporting progress
•Change procedures
•Normal
Recognition and Rewards •Emergency
•Performance standard •More important for VIRTUAL Teams
•Reward
•Structure
People assessment tools
•Frequency
•Predefined and agreed
•Myers Briggs Typing
•Attitude
•Interviews
•Aptitude tests
Tools and Techniques
• *Ground Rules – Example from Project
Management Casebook Page -6
• Added on 29-10-2014

*Ground Rules
•Project will be schedule driven and not cost driven
•There is NO float on this project
•Plan to reduce schedule times and not be governed by them
•The project will be a team effort
•Safety will not be compromised at any stage during the project
•Quality will not be compromised at any stage during the project
•Technical decisions shall be authorised by ---
•Process decisions shall be authorised by ---
•Resources will not be considered as a limitation
•Commitments will be adhered to Duration:
•Planned = 47 days
•Communication will be continuous at all levels •Actual = 32 days
Outputs – Develop Project Team
Team Performance Assessment Parameters
Outputs •Improvement in skills
•Improvement in competencies
• Team performance
assessments •Reduced turnover of staff
• EEF Updates •Increased team cohesiveness
•Identify training needs
•Identify resources needed to improve
•Special attention to “Unioinised” labour force
•Ability to deal with conflicts
•“Team Effectiveness”
EEF Updates
•Changes in HR policies
•Administration policies
•Employee training records
•Skill assessment records

Rita’ book p316-317


• Encouraging good communications
• Working with other organisations
• Negotiating
• Leadership
Manage • Conflict management
project • Performance appraisals
Team • Keeping intouch
Involves
• Making good decisions
• Influencing stakeholders
• Being a leader
• Proactively look for challenges
ITTO - Manage Project Team

Inputs
• HRM plan Outputs
Tools and Techniques
• Project Staff Assignments • EEF Updates
• Team performance • Observation and conversation
• OPA Updates
assessments • Project performance appraisals
• Change requests
• Issue log • Conflict management
• Updates to
• Work Performance • Interpersonal skills
• PM Plans
reports
• Project documents
• OPA
Inputs - Manage Project Team -1
Work Performance Reports
Inputs •Schedule
• HRM plan •Cost
• Project Staff Assignments •Quality
• Team performance assessments •Scope
• Work Performance reports •Work package
• OPA •Completed
•WIP
•Started

Team Performance Assessment Parameters


•Improvement in skills
OPA
•Improvement in competencies •Certificates of appreciation
•Reduced turnover of staff •Newsletters
•Increased team cohesiveness •Websites
•Identify training needs •Blogs
•Identify resources needed to improve •Bonus Structures
•Special attention to “Unioinised” labour force •Corporate apparel
•Ability to deal with conflicts
•“Team Effectiveness”
Inputs - Manage Project Team - 2

Inputs
• Issue log
Tools - Manage Project Team - 1
Observation and conversation
•MBWA
Tools and Techniques Project Performance Appraisals
• Observation and •Evaluation of employee performance
conversation
•360 Degree
• Project performance
appraisals •By “both” – functional and Project manager

Project Performance Appraisals Team Performance Assessments


By Superiors of team member By PM – evaluate team performance
Tools - Manage Project Team - 2
7 Sources of conflict
1. Schedules,
2. Project priorities
Tools and Techniques 3. Resources
• Conflict management 4. Technical opinions
5. Administrative procedures
6. Cost
7. Personality based issues

Causes of conflict
• Ambiguous Jurisdiction
• Communication barriers
• Conflict of interest
• Organisation culture
• Overdependence on one person/organisation
• Unresolved previous conflict/s

Rita’s book P325


Tools - Manage Project Team - 3
Tools and Techniques
• Conflict management

Methods to resolve conflicts


Confronting / Problem solving Address the issue
Compromising Bargain a solution
Withdrawing Avoid engagement
Smoothing Majority
Forcing Dictating solution
Arbitration Neutral Party resolves
Tools - Manage Project Team - 4
Tools and Techniques
• Conflict management

Powers of a PM Leadership Styles


Formal – by position Directing tell what to do
Reward Facilitating Coordinate inputs
Coercive (penalties, “OR Else”) Coaching Instructing
Expert – by knowledge Supporting Assist
Referent (Name dropping) Autocratic Deciding without inputs
Consultative Inviting ideas
Consensus Group decision
Tools - Manage Project Team - 5
Tools and Techniques
• Conflict management

Factors influencing conflict resolution


• Intensity and importance of conflict
• Time available to resolve
• Position taken by those involved
• Motivation to resolve
• Short/ long term solution
Tools - Manage Project Team - 6
Tools and Techniques
• Conflict management

Definition of leadership
•Someone that people will follow willingly because they believe s/he can provide
them with a means to achieve their own desires, wants and needs
•Capacity to influence and organise members and organisations
•Influencing Project team to behave in a manner that will facilitate achieving the
goals of the project (PMBOK)
Tools - Manage Project Team - 7
Tools and Techniques
• Conflict management

More about leadership


•Directing, Autocratic, Consultative Autocratic, Driver
•Facilitating, Coaching, Supporting, Influencing
•Consensus, Democratic, Delegating
•Analytical, Bureaucratic
•Charismatic
•Laissez-Faire
Tools - Manage Project Team - 8
Motivation Theory : Maslow’s Hierarchical Needs

• Self fulfillment, Growth

Higher Level Needs


• Learning
Self Actualisation

• Accomplishment, respect
• Attention, appreciation
Esteem

• Love, affection, approval


• Friends, association
Social
Lower Level Needs

• Security, Stability
• Freedom from harm
Safety

• Air, water, food,


• Shelter and clothing
Physiological
Tools - Manage Project Team - 9
Motivation Theory : Herzberg’s factors

Hygiene Factors Motivation Factors


(Job Dis-satisfiers) (Job Satisfiers)
•Company policies •Achievement
•Admin practices •Recognition of good work
•Nature of supervision •Work itself
•Salary, money, perks •Responsibility
•Style of leadership •Growth and advancement
•Interpersonal relationships •Personal growth
•Localised policies •Skill development
•Freedom to act
Tools - Manage Project Team - 10
More Motivation Theories Victor Vroom
(Expectancy)
Eric Berne •Motivation occurs if
(Human Interaction) •Outcome is favourable
•Parent •Motivation is function of outcome
•Adult
•Youth McGregor's’ Theory
•Child •X
•Y
•Z (Ranganekar)
David McClelland (Theory of Needs OR Acquired needs theory)
N Achievement : Achievable challenges Love recognition
E
Affiliation Working in a team Love approval
E
D Power Managing others Love organising, influencing others
Outputs - Manage Project Team
EEF Updates
Outputs •Input to Performance appraisals
•Peoples’ skill updates
• EEF Updates
• OPA Updates OPA Updates
• Change requests •Historical Information
• PM Plan Updates •Lessons learnt documentation
• PM plan updates •Standard Processes
•Templates

Change Requests
•Staffing changes
Project Documents Updates •Outsourcing
•Issue log •Resignations
•Roles description
•Project staff assignments
PM Plan Updates
•HR Management Plan
Tips – Project HR Management -1
Understand difference between :
Roles, Responsibilities, Accountability and competency as defined by PMI

Role:
A set of expected behaviours from a given position. One can play many roles

Responsibility:
An obligatory requirement for the job. By Moral and by duty. Duty is WORK

Accountability: Authority:
Degree of answerability Legitimate right to command
•B α (P x S)
•B = Behaviour
Power: Competency: •P = Personality
Capacity to command. Knowledge, skills, attitudes •S = Stimulus
Organisation Chart:
Diagrammatic representation of organisation structure

Organisation Structure:
Arrangement of people based on position superiority, task allocation

Also read PMBOK 5E, p233


Tips – Project HR Management -2
From the Project Management Casebook-
1. Page 6 - Encourage
• Innovation and creativity
• Enthusiasm and commitment

http://www.projectmanagement.com/articles/303910/Corporate-
Culture-Wars. Added on 18-09-2015
Tips – Project HR Management -3 Leader Vs Manager

http://stevekeating.me/2015/10/11/when-managers-dont-lead/Added on 24-10-2015
Reward and Recognition Criteria, added on 20072016

 Transparency
 Clarity of Communication

 Objectivity

 discussion before implementation.

 Within company HR Policy.


Tips – Project HR Management
1. www.preparepm.com/notes/hr.html
2. www.projectconnections.com/templates/pmbok/knowledge-area/project-human-resource-mangement.html
3. www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=364391