Anda di halaman 1dari 25

Reference Tables -- Coefficient of Friction

Coefficient of Friction
Extreme care is needed in using friction coefficients and additional independent references should be
used. For any specific application the ideal method of determining the coefficient of friction is by trials. A
short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the coefficient of friction is affected by surface
films. When a metal surface is perfectly clean in a vacuum . the friction is much higher than the normal
accepted value and seizure can easily occur.

Effect of Oxide film, Sulfide film


on Coefficient of Static Friction
Clean & Thick Oxide Sulfide
MATERIAL
Dry Film Film

Steel-Steel 0.78 0.27 0.39

Copper-
1.21 0.76 0.74
Copper

Coefficient Of Friction
MATERIAL 1 MATERIAL 2 Dry Greasy
Static Sliding Static Sliding
Aluminum Aluminum 1.05-1.35 1.4 0.3

Aluminum Mild Steel 0.61 0.47

Brake Material Cast Iron 0.4


Brake Material Cast Iron (Wet) 0.2
Brass Cast Iron 0.3
Brick Wood 0.6
Bronze Cast Iron 0.22
Bronze Steel 0.16
Cadmium Cadmium 0.5 0.05
Cadmium Mild Steel 0.46
Cast Iron Cast Iron 1.1 0.15 0.07
Cast Iron Oak 0.49 0.075
Chromium Chromium 0.41 0.34
Copper Cast Iron 1.05 0.29
Copper Copper 1.0 0.08
Copper Mild Steel 0.53 0.36 0.18
Copper-Lead Alloy Steel 0.22 -
Diamond Diamond 0.1 0.05 - 0.1
Diamond Metal 0.1 -0.15 0.1
0.09-
Glass Glass 0.9 - 1.0 0.4 0.1 - 0.6
0.12
Glass Metal 0.5 - 0.7 0.2 - 0.3
Glass Nickel 0.78 0.56
Graphite Graphite 0.1 0.1
Graphite Steel 0.1 0.1
Graphite (In Graphite (In
0.5 - 0.8
vacuum) vacuum)
0.12 -
Hard Carbon Hard Carbon 0.16
0.14
0.11 -
Hard Carbon Steel 0.14
0.14
Iron Iron 1.0 0.15 - 0.2
Lead Cast Iron 0.43
Leather Wood 0.3 - 0.4
Leather Metal(Clean) 0.6 0.2
Leather Metal(Wet) 0.4
Leather Oak (Parallel grain) 0.61 0.52
Magnesium Magnesium 0.6 0.08
Nickel Nickel 0.7-1.1 0.53 0.28 0.12
Nickel Mild Steel 0.64; 0.178
0.15 -
Nylon Nylon
0.25
Oak Oak (parallel grain) 0.62 0.48
Oak Oak (cross grain) 0.54 0.32 0.072
Platinum Platinum 1.2 0.25
Plexiglas Plexiglas 0.8 0.8
Plexiglas Steel 0.4 - 0.5 0.4 - 0.5
Polystyrene Polystyrene 0.5 0.5
Polystyrene Steel 0.3-0.35 0.3-0.35
Polythene Steel 0.2 0.2
Rubber Asphalt (Dry) 0.5-0.8
0.25-
Rubber Asphalt (Wet)
0.0.75
Rubber Concrete (Dry) 0.6-0.85
Rubber Concrete (Wet) 0.45-0.75
Saphire Saphire 0.2 0.2
Silver Silver 1.4 0.55
Sintered Bronze Steel - 0.13
Solids Rubber 1.0 - 4.0 --
Steel Aluminium Bros 0.45
Steel Brass 0.35 0.19
Steel(Mild) Brass 0.51 0.44
Steel (Mild) Cast Iron 0.23 0.183 0.133
Steel Cast Iron 0.4 0.21
Steel Copper Lead Alloy 0.22 0.16 0.145
Steel (Hard) Graphite 0.21 0.09
Steel Graphite 0.1 0.1
Steel (Mild) Lead 0.95 0.95 0.5 0.3
Steel (Mild) Phos. Bros 0.34 0.173
Steel Phos Bros 0.35
Steel(Hard) Polythened 0.2 0.2
Steel(Hard) Polystyrene 0.3-0.35 0.3-0.35
0.09-
Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) 0.74 0.57
0.19
0.029-
Steel(Hard) Steel (Hard) 0.78 0.42 0.05 -0.11
.12
Zinc (Plated on
Steel 0.5 0.45 - -
steel)
Teflon Steel 0.04 0.04 0.04
Teflon Teflon 0.04 0.04 0.04
Tin Cast Iron .32
Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide 0.2-0.25 0.12
Tungsten Carbide Steel 0.4 - 0.6 0.08 - 0.2
Tungsten Carbide Copper 0.35
Tungsten Carbide Iron 0.8
Wood Wood(clean) 0.25 - 0.5
Wood Wood (Wet) 0.2
Wood Metals(Clean) 0.2-0.6
Wood Metals (Wet) 0.2
Wood Brick 0.6
Wood Concrete 0.62
Zinc Zinc 0.6 0.04
Zinc Cast Iron 0.85 0.21
Factors affecting the friction between surfaces
Dry surfaces

1. For low surface pressures the friction is directly proportional to the


pressure between the surfaces. As the pressure rises the friction
factor rises slightly. At very high pressure the friction factor then
quickly increases to seizing
2. For low surface pressures the coefficient of friction is independent of
surface area.
3. At low velocities the friction is independent of the relative surface
velocity. At higher velocities the coefficent of friction decreases.

Well lubricated surfaces

1. The friction resistance is almost independent of the specific pressure


between the surfaces.
2. At low pressures the friction varies directly as the relative surface
speed
3. At high pressures the friction is high at low velocities falling as the
velocity increases to a minimum at about 0,6m/s. The friction then
rises in proportion the velocity 2.
4. The friction is not so dependent of the surface materials
5. The friction is related to the temperature which affects the viscosity
of the lubricant

Static Coefficient of Friction

The static friction coefficient (μ) between two solid surfaces is defined as the ratio of the
tangential force (F) required to produce sliding divided by the normal force between the surfaces
(N)

μ = F /N

For a horizontal surface the horizontal force (F) to move a solid resting on a flat surface

F= μ x mass of solid x g.

If a body rests on an incline plane the body is prevented from sliding down because of the
frictional resistance. If the angle of the plane is increased there will be an angle at which the
body begins to slide down the plane. This is the angle of repose and the tangent of this angle is
the same as the coefficient of friction.
Sliding Coefficient of Friction

When the tangential force F overcomes the frictional force between two surfaces then the
surfaces begins to slide relative to each other. In the case of a body resting on a flat surface the
body starts to move. The sliding frictional resistance is normally different to the static frictional
resistance. The coefficient of sliding friction is expressed using the same formula as the static
coefficient and is generally lower than the static coefficient of friction..

Friction Coefficients

A table below shows approximate friction coefficients for various materials. All values are
approximate and are only suitable for guidance only. The sliding/lubricated values must be
used with extreme care. The only way to determine the accurate coefficient of friction between
two materials is to conduct experiments.

Coefficients of friction are sensitive to atmospheric dust and humidity, oxide films, surface
finish, velocity of sliding, temperature, vibration, and extent of contamination. In many cases
the degree of contamination is perhaps the most important single variable..

The friction values provided are obtained by different test methods under different ambient
conditions. This factor can also affect the results
Rolling Friction

When a cylinder rolls on a surface the force resisting motion is termed rolling friction. Rolling
friction is generally considerably less than sliding friction. If W is the weight of the cylinder
converted to force, or the force between the cylinder and the flat surface, and R is radius of the
cylinder and F is the force required to overcome the rolling friction then.

center>F = f x W/R

f is the coefficient of rolling friction and has the same unit of length as the radius R -in the
example below m (metres)

Typical values for f are listed below

Note: Values for rolling friction from various sources are not consistent and the following values
should only be used for approximate calculations.

• Steel on Steel f = 0,0005m


• Wood on Steel f = 0,0012m
• Wood on Wood f = 0,0015m
• Iron on iron f = 0,00051m
• Iron on granite f = 0,0021m
• Iron on Wood f = 0,0056m
• Polymer on steel f = 0,002m
• Hardrubber on Steel f = 0,0077m
• Hardrubber on Concrete f = 0,01 -0,02m
• Rubber on Concrete f = 0,015 -0,035m

Plain Bearing Friction factors

Plain bearings can be linear, journal and thrust. They can be hydrostatically, or
hydrodynamically lubricated or operated dry. These different modes of operation can all result
in very different friction factors. The coefficient of friction for plain bearings relates to the type
of bearing,the speed of rotation, the load, the amount and viscosity of the lubrication, the friction
of the seals, etc etc. The friction factors provided are approximate and are only suitable for
assessment of relative values

It is very important to note that determination of reasonably accurate friction factors for
lubricated plain bearings is very complicated. Serious design should include reference to
bearing suppliers and/or reputable reference documents
Journal Bearings

The bearing friction torque Mr = P . f . (D/2)

• Mr = Friction Torque (Nmm)


• P = Radial Force (N)
• f = coefficient of friction of rolling bearing
• D = Diameter of the bore of the bearing (Shaft diameter) (mm)

Linear Bearings

The bearing friction Force Fa = P . f

• Fa =Friction Force against direction of movement (N)


• P = Perpendicular Force on bearing surface (N)
• f = coefficient of friction of rolling bearing

Rotating Thrust Bearing

The bearing friction torque Mr = P . f .( Do + Di )/ 4

• Mr = Friction Torque (Nmm)


• P = Axial Force on bearing surface (N)
• f = coefficient of friction of bearing
• Do Outside Diameter of Thrust Bearing (mm)
• Di Inside Diameter of Thrust Bearing (mm)

Approximate values for f are listed below;

• Hydrodynamic Thick Film (Mineral Grease) velocity 1 m/s ..f =


0,0002 to 0,0075
• Hydrodynamic Thick Film (Mineral Grease)velocity 2,5 m/s ..f =
0,0027 to 0,015
• Hydrodynamic Thick Film (Mineral Oil) velocity 1 m/s ..f = 0,0012
to 0,0040
• Hydrodynamic Thick Film (Mineral Oil)velocity 2,5 m/s ..f = 0,0020
to 0,007
• Mixed Film (Boundary + Hydrodynamic ).. f = 0,02 to 0,08
• Thin Film ...f = 0,08 to 0,14
• Dry (Bearing = PTFE /Lead based - surface = steel ) ...f = 0,02 to
0,3- Very dependent on the operating conditions
• Dry (Bearing = PTFE /Plastic based- surface = steel ) ...f = 0,1 to 0,3
• Dry (Bearing = Metal - Surface = Steel) ...f = 0,2 to 0,4

Rolling Bearing Friction

Rolling bearings are called anti-friction bearing. They have high loading capacity and exhibit
very low rolling friction torques. The friction torques are similar or lower than ideally designed
plain bearing operating under conditions of thick film lubrication. Rolling bearing have low
starting torques

The coefficient of friction in rolling bearings relates to the type of bearing, the speed of rotation,
the load, the amount and viscosity of the lubrication, the friction of the seals, etc etc.

The bearing friction torque Mr = F . f . (d/2)

alternatively ..

The bearing friction torque Mr = F . fm . (Dm/2)

(friction values below marked with ***)


• Mr = Friction torque (Nmm)
• F = Radial (or axial load) (N)
• f = coefficient of friction of rolling bearing .
• fm = coefficient of friction of rolling bearing based on mean diameter
• d = Diameter of the bore of the bearing (Shaft diameter)(mm)
• D = Outside diameter of the bearing (mm)
• Dm = (d+D)/2 (mm)

These values relate to running bearings without seals and with optimimum lubrication..
The start-up friction values will be higher -up to twice the values quoted below..

• Single row ball bearing (radial Load) ..f = 0,0015


• Angular contact ball bearing (single row) ..f = 0,0020
• Angular contact ball bearing (double row) ..f = 0,0024
• Self aligning ball bearing (radial load) ..f = 0,0010
• Cylindrical roller bearings with cage ..f = 0,0011
• Cylindrical roller bearings full complement ..f = 0,0020
• Thrust ball bearing (axial load) ..f = 0,0013
• Spherical roller bearing (radial Load) ..f = 0,0018
• Taper roller bearings ..f = 0,0018
• Needle roller bearings-with cage ..fm = 0,003
• Needle roller ball bearings-full Complement ..fm = 0,005
• Combined needle roller bearings ..fm = 0,004
• Axial Needle roller ball bearings ..fm = 0,0035
• Axial Cylindrical roller bearings ..fm = 0,0035

The seal friction should also be included if seals are fitted. A reasonable average value for a
first estimate would be 0.001.
Clutch - Brake Friction Values

Desirable Properties for friction materials/linings for clutches and brakes

• The two materials in contact must have a high coefficient of friction.


• The materials in contact must resist wear effects, such as scoring,
galling, and ablation.
• The friction value should be constant over a range of temperatures
and pressures
• The materials should be resistant to the environment (moisture, dust,
pressure)
• The materials should possess good thermal properties, high heat
capacity, good thermal conductivity, withstand high temperatures
• Able to withstand high contact pressures
• Good shear strength to transferred friction forces to structure
• Should be safe to use and acceptable for the environment

Note: Brake materials from asbestos are not safe and are no longer acceptable for use in brakes
and clutches
Important properties of materials used for brakes and clutches

Note: These properties are very general in nature and should not be used for detail
design. Suppliers information should be used for important work. Asbestos should not be used
for new or replacement equipment.

Coefficient of
Temp.(max) Pressure (Max)
Material Combination Friction
Wet Dry Deg.C MPa
0,15-
Cast Iron/Cast Iron 0,05 300 0,8
0,20
0,15-
Cast Iron/Steel 0,06 300 0,8-1,3
0,20
0,15-
Hard Steel/Hard Steel 0,05 300 0,7
0,20
0,2-
Wood/Cast Iron-steel 0,16 150 0,6
0,35
0,12-
Leather/Cast Iron-steel 0,3-0,5 100 0,25
0,15
0,15-
Cork/Cast Iron- Steel 0,3-0,5 100 0,1
0,25
Felt/Cast Iron- Steel 0,18 0,22 140 0,06
Woven Asbestos/Cast
0,1-0,2 0,3-0,6 250 0,7
Iron- Steel
Moulded Asbestos/Cast 0,08-
0,2-0,5 250 1,0
Iron- Steel 0,12
Impregnated
Asbestos/Cast Iron- 0,12 0,32 350 1.0
Steel
Carbon-graphite/Cast 0,05-
0,25 500 2.1
Iron- Steel 0,1
0,05-
Kelvar/Cast Iron- Steel 0,35 325 3,0
0,1
Friction coefficient Bolted Joints

The coefficient of friction is required in calculating tightening torques and resulting bolt tensile
forces and stress and in calculating the resulting friction between the connected surfaces. Below
are provided a small number of values showing approximate values of friction coefficients to be
used for steel screw fastened connections. The values are only representative values and should
be confirmed against other sources of information and preferably testing.

Coefficient of Friction for screw threads

Female Thread -Nut or Tapped Hole in


steel(untreated)
Friction
Friction
Male screw Coefficient
Coefficient (lub)
(Dry)
Untreated
0,12 - 0,18 0,10 - 0,17
Steel
Phosphated
0,12 - 0,18 0,10 - 0,17
Steel
Cadmium
0,09 - 0,14 0,08 -0,23
Plated Steel
Galvanised
0,14 - 0,23 0,12 - 0,2
steel
Degreased
0,19 - 0,25
steel
Female Thread -Nut or Tapped Hole in
steel(Galvanised)
Friction
Friction
Male screw Coeffient
Coefficient(Lub.)
(Dry)
Untreated
0,14 - 0,2 0,12 - 0,18
Steel
Phosphated
0,14 - 0,2 0,12 - 0,18
Steel
Cadmium
0,1 - 0,16 0,09 - 0,15
Plated Steel
Galvanised
0,14 - 0,25 0,12 - 0,2
steel
Degreased
0,19 - 0,25
steel
Coefficient of Friction Nut/Bolt Face against Clamped surface

Clamped Surface = Steel


Friction
Bolt/Nut Friction
Coeffient
Mat'l Coefficient(Lub.)
(Dry)
Untreated
0,10 - 0,18 0,08 - 0.15
Steel
Phosphated
0,10 - 0,18 0,08 - 0,15
Steel
Galvanised
0,10 - 0,2 0,09 - 0,18
steel
Clamped Surface -Galvanised Steel
Friction
Bolt/Nut Friction
Coefficient
Mat'l Coefficient (lub)
(Dry)
Untreated
0,10 - 0,18 0,08 - 0,15
Steel
Phosphated
0,10 - 0,18 0,08 - 0,15
Steel
Galvanised
0,16 - 0,22 0,09 - 0,18
steel

Coefficient of friction between surfaces clamped by bolts /screws.


These values allow calculation of the shear force necessary to cause slip between surfaces when
clamped by bolts.

slip
Contact Surfaces
coefficient
Steel On Steel- No treatment 0,15- 0,25
Steel On Cast Iron- No treatment 0,18 - 0,3
Steel On Steel- Machined
0,12- 0,18
(Degreased)
Steel On Cast Iron- Machined
0,15 - 0,25
(Degreased)
Grit -Sandblasted surfaces 0,48 - 0,55
Friction Factors for Power Screws

The following factors are typical friction factors for power screw torque and efficiency
calculations..

1) Screw Thread Friction values (μs)


(Friction factors apply mainly for screw thread friction (μs) - can be applied to collar friction(μc)

Nut Material
Screw Material Cast
Steel Brass Bronze
Iron
0,15- 0,15- 0,15- 0,15-
Steel(Dry)
0,25 0,23 0,19 0,25
Steel 0,11- 0,10- 0,10- 0,11-
(Lubricated) 0,17 0,16 0,15 0,17
Bronze 0,08- 0,04- 0,06-
-
(Lubricated) 0,12 0,06 0,09

2) Thrust collar Friction values (μc)

Surface Combinations Moving Starting


Soft Steel on Cast Iron 0,12 0,17
Hard Steel on Cast Iron 0,09 0,15
Soft Steel on Bronze 0,08 0,10
Hard Steel on Bronze 0,06 0,08
Press Fit Mechanical Joints

In mechanical engineering rotary motion can be transferred by mechanical connections between


a shaft and hub using only a tight fit. Methods of achieving this type of connection include the
engineered interference fit, the taper lock bush and hydraulic fit bush. These keyless shaft/hub
connections all transfer torque by friction.

The coefficient of friction used for designing these types of connections is dependent on the
interface pressure, materials, surface condition, surface coatings etc. The coefficient of friction
is also dependent on the method of installation. A different value result if the shaft is forced into
the hub (force fit) compared to the value if the assemble is completed by heating the hub or
freezing the shaft prior to assembly (shrink fit)...

Various values of relevant coefficients of friction are provided below;

• Steel Hub , Steel Shaft unlubricated - force fit ...C. of Friction = 0,07
to 0,16
• Steel Hub , Steel Shaft greased - force fit ...C. of Friction = 0,05 to
0,12
• Steel Hub , Steel Shaft unlubricated - Shrink fit ...C. of Friction =
0,15 to 0,25
• Steel Hub , Steel Shaft greased - Shrink fit ...C. of Friction = 0,08 to
0,16

The manufacturers of the proprietary keyless hub/shaft systems indicate that their products are
based on a coefficient of friction of 0,12 for lightly oiled connections and 0,15 for dry
assemblies. These companies can provide surface coating fluids containing particles to increase
the coefficient of friction i.e. coefficient of friction to 0,25 to 0,3. (ref links 1 below)

The American Gear Manufactures Association (AGMA) recommends a value of between 0,12-
0,15 for hydraulically expanded hubs and 0,15-0,20 for shrink or press fit hubs.

When calculated the torque to be transmitted it is generally sufficient to use the simple equation

T= μ.π.d2.L.Pc/2

d= the shaft diameter


L is the length of the interference joint.
The surface pressure Pc is calculated typically using lame's equation.
Testing Methods

There are a number of test methods for coefficient of frictions as some of which are listed below

• Flat block pressed against a OD of rotating ring (FOR)


• Flat block against another flat block (FOF)
• Flat block sliding down an inclined runway(IS)
• Pin pressed against a OD of rotating ring (POR
• Reciprocating loaded spherical end pin pressed on a flat
surface(RSOF)

It is clear that the different test methods provide different friction results..

Coefficient of Friction

Extreme care is needed in using friction coefficients and additional independent references
should be used. For any specific application the ideal method of determining the coefficient of
friction is by trials. A short table is included above the main table to illustrate how the
coefficient of friction is affected by surface films. When a metal surface is perfectly clean in a
vacuum , the friction is much higher than the normal accepted value and seizure can easily
occur.

......The links below the tables provide further information.

Effect of oxide film etc on coefficient of static


friction
Clean Thick Oxide Sulfide
Material
Dry Film Film
Steel-Steel 0,78 0,27 0,39
Copper-
1,21 0,76 0,74
Copper

The level of uncertainty of the information below is indicated by using steel on steel as an
example. Various reference sources provide values similar to the values below.(0,74 Static- 0,42
sliding) Gieck( 7th ed) provides values of (0,15...0,30 Static - 0,10...0,30 sliding). Concise
Metals Data Handbook by J.R. Davis (table 14,1) includes values (0,31 static -0,23 sliding - for
steel 1032? on steel 1032?).. The same table includes a value for mild steel on mild steel of 0,62
sliding.
Coefficient Of Friction
Test
Material 1 Material 2 DRY Greasy
method
Static Sliding Static Sliding
1,05-
Aluminum Aluminum 1,4 0,3
1,35
Aluminum Mild Steel 0,61 0,47
Brake Material Cast Iron 0,4
Brake Material Cast Iron (Wet) 0,2
Brass Cast Iron 0,3
Brick Wood 0,6
Bronze Cast Iron 0,22
Bronze Steel 0,16
Cadmium Cadmium 0,5 0,05
Cadmium Mild Steel 0,46
Cast Iron Cast Iron 1,1 0,15 0,07
Cast Iron Oak 0,49 0,075
Chromium Chromium 0,41 0,34
Copper Cast Iron 1,05 0,29
Copper Copper 1,0 0,08
Copper Mild Steel 0,53 0,36 0,18
Copper Steel 0,8 SPOF
Copper Steel (304 stainless) 0,23 0,21 FOF
Copper-Lead
Steel 0,22 -
Alloy
0,05 -
Diamond Diamond 0,1
0,1
0,1 -
Diamond Metal 0,1
0,15
0,9 - 0,1 - 0,09-
Glass Glass 0,4
1,0 0,6 0,12
0,5 - 0,2 -
Glass Metal
0,7 0,3
Glass Nickel 0,78 0,56
Graphite Graphite 0,1 0,1
Graphite Steel 0,1 0,1
Graphite (In Graphite (In 0,5 -
vacuum) vacuum) 0,8
0,12 -
Hard Carbon Hard Carbon 0,16
0,14
0,11 -
Hard Carbon Steel 0,14
0,14
0,15 -
Iron Iron 1,0
0,2
Lead Cast Iron 0,43
Lead Steel 1,4 SPOF
0,3 -
Leather Wood
0,4
Leather Metal(Clean) 0,6 0,2
Leather Metal(Wet) 0,4
Leather Oak (Parallel grain) 0,61 0,52
Magnesium Magnesium 0,6 0,08
Nickel Nickel 0,7-1,1 0,53 0,28 0,12
Nickel Mild Steel 0,64; 0,178
0,15 -
Nylon Nylon
0,25
Oak Oak (parallel grain) 0,62 0,48
Oak Oak (cross grain) 0,54 0,32 0,072
Platinum Platinum 1,2 0,25
Plexiglas Plexiglas 0,8 0,8
0,4 - 0,4 -
Plexiglas Steel
0,5 0,5
Polystyrene Polystyrene 0,5 0,5
0,3- 0,3-
Polystyrene Steel
0,35 0,35
Polythene Steel 0,2 0,2
Rubber Asphalt (Dry) 0,5-0,8
0,25-
Rubber Asphalt (Wet)
0,75
0,6-
Rubber Concrete (Dry)
0,85
Rubber Concrete (Wet) 0,45-
0,75
Saphire Saphire 0,2 0,2
Silver Silver 1,4 0,55
Sintered Bronze Steel - 0,13
1,0 -
Solids Rubber --
4,0
Steel Aluminium Bros 0,45
Steel Brass 0,35 0,19
Steel(Mild) Brass 0,51 0,44
Steel (Mild) Cast Iron 0,23 0,183 0,133
Steel Cast Iron 0,4 0,21
Steel Copper Lead Alloy 0,22 0,16 0,145
Steel (Hard) Graphite 0,21 0,09
Steel Graphite 0,1 0,1
Steel (Mild) Lead 0,95 0,95 0,5 0,3
Steel (Mild) Phos. Bros 0,34 0,173
Steel Phos Bros 0,35
Steel(Hard) Polythened 0,2 0,2
0,3- 0,3-
Steel(Hard) Polystyrene
0,35 0,35
0,09-
Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) 0,74 0,57
0,19
Steel (Mild) Steel (Mild) - 0,62 FOR
0,05 - 0,029-
Steel(Hard) Steel (Hard) 0,78 0,42
0,11 ,12
Zinc (Plated on
Steel 0,5 0,45 - -
steel)
Teflon Steel 0,04 0,04 0,04
Teflon Teflon 0,04 0,04 0,04
Tin Cast Iron ,32
Titanium Alloy Ti- Aluminium Alloy
0,41 0,38 FOF
6Al-4V(Grade 5) 6061-T6
Titanium Alloy Ti- Titanium Alloy Ti-
0,36 0,30 FOF
6Al-4V(Grade 5) 6Al-4V(Grade 5)
Titanium Alloy Ti-
Bronze 0,36 0,27 FOF
6Al-4V(Grade 5)
0,2-
Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide 0,12
0,25
0,4 - 0,08 -
Tungsten Carbide Steel
0,6 0,2
Tungsten Carbide Copper 0,35
Tungsten Carbide Iron 0,8
0,25 -
Wood Wood(clean)
0,5
Wood Wood (Wet) 0,2
Wood Metals(Clean) 0,2-0,6
Wood Metals (Wet) 0,2
Wood Brick 0,6
Wood Concrete 0,62
Zinc Zinc 0,6 0,04
Zinc Cast Iron 0,85 0,21
Coefficient Of Friction
Test
Material 1 Material 2 DRY LUBRICATED
method
Static Sliding Static Sliding

FOR = Flat against rotating Cylinder, FOF = Flat against flat, POF = Pin on flat, IS = inclined
surface,SPOF Spherical end pin on flat.

Source of above values.... The values are checked against a variety of internet and literature
sources including the links below eg Link 6-Page 16. I have referred to books including
Machinerys Handbook Eighteenth edition, Kempes Engineers Year Book 1980, Concise Metals
Handbook by J.R.Davis ASM - (Good source of referenced data) and Kurt Giecks Engineering
Formulas 7th Edition.. 1980, etc etc
Table of friction Values for elements

I provide the table below as a consistent set of values for simple elements using the simplest of
test methods. It can be seen that values are generally different to the values in the table above...

Friction tests in air at room temperature. (50% relative humidity)

Friction Test
Fixed Surface Moving Block
coefficient Method
Static Sliding
Incline
Silver (Ag) Silver (Ag) 0,5
Plane
Incline
Gold(Au) 0,53
Plane
Incline
Copper(Cu) 0,48
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,49
Plane
Incline
Aluminium(Al) Aluminium(Al) 0,57
Plane
Incline
Titanium (Ti) 0,54
Plane
Incline
Gold(au) Silver (Ag) 0,53
Plane
Incline
Gold(Au) 0,49
Plane
Incline
Cadmium(Cd) Cadmium(Cd) 0,79
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,52
Plane
Incline
Cobalt(Co) Cobalt(Co) 0,56
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) 0,41
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) Cobalt(Co) 0,41
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) 0,46
Plane
Incline
Copper(Cu) Cobalt(Co) 0,44
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) 0,46
Plane
Incline
Copper(Cu) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,50
Plane
Incline
Nickel(Ni) 0,49
Plane
Incline
Zinc(Zn) 0,56
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) Cobalt(Co) 0,41
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) 0,48
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,51
Plane
Incline
Maganese(Mg) 0,51
Plane
Incline
Molybdenum(Mo) 0,46
Plane
Incline
Titanium(Ti) 0,49
Plane
Incline
Tungsten(W) 0,47
Plane
Incline
Zinc(Zn) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Indium(In) Indium(In) 1,46
Plane
Incline
Maganese(Mg) Maganese(Mg) 0,69
Plane
Incline
Molybdenum(Mo) Iron(Fe) 0,46
Plane
Incline
Molybdenum(Mo) 0,44
Plane
Incline
Niobium(Nb) Niobium(Nb) 0,46
Plane
Incline
Nickel(Ni) Chromium(Cr) 0,59
Plane
Nickel(Ni) 0,50 Incline
Plane
Incline
Platinum(Pt) 0,64
Plane
Incline
Lead(Pb) Silver (Ag) 0,73
Plane
Incline
Gold(Au) 0,61
Plane
Incline
Copper(Cu) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Chromium(Cr) 0,53
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,54
Plane
Incline
Lead(Pb) 0,90
Plane
Incline
Platinum(Pt) Nickel(Ni) 0,64
Plane
Incline
Platinum(Pt) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Tin(Sn) Iron(Fe) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Tin(Sn) 0,74
Plane
Incline
Titanium(Ti) Aluminium(Al) 0,54
Plane
Flat
Titanium(Ti) 0,55
Sliding
Incline
Tungsten(W) Copper(Cu) 0,41
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,47
Plane
Incline
Tungsten(W) 0,51
Plane
Incline
Zinc(Zn) Copper(Cu) 0,56
Plane
Incline
Iron(Fe) 0,55
Plane
Incline
Zinc(Zn) 0,75
Plane
Table of friction Values associated with civils and structures

Notes : Friction is lower when one of the materials is wet

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stresses, as involved in
civils design,the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between
experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface
roughness.ref. link to "Friction of Rocks" below

Friction coefficient
Material 1 Material 2
Sliding
Rubber Paving 0,7 -0,9
Masonry Masonry 0,7 -0,9
Masonry Earth 0,5
Earth Earth 0,25 -1,0
Concrete Soil / Rock 0.3
Concrete Steel 0.45
Brick Moist clay 0.33
Brick Dry clay 0.5
Brick Sand 0.4
Brick Gravel 0.6
Brick Brick 0.7
Brick Rock 0.75
Granite Granite 0.6
Limestone Limestone 0.75
Cement Cement Blocks 0.65
Cement Dry Clay 0.4
Cement Wet Clay 0.2
Cement Wet Sand 0.4
Cement Dry Sand 0.50 - 0.60
Cement Dry Gravel 0.50 - 0.60
Cement Dry Rock 0.60 - 0.70
Cement Wet Rock 0.5
Brick Brick 0.65
Wood Wood 0.48