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The Very Narrow Aisle Warehouse.

All that’s worth knowing about planning,

processes and solutions.
Overview of contents.

The subjects.

Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Assembly and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Systems in comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Narrow aisle storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Preconditions for assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Racking service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Guidance systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Warehouse organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Mechanical and inductive guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Mechanical guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Inductive guidance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Construction and requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Racking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Driver assistance systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Pallet racking in narrow aisle warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Systems and application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

RFID-Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Efficiency in the warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Ex Factory individual solutions for VNA trucks . . . . . . . . 60

Enquiry sheet for busbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Personnel protection systems . . . . . . . . . . 44

Energy supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Process optimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Battery charging technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Warehouse navigation for narrow aisle trucks . . . . . . . . 48

Benefits of warehouse navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Regulations and standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Practical experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Warehouse navigation for wide aisle storage. . . . . . 54

Radio data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Warehouse Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Design Criteria.

Systems in comparison.

Wide aisle storage Narrow aisle storage Crane/high rack warehouse

 Floor and racking storage  Floor and racking storage  Racking storage
 Rack bays, single or multi-position  Rack bays as single or multi-position  Rack bays, single or multi-position
systems systems systems, silo storage
 Manual operation  Manual, semi or fully automated  Automated operation or manual
 Pedestrian pallet trucks, Counter- operation  Stacker cranes
balance trucks or Reach trucks  Tri-lateral or order pickers  Lateral load pick-up
 Typical aisle width 2500–4500 mm  Lateral load pick-up (stacking) front  Typical aisle width 1400 mm
 Lift height to approx. 12,000 mm load pick-up (order picking)  Lift height up to approx.
 Low to high degree of space  Typical aisle width 1400–2000 mm 35,000 mm
utilisation  Lift height to approx. 16,500 mm  High degree of space utilisation
 Medium to high throughput  Medium to high degree of space  Very high throughput
 Low to medium investment costs utilisation  High investment costs
 Medium to high throughput
 Medium investment costs

Narrow aisle storage.

Characteristics Objective Planning

The narrow aisle warehouse allows Minimising the working aisle width and It is critical to correctly plan the inter-
maximum space utilisation by making maximising throughput allows the best faces between rack and trucks includ-
the aisles as small as possible. Along possible utilisation of bulk storage and ing all relevant safety distances and
with high lift heights the narrow aisle picking profiles, with in the same envi- racking clearances. The project man-
system offers high space utilisation. ronment, using the same truck. agement of these interfaces are vital
for the success of a project.
Due to the single deep rack configura-
tion each pallet position can be easily
accessed. The narrow aisle trucks are
designed so that order picking can take
place directly in front of the cab.

Narrow aisle storage allows strategies

such as first in first out to take place in
a controlled environment.

Guidance systems.

Mechanical and inductive guidance.

To minimise the aisle width, fork trucks Rail guidance on the trucks, allows high
in narrow aisle systems operate with travel and lift speeds without the need
minimum safety distance to the rack- for operator intervention. Guidance
ing. EN 1726 prescribes a minimum systems ensure safe operation and are
safety distance of 90 mm (between the the basis for high throughput.
trucks load handling unit and the pallet
in the racking). Dependent on the type
of guidance, truck type and pallet size,
larger safety distances may be required.

Mechanical guidance.

Function principle
The truck is mechanically guided be-
tween two steel profiles bolted to the
floor. Rollers fitted on the side of the
chassis, 2–3 on each side, keep the
truck between the rails in the centre of
the aisle.

Safety distance for rail guidance

Most favourable results regarding op-
erational safety and throughput effi-
ciency can be achieved with a safety
distance of 100 mm for rail guided

The distance between the trucks load

wheel and guide rail should be at least
50 mm. This type of layout makes en-
tering between the rails easier for the

Safety distances for rail guidance

Working aisle width
with rail guidance
The minimum width for the working
aisle (AST) is the result of stacking-in
depth of the load, structural dimen-
sions of the respective truck type and
safety distances.


reinforcement base concrete


Aisle width with rail guidance

Aisle width with rail guidance

b2 load axle width b26 minimum dimension between

b6 width over guide rollers guide rails
b9 / b14 cab / lateral frame width AST working aisle width

Construction of rail guidance
Rail guidance can be installed in high Depending on the truck’s geometry truck. The forces in the remaining aisle
and low profile rail variants and can be and travel speed, varied forces and mo- run are reduced to 8 to 10 kN (F2).
in-fitted with concrete or similar com- ments arise. The forces are influenced
pounds. High rail guidance has a pro- by surface tolerances of the floor. In order to make the entry into the rails
file height of 100–120 mm. easier for the operators, a lead-in is in-
The forces are imposed onto the rail via stalled at the start of the aisles. The
If a concrete base is laid before the the guide rollers. In general, trucks length of the funnel or radius is approx.
racking is erected, this is called a com- have four guide rollers, two at the front 300 mm with an opening angle of 15°.
pound-filled guide rail. A low rail pro- and two at the rear of the chassis.
file is used if pallets are deposited at Lead-ins are a high-risk area and should
ground level behind the guide rail. A At the start of the aisle, the truck is generally be installed with high pro-
high profile rail can also be installed positioned between the rails with the files, as this would ensure safe control
without a compound in fill. leading guide rollers. On entry the during the positioning process.
leading guide rollers bear the main
Depending on the requirement, differ- force. Lateral forces can reach up to Installation of guide rails
ent profiles can be selected according 25 kN (F1). The length of the position- The guide rails are laid and bolted onto
to rigidity, section, contact surface and ing area is approx. 2500 mm up to the the floor. Allowances are made for the
ease of assembly. point where all guide rollers guide the different forces in travel and high-risk
area by appropriate bolting distances.
The distance between can be 600 to
700 mm between bolts. This should be
reduced to approximately 300 mm in
the high-risk entry area.

The rail joints are either bolted or

welded and ground on site during as-
sembly. The welds are protected against
corrosion with appropriate surface
approx. 700 mm

approx. 2500 mm

approx. 300 mm

approx. 300 mm

Installation of guide rails

Examples of construction variants (profile sections may vary):

High profile guide rail,

 Easily cleaned floor areas
 No bottom beam required
 Same distance for working aisle
and distance between guide rails
 Large load axle widths with high
capacities can be achieved
 Acceptance of large lateral forces
 Very suitable at high lift heights
 Screeding only possible in travel

e.g.: profile C 120 / 6

High profile guide rail,

non compound-filled
 Easy assembly
 Easy to dismantle for changes to
 Bottom beam required
 Application in small to medium lift
heights with low lateral forces

e.g.: profile L 100 / 65 / 11

Low profile guide rails
 No bottom beam required, pick up
and deposit loads directly onto the
 Easy assembly
 Application in small to medium lift
heights with low lateral forces
 Easy to dismantle for changes to

For smooth operation, a minimum
clearance of 15 mm between the under-
side of guide rollers and the floor is

e.g.: profile U 65 / 42 / 6

e.g.: profile L 40 / 60 / 8

Inductive guidance (Wire guidance).

Function principle guide wire recognition

The inductively guided truck follows a (antenna)

guide wire laid in the floor. A frequency

generator feeds the guide wire with
high frequency alternating current (low
voltage). The current produces a con-
centric electromagnetic field.

Antennae fitted to the truck recognise approx. 20 mm

this field. Thus every deviation of the
truck to the guide wire is registered. A
approx. 50 mm
compensation steering process is auto-
matically initiated so the truck is safely
controlled in the aisle. 6 mm

reinforcement plate

base concrete

Guide wire in warehouse floor

Warehouse floor Electrostatic charges in the case of

The following has to be noted when Other metallic components, such as inductive and rail guidance
installing reinforcement plates or steel steel profiles for protection on expan- Special emphasis should be put on the
fibres in the floor: sion and settlement joints, should be floor’s ability to develop electrostatic
avoided within an area of +/– 250 mm charges. The amount of conductive re-
To avoid a negative effect on the elec- relative to the guide wire and should sistance is dependent on site conditions
tromagnetic field, the reinforcement never be arranged parallel to the guide and the materials used, but should be
plate / grid must be installed in the con- wire. The installation instructions of the less than 106 Ohm relative to ground
crete below the guide wire level. A Jungheinrich Systems and Projects de- potential. In this context, the use of
distance of > 50 mm between guide partment must be followed without insulating materials for floor construc-
wire and reinforcement is recommend- fail. Consultation with customer service tion and coating should be avoided.
ed. If steel fibres are used instead of is also necessary. With an insulating coating the electro-
reinforcement, an even distribution of static charge accumulation on trucks
fibres in the concrete must be ensures. Where possible, the expansion joints cannot be discharged to the floor, and
The metal fibre content of the concrete should be placed underneath the rack- can lead to problems or vehicle mal-
must not exceed 30 kg / m3. ing; where there is not stress on joints functions.
caused by the truck.

Safety distance for inductive
Optimised results regarding operational
safety and throughput can be achieved
with a safety distance of 125 mm for
inductively guided vehicles. The distance
between load wheel and racking or
stacked loads in the racking (whichever
is closer) should be at least 100 mm.

Safety distances for inductive guidance

Working aisle width for inductive

A minimum working aisle width (AST)
results from the stacking-in depth of
the load, constructive dimensions of
the respective truck type and safety


reinforcement base concrete

b2 load axle width
b9 / b14 cab / lateral frame width

Aisle width for inductive guidance

Guide wire cable
For the laying of the guide wire cable,
a 15 to 20 mm deep and 6 mm wide
channel is cut in the floor. Water is
used to limit the dust created and the
residue is cleaned away.

An insulated copper cable is then in-

serted and the channel is filled again
with an epoxy resign compound. To
prevent the guide wire breaking as a
result of movement or expansion of the
floor slabs, we recommend that omega
expansion loops are formed at the ex-
pansion joint and the joint area filled
with elastic sealant. This allows the
Inserting the cable
cable to compensate for floor move-
ment or expansion. The use of double-
sheathed cable is also advantageous.

If the return cable cannot be laid in the

floor, it can be fixed to a wall or roof in
PVC conduit.

To maintain the required tolerance of

the guide wire from the aisle centre,
the guide wire should be laid after
the racking is installed. The tolerance of
the inductive guidance line on the en-
tire aisle length should be a maximum
of +/– 5 mm from the centre line of the
the working aisle.

Soldering the connection points

Installation tolerances and permissible deformation of the racks

Frequency generator
A frequency generator feeds the guide
wire with high frequency alternating
current. Four individual loops each with
a maximum length of 1000 metres can
be connected to the Jungheinrich gen-
erator. If one loop is disconnected, the
others remain operational.

The frequency generator should be

mounted at a safe, easily accessible
position. Where the mains supply can
not be garanteed, an independent volt-
age source (buffer battery) can be in-
stalled as an emergency power supply.
Mains power failure can therefore be
Frequency generator
bridged for approx. 2 hours.

A power circuit with a separate fuse Six different frequencies from 4 kHz to be modulated into a loop, normally for
should be planned for the frequency 9.5 kHz can be parameterised. The ad- safety circuitry in special applications.
generator and emergency power sup- justable loop current can be assigned for
ply. The supply voltage is 220 V single each frequency from 25 mA to 120 mA.
phase with 50–60 Hz. Up to three different frequencies can

Inductive guidance with

high precision
The extremely high guidance precision
is characteristic for Jungheinrich induc-
tive guidance. This is facilitated by the
steering in AC technology that per-
forms positive and rapid corrections. A
distinct advantage compared with tra-
ditional hydraulic steering with passive
steering characteristics.

Other advantages
 Guide wire approach up to an angle
of nearly 90°
Positioning process
 Space-saving on the transfer aisle
 Fast entry into the aisle
 High travel speed on the guide wire
 Will detect different frequencies
in the floor
 Different frequency states are
possible in one wire

Guide Wire Layout
The floor installation is laid as a closed
loop. Start and finish are connected
with the frequency generator (FG). An
additional return wire to the frequency
generator is required for an uneven
number of aisles.

In order to avoid malfunction in the

magnetic fields, the distance between
guide wires of the same frequency
should be 1.5 meters.

Guide wire for an uneven number of aisles

No additional return wire is required

for an even number of aisles. The
graphic shows a partitioning with two
separate loops. If a fault occurs in one
of the loops, warehouse operations can
continue in the other respective area.

Guide wire for an even number of aisles

To achieve a fast and unhindered posi-
tioning onto the guide wire, the wire
should be extended as far as possible
into the transfer aisle. A truck length
including load plus 1000 mm should be
applied as minimum dimension (AST 3).

The minimum distance of the guide

wire from the warehouse wall (Aw) is
the result of half the cutter appliance
width and the existing protrusions,
such as stanchions, sprinkler pipes or
other building installations.

If working aisles are designed with one

Positioning area (transfer aisle)
closed end, the guide wire should be
laid as closely as possible to the aisle
end, so that the last pallet positions can
be served without interruption.

Wide aisles can be separated into two

narrow aisles by laying two guide wires.
This can be the case if a warehouse
layout has previously been designed for
counterbalance or reach trucks and the
racking installation remains the same.

With the same frequency in the guide

wires, the minimum distance (A1) must
be 1500 mm. Alternatively different fre-
quencies can be used. This also applies
to crossed guide wires.

Inductive guidance in wide aisle


Pallet racking in narrow aisle warehouse.

Racking is available in many designs. Static tests are based on EN 15512 „Steel Advantages of pallet racking in
The assembly is adapted to the respec- static storage systems – Adjustable pallet narrow aisle warehouses
tive application and is derived from racking systems – Principles for structural  Direct access to all pallet locations
various design criteria. design.“ In addition, Jungheinrich pallet  Random storage allocation possible
racking systems conform to the follow-  Can be used in manual and
The most important design criteria for ing European standards: EN 15620 – EN automated applications
racking are the unit load types, load 15629 – EN 15635.  Lengthways and crossways stacking
weights and dimensions and the trucks in depths – mixed stacking also
being used. Pallet tacking is used as the The assembly of free-standing pallet possible
primary storage in narrow aisle sys- racking is flexible as it is not connected  Flexible design for different unit
tems. The racking can be constructed to the building. The user has the option loads
as single or multi-position systems de- of later changes if the application con-  FiFo principle
pendent on the load weight. ditions change.  Order picking from cab possible

Construction and components.

The vertical components are called up- Foot plates are fixed to the uprights to Profile type and profile form for sup-
rights. Every upright consists of two allow the force placed upon the up- porting beams can vary depending on
posts that are connected to a frame- right to be distributed evenly. The foot the unit loads. One of the most used
work construction. The framework can plates are bolted to the floor. profile forms is the box section. The
be of a welded or bolted construction. profile can be fitted with additional
For more flexible assembly and easier Pallet beams stiffening lock beadings for improving
transporting, the bolted systems are Horizontal beams act as the main sup- the performance of the beam.
the standard type. A continuous hole port element for the pallet unit loads.
pattern punched in the posts facilitates The beams are fixed to the uprights via IPE or UNP profiles can be used for
the fastening of pallet beams. As a the holes in the uprights. A safety pin is particularly high loadings. Z profiles are
rule, beams can be adjusted in 50 mm then used to prevent the beams from often used as bearing surfaces in order
increments, which facilitate flexible ad- lifting off unintentionally. picking racking with shelving.
justment to individual requirements.
Important note:
Damaged profiles must be replaced im-
mediately using original spare parts!

Shelves can be used for smaller pack-
aging units, such as cartons etc. Steel
mesh, steel panels and chipboard are
commonly used.

The capacity of the shelving must com-

ply with imposed point and area load-
ings of load supports to prevent the
load from sagging or caving in. The
standard precondition is an even distri-
bution of the load.

Deviations and special cases must be

tested and taken into account for the
static load. Reinforced beams and spe-
Compartment shelves
cial frames provide support for the load
unit if the load on the shelves is large
and heavy.

P&D locations
As a rule, pick up and deposit locations
are designed by extending the length
of the final beam in the rack structure.
The final upright before the P&D loca-
tion is designed with a reduced depth
and therefore allows the fixing of the
safety clips.

The P&D locations are usually fitted

with guides. The loads are therefore
deposited in the correct position by a
feeder truck for the narrow aisle truck.
P&D location as separate cantilever type racking
If roll cages are used the bottom trans-
fer place is designed as a so-called
docking station. The roll cages can
then be manually pushed into the P&D
location. A limit stop fixed to the floor
or integrated in the racking forms the
guide for the roll cage.

P&D location with projecting bearing surfaces

Back to Back Clearance
The back to back clearance of pallets The difference is made in the static freely accessible places, to protect the
should be 100 mm. However if this design (higher design load). Unless oth- uprights against collision with fork lift
cannot be achieved, the directive for erwise stated, slip-through guards are trucks.
warehouse installations indicates that a used as standard.
safety stop should be fitted to stop a Upright Top Level Protection
pallet pushing another pallet within the Note: Increased back to back clearanc- To protect persons and goods in the
rack. This is a directive requirement es will exist within installations with fire warehouse, end of aisle uprights at the
that has to be complied with in narrow protective (sprinkler) systems. free racking faces are extended to en-
aisle warehouses with guided vehicles. sure that the pallets cannot fall. The
EN 15512 gives two different defini- Upright protection increase must extend at least 500 mm
tions. Collision protection corners or ground above the top beam in order to prevent
1. Slip-through protection level protection barriers can be mount- loads from falling into areas accessed
(prevents the load being pushed ed as protection on all free-standing by people. If the required upright height
through) end uprights. This also applies to thor- is not available as a standard dimen-
2. Pallet stop oughfares that are used for aisle chang- sion, bolted – on extensions can be
es. It is recommended, particularly at used to achieve the required height.

Labelling Pallet rack

All racks must carry a capacity / manu-
Year of manufacture
facturer plate. Other labels for ware-  Conduct regular inspections.
 Notice operating instructions.
compartment load

 Are the loads within the authorised safety limits?

Rack type
house organisation or to show safety  Check for damage due to accidents or dislodgement
of structural components. compartment load

Order number

directives can be fixed.

compartment load
Please report all damage to the Max. bay load kg
Level distance

company safety officer! Max.

compartment load
Max. level distance mm
Critical dimension
up to first level

bay load
Modifications to the construction may Frame profile
Please also observe Page 44; Personnel only be executed after consultation
of and approval by the manufacturer.
Clear bay Profile Max. compart-
width ment load The max. field load must not be

protection systems – structural meas- exceeded by summation of compart-

ment loads. Compartment loads are

Do not climb racking! mm kg uniformly distributed loads. Damaged

ures. mm
or deformed rack components must,
due to the significant reduction of
the bay load, be replaced immedi-
ately. Please note the assembly and
The operation and maintenance of mm kg service instructions.
the storage equipment has to be
carried out according to the EN 15635 –
Steel static storage systems. Jungheinrich UK Ltd.

Head Office:
Sherbourne House · Sherbourne Drive
Tilbrook · Milton Keynes MK7 8HX
If in doubt always contact Phone +44 1908 363100
manufacturer! Fax +44 1908 363180

Sample labels

Overhead Protection Spacing pieces Safety Mesh

Racking areas where truck or pedestri- If two single racks form a double rack, To protect against goods falling off the
ans can walk under the racking struc- the uprights are connected with spac- racking, the sides of free-standing sin-
ture must be equipped with overhead ing pieces. The length of the spacing gle racks that are not intended for
protection. pieces results from the load overhang stacking and retrieval must be fitted
on the storage location and the re- with safety mesh. The mesh is available
Pedestrians can be protected from fall- quired safety distance between loads as standard sections, and is prepared
ing load units or stored goods falling on double racks. for fitting to the back of the rack.
through by lattice inserts, wooden cov-
ers or chipboards. The same measures The spacing pieces are screwed to the The fitting of wire mesh at the respec-
must be taken if order picking areas, uprights and can be prepared for the tive racking side is also possible.
e.g. tunnelling, are integrated within fitting of sprinkler pipes.
the pallet racking.


Single and double racking

High bay racking can be designed as
single or double racking. While single
racking is mainly served from one side,
both sides need to be accessible in
double racking. Double deep storage is
the exception when two pallets are
stacked one behind the other. This
variant is only serviceable to a limited
extent with high rack stackers.

As a rule, single racking is arranged in

front of a wall while double racking
forms the middle part of a racking in-

The layout for a racking installation
consisting of single and double racks is
dependent on the usable floor space,
load dimensions and required safety
distances, the working aisle widths and
the column / support grid of the build-
ing that has to be integrated into the
racking installation.

If the building already exists, the rack-

ing installation will be adapted to the
existing frame.

If a new building is planned, the design

will aim at an optimum solution. The
architect can arrange the space as an
optimum envelope around the racking
installation. A precondition is that the Planning
site areas are available in sufficient size
and shape and there are no restrictions
regarding building height.

Safety distances –
clearances in the racking
According to EN 15620, clearances are Distances are, for example: General conditions for planning dis-
defined as follows: “Clearances are the  distances of loads to each other (x2) tances are:
nominal dimensions of distances be-  to racking uprights (x1)  load weight and load dimensions
tween moving and stationary system  to bearing surfaces (y)  height level of the top level of the
components that have to avoid a colli-  to site installations (sprinklers, pipes, racking
sion in case of the most unfavourable cable links,lighting, supports, etc.)  type of narrow aisle trucks being
combination of all relevant tolerances utilised (man-up or man-down)
and deformations.”  degree of truck automation
 assistance systems used
(warehouse navigation, rack level
height selection, automatic stacking-
in/out etc.)

The clearances are determined as mini-

mum dimensions. The distances in de-
tail may be also determined by locally
applied directives and standards.

Safety distances

Intersecting Aisles
If intersecting aisles for trucks are The uprights at the sides of the passage
planned, there must be adequate clear- must be fitted with corner protection;
ance and protection. The width of the stored objects above the passage must
aisle is to be modelled on a transfer have appropriate covering. The narrow
aisle. The clear height is the maximum aisle trucks can be fitted with a travel
closed height of trucks being utilised, and lift stop in order to allow operation
plus a safety distance of at least through the passage only with a closed
200 mm. mast.

Working aisles
The way to determine the working aisle
(clear dimension between the racks or
the stored goods in the racking) has
already been mentioned in the “Guid-
ance Systems” chapter.

During the installation of the racking,

the maximum load overhang over the guide wire
load unit (pallet etc) are taken into ac-
count. This could also be a flap on box
pallets and stillages opened for order
picking that could affect the racking
stanchion / pillar
design. If the building already exists,
care has to be taken that existing sup-
ports and other parts of the building or
Working aisle
installations do not protrude into the
working aisle (Ast).

Transfer aisle
The transfer aisle (AST3) is designed for
a smooth aisle change of a narrow aisle
truck from aisle A to aisle X. A clear
dimension for AST3 is the truck length
of the respective type including the
largest load plus an additional dimen-
sion dependent on the type of guid-
ance (minimum dimensions: 1000 mm
for inductive guidance, 500 mm for rail

In some cases and depending on gen-

eral conditions, a larger transfer aisle
may be recommended. A quick, smooth Transfer places
and safe aisle change should be the
main consideration during planning.
Providing areas for goods, and traffic
areas for other trucks in addition to the
transfer aisle should be taken into ac- P&D locations
count. P&D locations placed at the end of the Places not used as P&D locations can
racking, provide storage locations for be designed as normal storage spaces.
Several transfer aisles could be advan- the loads for the narrow aisle trucks. Such places above the transfers must
tageous for optimising work cycle times Dependent on the load units, the trans- be protected against falling loads.
in large racking installations. Transfer fers can have different characteristics.
aisles could be planned at both ends of The simplest is to have the loads depos-
racking installations or the installation ited in a marked area in front of the
could be split in the middle by a trans- racking. The number of P&D locations
fer aisle. (in the height) depends on the feeder
trucks utilised in the narrow aisle ware-

Escape and rescue routes
The distance from each point within
the warehouse to the next fire escape
route / door should be a maximum of
30 metres in the air or 50 metres by
foot. These dimensions may deviate in
the building regulations of individual
countries. If due to the maximum dis-
tance an escape route is required to
run straight through the racking instal-
lation, the following design criteria
must be adhered to:

According to the respective workplace

directive, the aisle width for the escape
route must be designed according to
Escape door at the end of the working aisle
the number of people working in that
area. A minimum of 0.87 metre clear
aisle width for up to five persons and a
minimum of 1.00 metre clear aisle
width for up to 20 persons are re-
quired. The clear height must be at
least 2.00 metre. Unauthorised use of
escape routes by people must be pre-

Notices must be put up to ensure that

routes are not obstructed or blocked.

If the escape route in an area can only

be achieved at the end of a racking
aisle, escape doors or a transverse pas-
sage must be planned. Racking levels
above the escape route must be pro-
tected against falling load units and
escape passage escape passage stored goods.
in the racking at the racking end
Escape routes

Fire protection in the racking
Fire protection measures in the ware-
house are an important safety aspect.
Early agreement with insurance part-
ners, approval authorities and imple-
menting companies ensures advantag-
es for the building owner.

Sprinkler heads are to be placed at

protected spots in the racking. Respec-
tive precautions have to be taken for
piping and fixing. The space required
for fire protection measures must be
taken into account regarding safety

Protection area classification

according to fire hazards
For the calculation of a sprinkler instal- LH Small fire hazard HHS High fire hazards, storage risks
lation, a fire hazard classification must Respective protection areas
be established before the start of plan- OH Medium fire hazard are divided into classes HHS1
ning. The regulations VdS CEA 4001 Respective protection areas are to HHS4
(planning and setting up of sprinkler divided into classes OH1 to OH4
installations) is an important factor
here. As is the regulatory reform (fire HHP High fire hazard, production risks The fire hazard of stored goods is
safety) order 2005. Respective protection areas dependent on the inflammability of the
are divided into classes HHP1 stored material, the packaging and the
The buildings and areas to be protected to HHP4 type of storage.
must be allocated to one of the follow-
ing hazard classes according to their
utilisation and fire hazards:

Pre-requisits for assembly.

Floor Here, the maximum surface load of the Increased wear on the drill is to be
Correct functioning of pallet racking is entire covered surface and the point expected with reinforcement diameters
only ensured if the floor within the load of the forces introduced via the (reinforcement steel mesh) exceeding
installation complies with the require- feet of the uprights must be taken into 8 mm and / or reinforcing bars posi-
ments of the applicable technical stan- consideration. tioned above one another.
dards as described below.
The field load is the sum of all shelf Special protective measures to prevent
Load-bearing capacity of the floor loads relative to a beam length, with the formation of corrosion are required
According to EN 15512, DIN 15629 the exception of stored goods placed with aggressive or magnesite-based
and instructions contained in EN 15635, directly on the floor. The sum of all floors.
installation areas for warehouse facili- shelf loads must not exceed the per-
ties and equipment must be designed missible field load. The posts load and Floor tolerances
to bear the unladen weights and per- the uprights load respectively result The levelness of the warehouse floor
missible payloads safely. from the field loads applied from the must as a minimum comply with the
right and left. structural engineering tolerances as
The permissible floor compression must defined in chapter “Floor”.
be higher than the value specified for Floor quality
the shelving system. The person order- A minimum concrete quality of C20/25 Floor sagging
ing and / or operating the pallet racks is with corresponding reinforcement (EN When installing pallet racks, sagging, in
responsible for ensuring that the floor 206-1) is assumed for the warehouse particular in the case of suspended
is designed and built to bear the load floor. The warehouse floor must be at floors, can have a significant influence
of the uprights for the rack. least 20 cm thick and allow floor on the correct functioning of storage
anchoring with expansion plugs; drill- facilities. For stationary storage facili-
ing depth: approx. 15 cm. ties, sagging, measured at the widest
span, must not exceed 0.75 x 1/500.

field A

field B
field loading

compartment loading

field loading

compartment loading

Before erecting the uprights, preassem-
bly is required for screwed systems. For
this, a clear temperature and lit room
must be available.

The mounting areas must be freely

accessible for the final assembly of the
racking installation. Some assemblies,
e.g. laying the inductive floor installa-
tion, should definitely not be carried
out before the racking assembly in
order to ensure adherence to the
required tolerances.

A rolling or phased sequence of differ-

ent assemblies is possible in large instal-
lations. When part of the racking is
erected, other installations follow.

Assembly tolerances AZ Clear entry between two uprights

B0 Distance between system Z datum and
front of racking
B1, B2 Misalignment of uprights across an aisle
in bays 1 and 2 respectively
CZ, CX Out of plumb of upright in the Z and X
directions respectively
D Rack frame depth
E Aisle width
E1 Distance between guide rails
E2 Distance between guide rail and front
of upright
F Distance from aisle system X datum to
front face of upright
F1 Variation between adjacent uprights
measured near floor level in the
Z direction
GZ, GY Straightness of the beam in the Z and Y
directions respectively
H Height from top of base plate to top
of upright
HB Height from top of beam level to top
of beam level above
HY Variation of support levels between the
front and rear beams in a compartment
H1A Height from top of base plate to top
of bottom beam level
H1 Height from top of bottom beam level
to top of any other beam level
JX Upright straightness in the X direction
between adjacent beam levels
JZ Initial straightness of an upright in the
Z direction
L Distance from centre to centre of uprights
M Distance from front of upright
to centre of top guide rail

Assembly tolerances and admissible deflections of racking and guidance systems following EN 15620

Excerpt from European Standard EN 15620 (Table 7)

Horizontal tolerance limitations for the X Z plane (mm)

Measuring dimension code and description Installation tolerances

of tolerance for racking class 300
DA Variation from nominal dimension of the clear entry width between two uprights ±3
at any beam level
DAt Variation from nominal dimension of the total rack length, cumulative with the ± 3n
number of bays “n” measured as near as possible to the base plate
The larger value of the following:
B Misalignment of an upright across an aisle, cumulative with the number of bays “n” ± 10
measured near floor level or
For class 300A, this applies for the aisle uprights only for class 300A: ± 1,0n
For class 300B, this applies for the aisle and rear uprights for class 300B: ± 0,5n
DB0 Variation from nominal dimension of rack frontage at the P and D end, with regard ± 10
to the installation “system Z datum line” concerned, measured near floor level
CX Out of plumb of each frame in the X direction ± H/500
CZ Out of plumb of each frame in the Z direction for no fixed stroke: ± H /500
for fixed stroke: ± H /750*
DD Variation from nominal dimension of the rack depth single frame: ± 3
(single or double frames) double frame: ± 6
DE Variation from nominal dimension of the aisle width near floor level ±5
Variation from nominal dimension of the width between guide rails +5 / 0
DE2 Variation from uprights on one side to guide rail ±5
DF Variation from nominal dimension of the straightness of an aisle measured ± 10
near floor level with regard to the “Aisle system X datum line” or as specified
by the truck supplier
F1 Variation between adjacent uprights measured near floor level in the Z direction ±5
GZ Straightness of the beam in the Z direction ± A /400
The larger value of the following:
JX Upright straightness in the X direction between beams spaced HB apart ± 5 or ± HB /750
JZ Initial curve of an upright frame in the Z direction ± H /500
DM Tolerance of the top guide rail Defined by the specifier
or truck manufacturer
TW Beam twist at mid span 1° per m

* H /500 is also an acceptable value provided the pallet blocks or bearers overhang the front beam by 75 mm
or more and the blocks or bearers are supported on the beam.

Table 8 from EN 15620

Vertical tolerance limitations for Y direction (mm)

The larger value of the following:
GY Straightness of the beam in the Y direction ± 3 or ± H1 /750
DH1 Variation of the top of any beam level H1 above the bottom beam level for class 300A: ± 5 or H1 /500
for class 300B: ± 3 or H1 /1500
DH1A Variation of the top of the first beam level from the floor level at each upright ±7
DH3 Tolerance of the top guide rail, if provided Defined by the supplier or
the truck manufacturer
DHY Variation of unit load support levels between the front and rear beams of ± 10
a compartment

To ensure problem-free operation, we recommend compliance with tolerance limitations CZ for the pallet rack both in unladen
and in laden state. This is important to ensure compliance with the safety distances in the narrow aisle.

Racking service.

More safety at all levels

The Jungheinrich racking service is an range of tests which make a major con-
important means by which the employ- tribution to ensuring the safe operation
er can fulfil the requirements of the of every pallet rack.
ordinance on industrial health and  Racking service in accordance
safety for work equipment. The ordi- with EN 15635 “Adjustable pallet
nance prescribes that the employer racking – Guidelines for safe use”
must have all equipment that is sub-  Verification of compliance with the
jected to harmful influences inspected
by approved persons within the desig-
guidelines for storage facilities and
equipment (FEM or SEMA) as
Rack in
spect ion
nated inspection periods. specified by the trade associations according
to BGR
) and EN
234 (Ru
les by th
15635 e Emplo
 Visual inspection of uprights and
Even the best pallet rack is subject to beams for visible deformation and
wear and tear over time. And even damage, carried out from the
when working with the utmost caution, warehouse floor
damage to racks can hardly be avoided.  Comparison of the load signage
(Attention: Damaged parts must be with the actual configuration
replaced immediately with original  Check on the actual configuration Next in
spare parts!) If loading equipment is of the pallet rack system in Note: Th
not repl
e inspec
ace the tion plate does
moved, beams moved, load signs are accordance with the assembly dra- n record
mislaid … The result is major safety risks wing (where available) nrich U
K Ltd.

in some cases, plus loss of performance  Creation of a test report Head O

urne H
and in the hustle and bustle of the  Issuing of a test sticker documenting Sherbo
urne D
working day, these are often only rec- successful inspection Milton
MK7 8H
Telephon X
ognised when it is too late. The Jung-  Submission of offers for the www.ju
e 0190
8 3631
heinrich racking service can help you to replacement of damaged or missing
prevent this situation. It includes a wide parts

Warehouse organisation.

Rack rows / rack position numbering for space allocation,

ABC classification, distance optimisation and inventory
management. Identification example:

1st block of digits: 3rd block of digits:

Rack rows or rack aisles Height position in the rack
Two-digit number from One- (1–9) or two-digit number
01 to 99 denoting the order (01–99) defining the exact
of the rack rows / aisles height position in the rack

06 - 34 - 02
z Y

2nd block of digits:

Horizontal position in the rack
Two-digit number from 01 to 99 denoting
the exact horizontal position in the rack


08 08
07 07
05 05
04 3

Rack row / aisle number

Horizontal position / rack column
Height position / rack level

Height position

al po
n aisle
w/ rack
k ro

Self-adhesive labels Plastic plates Magnetic labels for self-labelling

Three blocks of digits (with a maximum Numerical, alphabetical, alphanumeri- White PVC film on a magnetic backing
of three digits per block. Numerical, cal, can be labelled with a maximum of for labelling with felt-tipped pens (water-
alphabetical / alphanumerical). Addition- two characters. Ready for installation, soluble / permanent). Can be cleaned
al blocks on request. Barcodes can also can be attached without tools. Cus- with water or methylated spirits.
be added. tomised special designs of up to
1000 x 1000 mm on request.

Numbering plan for numbering of rack spaces

Company: Numbering plan:

Project: For Order No.

Person responsible: Tel.-No.

07 20 5
Examples of
06 34 02 typical numbering

1st block of digits 2nd block of digits 3rd block of digits 4th block

Rack row or Parallel position Height position Special characters Number of

rack aisle in the rack in the rack rack spaces

Total number of rack spaces

Special characters (mark with a cross where applicable or fill in):

None Hyphen Slash Full stop Arrow Barcode
Front-end Size: Quantity:
Colour Yellow White

Floor markings
Self-adhesive floor markings made
from heavy-duty PVC, suitable for
quick, flexible and inexpensive marking
of routes and pallet positions.
 Floor markings can be replaced
quickly and easily
 Available with barcode on request

Magnetic C-profiles
A popular and effective solution for
flexible and mobile labelling. They can
be attached time and time again, adhe-
ring to any ferrous surface. For racking
fronts, transport boxes, cupboards,
machines, tool benches, to name just a
few examples. The C-profiles are flexi-
ble and can thus be attached to slightly
curved surfaces. Matching label strips
(included in the case of cut-outs) or
perforated A4 sheets in card thickness
are available for these profiles.

Label holders and

label holder strips
Label holders and label holder strips are
practical when you need your labelling Label holders
system to be variable. They can be used Label holder strips
for all rack types, are made from
impact-resistant hard PVC and equipped
with optional magnetic or self-adhesive
backing. Inserting the labels into the
holders is simple. And moving or
exchanging the labels later is just as
easy. The barcodes remain readable for
a scanner. Use label holders for indi-
vidual labels or label holder strips for
the whole width of a rack.


Construction and requirements.

The function and productivity of a nar- Requirements

row aisle warehouse is decisively influ- With regard to strength, the surface The resistance to earth according to
enced by the floor, and in particular by layer (screed) must conform to loading IEC 1340-4-1 EN 1081, should not ex-
its flatness. The Sub-base and floor group II of DIN 18 560, part 7, table 1. ceed 106 Ohm. This needs to be a large
plate must be dimensioned in such a The floor must not deform under load. 10 with a small 6 higher up next to the
way that permitted tolerances are not Shafts, channels or similar breaks in the 0. The frictional coefficient of the floor
exceeded under load conditions. floor must be arranged with a mini- should permit the observance of ISO
mum distance of 200 mm from the 6292 (Empirical value: approx. 0.5 μ).
Construction tracks of the truck. Such installations in
As a rule, industrial floors consist of a the working aisle should generally be
sub-base, a concrete layer and sur- avoided.
facing (screed). Layers underneath the
concrete layer serve, for example, as The floor must be resistant to oil and
subsoil compression, moisture protec- grease. The track covering should be
tion or heat insulation. non-abrasive and must not be suscepti-
ble to dust developing.

Standardisation Floor quality
National standards are applied. The Today’s high bay warehouses are tech- The VDMA guideline focuses on three
load-bearing surface must comply with nologically very advanced systems areas:
the relevant standards (e.g. Concrete allowing the user to realise high  Levelness requirements
society TR34 Chapter 4). Taking into throughput rates with substantial vol-  Evaluation of waviness
consideration possible settling, the ume utilisation. This not only results in  Definition of a measurement
load-bearing surface must be prepared increased technological requirements method for waviness
in such a way that the angular toleran- with regard to the fork lift trucks, but
ces of the finished floor do not exceed also means that vehicle-related sys-
15 mm. tems, for example the floor, need to
meet certain minimum requirements.
The tolerances based on DIN 18202 Compliance with the requirements of
(see table 1) and similar to BS5606 the VDMA guideline “Floors for use
apply for all areas of the warehouse with VNA trucks” is mandatory in order
floor. In the narrow aisle area, the tole- to realise the full potential of the
rances stipulated in the VDMA guideli- equipment.
ne apply: Floors for use with VNA
trucks ( Sectors
Materials Handling and Logistic Tech-

The requirements of this VDMA guide-

line can be met if due care is taken.

Adjusted levelness requirements
The VDMA guideline defines levelness
requirements both along and across the
wheel tracks. The basic principle for
measurement of these criteria is con-
tained in existing standards and widely
applied in industry.

Evaluation of waviness
This formulation of the floor require-
ments is based on the definition of a
figure (Fx) arrived at by static methods
(standard deviation) by examining a
series of height differences from adja-
cent measuring points. Lower Fx values
mean greater waviness with greater
amplitudes and thus poorer floor level-
ness. The guideline describes in detail
how to calculate the figure. The guide-
line and the calculation tool for auto-
matic calculation of the figure from
raw data are available for download on
the VDMA website.

Definition of the measurement

method for waviness
The VDMA guideline also gives a clear
definition of the measurement method
and offers a schematic drawing of the
set-up for measurement. This ensures
that the readings are reproducible and
comparable. See the VDMA guideline
(Section 4.2.3) for the requirements
with regard to the waviness of the

EKX 515, lifting height 16.5 m

Finished floor outside the narrow aisle area (apron)

Spacing of the measuring points up to 0.1 m 1m 4m 10 m from 15 m

Max. permissible variation from levelness (pitch) 2 mm 4 mm 10 mm 12 mm 15 mm
Table 1

Height differences lateral to the direction of travel based on the VDMA guideline
The guideline is available for download on the VDMA website.
See Appendix B1 for an example calculation.

Top racking level (m) ZSLOPE (mm/m) dZ = Z x ZSLOPE

15 1.0 Z x 1.0 mm/m
10 1.5 Z x 1.5 mm/m
up to 6 2.0 Z x 2.0 mm/m
Note: Interpolation is required for rack heights > 6 m
a b

Z is the dimension between the centre of the fork lift truck load wheels (a, b) in m and ZSLOPE
is the permissible slope across the aisle between the centre of the fork lift truck load wheels
(a, b) in mm/m.

Parameter dZ is the height difference between the centres of the fork lift truck load wheels
(a, b). dZ is specified as shown.

Levelness tolerances along the direction of travel for all heights, based on the VDMA guideline

Spacing of the measuring points 1.0 m 2.0 m 3.0 m 4.0 m

Max. permissible variation from levelness,
pitch as limit value in the tracks 2.0 mm 3.0 mm 4.0 mm 5.0 mm
Table 2

See the VDMA guideline (Section 4.2.3) for the requirements with regard to the waviness of the floor.

Driver assistance systems.

Systems in use.

The following points apply with regard Where it is not possible to comply with Possible driver assistance systems are:
to safety in a narrow aisle warehouse: prescribed safety distances between  End of aisle controls, lift and drive
 Easily visible driving areas when racks and trucks or where construc- cut-outs, speed reductions
leaving the aisle tional measures to separate the narrow  Personnel protection systems
 Protection at areas of on-site aisle areas to prevent access by person-  Warehouse navigation
limitations nel are not possible, the operator must
 Protection of persons entering take alternative measures. A risk assess- In general, these are realised by means
the working aisles ment must be carried out to ascertain of Jungheinrich transponder technolo-
whether the necessary degree of safety gy (see next chapter).
In Germany, various directives and reg- for personnel can be achieved by means
ulations apply for the operation of a of alternative measures. End of aisle controls
narrow aisle warehouse. In countries Measures to increase safety include
where this is not the case, the follow- The risk assessment is commissioned by methods to make the ends of aisles
ing measures are recommended for the user in his function as employer clearly recognisable and to provide pro-
consideration. and must take into account all interac- tection against collisions with construc-
tions in the workplace. The manufac- tional limitations resulting from the
Legal situation in Germany turer of the VNA truck provides the building layout and technical equip-
The latest regulations on health and operator with all necessary information ment.
safety at work (BetrSichV of 3.10.02) such as operating manuals and further
transfer greater personal responsibility information, see Machinery Directive Due to health and safety considera-
to the operators of warehouse facili- MRL 2006 / 42 /EG, Article 5 (1) c. As a tions, it is highly recommended that a
ties. The occupational safety act stipu- rule, this information will enable the speed reduction system is employed to
lates that it is the responsibility of the operator to carry out the risk assess- proved a reduction of the truck. This
operator to define what work safety ment as required. also applies to transverse aisles in the
measures are required during opera- warehouse, with the exception of
tion of his narrow aisle warehouse. emergency escape routes.

For trucks with end of aisle control Attention: In both variants described, Lift cut-outs are often combined with
braking before the aisle exit or at the the stopping distance depends on the travel cut-outs. For this reason, all
closed end, two basic variants are pos- travel speed. Jungheinrich system trucks are equipped
sible: with a lift and a travel cut-out as stand-
General information on the lift ard, and the transponder technology
1. Braking to a halt and travel cut-outs offers a high degree of flexibility with
When the truck passes over the end of The lift and travel cut-outs are addi- zone-dependent settings.
aisle control (switching position in the tional functions to support the driver
floor via transponder) whilst travelling and are used for applications with lim- All displayed commands can be
towards the end of the aisle, it comes ited warehouse headroom or in con- assigned to individual aisles or ware-
to a halt. In order to move on again, nection with roof beams. house areas, and new parameters can
the truck operator must briefly release be quickly and easily set. And of course,
the drive control and then activate Assistance systems support the driver further lift and travel cut-outs can be
again. The truck can then be driven out during operation of the vehicle. How- ordered as options.
of the narrow aisle at max. 2.5 km/h. ever, they do not release the driver
from responsibility for:
2. Braking to 2.5 km/h  Hydraulic movements, e.g. stopping
When the fork lift truck passes over the the function prior to contacting an
end of aisle control (switching position obstacle,
in the floor via transponder or mag-  Braking, e.g. applying the brakes
nets) whilst travelling towards the end where necessary when travelling at
of the aisle, its speed is reduced to the ends of aisles, to avoid striking
2.5 km/h, and it can then be driven out an obstacle etc.
of the narrow aisle at this speed.

Lift cut-out
There are various types of lift cut-out
(e.g. general lift restriction, zone-de-
pendent lift cut-outs with override etc.).
These cut-outs stop thethe main and/or
auxiliary lift at a defined height, thus
avoiding e.g. striking roof beam during
the lifting process.

The factory setting for the lift cut-out

(1000 mm) is adjusted as required on-
site by the Jungheinrich service techni-
cians during commissioning of the
vehicle. If a driver overrides the lift cut-
out, e.g. between two roof beams,
he / she is warned that he / she is oper-
ating in a high-risk area and needs to
proceed with caution. The driver must
pay particular attention to obstacles
when the mast is extended.

The lift cut out is re-activated each time

the mast height is below the lift limit
height. As mentioned above, a lift cut-
out alone is usually not ideal and
should be combined with a travel cut-

Travel cut-out
There are various types of travel cut-out
(e.g. general cut-out, cut-out with over-
ride, zone-dependent cut-outs etc.).

The symbol “Travel cut-out override” Lift and travel cut-out

lights up on the display if travel is no
longer possible from a certain lift height
or in a specific area. If, however, the Various travel or hydraulic speeds as
position of the truck needs to be adjust- well as travel or hydraulic functions can
ed with respect to the rack in order to be enabled under the corresponding
stack or retrieve a load, the operator override symbol. These override func-
can, if permitted, initiate a travel cut- tions are set as required by the Jung-
out by pressing the “Travel cut-out” heinrich service technicians during
override button. commissioning of the vehicle.

Lower cut-outs Personnel protection systems
If necessary, due to on-site conditions, Assistance systems support the driver A further possible alternative measure
the fork lift truck can be equipped with during operation of the vehicle. How- is the use of Jungheinrich personnel
an optional automatic lower cut out. ever, they do not release him / her from protection systems (PSS Professional or
This automatic lower cut out, which his/her responsibility e.g. to stop the PSS Professional plus). If it is not possi-
becomes effective below a certain lift hydraulic prior to contacting. When the ble to achieve the required degree of
height, prevents the main lift being lower cut out is deactivated, the driver safety, the employer should contact his
lowered. must pay particular attention in order local occupational safety office or the
to recognise obstacles when lowering trade supervisory board. You can find
The driver can release the lock by press- the cab or the load carrying unit. further information on Jungheinrich
ing the “Lower cut out” override but- personnel protection systems begin-
ton. The lower cut out is thus rendered ning on page 44.
inactive and various travel or hydraulic
speeds as well as travel or hydraulic
functions can be enabled. These over-
ride functions are set as required by the
Jungheinrich service technician during
commissioning of the vehicle. The
lower cut out is then re-activated each
time the mast is raised above the lower
cut out height.

Lower cut out for a picking cage

RFID technology.

Transponder technology provides

 Information for controlling narrow
aisle trucks
 Ground control and communication
with the rest of the warehouse
 Different commands and speed

The transponder as an
information medium
Controlling narrow aisle trucks in aisles
and warehouse zones is a decisive crite-
rion for safe operation and maintaining
all prescribed functions such as end of
aisle control, lift cut-out and speed
reduction. Traditional systems tend to
use floor magnets or reflector markers
for this. By using “magnet combina-
tions” the system enables specific zones
to be identified and corresponding
safety switching to be applied mechan-
ically - for example, automatic stop
before the truck leaves the aisle. How- RFID transponders store every cm2 of your warehouse
ever, this mechanical or optical switch-
ing only allows a very limited amount of
information to be sent to the truck. In
many cases this is simply inadequate for
systems that are becoming increasingly
complex with associated rigorous safety

Transponders are used to control the

Jungheinrich narrow aisle trucks. The
transponder dimensions are a mere
9 x 16 mm, and they are inserted in the
warehouse floor at intervals of not
more than 10 metres. The truck itself is
equipped with an RFID reader / writer
that communicates with the trans-
ponders and selects and uses the fol-
lowing information: Pioneers since 2007: High speed transponder technology
 Identification of the aisle number
and aisle type
 Distance measuring referencing Armed with the above information and truck‘s on-board computer. This means
within the aisles the truck’s travel distance measuring that switching functions can be acti-
system, the system allows locations to vated on any route, such as speed
be determined precisely within the reduction for crossing escape routes or
aisles at all times. The writer teaches lift cut-out in aisles with limited over-
the transponders. The warehouse topol- head clearances.
ogy is stored in the memory of the

Maximum flexibility –
minimum maintenance
The main advantages offered by trans- The entire computer system on the nar-
ponder technology are maximum flexi- row aisle truck is a two channel redun-
bility for each individual application and dancy system with master and backup
also for future changes in the ware- computers.
house environment. In the past limited
information to the truck restricted the Data communication between the on-
user due to the position of magnets or board computers and from the comput-
reflex markers, transponder technology ers to the motors and sensors is via a
now offers complete freedom. If a rack safety-enabled and TÜV-certified CAN-
row changes or if more storage locations Bus (TÜV – German Technical Control
are added, the transponders are simply Board).
“re-taught” and the new structure is
stored in the truck‘s on-board computer. Adapting performance
Cut outs can be configured via a laptop to ground conditions
and adapted to new situations. An Transponder technology offers not only
important advantage, particularly for safety advantages, it also enables the
logistics service providers. speed performance setting to be adapt-
ed to the prevailing ground conditions.
As the transponders are protected in In practice, the floor levelness often
the ground, the technology is not vul- determines the maximum travel speed
nerable to faults or contamination, as is (Vmax) of the truck. In many cases the
often the case for example with bar- floor quality is not consistent and gen-
code systems and reflex markers. erally the travel speed has to be reduced
due to the number of poor spots. The
Reliability new system now allows you to adapt
Jungheinrich transponder technology the speed performance level to each
also meets the strictest criteria in terms situation, meaning you only have to
of data processing reliability and safety. travel slowly where the floor dictates.
GPS in the warehouse – precise positioning Pallet throughput rates can thus be
in every application enhanced.

Installing the transponders Example for transponder

The transponders are installed at a installation in closed end aisle:
depth of approx. 2 mm below the floor Rail guidance width 1670 mm : 2 =
surface (drill depth 20 mm) with a 835 – 245 = 590 mm
backfill of silicone (acid-free based). The Then a template can be made to serve
distance to the centre of the aisle is as an installation aid.
245 mm. Three transponders must be installed at
the start of the aisle.
1 at a distance of 0 mm – start of the
aisle (in line with the first rack post).
2 at a distance 500 mm – into the
aisle from transponder 1 position.
3 distance 5000 mm – into the aisle
from transponder 2 position.

All other transponders should be

installed at distances of ~10,000 mm.
. Transponder

Personnel protection systems.

Health and Safety guideline

Pedestrians and fork lift trucks should
not be present in a narrow aisle at the
same time (“staggered operations”).

Health and safety guidelines confirm

that users must ensure that adequate
personnel protection is provided in all
hazardous operations or conditions. It
is the users responsibility to carry out a
risk assessment to ensure that no dan-
gerous or hazardous situations arise or

Laser scanner with monitoring field

While operating a fork lift truck in the
narrow aisles, the driver‘s attention is
focused on the stacking, retrieval or
picking process. As the VNA fork lift
trucks do not maintain a distance of
0.50 metres from the racks, it is dan-
gerous for pedestrians to be in the nar-
row aisle at the same time as the fork
lift truck.

Residual risks as a result of failure to

observe this guideline must be elimi-
nated. It must be ensured that person-
nel are protected despite the fact that
fork lift trucks do not maintain the pre-
Protective field
scribed safety distances while operat-
Warning field
ing in narrow aisles.
Monitoring fields of the mobile PSS
The following additional measures
should be considered (as appropriate)
to achieve this aim:

■ Structural measures ■ Technical measures at accesses

e.g. walls, fences, doors, climb- to the narrow aisles
through protection in double racks, e.g. stationary, opto-electronic
safety labelling by means of traffic personnel protection system –
signs fitting of light barriers on entry
points to the respective rack aisle.
■ Organisational measures
e.g. company operating instructions ■ Technical measures on
and training for warehouse fork lift trucks
personnel, traffic control, written Laser scanners on the VNA fork lift
instructions for fork lift truck drivers trucks.

Stationary, opto-electronic personnel protection systems
In the stationary systems, light barriers As a rule, in stationary control of aisle must be reset at the entrance to the
are fitted on the entry points to the access (per aisle or for the entire sys- corresponding aisle by an authorised
rack aisles or in entire access areas. tem), a distinction is made between person by means of a key-operated
operating modes “Truck operation” switch.
One-way light barriers are used to and “Personnel access.”
detect persons. Access is monitored at In operating mode “Personnel access,”
two heights, 400 mm and 900 mm, by In operating mode “Truck operation,” one or more persons may enter the
means of two one-way light barriers an authorised vehicle can drive into aisle. If a truck enters the aisle despite
(active column) or with one one-way and out of an empty aisle unhindered. the fact that access is prohibited for
light barrier and dual reflection (passive However, should a pedestrian enter the trucks, (traffic light), an alarm is imme-
column). For safe and reliable truck aisle despite the fact that access is pro- diately triggered (flashing light, horn).
detection, an optical detection system hibited (light signal), an alarm is imme- The alarm must be reset at the entrance
which also clearly identifies the direc- diately triggered (a visual alarm in the to the corresponding aisle by an author-
tion of travel is used. This also allows form of a flashing light and an acoustic ised person by means of a key-operated
precise counting of the trucks, into and alarm by means of a horn). The alarm switch.
out of the aisle.
If required, in addition to the optical
and acoustic warnings, the trucks can
also be stopped from travelling via a
signal from the aisle protection system
if the alarm is triggered. Depending on
the trucks and their guidance system,
the following possibilities are conceiv-
 Stopping via an additional frequency-
enable in the case of inductively
guided trucks
 Stopping via a radio frequency
 Stopping via an infrared sensor
mns system (receiver on the truck,
ssive colu
Active / pa
transmitter stationary)
Block protection
Monitoring of escape doors (fire escapes
Receiver etc.) or controlling the lighting in the
aisle are further possibilities.

Active column
Passive column

Individual protection

Mobile personnel protection Jungheinrich personnel protection System description,
system (PSS) system – PSS Jungheinrich PSS
Due to their design, the aisles in nar- The JH-PSS is a contact-free protective The system consists of two laser scan-
row aisle warehouses are usually so device integrated in the truck (perform- ners, fitted at the front and rear of the
narrow that safety installations are nec- ance level in compliance with ISO truck. The PSS is integrated in the
essary to regulate operations. For safety 13849-1) and meets the requirements architecture of the JXP backup compu-
reasons, an aisle may either contain one of BGV D27, § 28 Par. 2 (formerly VGB ter of the fork lift truck. Safe connec-
fork lift truck or one or more persons at accident prevention regulations for fork tion to the CAN-Bus is ensured. Control
any one time. lift trucks 36, § 28 Par. 2) within the and evaluation are performed via the
context of access protection in narrow central vehicle electronics system. Pre-
The personnel protection system used aisles. cise route measurement and definition
must be certified to the required safety of the truck position are provided via
classification. Persons must not be able The JH-PSS protects personnel where the Jungheinrich transponder technol-
to leave the aisle to the side by entering fork lift trucks are operated in narrow ogy described above.
the racking system itself, as it cannot aisles with “time-staggered operation”
be ruled out that they might then (i.e. where it is prohibited for pedestri- Function test
unexpectedly appear in the path of a ans and fork lift trucks to be present in Each time the vehicle is put into opera-
fork lift truck. an aisle at the same time). The system tion, a self-test is automatically per-
also protects collisions between VNA formed. All components are checked
Mobile personnel protection systems or trucks in the aisles when multiple truck for correct functioning and reliable
mobile personnel protection systems operations in aisles is required or nec- switching. The test is carried out before
on the fork lift trucks have proved to be essary. and during travel into the aisle and
an effective safety measure. These does not delay operations. If the result
function opto-electronically (e.g. via There are two systems, the “PSS pro- of the test is negative, an emergency
laser scanners) and detect persons or fessional” and the “PSS professional stop is triggered and the vehicle can
obstacles in the narrow aisle. The dan- plus”. then only be moved at creep speed.
ger is identified in time, and appropri-
ate measures (e.g. stopping the fork lift
truck) are initiated, thus preventing

EKS 312 including PSS Professional plus

Additional functions,
PSS professional plus
 Parameterisation of up to eight
protective and warning fields
(also asymmetrical) possible
 Apron monitoring at close range
by means of short protective and
warning field (driver assistance
 Aisle recognition and switchover
of protective field for different aisle
 Speed-dependent switchover of
protective and warning field
 Special programming to specific
customer requirements is possible
Protected laser scanner in an EKX 515k
on request, in compliance with the
relevant standards and guidelines
Equipment / general information Functions
 High-efficiency scanner for scanning  Automatic activation of protective
of the irrespective travel path and warning field when the truck
 System integrated in the JXP backup enters the aisle, for the detection of
computer. Delivery ex works obstacles
 Operating and display function via  Visual and acoustic warning if the
the trucks operations control centre protective and warning fields are
(OCC) breached (display in the truck;
 Control and evaluation via the acoustic message: volume and audio
central vehicle electronics system frequency can be parameterised)
 Reliable connection via CAN-Bus  Length of protective and warning
 Consistent, TÜV-certified safety fields set according to the individual
protocol truck requirements and geometry
 Complies with performance level  Automatic deactivation of the PSS
as specified by ISO 13849-1 when the truck leaves the aisle
(PSS Professional)
One-stop design, configuration,  Reduced speed in load direction if
delivery, commissioning and the scanner is covered
maintenance, i.e. just one supplier  Prevention of undesired lowering
Laser scanner, Jungheinrich PSS
for the entire package: of the operator position into the
Jungheinrich truck with PSS. scanning area. Three types of
override after triggering of the PSS
can be parameterised:
1. Continued travel at creep speed
with override button without
2. Time-limited continuation of travel
at creep speed – maximum 5 seconds
3. Continuation of travel for a
limited distance at creep speed –
maximum of one pallet position

Process optimisation.

Warehouse navigation in narrow aisles.

Enhanced performance by integra- It is highly unlikely that these levels of Jungheinrich transponder technology
ting trucks into the processes improvement will be repeated, i.e. the now offers optimum preparation for
“You have reached your destination.” physically acceptable limit has more or warehouse navigation. This is based on
It achieves this through RFID technolo- less been reached. The trucks of the both the permanent positioning of the
gy. future will not only have to be power- trucks and the interfacing of the truck
ful performers, they will need to have control system with a higher level con-
General intelligent technology on-board to trol system (Warehouse Management
As already described in the Chapter interface with the IT systems and inte- Systems).
“Floors – structure and requirements,” grated them into the logistical proc-
the performance data of high rack esses. This system reduces driver fatigue,
stackers have been vastly improved in increases throughput and helps avoid
recent years as a result of AC three Initially, transponder technology was picking and stacking errors.
phase technology. used for truck management, i.e. ground
control and communication with the
The lift speed is now more than 0.5 m/s rest of the warehouse; it therefore gov-
and the travel speed is 12 km/h. These erned all the switching functions and
figures have almost doubled in the last speed profiles.
20 years.

System description
“Warehouse navigation” uses the fea- With optimised diagonal travel for opti- Warehouse navigation:
tures of transponder technology for mum efficiency. When the truck has  In the quickest time
navigation and pinpoint approaching been positioned, a spotlight (optional)  Over the shortest distance
of pallet locations. All transport and illuminates the picking position and  With as much energy as required
picking orders are transmitted from the shows the operator on which side and and as little as possible
warehouse management system (WMS) which location he/she should pick from.
to the trucks radio data terminal (RDT). The truck driver therefore no longer You can find a template for the calcula-
From here, the x, y and z coordinates of needs to concentrate on things such tion of profitability in the Chapter
the location are received directly by the as: “Process optimisation – Efficiency in
truck controller via a serial RS232 inter-  approach, the warehouse.” Your specialist system
face. This enables the truck to identify  searching for pallets, consultant can carry out a calculation
the respective target location and  the “ideal time” to start diagonal based on your specific requirements.
approach it semi-automatically under travel,
driver control. The driver sees the travel  barcode scans as confirmation for
and lift directions on the display and the WMS in the case of combi
when the functions are applied, the trucks.
truck automatically approaches the The warehouse navigation does all that
position with pinpoint precision. for the operator. Incorrect journeys and
adjustments are therefore eliminated.

Advantages of warehouse navigation.

Comparison – EKX
with / without warehouse

Optimised approach with

warehouse navigation
allows time savings of up
to 25 %. The “green curve”
proves this: In the shortest
time and the shortest
distance, with as much
energy as required and as
x Sec: 36 little as possible.
Sec: 28

x Sec: 36

“Intelligent destination
approach” of an EKX with
warehouse navigation:

The truck computer

calculates the quickest way
to the target position.
All processes required for
positioning, such as travel
route, speed for the route,
lift start from the route,
lift height from the route
path and lift start from the
target height are performed
in an optimised manner
via activation of the drive

Dynamic warehouse
management system:

No matter how the pallets

are stored, the warehouse
navigation system is aware
of this and sends the truck
to the correct position
every time. Control is via
the Warehouse Manage-
ment System.

Practical experience.

Greater productivity through EKX high rack stackers with warehouse navigation

Example: Customer reference

The customer: One of the world’s lead- The initial situation:  The warehouse system consists of
ing logistics service suppliers, CEVA  Filters and power units are stored on
long rack rows due to restricted
Logistics, specialises in the design, pallets in an 11 metre high bay
warehouse conditions. Searching and
implementation and operation of com- warehouse – consisting of 15 aisles
scanning costs too much time.
plex logistics solutions. For medium- and 19,100 pallet locations.  The theoretical high speed of the
sized to large companies on a regional, Stacking is performed by three EKX
trucks cannot be fully utilised.
national and international level. combination trucks.
The warehouse efficiency is therefore
 Stacking and retrieval jobs are
not ideal.
At Niederaichbach in Lower Bavaria, transmitted to the truck radio data  The trucks already operated in
CEVA Logistics handles the entire logis- terminals by a Warehouse Manage-
two shifts; there did not appear to
tics chain for filter manufacturer Mann ment System (WMS). To achieve a
be any room for further improve-
& Hummel. virtual zero percent error rate,
ment in performance.
pallets, rack and transfer locations  Different drivers require different
are scanned, in some cases several
times for stacking and retrieving
operations. Searching for pallet
locations increases driver fatigue.

The task for Jungheinrich
 Increase logistic system’s efficiency
without changing the warehouse
system or WMS
 Maintain the very low error rates
 Achieve a standard driver produc-
tivity level
 Alleviate driver stress

EKX high rack stacker

with warehouse navigation
RFID transponders in the ground conti-
nually supply the trucks with location
details. Stacking / retrieval orders recei-
ved from the WMS are sent via the
logistic interface on the truck terminal
directly to the truck controller. This
means the truck knows the exact posi-
tion to approach. The driver only has to
give the travel and lift commands. The
truck approaches the required pallet
location to the precise millimetre, per-
forms the stacking / retrieval operations
and then confirms the various control
stages to the WMS. Fully automati-

“You have reached your destination” – EKX with warehouse navigation

Advantage 1: Advantage 2: Advantage 3:

Greater productivity throughout the Very high level of process safety with Easy integration
entire logistic system low error rates  Easy integration in the existing
 Automatic and precise approach of  Automated processes leave less warehouse environment through
the rack position specified by the room for error the Jungheinrich logistic interface
WMS along the quickest route.  Stacking and retrieval operations  No changes were necessary to the
With optimum acceleration and are always performed at the right WMS
braking – the maximum truck speed positions  No changes were necessary to the
can be fully utilised.  The WMS inventory is always warehouse topology
 No searching or back-tracking up-to-date
 No manual scanning for stacking
and retrieving

Getting to destination automatically and at full speed

Advantage 4: Advantage 5:
Improved driver ergonomics matched The customer is delighted
by greater overall system robustness Robert Gruber, Contract Manager at
 Significantly less strain on the CEVA Logistics, Niederaichbach:
drivers, who no longer have to “My drivers are ‘guided’ through the
search for locations processes by the warehouse navigati-
 Relaxed operation as “ancillary on. As a result they are more relaxed
jobs” such as searching and while at the same time achieving a
scanning no longer apply consistently high throughput. The pin-
 Less rack damage since the forks point soft positioning spares both rack
are automatically positioned at the and goods. We didn’t have to make
correct location and height any changes to the existing warehouse
 The racks do not require labels or software systems. The Jungheinrich
or such like, which could get team implemented the whole system in
contaminated or scratched a highly professional manner.”

Warehouse navigation in wide aisles.

With the module “Warehouse naviga- Determination of the exact navigation system is a radio data trans-
tion for wide aisles,” you can also position of the fork lift truck mission terminal and the Jungheinrich
exploit the potential of warehouse navi- in the wide aisle possible logistic interface. The latter “translates”
gation for freely manoeuvrable fork lift An optical positioning system is used the requirements of the warehouse
trucks. The module functions in a man- for navigation in wide aisles. This makes management system into the “truck
ner similar to that used in a navigation it possible to define the precise position language” and vice versa.
system for cars. This boosts the effi- of the fork lift truck at any time. The
ciency and safety of processes outside position can be defined to within just a
the narrow aisle. few centimetres. The basis for this

Navigation in wide aisles is very differ-

ent from that in narrow aisles. As
described above, truck location in the
narrow aisle warehouse is based on Examples of navigation displays – Intuitive recognition and operation
RFID technology and transponders in
the warehouse floor. In contrast, navi-
Navigation Display Navigation
gation in the apron zone and in wide
Navigation Navigation
aisles requires a special positioning sys-
tem, as the trucks are freely manoeu- 00-00-00 00-00-00

The basis for efficient use of the ware-

house navigation system in a wide aisle
warehouse is the integration of all fork
11m 4m
lift trucks in operation into the user‘s
entire process chain – from goods
inward / unloading of Lorries to dis-
patch / loading of Lorries. Wide aisle
Drive straight ahead, Turn left after 4 metres
navigation can simply be set up as a change of direction after 11 metres
module on various trucks, for example
reach trucks, order picking trucks or
electric counterbalance trucks. Navigation Display Navigation Display

Navigation Navigation

00-00-00 00-00-00

reached! 1,8 m

Destination reached, Reverse 1.8 metres, you have overshot

in right rack row your destination

Wide aisle navigation allows the appli- ensure that the fork lift truck reaches What does this mean?
cation of various functions. The “Route its destination via the shortest and A significant increase in process
guide” displays the direction and route, quickest route. The ”Vehicle location” reliability through navigation
amongst other things, to the driver – function ensures continuous tracking in wide aisles
like the navigation systems used in of the fork lift truck position. Parallel to As soon as a driver reaches his / her
cars. For example, if the driver takes a this, feedback of the truck location to target location, for example a position
wrong turning, he / she is first informed the warehouse management system or in the rack aisle and activates the lifting
of this. Then, if he / she drives on, the a stacker guidance system ensures opti- control, the “Rack height select” func-
route is recalculated. The aim is to mum control of the entire truck fleet. tion allows the lifting frame to be
extended to the pallet location defined
by the warehouse management sys-
tem. Additional scanning or confirma-
tion of the location is no longer

The route guide, the Rack height select

Display Navigation Display
and the automatic confirmation trans-
Navigation Navigation
mitted to the WMS make work much
00-00-00 00-00-00 easier for the truck driver. Stacking or
retrieval in the wrong aisle or shelf is
prevented. The use of warehouse navi-
gation in wide aisle entrances process
reliability in warehouse and logistics
3,5 m 2,8 m

Drive straight ahead, Drive straight ahead, destination after

destination after 3.5 metres 2.8 metres in right rack row

Navigation Display Navigation Display

Navigation Navigation

00-00-00 00-00-00

Turn around
No route found!

Wrong direction, No route found,

please turn around truck outside defined route

The “Route guide” shows the driver

the direction and route

Radio data transmission.

Radio data transmission and mobile

terminals provide warehouse commu-
nication that is networked and there-
fore efficient. All personnel receive
their stacking, retrieval and picking
orders directly from the WMS, either
displayed on their truck or hand-held
terminal or announced through head-
phones via pick-by-voice systems. There
is no need for dealing with complicated
paper lists. Barcode scanning enables
all goods movements to be checked
directly by the WMS. All the inventory
information is up to date at any given
moment as all goods movements are
transmitted to the WMS.

The advantages
 Data in the ERP (Enterprise Resource
Planning) and / or WMS systems
are kept up to date at all times
 Faster processing with paperless
order system
 Happier customers and less
returns handling costs due to error
 Can be used in different
environments – e.g. cold stores

Range of services
 Wireless Local Area Network
simulation EKX 515 including radio data transmission terminal and scanner, fitted on a railing

 Installation, commissioning and

 Performance analysis Before commissioning: WLAN simula- the radio data transmission system
 Maintenance and service tion. The number and position of the adjusted as required.
radio access points is simulated on the
Optimum coverage in every basis of the warehouse layout and And professional documentation ensures
warehouse information on the racking and the that all results are transparent. Both the
WLAN simulation before commission- goods stored. WLAN simulation and the performance
ing, performance analysis after com- analysis are integral parts of every radio
missioning. These two services ensure After installation and commissioning data transmission project. To ensure
optimum radio coverage over the entire comes performance analysis: radio cov- that your data keeps flowing, at all
warehouse area. erage is tested in actual operation and times and throughout your system.

Warehouse Management System.

The “Jungheinrich WMS” warehouse

management system allows you to
control any warehouse: standard pallet
warehouses, drive-through / mobile rack-
ing warehouses, modular racking sys-
tems and fully automatic systems with
rack operating and materials handling
equipment. All areas of the warehouse
(e.g. goods inward, goods outward,
reserve areas and picking areas) are
administered, the entire material flow
controlled and optimised.

The Jungheinrich WMS is a flexible sys-

tem. It can be adapted to your intra-
logistics processes through a range of
parameters and settings that can be
adjusted even during operation. An
extensive reporting system and numer-
ous evaluation options ensure complete
EKS 312 – Scanning process transparency. The Jungheinrich WMS
can be connected to many existing sys-
tem environments through standard

Range of services
 Generation of specifications
including interface details
 Installation, commissioning and
 Maintenance and service

EKX 515 – Scanning process

Efficiency in the warehouse.

Example: Energy
In view of rising costs and climate The energy consumption of vehicles  Active energy management
change, saving energy is an important used in the warehouse in an important low current flow
consideration for the operation of factor, and savings of up to 30% can  Active battery management
large-scale logistics centres. be achieved here without major effort. low current spikes
 CAN-Bus 70% fewer cables and
In the face of rising energy costs and plugs
new requirements such as the energy Energy consumption These measures and continued further
conversation and energy management, In order to keep energy consumption development of the systems allow sig-
the operators of warehouse installa- at the low level for which they are well- nificant savings per vehicle to be made.
tions also need to keep a closer eye on known, Jungheinrich system vehicles And of course, deployment over two
energy efficiency in future when it are all equipped with: shifts without changing the batteries is
comes to warehouse planning and  AC technology (all motors) thus not a problem.
management, in order to comply with  Regenerative braking + regenerative
the new requirements and remain com- lowering effective energy recovery
petitive.  High-efficiency hydraulic systems

What does this mean? Results:

Comparative test: EKX 515 compared to a rival vehicle. Warehouse data
To determine the potential savings for the warehouse operator in €, a Jungheinrich  aisle length [m] 65
EKX 515 was compared with a vehicle manufactured by a rival company.  top beam / location [m] 14
 working cycle / hour 30
Procedure:  time / working cycle [s] 93
Same warehouse, same performance data for the 80-volt combi fork lift trucks.  pallet weight [t] 1

Work cycle based on VDI 2516

 operating hours / year 3000
 charging factor 1,15
Operations were performed using the following criteria, based on VDI 2516:  electricity price 0.12 € / kWh
 charger efficiency 0.86

3000 operating EKX 5 com-

hours petitor
Ah / work cycle 1.5 2.2
Energy consumption
16,608 24,359
kWh / year
Energy costs / year 1993 € 2923 €
Emissions CO2 t / year 10.2 14.6

Without costs for additional batteries

and without ABC structure, the cost
saving is:
 € 930 per year for 1 truck
 € 18,600 per year for 20 trucks

H maximum stacking height PDF point of diagonal travel It should also be noted here that the
L rack length X focus rack area X current spikes on the rival vehicle dur-
lDF diagonal travel length Y focus rack area Y ing diagonal travel reduce the battery
hDF diagonal travel height XY focus rack area XY lifespan.

Example: Economic efficiency
Up to 25 % higher efficiency through warehouse navigation – excerpt from the “programme” for calculation of economic

Calculation of economic efficiency for warehouse navigation 1 truck Sum in €

Investments / financing rates

Investment sum truck costs
With warehouse navigation: additional truck costs
With warehouse navigation: Jungheinrich logistics interface (JH-LI)
Observation period in years
Annual service costs
and / or
Monthly rental charge (financing + service), truck with terminal
With warehouse navigation: additional monthly rental charge

Annual operating costs (excluding energy costs)

Truck costs
Gross personnel costs
Costs for warehouse navigation
Total costs without warehouse navigation Result:
Total costs with warehouse navigation Result:

Annual performance
Service hours
Double work cycles per hour without warehouse navigation
Increase in efficiency through warehouse navigation

Work cycles per year without warehouse navigation Result:

Work cycles per year with warehouse navigation Result:

Cost per work cycle without warehouse navigation Result:

Cost per work cycle with warehouse navigation Result:

Cost saving per double work cycle Result:

Saving per year Result:

Table for calculation of economic efficiency of a narrow aisle truck with warehouse navigation.
Please contact your Jungheinrich partner directly for an individual calculation!

Example of a reference system:

The customer: One of the world’s leading logistics service suppliers
The initial situation: 11 metre high bay warehouse
15 aisles, each 80 metres long, and 19,100 pallet positions
Two-shift operation of trucks (2000 operating hours / year)
The solution: Warehouse navigation
Automatic data transfer from the WMS
Semi-automatic approach
No scanning processes necessary
Work cycles per year without warehouse navigation: 40,000
Work cycles per year with warehouse navigation: 50,000
Saving per truck / year: € 26,000

Individual solutions ex works.

The perfect combination of indust-

rial production and craftsmanship
Developed on the basis of consummate
engineering skill, many years of experi-
ence – and an understanding of our
customers‘ requirements.

There are many ways of distinguishing

yourself – including a professional atti-
tude. Special applications require spe-
cial system trucks. This applies espe-
cially to tasks which are difficult to
perform – due to application specific
transport operations, complicated
warehouse conditions or perhaps un-
usual goods. Here, quality and cost-
effectiveness from series production
are combined with personal require-
ments. The consistent modular design
of Jungheinrich system trucks makes
this possible.

EKX 515, hydraulically adjustable telescopic fork

Large-scale series and individual Flexible software

production Designed around functionality. The
Here, quality and cost-effectiveness control system matches the strategy
from series production are combined individual software for the require-
with personal requirements. ments of the application. TÜV-certified
control system for maximum flexibility
The modular system and safety. The computer system of all
Jungheinrich have just the right vehicle warehouse and system vehicles, which
for specific requirements. The consist- can also be supplied with customised
ent modular design of Jungheinrich solutions from the factory, consists of
system trucks makes this possible. With two components: a master computer
individual chassis lengths and widths, and a backup module. Both compo-
mast designs, offset or split operator nents provide a constant exchange of
consoles, picking cages and trolleys con- information and monitor each other
version of “combi trucks” to picking in a redundancy system. Jungheinrich
trucks, telescopic forks (double or triple) make no compromises when it comes
picking platforms in a wide range of to individual systems trucks, and have
configurations, special fork carriages, had the system certified by the techni-
power collectors on the truck, to name cal inspection agency TÜV.
just a few possibilities … and always
tailored to the specific application.

EKS 312,
telescopic fork and special mast

Legal background
In the case of conversions, the direc-
tives follow from the basic premise
that any significant modification of a
machine results in the production of
a new machine. Any modification
which affects safety, in other words,
any modification which may lead to
increased risk, is considered as signifi-
cant. If a significant modification is
carried out, a new EU Declaration of
Conformity needs be produced, on the
basis of a risk assessment of the modi-
fied vehicle with reference to the scien-
tific and technological state-of-the-art.
The entity performing or playing the
major role in the modification is consid-
ered to be the manufacturer. The EU
Declaration of Conformity for the mod-
ified machine may only be submitted if
the risk assessment has proved that the
overall machine complies with the cur-
rent safety requirements of the Machin-
ery Directive and the Equipment and
Product Safety Act.

Some of the solutions

EKX 513, telescopic fork with auxiliary lift in front of the fork and emergency escape ladder
already realised
 offset or split operator consoles
 picking cage and trolleys
 conversion of a “combi truck”
to a picking truck
Safety with CE marking  telescopic forks (double or triple)
Tested just like series trucks. All options  picking platforms in a wide range
are CE-tested in combination with the of configurations
vehicle and undergo extensive tests for  special fork carriages
the intended use. Jungheinrich demon-  power collectors on the vehicle
stration trucks are subjected to contin-
uous testing on corresponding test rigs. Fully automatic equipment
And it goes without saying that all con- EKX and ETX for 24-hour operation.
formity evaluation procedures specified Your advantages:
in the relevant standards are performed,  Increased productivity
i.e. the technical documentation is pro-  Maximum availability
vided. There are no problems with  Safe handling of goods
spare parts, replacement parts which  A flexible alternative to rack
may be needed at any point in the operating equipment
future. The same modifications can be (i.e. Stacker Cranes)
re-ordered at any time. In addition,  The level of automation
Jungheinrich create an individual oper- can be increased step by step
ating manual for each truck.
EKX 515, split operator consoles and
conversion to a picking truck

Busbars and onboard chargers Enclosed Busbar Open Busbar
Busbar installations have proven them- The contact between power supply and In open systems the power supply con-
selves to be highly effective wherever Busbar is created in the enclosed Bus- tact with the current conductors is
high throughput figures in 2-shift and bar within an almost closed U profile. created at the front of the Busbar.
3-shift operations are required. The The power supply is fixed to a mobile
Busbar system supplies 3-phase AC arm on the truck and is led to the Bus- Characteristics:
current that is fed into the onboard bar via the entry funnel.  low construction height in the aisle
charger via power collectors. All ener-  more accessible for maintenance
gy-consuming truck components are Characteristics: and repair
supplied with power from the battery  optimum protection against contact
which is replenished from the on-board  low dirt accumulation in the inner
charger. Space and costs are saved Busbar
through redundant changing stations,  entry funnel within the aisle,
external chargers and exchange batter- no lost space on the apron
ies. Not only are working hours and  optimum control of power supply
effort caused by exchanging the heavy vehicle
batteries saved; but additional resourc-
es that have to be taken into account
when equipping a charging room are
also saved.

Busbar installation
As a rule, the aisle equipment consists
of Busbars installed either on the left or
right, entry funnels and power sup-
plies, generally installed at a racking
beam level (height level approx. 2–3 m
above the floor). The truck must be
guided prior to the power collector
connecting with the power supply of
the Busbar.

Enclosed conductor rail with current collector

Charger, power supply on the truck

The high rack stackers and order pick- one direction. The power supply collec- collector arms can be supplied for both
ers are equipped with a special charger tor can also be fixed on both sides. In single or duel pickup operation in all
(48 V or 80 V, 80 A, 100 A, 120 A and this case it must be ensured that only configurations.
150 A) for the travelling whilst charg- the active power supply according to
ing operation. Different performance the Busbar position and the entry direc- The specially designed power collector
characteristics facilitate a “buffer or tion is extended. adjusts horizontal and vertical toler-
charging process”. Sensors on the truck ances and cushions impacts. In enclosed
ensure delayed on and off switching of Single sided power collectors can be Busbars, the power supply is provided
the charger to avoid contact burning of supplied as a simple fixed arm system via a pickup arm that runs within the
the power collector during entry and for mono directional operation in appli- Busbar profile.
exit of the Busbar. If possible, truck cations with full Busbar systems, alter-
entry into the aisle should only be in natively (are preferred) powered pickup

Enquiry Sheet.

Busbar option for EKX 4/5 and ETX 5

Type Supplier Desired assembly

Ast = mm
Vahle Mast
Wampfler Frame


Rail guided trucks and Busbar assembly


on chassis:

Width rail to rail: mm

h 12 =


closed Height of rail profiles: mm

h 22 =
h 11 =

Clearance between
h 21 =

rollers and floor: mm

Type of rail profiles: Angle within

Angle outside
rack to
rack = mm other

Important information

Customer: Order number:

Voltage: Frequency:

0 PE / ground: high position low position push pull

Collector: via Transponder fixed

Charger connected via: Magnet at Busbar Transponder




Trucks with “open” Busbar, and also mounted only on one side of the truck:

Collector in Load Direction: Collector in Drive Direction:

Clearance Inner edge
between Busbar to inner edge
of Busbar

a2 = mm a4 = mm

a1 = mm a3 = mm

Collector in Load Direction: Collector in Drive Direction:

Energy supply.

Battery charger technology.

The battery and charger technology  The truck is equipped with an The battery is charged from an external
gives the optimum energy source onboard charger. Power for charger at a charging station or in a
requirements to maximise the produc- charging is supplied via a Busbar separate charging room. Jungheinrich
tivity of the truck. Systems can be in the aisle. offers battery and charging systems
designed for discharged battery to be individually specified to your applica-
recharged on the truck or in a specific This system is mainly used in 2-shift or tion.
battery recharge area. 3-shift operations.
High-frequency technology
Charging on the truck Charging outside the truck We strongly advise the use of high-fre-
There are generally two possibilities: The discharged battery is removed from quency chargers for gentler charging of
 The truck is driven to an external the truck and a charged exchange bat- the batteries. Such chargers correspond
charger during operational breaks. tery is installed. The truck is immedi- to the state-of-the-art and help cut
The battery is connected to the ately operational. A sideways battery operating costs.
charger and charged. Appropriate change is generally planned for narrow
charging stations (if necessary a aisle trucks. The battery is positioned The advantages of HF chargers:
separate room) must be taken into on a roller bed and secured on the side  increased battery lifespan
account during planning. against rolling off. The exchange is car-  preconfigured charging programme
ried out manually (with battery change  gentle charging with HF technology
This system is recommended if trucks table / trolley) or with other aids (e.g. an and process control
are not in continuous operation (e.g. in additional truck).  up to 30% energy savings compared
1-shift operation). with conventional chargers
Battery removal via fork pockets on the  shorter charging times
battery case is also a popular method
of battery changing. In this case roller
beds are not required at the battery
“stands” on its fork pockets.

Battery charging stations and rooms
The following list comprises a few  Min. distance of 1 metre between The design of charging installations is
points which need to be taken into batteries and chargers regulated by the following standards:
consideration when designing charging  Make sure the charger cable is  EN 50 272-3
locations or rooms, as specified by long enough. The standard length  Trade association directives
EN 50 272-3: is 2.5 metres. Longer cables can be
 Sufficient dimensioning of traffic ordered as an option. The operator may need to arrange for
routes and areas  Adequate provisions for installation / an applicable fire protection certifica-
 Height of charger room at least removal and for transporting tion.
2 metres exchange batteries
 Safety distance of minimum
2.5 metres from inflammable A gas mixture of escaping hydrogen and
material and stored goods oxygen is created during the battery char-
(also with integrated chargers) ging process. With appropriate ventila-
 Installation of battery chargers and tion of the charging stations or charging
electric cables on a non-inflammable rooms (natural or artificial), the gas mix-
surface ture must be dissipated to such an
 Protection for charging cables extent that there is no danger of the
from mechanical damage lower limit of inflammability being
(e.g. by pinching or running over) reached.

Regulations and standards.

Guidelines / Standard Description Page

DIN EN 1726, Part 2 Additional requirements for trucks with elevating operator position and 6
trucks specifically designed to travel with elevated loads
DIN 15185, Part 1 Warehouse systems with guided industrial trucks 14
EN 15512 Steel static storage systems – Principles for structural design 18, 21, 27
EN 15620 Steel static storage systems – Tolerances, deformations and clearances 18, 23, 28, 29
EN 15629 Steel static storage systems – Specification of storage equipment 18, 27
EN 15635 Steel static storage systems – Application and maintenance of storage 18, 27, 30
equipment – Adjustable pallet racks – Guidelines for safe use
DIN 4102 Fire behaviour of building materials 25
Verband der Sachversicherer (association of property insurers),
VdS CEA 4001 26
design and installation of sprinkler systems
EN 206-1 Concrete – Specification, performance, production and conformity 27
DIN 1045-2 Reinforced and prestressed concrete structures 27
DIN 18202 Tolerances in building construction 27, 35, 37
BGR 234 Trade association guideline, storage facilities and equipment 30
DIN 18560 Screeds in building construction 34
IEC 1340-4-1 Electrostatics – electrostatic behaviour of floor coverings and installed floors 34
EN 1081 Resilient floor coverings – Determination of the electrical resistance 34
ISO 6292 Powered industrial trucks and tractors – 34
Brake performance and component strength
DIN 1045 Steel and reinforced concrete construction 35
VDMA Guideline In the narrow aisle area, the VDMA guideline applies: 35, 36, 37
Floor requirements for narrow aisle trucks
BetrSichV Regulations on health and safety at work 38
MRL 2006 / 42 / EG Machinery Directive 38, 57
DIN 15185, Part 2 Warehouse systems with guided industrial trucks (code of practice for the 38, 44, 46
protection of persons when operating with trucks in narrow aisles)
TRBS 2111 Mechanical hazards – General requirements 46
BGV D27 Trade association regulations: accident prevention regulations industrial trucks 46
(formerly accident prevention regulations for fork lift trucks VGB 36)
ISO 13849-1 Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems 46, 47
DIN EN 16001 Energy management systems in practice – A guide for companies and 58
EU Declaration of The product may only be marketed in put into operation if it meets the 57
Conformity requirements of all applicable guidelines and in as far as evaluation of
conformity has been carried out in accordance with all applicable guidelines.
GPSG Equipment and Product Safety Act 61
EN 50 272-3 Safety requirements for batteries and battery systems 61
Floor conveyors for storage and retrieval –
VDI 2516 58
Cycle time calculation in narrow aisles
EnEV Energy conservation ordinance 58

Check list.


girder Pallet length (l6) = mm

Pallet width (b12) = mm

Stacking-in depth = mm

Pallet / load height (h) = mm

Working aisle

Clear width between pallet / loads (AST) = mm

Clear width between guide rails (b26) = mm

Guide rail height (SH) = mm

Clear width between uprights (AST + x) = mm

Upper edge bottom beam (a) = mm

Upper edge top beam (o) = mm

End frame width (f) = mm

Distance between uprights

in double rack (d) = mm

Width over pallets /

loads in double rack (LB) = mm

Bay aperture (c) = mm

Distance between stanchions (SA) = mm

Width of stanchions (SD) = mm

Transfer aisle width (AST3) = mm

Clear height under truss (LHB) = mm

Clear height under roof (LHD) = mm

Module dimension (SM) = mm

The Complete Solution.

The benefits that Jungheinrich can offer.

 The complete solution: from the  Professional project management Planning and optimisation
initial material flow consultation via methods are used during the of flexible, multifunctional and
planning, design, co-ordination and project – so that everything runs efficient solutions
organisation of all logistics equip- according to plan and on time.  Manual, semi and fully automated
ment during implementation right  Behind the main Jungheinrich con- systems
up to project handover. tact, stands a team of experienced  Integration in existing IT systems
 Jungheinrich will also be there after specialists in the areas of material  Adjustable and scaleable solutions
the operational go-live with our flow analysis, project management,  Short payback periods
extensive network of fully trained simulation, warehouse administration  Short to medium term planning
service engineers. and truck control. objectives
 In many cases Jungheinrich works  Direct lines of communication:  Optimum space utilisation with
as the main contractor. Advantages Customer – Jungheinrich Project high storage provision
to you: a contact partner who Leader – Jungheinrich Project team.  Excellent Project Management
co-ordinates all equipment and has Therefore, direct, efficient decision processes to deliver the solution
overall responsibility throughout making processes leading to
the entire project. effective implementation.
 Over 50 years of Jungheinrich
experience. We develop the
optimum solution for each applica-
tions individual requirements.
· Technical modifications reserved.
Plants, Sales and
Services Europe
ISO 9001/ ISO 14001

Jungheinrich trucks
conform to the European
Safety Requirements.

Jungheinrich UK Ltd.

Head Office:
Sherbourne House
Sherbourne Drive
Milton Keynes MK7 8HX
Telephone 01908 363100
Fax 01908 363180