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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION

United States Legal Document


≠ All citizens and residents are hereby advised that
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by
reference and that failure to comply with such
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America
and in the states and cities contained therein. ±
«

IAPMO UMC (2009), the Uniform Mechanical Code,


as adopted and incorporated by the States and
Municipalities, including the State of New
Mexico, 14.9.2.8 NMAC.
n
III! III!

I I I
IAPMO/ANSI UMC 1-2009

Mechanical Contractors Association

WORLD PLUMBING
UNCIL
PLUMBING-HEATING-COOLING ©
Greenp/urnbers® CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION
Member
Notice

The 2009 edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code is developed through a consensus standards development
process approved by the American National Standards Institute. This process brings together volunteers
representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on mechanical issues. While the International
Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) administers the process and establishes rules to promote
fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any
information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its codes and standards.

IAPMO disclaims liability for any personal injury property or other damages of any nature whatsoever,
whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of,
or reliance on this document. IAPMO also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any
information published herein.

In issuing and making this document available, IAPMO is not undertaking to render professional or other
services for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is IAPMO undertaking to perform any duty owed by any
person or entity to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment
or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any
given circumstances.
REVISION MARKINGS

Code changes frOln the 2006 edition are Inarked in the margins as follows:

~ An arrow denotes a deletion.

A vertical denotes a change.

TIA TIA indicates that the revision is the result of a Tentative Interim Amendment
TIA
TIA For further infonnation on tentative interim amendments see Section 5 of the IAPMO
TIA Regulations Governing Committee Projects available at http://www.iapmo.org/pages/
TIA
TIA codedevelopmentprocedures.aspx

NFPA
NFPA
A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph indicates material that has
NFPA
NFPA
been extracted from another document. This reprinted material is not the complete and
NFPA
NFPA official position of the source document on the reference subject which is represented by
NFPA
NFPA the standard in its entirety. Text which has been extracted pursuant to IAPMO's Extract
NFPA
NFPA Guidelines is denoted with the use of the source document in the margin. This text has
NFPA
NFPA not been fully processed by IAPMO in accordance with ANSI's public announcement
NFPA
NFPA consensus requirements for an American National Standard (ANS) nor approved by
NFPA
NFPA ANSI's Board of Standards Review, but will be fully processed in accordance with those
NFPA
NFPA requirelnents as part of the next revision cycle for this document.

Information on referenced publications can be found in Chapter 17.

All pressures used in this code are gauge pressures unless otherwise indicated.

Copyright © 2009
by
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
All Rights Reserved

No part of this work may be reproduced or recorded in any form or by any means,
except as may be expressly permitted in writing by the publisher.

Twenty-Fifth Edition

First Printing, January 2009


Second Printing, April 2009
Third Printing, October 2010
Fourth Printing, August 2011

ISSN 1081-0021
Published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials
4755 E. Philadelphia Street III Ontario, CA 91761-2816 - USA
Main Phone: (909) 472-4100 III Main Fax: (909) 472-4150
2009 UMC Foreword

The Uniform Mechanical Code™ (UMCTM) provides complete requirements for the installation and maintenance of
heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration systems, while at the same time allowing latitude for innovation and
new technologies.

This code was first published in 1967. With the publication of the 2003 edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code,
another significant milestone was reached. For the first time in the history of the United States, a mechanical code
was developed through a true consensus process. The 2009 edition represents the most current approaches in the
mechanical field and is the third edition developed under the ANSI Consensus process. Contributions to the content
of this code were made by every segment of the built industry, including such diverse interests as consumers,
enforcing authorities, installers / maintainers, labor, manufacturers, research / standards / testing laboratories, special
experts, and users.

The public at large is encouraged and invited to participate in IAPMO's open consensus code development process.
This code is updated every three years. A code development timeline and other relevant information is available at
IAPMO's website at www.iapmo.org.

The Uniform Mechanical Code is dedicated to all those who, in working to achieve "the ultimate mechanical code,"
have unselfishly devoted their time, effort, and personal funds to create and maintain this, the finest mechanical code
in existence today.

The 2009 Unifonn Mechanical Code is supported by the American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE), Mechanical
Contractors Association of America (MCAA), Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors National Association (PHCC-
NA), the United Association (UA), and the World Plumbing Council (WPC). The presence of these logos, while
reflecting support, does not imply any ownership of the copyright to the UMC which is held exclusively by IAPMO.
Further, the logos of these associations indicates the support of IAPMO's open, consensus process being used to
develop IAPMO's codes and standards.

The addresses of the organizations are as follows:


ASSE - 901 Canterbury Road, Suite A • Westlake, OH 44145-7201 ED (440) 835-3040
GREEN PLUMBERS - 4153 Northgate Blvd., Suite 1 (I Sacramento, CA 95834 (I (888) 929-6207
MCAA -1385 Piccard Drive (I Rockville, MD 20850 (I (301) 869-5800
PHCC-NA - PO Box 6808 • Falls Church, VA 22046 • (800) 533-7694
UA - 901 Massachusetts A venue NW • Washington/ DC 20001 • (202) 628-5823
WPC - WPC Secretary • c/o Mechanical Contractors Association of Alberta
#2042725-12 St. NE Calgary • Alberta T2E 7J2 Canada (I +1-40-325-072-37
P.O. Box 2005 • Marmion, Western Australia 6020 • +61-8-9448-0430

v
Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA)
A Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) to any Document may be processed if the Council Secretary
determines, after a preliminary review, and consultation with the appropriate Chair, that the Amendment
appears to be of an emergency nature requiring prompt action and has the endorsement of a Member of the
involved Technical Committee.

Sections 311,1 ,311.3 - 311.5 - This Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) was issued on November 14, 2008.
Chapter 4, Table 4-4 - This Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) was issued on March 31,2008.
Section 511.2.1 - This Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) was issued on October 15, 2009.
Chapter 11, Table 11-2 - This Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) was issued on October 15, 2009.
Section 1316.6 - 1316.6.4 - This Tentative Interim Amendment (TIA) was issued on January 7, 2011.

For further information on TIAs see Section 5 of the IAPMO Rules Governing Committee Projects -
www.iapmo.org

vi
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

These lists represent the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since tilat time, changes in the lIIembership lIIay have
occlIrred.

IAPMO Standards Council


J. Richard Wagner, Chairman
The Poole & Kent Company, [SE]

Kevin Cotter, UA Local 12 [L] Ron George, Ron George Design & Consulting Services [SE]
Bob Courtnier, State of California [U] Dave Levanger, Carbon County, Utah [E]
Jim Crawford, City of Vancouver [U] Phil Ribbs, PHR Consultants [SE]
John Garvelink, Commercial Design Engineering Ltd. [IIM] Terry Swisher, State of Oregon [E]

Nonvoting
Gabriella M. Davis, Secretary Lynne Simnick, Recording Secretary
International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials

IAPMO Uniform Mechanical Code Technical Committee


April Trafton, Chairperson
American Society of Plumbing Engineers [SE]

Bob Adler, City of San Jose, California [E] Nasser Nikravi, State of California [E]
Denise Beach, National Propane Gas Association [U] Tim Orris, Air Movement and Control Association International Inc. [M]
DJ Berger, New Orleans Pipe Trades [L] James Pave sic, United Association, [L]
Paul Cabot, American Gas Association [U] Anthony Scarano, Plastic Piping Consultant [SE]
Sid Cavanaugh, Cavanaugh Consulting [SE] John D. Sedine, Air Conditioning Contractors of America [IIM]
Ian Chang, Intertek Testing Services [R/S/T] Amir Tabakh, City of Los Angeles [E]
Richard Church, Plastic Pipe & Fittings Association [M] John Taecker, Underwriters Laboratories [R/S/T]
Harvey Kreitenberg, Harvey Kreitenberg & Associates [liM] Steven Taylor, Taylor Engineering LLC
Theodore Lemoff, NFPA International [R/S/T] Rep. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-
Ted Lowe, Radiant Panel Association [IIM] Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) [U]
David Mann, Plumbers & Steamfitters Local [L] Richard W. Vrana, City of Houston [E]

Alternates
Michael Cudahy, Plastic Pipe & Fittings Association [M] Vickie Lovell, Air Movement and Control Association
Wesley Davis, Air Conditioning Contractors of America [IIM] International Inc. [M]
James Dingman, Underwriters Laboratories [R/S/T] Michael Tharpe, City of Los Angeles [E]
TJ Dodd, Austin Area Plumbing & Pipe Fitters JATC [L] Mike Wynne, Plumbers & Steamfitters Local [L]
Scott Hamilton, United Association [L]

Nonvoting
Ron Rice, Ex -Officio IAPMO [E] Adam Muliawan, IAPMO Staff Liaison

COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP CLASSIFICATION ABBREVIATIONS


These classifications apply to Technical Committee members and represent their principal interest in the activity of a committee.

M Manllfacturer: A representative of a maker or marketer of a product, assembly or system, or portion thereof, that is affected by the standard.
U User: A representative of an entity that is subject to the provisions of the standard or that voluntarily uses the standard.
I/M Installer/Maintainer: A representative of an entity that is in the business of installing or maintaining a product, assembly or system affected by
the standard.
L Labor: A labor representative or employee concerned with safety in the workplace.
R/S/T Research/Standards/Testing Laboratory: A representative of an independent research organization; an organization that develops codes,
standards or other similar documents; or an independent testing laboratory.
E Enforcing Authority: A reperesentative or an agency or an organization that promulgates and/ or enforces standctrds.
C Consumer: A person who is, or represents, the ultimate purchaser of a product, system, or service affected by the standard, but who is not
included in the USCI' classification.
SE Special Expert: A person not representing any of the previous classifications, but who has special expertise in the scope of the standard or
portion thereof.

vii
FORM FOR PROPOSALS ON IAPMO UPC/UMC COMMITTEE DOCUMENTS
NOTE: All proposals MUST be received by 5:00 PM PST/PDST on February 1, 2010.

For further information on the standards-making process, please FOR OFFICE USE ONLY
contact Codes and Standards Administration at 909-472-4110.
lOG#:
For technical assistance, please call IAPMO at 909-230-5535 or DATEREC'D:
909-472-4111 . c

PLEASE USE SEPARATE FORM FOR EACH PROPOSAL


Please indicate in which format you wish to receive your ROP/ROC: D Download* D CD-ROM
*Note: In choosing the download option, you intend to view the ROPIAOC from our website. NO CD-ROM will be sent to you.

Date: Name: Telephone #:

Company:

Street Address: City: State: Zip:

Please Indicate Organization Represented (if any):

1. IAPMO Document Title IAPMO NO. & Year

Section/Paragraph

2. Proposal Recommends (check one):


D New Text D Revise Text D Delete Text
3. Proposal (Include proposed new wording, or identification of wording to be deleted): [Note: Proposed text should be in
legislative format: i.e., use underscore to denote wording to be inserted (inserted wording) and strike-through to denote
wording to be deleted (seletes WarSiR!3).] Please note if you are referencing a standard or other publication, please
provide two copies.

4. Statement of Problem and Substantiation for Proposal: [Note: State the problem that will be resolved by your
recommendations; give the specific reason for your proposal, including copies of tests, research papers, etc. If more
than 200 words, it may be abstracted for publication.]

5. D This proposal is original material. [Note: Original material is considered to be the submitter's own idea based on
or as a result of his/her own experience, thought, or research and, to the best of his/her knowledge, is not copied from
another source.]

D This proposal is not original material, its source (if known) is as follows:

I hereby grant the IAPMO all and full rights in copyright, in this proposal, and I understand that I acquire no rights in any
publication of IAPMO in which this proposal in this or another similar or analogous form is used.

Signature (Required):

IAPMO CODES DEPARTMENT FAX • (909) 472-4198 or (877) 852-6337


Mail to: Code Development • IAPMO • 4755 E Philadelphia Street • Ontario • CA • 91761-2816
Email to: codechange@iapmo.org

viii
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUB ITTING PROPOSALS
-- PLEASE READ CAREFULLy .....
1. Type or print in BLACK ink.

2. Indicate the title of the document and the document year. Also indicate the specific section or
paragraph that the proposed amendment applies to.

3. Check the appropriate box to indicate whether this proposal recommends adding new text,
revising existing text, or deleting text.

4. In the space identified as "Proposal", indicate the exact wording you propose as new or
revised text, or the text you propose be deleted.

5. In the space titled "Statement of Problem and Substantiation for Proposal", state the problem
that will be resolved by your recommendation and give the specific reason for your proposal.
Include copies of test results, research papers, fire experience, or other materials that
substantiate your recommendation. [See note below, item (f).]

6. Check the appropriate box to indicate whether or not this proposal is original material, and, if
it is not, indicate the source of the material.

7. Sign the proposal.

If supplementary material (photographs, diagrams, reports, etc.) is included, you may be required
to submit sufficient copies for all members and alternates of the technical committee. For
publication in the Report on Proposals, the technical committee is authorized to abstract the
"Statement of Problem and Substantiation for Proposal" if it exceeds 200 words.

NOTE: The IAPMO Regulations Governing Committee Projects in Paragraph 4-3.3 state: Each
proposal shall be submitted to the Council Secretary and shall include:
(a) identification of the submitter and his or her affiliation (i.e., technical committee, organization,
company), where appropriate;
(b) identification of the document, edition of the document, and paragraph of the document to
which the proposal is directed;
(c) the proposed text of the proposal, including the wording to be added, revised (and how
revised), or deleted;
(d) a statement of the problem and substantiation for proposal;
(e) the signature of the submitter; and
(f) two copies of any document(s) (other than an IAPMO document) being proposed as a
reference standard or publication (see 3-3.7).

ix
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Administration .................. 1 113.0 Application for Permit ............ .4


Part I - General ......................... 1 113.1 Application ..................... .4
101.0 Title ............................. 1 113.2 Plans and Specifications ........... .4
102.0 Purpose ......................... 1 113.3 Information on Plans and
103.0 Scope ........................... 1 Specifications ................... .4
103.1 General .......................... 1 114.0 Permit Issuance .................. .4
103.2 Conflicts ......................... 1 114.1 Issuance ........................... .4
103.3 Design and Testing ............... 1 114.2 Retention of Plans ............... .5
103.4 Appendices ...................... 1 114.3 Validity of Permit ................ .5
104.0 Application to Existing 114.4 Expiration ....................... .5
Mechanical Systems ............. 1 114.5 Suspension or Revocation ......... .5
104.1 Additions, Alterations, or Repairs ... 1 115.0 Fees ............................. 5
104.2 Existing Installations .............. 1 115.1 General ......................... .5
104.3 Changes in Building Occupancy ..... 1 115.2 Permit Fees ...................... 5
104.4 Maintenance ...................... 1 115.3 Plan Review Fees ................ .5
104.5 Moved Buildings ................. 1 115.4 Expiration of Plan Review ........ .5
105.0 Alternate Materials and Methods 115.5 Investigation Fees - Work Without a
of Construction Equivalency ..... 2 Permit ........................... 6
106.0 Intent ........................... 2 115.6 Fee Refunds ...................... 6
107.0 Testing .......................... 2 116.0 Inspections ....................... 6
116.1 General .......................... 6
Part II - Organization and Enforcement ... 2 116.2 Operation of Mechanical
Equipment ....................... 6
10S.0 Powers and Duties of the
Authority Having Jurisdiction ...... 2 116.3 Testing of Equipment ............. 6
10S.1 General .......................... 2 116.4 Inspection Requests ............... 6
10S.2 Deputies ......................... 2 116.5 Other Inspections ................... 6
10S.3 Right of Entry .................... 2 116.6 Reinspections .................... 6
10S.4 Stop Orders ...................... 2 117.0 Connection Approval ............. 7
10S.5 Authority to Disconnect Utilities in 117.1 Energy Connections ............... 7
Emergencies ........................ 2 117.2 Temporary Connections ........... 7
10S.6 Authority to Condemn Equipment . .2 Table 1-1 Mechanical Permit Fees ............ S
10S.7 Connection After Order to
Disconnect ....................... 3 Chapter 2 Definitions .....................l l
10S.S Liability ......................... 3 201.0 General ......................... 11
10S.9 Cooperation of Other Officials and 202.0 Accepted Meanings .............. 11
Officers ........................... .3
109.0 Unsafe Equipment ................ 3
Chapter 3 General Requirements .......... 21
110.0 Board of Appeals .................3
301.0 Scope .......................... 21
110.1 General ............................ 3
302.0 Approval ....................... 21
110.2 Limitations of Authority .......... .3
302.1 How Obtained ................. .21
111.0 Violations ........................ 3
302.2 Complying Design of Equipment .. 21
302.3 Oil-Burning Appliances .......... 21
Part III - Permits and Inspections ........ .4
303.0 Installation ...................... 21
112.0 Permits ......................... .4 303.1 Listed Appliances ................ 21
112.1 Permits Required ................ .4 303.2 Room Large in Comparison to
112.2 Exempt Work ................... .4 Size of Equipment ............... 21

x
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

303.3 Unlisted Appliances .............. 21 Chapter 4 Ventilation Air Supply ........... 33


303.4 Anchorage of Appliances ......... 21 401.0 General ......................... 33
303.6 Identification of Equipment ....... 21 402.0 Ventilation Air .................. 33
303.7 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 402.1 General Requirements ............ 33
Facilities ........................ 21 402.2 Natural Ventilation .............. 33
303.8 Equipment on Roofs ............. 21 402.3 Mechanical Ventilation ........... 33
304.0 Service and Access 403.0 Ventilation Rates ................ 33
to Equipment and Appliances ..... 22 403.1 Zone Calculations ................ 33
304.1 Access to Equipment on Roofs ..... 22 403.2 Single-Zone Systems ............. 34
305.0 Automatic Control Devices ....... .22 403.3 100% Outdoor Air Systems ........ 34
306.0 Labeling ....................... .23 403.4 Multiple-Zone Recirculating
306.1 Fuel-Burning Appliances .......... 23 Systems ........................ 34
306.2 Electric Heating Appliances ....... 23 403.5 Design for Varying Operating
306.3 Heat Pump and Electric Cooling Conditions ...................... 34
Appliances ...................... 23 403.6 Dynamic Reset .................. 34
307.0 Location ........................ 23 403.7 Exhaust Ventilation .............. 34
307.1 Protection Against Damage ....... 23 404.0 Makeup Air ..................... 34
307.2 Protection Against Flood Damage .. 24 405.0 Evaporative Cooling Systems ...... 35
308.0 Electrical Connections ............ 24 405.1 Location ........................ 35
309.0 Condensate Wastes and Control ... 24 405.2 Access, Inspection, and Repair ....... 35
309.1 Condensate Disposal ............. 24 405.3 Installation ...................... 35
309.2 Condensate Control ............. .24 Table 4-1 Minimum Ventilation Rates in
309.3 Condensate Waste Sizing ......... 24 Breathing Zone .................. 36
Table 3-1 Minimum Condensate Pipe Size ... 24 Table 4-2 Zone Air Distribution
Effectiveness .................... 38
309.4 Fuel-Burning Appliance
Condensate Drains ............... 25 Table 4-3 System Ventilation Efficiency ...... 38
309.5 Plastic Fittings .................. .25 Table 4-4 Minimum Exhaust Rates ......... .39

310.0 Personnel Protection ............. 25


Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems .............. .41
311.0 Heating or Cooling Air System .... 25
501.0 Scope ......................... .41
311.1 Source .......................... 25
311.2 Air Filters ....................... 25
Part 1- Environmental Air Ducts and
311.3 Prohibited Source ................ 25
Product-Conveying Systems ... .41
311.4 Return-Air Limitations ........... 25
502.0 Definitions ..................... .41
311.5 Outside Air Inlet Protection ...... .25
502.1 Product-Conveying Ducts-
312.0 Water Supply .................. .26 Classification ................... .44
Table 3-2 Standard Installation Clearances in 503.0 Motors, Fans, and Filters ......... .44
Inches for Unlisted Heat-Producing
503.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Appliances ...................... 27
503.2 Fans ........................... 44
Table 3-3 Clearances, in Inches, with Specified
Forms of Protection .............. 29 504.0 Environmental Air Ducts ........ .44
504.1 Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts .. .44
Table 3-4 Chimney Connector and Vent
Connector Clearances from 504.2 Domestic Range Vents ........... .44
Combustible Materials ........... 30 504.3 Clothes Dryers ................. .45
Table 3-5 Capacities of Listed Metal 504.4 Heat (Energy) Recovery
Appliance Connectors ............ 31 Ventilators ..................... .45
Table 3-6 Capacities of Listed Metal 504.5 Termination of Environmental
Appliance Connectors ............ 31 Air Ducts ...................... .45

xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS

504.6 Gypsum Wallboard Ducts ....... .45 510.3 Openings ....................... 56


505.0 Design of Product-Conveying 510.4 Listed Grease Ducts .............. 57
Ventilation Systems ............. .45 510.5 Other Grease Ducts .............. 57
505.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 510.6 Exterior Installations ............ .58
505.2 Minimum Velocities and 510.7 Interior Installations .............. 58
Circulation ..................... .46
510.8 Termination of Exhaust System .... 59
505.3 Makeup Air .................... .46
510.9 Solid-Fuel Duct Systems .......... 60
505.4 Hoods and Enclosures ........... .46
511.0 Air Movement ................... 60
Table 5-1 Minimum Conveying Velocities .. .46
511.1 Exhaust Fans for Commercial
506.0 Product-Conveying Ducts ........ .47 Cooking Equipment .............. 60
506.1 Materials ...................... .47
511.2 Airflow ......................... 61
506.2 Construction ................... .47
511.3 Replacement Air ................. 62
506.3 Fittings ........................ .47
511.4 Common Duct (Manifold)
506.4 Explosion Venting .............. .47 Systems ........................ 62
506.5 Supports ....................... .48 511.5 Solid-Fuel Air Movement
506.6 Fire Protection .................. .48 Requirements ................... 63
506.7 Duct Clearances ................ .48 512.0 Auxiliary Equipment ............. 63
Table 5-2 Reduction of Duct Clearance with ... . 512.1 Dampers ....................... 63
Specified Forms of Protection ..... .49 512.2 Electrical Equipment ............. 63
506.8 Protection from Physical Damage .. 49 512.3 Other Equipment ................ 63
506.9 Exhaust Outlets ................. .49 512.4 Solid-Fuel Auxiliary Equipment ... 63
Table 5-3 Reduction of Clearances with 513.0 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment ..... 63
Specified Forms of Protection ...... 50 513.1 General Requirements ............ 63
513.2 Types of Equipment .............. 64
Part II - Commercial Hoods and 513.3 Simultaneous Operation .......... 65
Kitchen Ventilation ............ .51 513.4 Fuel Shutoff ..................... 65
507.0 General Requirements ........... .51 513.5 Manual Activation ............... 65
507.2 Clearance ....................... 51 513.6 System Annunciation ............. 65
508.0 Hoods .......................... 53 513.7 System Supervision .............. 65
508.1 Where Required ................ .53 513.8 Special Design and Application .... 66
508.4 Hood Size ...................... 54
513.9 Review and Certification .......... 66
508.5 Exhaust Hood Assemblies with
513.10 Installation Requirements ......... 66
Integrated Supply-Air Plenums ....55
513.11 Portable Fire Extinguishers ........ 66
508.6 Listed Hood Assemblies ..........55
513.12 Solid -Fuel Fire-Extinguishing
508.7 Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies ...... 55
Equipment ...................... 66
508.8 Listed Ultra-Violet Hoods .........55
514.0 Proced ures for the Use and
508.9 Exhaust Outlets .................. 55 Maintenance of Equipment ....... 66
509.0 Grease Removal Devices in 514.1 Operating Procedures ............ 66
Hoods .......................... 55 514.2 Inspection ...................... 67
509.1 Grease Removal Devices ......... .55 514.3 Inspection for Grease Buildup ..... 67
509.2 Installation ..................... .55 514.4 Cleaning of Exhaust Systems ...... 67
509.3 Solid-Fuel Grease Removal Table 5-4 Exhaust System Inspection
Devices ......................... 56 Schedule ........................ 67
510.0 Exhaust Duct Systems ........... .56 515.0 Minimum Safety Requirements
510.1 General ......................... 56 for Cooking Equipment .......... 68
510.2 Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 515.1 Cooking Equipment .............. 68

xii
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

515.2 Operating Controls .............. 68 604.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts .......... 77


515.3 Cooking Equipment Maintenance .. 68 604.4 Protection of Ducts ............... 77
516.0 Recirculating Systems ............ 68 604.5 Support of Ducts ................. 77
516.1 General Requirements ............ 68 604.6 Protection Against Flood Damage .. 77
516.2 Design Restrictions ............... 69 605.0 Insulation of Ducts ............... 77
516.3 Interlocks ....................... 69 606.0 Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers,
516.4 Location and Application and Ceiling Dampers ............ 78
Restrictions ..................... 70 606.1 Smoke Dampers ................. 78
516.5 Additional Fire Safety 606.2 Fire Dampers .................... 78
Requirements ................... 70 606.3 Ceiling Radiation Dampers ....... 78
516.6 Use and Maintenance ............ 70 606.4 Multiple Arrangements ........... 78
517.0 Solid-Fuel Cooking Operations .... 70 606.5 Access and Identification .......... 78
517.1 Venting Application .............. 70 606.6 Freedom from Interference ........ 78
517.2 Location of Appliances ........... 70 606.7 Temperature Classification of
517.3 Hoods for Solid-Fuel Cooking ..... 70 Operating Elements ............. .78
607.0 Ventilating Ceilings .............. 79
517.4 Exhaust Systems for Solid-Fuel
Cooking ........................ 71 607.1 General ......................... 79
517.5 Grease Removal Devices for 607.2 Requirements ................... 79
Solid-Fuel Cooking .............. 71 608.0 Use of Under-Floor Space as
517.6 Air Movement for Solid-Fuel Supply Plenum for Dwelling
Cooking ........................ 71 Units .......................... .79
517.7 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment for 609.0 Automatic Shutoffs ............. .79
Solid-Fuel Cooking .............. 71 Table 6-1 Duct Construction for 4 feet
517.8 Other Safety Requirements ........ 72 Duct Lengths .................... 81
Table 5-5 Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness Table 6-2 Duct Construction for 5 feet
for Round Ducts for Product- Duct Lengths .................... 82
Conveying System Ducts ......... 73 Table 6-3 Thickness Adjustments ........... 83
Table 5-6 Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness Table 6-4 Dimension Adjustments .......... 83
for Rectangular Ducts ............ 74 Table 6-5 Reinforcements .................. 83
Table 6-6 A (I-P Units) Minimum Duct
Chapter 6 Duct Systems .................. 75 Insulation R Value Cooling and
Heating Only Supply Ducts and
601.0 Scope .......................... 75
Return Ducts .................... 84
601.2 Sizing Requirements ............. 75
Table 6-6 B (I-P Units) Minimum Duct
602.0 Material ........................ 75 Insulation R Value Combined
602.1 General ......................... 75 Heating and Cooling Ducts ....... 85
602.2 Combustibles Within Ducts or Table 6-7 Duct Support .................... 86
Plenums ........................ 75 Table 6-8 Construction Details for Round
602.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts ......... .76 and Flat-Oval Ducts .............. 87
602.4 Joints and Seams of Ducts ......... 76 Table 6-9 Thickness of Metal Ducts and
602.5 Metal ................ " .... " ... 76 Plenums Used for Heating or
Cooling for a Single-Dwelling
602.6 Tin ............................. 76
Unit ..... " .... " ............... 87
602.7 Vibration Isolators ............... 76
Table6-10 Alternate Supports for Factory-
603.0 Quality of Material .............. .76 Made Air Ducts ................. 88
604.0 Installation of Ducts .............. 77
604.1 General Ducts Under Floor or Chapter 7 Combustion Air .................89
Crawl Space .................... .77 701.0 Air for Combustion and
604.2 Metal Ducts ..................... 77 Ventilation ...................... 89

xiii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

701.1 General ......................... 89 802.13 Manually Operated Dampers ..... 106


701.2 Indoor Combustion Air ............ 89 802.14 Automatically Operated Vent
701.3 Indoor Opening Size and Location .89 Dampers ..................... .106
701.4 Outdoor Combustion Air .......... 90 802.15 Obstructions ................... 106
701.5 Combination Indoor and Outdoor 803.0 Sizing of Category I Venting
Combustion Air .................. 90 Systems ....................... 106
701.6 Engineered Installations .......... 90 803.2 Additional Requirements to
701.7 Mechanical Combustion Air Multiple Appliance Vent
Supply ............ , ..... , ...... 90 Tables 8-10 thru 8-14,
8-16 thru 8-19 .................. 107
701.8 Mechanical Combustion Air
Requirements .................. 90 Table 8-5 Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent .... 112
701.9 Louvers, Grilles and Screens ....... 91 Table 8-6 Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent .... 115
701.10 Combustion-Air Ducts ............ 91 Table 8-7 Masonry Chimney .............. 117
701.11 Dampers Prohibited .............. 91 Table 8-8 Masonry Chimney .............. 119
Table 8-9 Single-Wall Metal Pipe or
Chapter 8 Chimneys and Vents ..... , ...... 93 Type B Asbestos Cement Vent .... 121
801.0 Scope .......................... 93 Table 8-10 Exterior Masonry Chimney ...... 122
801.1 Venting of Gas Appliances ........ 93 Table8-11 Type B Double-Wall Vent ....... 123
801.2 Appliances Fueled by Other Fuels .. 93 Table8-12 Type B Double-Wall Vent ... , .... 127
802.0 Venting of Appliances ............ 93 Table 8-13 Masonry Chimney .............. 129
802.1 General ..... , ................... 93 Table8-14 Masonry Chimney .............. 131
802.2 Specification for Venting .......... 93 Table 8-15 Single-Wall Metal Pipe or
802.3 Design and Construction ......... 94 Type B Asbestos Cement Vent .... 133
802.4 Type of Venting System to Be Table 8-16 Exterior Masonry Chimney ...... 133
Used ....... , ............ , ...... 94 Table 8-17 Exterior Masonry Chimney ...... 134
802.5 Masonry, Metal, and Factory-Built Table 8-18 Exterior Masonry Chimney ...... 135
Chimneys ........................ 95 Table 8-19 Exterior Masonry Chimney ...... 136
Table 8-1 Type of Venting System to be
Used ............................ 95
Chapter 9 Installation of Specific
802.6 Gas Vents ....................... 97 Appliances .................... 137
802.7 Single-Wall Metal Pipe ........... 99 901.0 Scope ......................... 137
Table 8-2 Clearance for Connectors ........ 100
902.0 General ........................ 137
802.8 Through-the-W all Vent
Termination .................... 101 902.1 Added or Converted Appliances .. 137
802.9 Condensation Drain ............. 102 902.2 Type of Gas(es) ................. 137
802.10 Vent Connectors for Category I 903.0 Air-Conditioning A pp liances
Appliances ..................... 102 (Gas-Fired Air Conditioners and
Heat Pumps) ., ................. 137
Table 8-3 Minimum Thickness for
Galvanized Steel Vent Connectors 903.1 Independent Gas Piping ......... 137
for Low- Heat Appliances ....... .102 903.2 Connection of Gas Engine-
Table 8-4 Minimum Thickness for Steel Vent Powered Air Conditioners ....... 137
Connectors for Medium-Heat 903.3 Clearances for Indoor Installation .137
Appliances and Commercial and 903.4 Assembly and Installation ....... 138
Industrial Incinerators ........... 103
903.5 Furnace Plenums and Air
802.11 Vent Connectors for
Ducts ......................... 138
Category II, Category III, and
Category IV Appliances ......... 105 903.6 Refrigeration Coils .............. 138
802.12 Draft Hoods and Draft 903.7 Switches in Electrical Supply
Controls ....................... 105 Line ........................... 138

xiv
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

904.0 Central Heating Boilers 909.7 Relief Openings ................ 144


and Furnaces ................... 138 909.8 Purging ....................... 144
904.1 Location ....................... 138 910.0 Recirculating Direct Gas-Fired
904.2 Clearance ...................... 138 Industrial Air Heaters .......... 144
904.3 Assembly and Installation ....... 139 910.1 Application .................... 144
904.4 Temperature- or Pressure- 910.2 Prohibited Installations .......... 144
Limiting Devices ................ 140 910.3 Installation ..................... 144
904.5 Low-Water Cutoff .............. 140 910.4 Clearance from Combustible
904.6 Steam Safety and Pressure- Materials ...................... 144
Relief Valves ................... 140 910.5 Air Supply ..................... 144
904.7 Furnace Plenums and Air Table 9-1 Clearances to Combustible Material
Ducts ......................... 140 for Unlisted Furnaces, Boilers, and
904.8 Refrigeration Coils .............. 141 Air Conditioners Installed in Rooms
That Are Large in Comparison
904.9 Cooling Units Used with
with the Size of Appliances ...... 145
Heating Boilers ................. 141
Table 9.2 Free Opening Area of Chimney
904.10 Access to Appliances on Roofs .... 141
Damper for Venting Flue Gases
904.11 Appliances in Attics and Under- from Unlisted Decorative
Floor Spaces ................... 141 Appliances for Installation in
905.0 Clothes Dryers ................. 142 Vented Fireplaces ............... 145
905.1 Clearance ...................... 142 910.6 Atmospheric Vents, Gas
905.2 Exhausting to the Outdoors ...... 142 Reliefs or Bleeds ................ 145
905.3 Provisions for Makeup Air ....... 142 910.7 Relief Openings ................ 145
905.4 Exhaust Ducts for Type 1 910.8 Purging ....................... 146
Clothes Dryers ................. 142 911.0 Duct Furnaces .................. 146
905.5 Exhaust Ducts for Type 2 911.1 Clearances ..................... 146
Clothes Dryers ................. 142 911.2 Installation of Duct Furnaces ..... 146
905.6 Multiple Family or Public Use .... 142
911.3 Access Panels .................. 146
906.0 Conversion Burners ............. 143
911.4 Location of Draft Hoods and
907.0 Decorative Appliances for Controls ....................... 146
Installation in Vented Fireplaces .. 143
911.5 Circulating Air ................. 146
907.1 Prohibited Installations .......... 143
911.6 Duct Furnaces Used with
907.2 Installation ..................... 143 Refrigeration Systems ........... 146
907.3 Fireplace Screens ............... 143 911.7 Installation in Commercial
908.0 Gas Fireplaces, Vented .......... 143 Garages and Aircraft Hangars .... 146
908.1 Prohibited Installations .......... 143 911.8 Installation in Commercial
908.2 Installation ..................... 143 Garages ....................... 146
908.3 Combustion and Circulating 911.9 Installation in Aircraft Hangars ... 147
Air ............................ 143 912.0 Floor Furnaces ................. 147
909.0 Non-Recirculating Direct Gas- 912.1 Installation ..................... 147
Fired Industrial Air Heaters ...... 143
912.2 Temperature Limit Controls ..... .147
909.1 Application .................... 143
912.3 Combustion and Circulating Air .. 147
909.2 Prohibited Installations .......... 143
912.4 Placement ..................... 147
909.3 Installation ..................... 143
912.5 Bracing ........................ 147
909.4 Clearance from Combustible
Materials ...................... 144 912.6 Support ....................... 147
909.5 Air Supply ..................... 144 912.7 Clearance ...................... 147
909.6 Atmospheric Vents, Gas 912.8 Access ......................... .147
Reliefs or Bleeds ................ 144 912.9 Seepage Pan ................... 148

xv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

912.10 Wind Protection ................ 148 919.5 Installation in Commercial


912.11 Upper-Floor Installations ........ 148 Garages and Aircraft Hangars .... 152
912.12 First Floor Installation ........... 148 920.0 Open-Top Broiler Units .......... 152
913.0 Food Service Appliances, Floor 920.1 Listed Units .................... 152
Mounted ....................... 148 920.2 Unlisted Units .................. 152
913.1 Clearance for Listed 920.3 Protection Above Domestic Units .152
Appliances ..................... 148 920.4 Commercial Units .............. 152
913.2 Clearance for Unlisted 921.0 Outdoor Cooking Appliances .... 152
Appliances ..................... 148 921.1 Listed Units .................... 152
913.3 Mounting on Combustible Floor .. 148 921.2 Unlisted Units .................. 152
913.4 Mounting on Noncombustible 922.0 Pool Heaters ................... 152
Floor .......................... 149 922.1 Location ....................... 152
913.5 Combustible Material Adjacent 922.2 Clearance ...................... 152
to Cooking Top ................. 149
922.3 Temperature or Pressure-
913.6 Use with Casters ................ 149 Limiting Devices ................ 152
913.7 Level Installation ............... 149 922.4 Bypass Valves .................. 153
913.8 Ventilation ..................... 149 922.5 Venting ........................ 153
914.0 Food Service Counter Appliances, 923.0 Refrigerators ................... 153
Counter Appliances ............. 149 923.1 Clearance ...................... 153
914.1 Vertical Clearance .............. 149 923.2 Venting or Ventilating Kits
914.2 Clearance for Listed Appliances .. 149 Approved for Use With a
914.3 Clearance for Unlisted Refrigerator .................... 153
Appliances ..................... 149 924.0 Room Heaters .................. 153
914.4 Mounting of Unlisted Appliances .149 924.1 Prohibited Installations .......... 153
915.0 Hot Plates and Laundry Stoves ., .149 924.2 Installations in Institutions ....... 153
916.0 Household Cooking Appliances .. 150 924.3 Clearance ...................... 153
924.4 W all-Type Room Heaters ........ 154
916.1 Floor-Mounted Units ............ 150
925.0 Stationary Gas Engines .......... 154
916.2 Built-In Units ................... 150
926.0 Gas-Fired Toilets ............... 154
917.0 Illuminating Appliances ......... 151
926.1 Clearance ...................... 154
917.1 Clearances for Listed Appliances .151
926.2 Installation on Combustible
917.2 Clearances for Unlisted
Floors ......................... 154
Appliances ..................... 151
926.3 Installation ..................... 154
Table 9-3 Clearances for Unlisted Outdoor
Open-Flame Illuminating 927.0 Unit Heaters ................... 154
Appliances ..................... 151 927.1 Support ....................... 154
917.3 Mounting on Buildings .......... 151 927.2 Clearance ...................... 154
917.4 Mounting on Posts .............. 151 927.3 Combustion and Circulating Air .. 154
917.5 Gas Appliance Pressure 927.4 Ductwork ...................... 154
Regulators ..................... 151 927.5 Installation in Commercial
918.0 Incinerators, Commercial- Garages and Aircraft Hangars .... 154
Industrial ...................... 151 928.0 Wall Furnaces .................. 155
919.0 Infrared Heaters ................ 151 928.1 Installation ..................... 155
919.1 Support ....................... 151 928.2 Location ....................... 155
919.2 Suspended Low-Intensity 928.3 Combustion and Circulating Air .. 155
Infrared Tube Heaters ........... 152 929.0 Appliances for Installation in
919.3 Clearance ...................... 152 Manufactured Housing ......... 155
919.4 Combustion and Ventilation Air .. 152 930.0 Small Ceramic Kilns ............. 155

xvi
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

930.1 General ........................ 155 1016.0 Chimneys or Vents .............. 161


930.2 Installation ..................... 155 1017.0 Drainage ...................... 161
930.3 Fuel-Gas Controls ............... 155 1018.0 Fuel Piping, Tanks, and Valves .. .161
930.4 Electrical Equipment ............ 155 1019.0 Air for Combustion and
930.5 Installations Inside Buildings ..... 155 Ventilation .................... .161
930.6 Exterior Installations ............ 156 1020.0 Operating Adjustments and
931.0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Instructions ................... .161
Vehicular Fuel Systems .......... 156 1021.0 Inspections and Tests ............ 161
932.0 Outdoor Open Flame Decorative 1022.0 Operating Permit ............... 162
Appliances ..................... 156 1023.0 Maintenance Inspection ......... 162
933.0 Appliances for Installation in 1024.0 Operation and Maintenance of
Manufactured Housing .......... 156 Boilers and Pressure Vessels ...... 162
934.0 Fuel Cell Power Plants ........... 156 Table 10-3 Controls and Limit Devices for
Automatic Boilers ............... 163

Chapter 10 Steam and Hot Water Boilers ... 157


Chapter 11 Refrigeration .................. 165
1001.0 Scope ......................... 157
1101.0 Scope ......................... 165
1002.0 Workmanship .................. 157
1003.0 Definitions ..................... 157
Part 1- Refrigeration Systems ......... 165
1004.0 Detailed Requirements .......... 158
1102.0 General ........................ 165
1004.1 Safety Requirements ............ 158
1102.1 Refrigerants .................... 165
1004.2 Controls ....................... 159
1103.0 Refrigerant Classification ........ 165
1004.3 Gauges ........................ 159
1004.4 Stack Dampers ................. 159 1104.0 Classification of Refrigeration
Systems ....................... 165
1004.5 Welding ...................... .159
1104.1 High-Probability System ......... 165
1005.0 Expansion Tanks ............... 159
1104.2 Low-Probability System ......... 165
1005.1 General ........................ 159
1105.0 Requirements for Refrigerant and
1005.2 Systems with Open Expansion
Refrigeration System Use ........ 165
Tanks ......................... 159
1105.1 System Selection ................ 165
1005.3 Closed-Type Systems ............ 159
1105.2 Volume of Occupied Space ....... 165
1005.4 Minimum Capacity of Closed-
Type Tank ..................... 159 1105.3 Refrigerated Process and Storage
Areas ......................... 165
Table 10-1 Expansion Tank Capacities for
Gravity Hot Water Systems ...... 159 1105.4 Refrigerant Purity ............... .166
Table 10-2 Expansion Tank Capacities for 1106.0 General Requirements .......... .166
Forced Hot Water Systems ....... 160 1106.1 Human Comfort ................ 166
1006.0 Safety or Relief Valve Discharge .. 160 1106.2 Supports and Anchorage ........ 166
1007.0 Shutoff Valves .................. 160 1106.3 Access ......................... 166
1008.0 Gas-Pressure Regulators ......... 160 1106.4 Illumination and Service
1009.0 Low-Water Cutoff .............. 160 Receptacles .................... 166
1010.0 Combustion Regulators - 1106.5 Protection from Mechanical
Safety Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Damage ....................... 166
1011.0 Automatic Boilers ............... 160 1106.6 Electrical ...................... 167
1012.0 Clearance for Access ............ 160 1106.7 Ventilation of Rooms Containing
1013.0 Boiler Rooms and Enclosures ..... 161 Condensing Units ............... 167
1014.0 Mounting ...................... 161 1106.8 Prohibited Locations ............ 167
1015.0 Floors ......................... 161 1106.9 Condensation Control ........... 167

xvii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1106.10 Condensate .................... 167 1111.7 Joints .......................... 170


1106.11 Defrost ........................ 167 1111.8 Identification ................... 170
1106.12 Overflows ..................... 167 1112.0 Refrigerant Control Valves ....... 170
1106.13 Condensate, Defrost, and 1112.1 Location ....................... 170
Overflow Disposal .............. 167 1112.2 Support ....................... 171
1107.0 Refrigeration Machinery Rooms .. 167 1112.3 Access ......................... 171
1107.1 When Required ................. 167 1112.4 Identification ...................... 171
1107.2 Dimensions ................... .167 1113.0 Pressure-Limiting Devices ....... 171
1107.3 Exits .......................... 168 1113.1 When Required ................. 171
1107.4 Refrigerant-Vapor Alarms ....... 168 1113.2 Setting ....................... .171
1107.5 Separation ..................... 168 1113.3 Connection .................... 171
1107.6 Combustion Air and Return Air .. 168 1113.4 Operation ...................... 171
1107.7 Special Requirements ............ 168 1114.0 Pressure-Relief Devices .......... 171
1108.0 Refrigeration Machinery 1114.1 General ........................ 171
Room Ventilation ............... 168 1114.2 Positive-Displacement
1108.1 General ........................ 168 Compressor .................... 171
1108.2 Refrigeration Machinery Rooms .. 168 1114.3 Liquid-Containing Portions of
1108.3 Distribution of Ventilation ....... 168 Systems ....................... 171
1114.4 Evaporators .................... 171
1108.4 Intermittent Control of the
Ventilation Systems ............. 169 1114.5 Actuation ...................... 171
1108.5 Emergency Control of the 1114.6 Stop Valves Prohibited .......... 171
Ventilation Systems ............. 169 1114.7 Location ....................... 171
1108.6 Central Control of Ventilation 1114.8 Materials ....................... 172
Systems ....................... 169 1115.0 Pressure-Relief Device Settings ... 172
1108.7 Ventilation Discharge ........... 169 1115.1 Pressure-Relief Valve Setting ..... .172
1108.8 Fans .......................... 169 1115.2 Rupture Member Setting ......... 172
1108.9 Ventilation Intake ............... 169 1116.0 Marking of Pressure-Relief
1109.0 Refrigeration Machinery Room Devices ........................ 172
Equipment and Controls ......... 169 1116.1 Pressure-Relief Valves ........... 172
1109.1 General ........................ 169 1116.2 Rupture Members .............. 172
1109.2 Electrical ...................... 169 1116.3 Fusible Plugs ................... 172
1109.3 Storage ........................ 170 1117.0 Overpressure Protection ......... 172
1109.4 Emergency Control ............. 170 1117.1 General ........................ 172
1110.0 Refrigeration Piping, Containers, 1117.2 Type of Protection .............. 172
and Valves ..................... 170 1117.3 Three-Way Valve Required ...... 172
1110.1 General ........................ 170 1117.4 Parallel Pressure-Relief Devices ... 172
1110.2 Nonferrous Materials ............ 170 1117.5 Discharge Capacity ............. .172
1110.3 Ferrous Materials ............... 170 1117.6 Rating of Pressure-Relief Valves .. 172
1111.0 Erection of Refrigerant Piping .... 170 1117.7 Rating of Rupture Members and
1111.1 General ........................ 170 Fusible Plugs .................. .172
1111.2 Support ....................... 170 1117.8 Discharge Location .............. 173
1111.3 Protection from Damage ......... 170 1118.0 Discharge Piping ............... 173
1111.4 Visual Inspection ............... 170 1119.0 Special Discharge Requirements .. 173
1111.5 Prohibited Locations ............ 170 1119.1 General ........................ 173
1111.6 Underground Piping ........... .170 1119.2 Design Requirements ............ 173

xviii
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

1119.3 Testing ......................... 173 1204.0 Piping Materials ................ 190


1120.0 Ammonia Discharge ............ 173 1204.1 Panel(s) ........................ 190
1121.0 Detection and Alarm Systems '" .174 1204.2 Hot-Water Supply Lines ......... 190
1121.1 General ........................ 174 1205.0 Piping Joints ................... 190
1121.2 Power and Supervision .......... 174 1206.0 Heat Sources ................... 190
1121.3 Annunciation ................. .174 1207.0 Testing ........................ 191
1121.4 Installation, Maintenance, and
Testing ............................ 174
Chapter 13 Fuel Gas Piping ............... 193
1122.0 Emergency Pressure Control
Part I - Fuel Piping ....................193
System ........................ 174
1301.0 Scope ......................... 193
1123.0 Equipment Identification ........ 174
1302.0 General ........................ 193
1124.0 Testing of Refrigeration
Equipment ..................... 174 1303.0 Definitions ..................... 193
1124.1 Factory Tests ................... 174 1303.1 Appliance Fuel Connector ....... 193
1124.2 Field Tests ..................... 174 1303.2 Fuel Gas ....................... 193
1124.3 Test Medium .................... 174 1303.3 Gas Piping ...................... 193
1124.4 Declaration .................... 174 1303.4 Gas Piping System .............. 194
1124.5 Brine Systems .................. 174 1303.5 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas)
1125.0 Maintenance and Operation ...... 175 Facilities ....................... 194
1126.0 Storage of Refrigerants 1303.6 Provision for Location of Point
and Refrigerant Oils ............. 175 of Delivery ...................... 194
1303.7 Quick-Disconnect Device ........ 194
Part II - Cooling Towers ................ 175 1303.8 Service Piping .................. 194
1127.0 General ........................ 175 1303.9 Transition Gas Riser .............. 194
1128.0 Support and Anchorage ......... 175 1304.0 Inspection ..................... 194
1129.0 Drainage ...................... 175 1305.0 Certificate of Inspection ......... 194
1130.0 Chemical Treatment Systems ..... 175 1306.0 Authority to Render Gas Service .. 194
1131.0 Location ....................... 175 1307.0 Authority to Disconnect ........ .195
1132.0 Electrical ...................... 175 1308.0 Temporary Use of Gas ........... 195
1133.0 Refrigerants and Hazardous 1309.0 Gas Piping System Design,
Fluids ......................... 175 Materials, and Components ..... 195
Table 11-1 Refrigerant Groups, Properties, 1309.1 Piping Plan .................... 195
and Allowable Quantities ........ 176
1309.2 Provision for Location of Point
Table 11-2 Permissible Refrigeration
of Delivery ..................... 195
Systems ....................... 180
Table 11-3 Value of Factor Dependent for 1309.3 Interconnections Between Gas
Equation 11-6 .................. 181 Piping Systems ................. 195
Table 11-4 Field Leak Test Pressures 1309.4 Sizing of Gas Piping Systems ..... 195
in psig (kPa) ................... 181 Table 13-1 Approximate Gas Input for
Typical Appliances .............. 196
Chapter 12 Hydronics ..................... 183 1309.5 Acceptable Piping Materials
Part I - Steam and Water Piping ........ 183 and Joining Methods ............ 196
1201.0 Scope ......................... 183 Table 13-2 Specifications for Threading
Metallic Pipe ................... 198

Part II - Hydronic Panel Heating 1309.6 Gas Meters ..................... 199


Systems ......................190 1309.7 Gas Pressure Regulators ......... 199
1202.0 Scope ......................... 190 1309.8 Back-Pressure Protection ......... 200
1203.0 Installation ..................... 190 1309.9 Low-Pressure Protection .......... .200

xix
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1309.10 Shutoff Valves ................. .200 1316.3 Test Pressure ................... 211
1309.11 Expansion and Flexibility ........ 201 1316.4 Detection of Leaks and Defects ... 211
1310.0 Excess Flow Valve .............. 201 1316.5 System and Appliance Leakage
1311.0 Venting of Gas Appliance Test ........................... 211
Pressure Regulators ............. 201 1316.6 Purging ....................... 211
1312.0 Gas Piping Installation .......... 201 Table 13-4 Size and Length of Piping ........ 211
1312.1 Piping Underground ............ 201 1317.0 Interconnection between
1312.2 Installation of Piping ............ 202 Gas-Piping Systems ............. 212
Table 13-3 Support of Piping ............... 203 1317.1 Interconnections Supplying
Separate Users ................. 212
1312.3 Concealed Piping Building ....... 203
1317.2 Interconnections for Standby
1312.4 Piping in Vertical Chases ....... .204
Fuels ........................... 213
1312.5 Gas Pipe Turns .................. 205
1318.0 Required Gas Supply ........... .213
1312.6 Drips and Sediment Traps ....... 205
1319.0 Required Gas Piping Size ........ 213
1312.7 Outlets ........................ 205
1319.1 Pipe Sizing Methods ............ 213
1312.8 Branch Pipe Connection ......... 206
1319.2 Tables for Sizing Gas Piping
1312.9 Manual Gas Shutoff Valves ...... 206 Systems ....................... 213
1312.10 Prohibited Devices .............. 206 1319.3 Sizing Equations ................ 213
1312.11 Systems Containing Gas-Air Table 13-6 Cr and Y for Natural Gas and
Mixtures Outside the Flammable Undiluted Propane at Standard
Range ....................... 206 Conditions ..................... 213
1312.12 Systems Containing Flammable Table 13-7 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 216
Gas-Air Mixtures .............. .206
Table 13-8 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 217
1312.13 Electrical Bonding and
Grounding .................... .208 Table 13-9 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ....... .218
1312.14 Lightning Protection System ..... 208 Table 13-10 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 219
1312.15 Electrical Circuits ............... 208 Table 13-11 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ...... .220
1312.16 Electrical Connections ........... 208 Table 13-12 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ....... 221
1313.0 Appliance Connections to Table 13-13 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ...... .222
Building Piping ................. 208 Table 13-14 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ....... 223
1313.1 Connecting Gas Appliances ...... 208 Table 13-15 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ....... 224
1313.2 Use of Nonmetallic Gas Hose Table 13-16 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ....... 225
Connectors ..................... 209
Table 13-17 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ....... 226
1313.3 Connection of Portable and
Mobile Industrial Appliances .... .209 Table 13-18 Corrugated Stainless Steel
Tubing (CSST) ................. .227
1313.4 Appliance Shutoff Valves and
Connections .................... 209 Table 13-19 Corrugated Stainless Steel
1313.5 Quick-Disconnect Devices ......... 209 Tubing (CSST) .................. 227
1313.6 Gas Convenience Outlets ........ .209 Table 13-20 Corrugated Stainless Steel
Tubing (CSST) .................. 228
1313.7 Sediment Trap ................. .209
Table 13-21 Corrugated Stainless Steel
1313.8 Installation of Piping ............. .210
Tubing (CSST) .................. 228
1314.0 Appliance Over Pressure
Protection ...................... 210 Table 13-22 Corrugated Stainless Steel
Tubing (CSST) .................. 229
1315.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Facilities and Piping ............. 210 Table 13-23 Polyethylene Plastic Pipe ........ 229
1316.0 Pressure Testing and Inspection .. 210 Table 13-24 Polyethylene Plastic Pipe ........ 230
1316.1 General ....................... .210 Table 13-25 Polyethylene Plastic Pipe ....... .231
1316.2 Test Preparation ................ 210 Table 13-26 Polyethylene Plastic Tubing ....... 232

xx
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 13-27 Polyethylene Plastic Tubing ....... 232 1331.2 Protection Coatings for Metal
Table 13-28 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 233 Gas Piping ..................... 245
Table 13-29 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 234 1331.3 Plastic ........................ .245
Table 13-30 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 235 Table 13-41 Demand Factors for Use in
Calculating Gas Piping Systems
Table 13-31 Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe ........ 236
in Manufactured Home
Table 13-32 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ...... .237 Communities ....................... .246
Table 13-33 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ...... .238 1332.0 Gas Piping Installation .......... 246
Table 13-34 Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing ...... .239 1332.1 Minimum Burial Below Ground
Table 13-35 Corrugated Stainless Steel Level and Clearances ............ 246
Tubing (CSST) ................. .240 1332.2 Metallic Gas Piping ............. 246
Table 13-36 Corrugated Stainless Steel 1332.3 Plastic Gas Piping ............... 246
Tubing (CSST) .................. 240
1332.4 Gas Piping System Shutoff Valve .246
Table 13-37 Corrugated Stainless Steel
1333.0 Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Tubing (CSST) .................. 241
Appliances .................... .246
Table 13-38 Polyethylene Plastic Pipe ........ 241 1334.0 Oil Supply ..................... 246
Table 13-39 Polyethy lene Plastic Pipe ........ 242 1334.1 Minimum Oil Supply Tank Size .. 246
Table 13-40 Polyethylene Plastic Tubing ...... 243 1334.2 Oil Supply Connections-
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Part II - Fuel Supply: Manufactured/Mobile 1335.0 Fuel Supply Systems Installation . .247
Home Parks and Recreational 1335.1 Flexible Gas Connector .......... 247
Vehicle Parks .................. 244
1335.2 Use of Approved Pipe and
1320.0 General ........................ .244 Fittings of Extension ............ 247
1321.0 Gas Supply Connections ........ .244 1335.3 Mechanical Protection ........... 247
1321.1 Location of Gas Supply 1335.4 Special Rules on Atmospherically
Connection .................... 244 Controlled Regulators ........... 247
1322.0 Single and Multiple Manufactured 1335.5 Fuel-Gas Piping Test ........... .247
Homesite Fuel Supply Systems ... 244
1335.6 Oil Tanks ...................... 247
1322.1 Gas Piping Installations ......... .244
1336.0 Manufactured Home Accessory
1323.0 Manufactured Homesite Gas Building Fuel Supply Systems .... 248
Shutoff Valve .................. 244 1337.0 Community Building Fuel Supply
1324.0 Gas Meters ..................... 244 Systems in Manufactured Home
1324.1 Support of Meters ............... 244 Communities .................. 248
1324.2 Location of Meters ............. .245
1337.1 Fuel-Gas Piping and Appliance
1324.3 Meter Shutoff Valve or Cock ..... 245
Installations .................... 248
1325.0 Multiple Manufactured Homesite
Fuel Distribution and Supply 1337.2 Oil Supply Systems in Manu-
Systems ....................... 245 factured Home Communities ..... 248
1326.0 Manufactured Home Community 1337.3 Oil-Burning Equipment and
Natural Gas Distribution Systems Installation ..................... 248
.............................. 245 1338.0 Recreational Vehicle Park Fuel-
1327.0 Manufactured Home Community Gas Equipment and Installations .. 248
LP- Gas Supply Systems ......... 245
1328.0 Installation of Cathodic Protection
Systems ...................... .245 Chapter 14 Process Piping ................ 249
1329.0 Required Gas Supply ............ 245 1401.0 General ........................ 249
1330.0 Gas Pipe Sizing and Pressure .... .245 1402.0 Definitions ..................... 249
1331.0 Gas Piping Materials ........... .245 1403.0 Permit ......................... 249
1331.1 Metal .......................... 245 1404.0 Plans Required ................. 249

xxi
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1405.0 VVorkmanship .................. 249


1406.0 Inspections ..................... 249
1406.1 General ......................... 249
1406.2 Required Inspections ............ 250
1406.3 Other Inspections ............... 250
1407.0 Piping and Tubing .............. 250
1407.1 General ........................ 250
1407.2 Hazardous Process Piping (HPP) .250
1407.3 Special Requirements for HPP
Gases ......................... 251

Chapter 15 Solar Systems ................. 253

Chapter 16 Stationary Power Plants ........ 255


1601.0 Scope Stationary Fuel Cell
Power Plants ................... 255
1602.0 Stationary Engine Generators ..... 255

Chapter 17 Standards .................... .257


1701.0 Scope ........................ .257

Part 1- Standards Adopted as Part of


this Code .....................257

Part II - Referenced Standards ........ 257

Appendices Table of Contents .............. 279


Appendix A Uniform Mechanical Code
Standard No. 2-2 .............. .281
Appendix A Uniform Mechanical Code
Standard No. 6-2 ...............283
Appendix A Uniform Mechanical Code
Standard No. 6-5 ...............301
Appendix B Procedures to Be Followed to
Place Gas Equipment in
Operation .....................327

Appendix C Installation and Testing of Oil


(Liquid) Fuel-Fired Equipment .. 329

Appendix D Unit Conversion Tables ........ 337

Index ............................... 343

xxii
CHAPTER 1
ADMINISTRATION

Part I - General. Appendix D contains conversion tables and a table


for determining the approximate minimum thickness
for carbon sheet steel.
101.0 Title.
These regulations shall be known as the Uniform
Mechanical Code, may be cited as such, and will be 104.0 Application to Existing Mechanical Systems.
referred to herein as "this code." 104.1 Additions, Alterations, or Repairs. Addi-
tions, alterations, or repairs shall be permitted to be
made to any mechanical system without requiring
102.0 Purpose.
the existing mechanical system to comply with all
The purpose of this code is to provide minimum the requirements of this code, provided the addition,
standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property, alteration, or repair conforms to that required for a
and public welfare by regulating and controlling the new mechanical system. Additions, alterations, or
design, construction, installation, quality of mate- repairs shall not cause an existing system to become
rials, location, operation, and maintenance or use of unsafe or create unhealthy or overloaded conditions.
heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration
systems; incinerators; and other miscellaneous Minor additions, alterations, and repairs to
heat-producing appliances within this jurisdiction. existing mechanical systems shall be permitted to be
installed in accordance with the law in effect at the
The purpose of this code is not to create or other- time the original installation was made, when
wise establish or designate any particular class or approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
group of persons who will or should be especially
protected or benefited by the terms of this code. 104.2 Existing installations. Mechanical systems
lawfully in existence at the time of the adoption of
this code shall be permitted to have their use, main-
103.0 Scope. tenance, or repair continued if the use, maintenance,
103.1 General. The provisions of this code shall or repair is in accordance with the original design
apply to the addition to or erection, installation, and location and no hazard to life, health, or prop-
alteration, repair, relocation, replacement, use, or erty has been created by such mechanical systems.
maintenance of any heating, ventilating, cooling, 104.3 Changes in Building Occupancy. Mechanical
refrigeration systems; incinerators; or other miscella- systems that are a part of any building or structure
neous heat-producing appliances within this juris- undergoing a change in use or occupancy, as defined
diction. in the Building Code, shall comply with the require-
Additions, alterations, repairs to, and replacement ments of this code that may be applicable to the new
of equipment or systems shall comply with the provi- use or occupancy.
sions for new equipment and systems, except as other- 104.4 Maintenance. Mechanical systems, materials,
wise provided in Section 104.0 of this code. and appurtenances, both existing and new, and parts
103.2 Conflicts. Where, in any specific case, different thereof shall be maintained in proper operating
1sections of this code or referenced standards specify condition in accordance with the original design and
different materials, methods of construction, or other in a safe and hazard-free condition. Devices or safe-
requirements, the most restrictive shall govern as
I determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
When there is a conflict between a general require-
guards that are required by this code shall be main-
tained in conformance with the code edition under
which installed. The owner or the owner's designated
ment and a specific requirement, the specific require- agent shall be responsible for maintenance of
ment shall be applicable. mechanical systems and equipment. To determine
1103.3 Design and Testing. The design and testing compliance with this subsection, the Authority
of equipment regulated by this code shall be subject Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to cause a
to the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. mechanical system or equipment to be reinspected.
I 103.4 Appendices. The standards contained in 104.5 Moved Buildings. Mechanical systems or
Appendix A shall be considered as part of this code. equipment that is a part of buildings or structures
Appendices Band C contain recommended practices moved into or within this jurisdiction shall comply
that shall not apply unless specifically adopted. with the provisions of this code for new installations.
105.0 - 108.6 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

105.0 Alternate Materials and Methods of 108.2 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed
Construction Equivalency. procedures and with the approval of the appointing
Nothing in this code is intended to prevent the use of authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be
systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior permitted to appoint such number of technical offi-
quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, dura- cers and inspectors and other employees as shall be
bility, and safety over those prescribed by this code. authorized from time to time. The Authority Having
Technical documentation shall be submitted to the Jurisdiction shall be permitted to deputize such
Authority Having Jurisdiction to demonstrate equiva- inspectors or employees as may be necessary to carry
lency. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have out the functions of the code enforcement agency.
the authority to approve or disapprove the system, 108.3 Right of Entry. When it is necessary to make
I method or device for the intended purpose. an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or
when the Authority Having Jurisdiction has reason-
able cause to believe that there exists in a building or
106.0 Intent. upon a premises a condition that is contrary to or in
However, the exercise of this discretionary approval violation of this code that makes the building or
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have no premises unsafe, dangerous, or hazardous, the
effect beyond the jurisdictional boundaries of said Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to
Authority Having Jurisdiction. Any alternate mate- enter the building or premises at reasonable times to
rial or method of construction so approved shall not inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this
be considered as conforming to the requirements code, provided that if such building or premises be
and / or intent of this code for any purpose other than occupied that credentials were presented to the occu-
that granted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. pant and entry requested. If such building or
premises be unoccupied, the Authority Having Juris-
diction shall first make a reasonable effort to locate
107.0 Testing.
the owner or other person having charge or control of
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the building or premises and request entry. If entry is
authority to require tests, as proof of equivalency. refused, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have
107.1 Tests shall be made in accordance with recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure
approved testing standards by an approved testing entry.
agency at the expense of the applicant. In the absence 108.4 Stop Orders. When any work is being done
of such standards, the Authority Having Jurisdiction contrary to the provisions of this code, the Authority
shall have the authority to specify the test procedure. Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to order
107.2 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the work stopped by notice in writing served on any
the authority to require tests to be made or repeated persons engaged in doing or causing such work to be
if, at any time, there is reason to believe that any done, and such persons shall forthwith stop work
material or device no longer conforms to the require- until authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction
ments on which its approval was based. to proceed with the work.
108.5 Authority to Disconnect Utilities in Emergen-
Part II - Organization and Enforcement. cies. The Authority Having Jurisdiction or authorized
representative shall be permitted to disconnect fuel gas
108.0 Powers and Duties of the Authority Having utility service or energy supplies to a building, struc-
Jurisdiction. ture, premises, or equipment regulated by this code in
case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an
108.1 General. The Authority Having Jurisdiction is
immediate hazard to life or property. The Authority
hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provi-
sions of this code. For such purposes, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall, whenever possible, notify the
Having Jurisdiction shall have the powers of a law serving utility, the owner, and the occupant of the
enforcement officer. building, structure, or premises of the decision to
disconnect prior to taking such action, and shall notify
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the
such serving utility, owner, and occupant of the
power to render interpretations of this code and to
building, structure, or premises in writing of such
adopt and enforce rules and regulations supple-
mental to this code as may be deemed necessary in disconnection immediately thereafter.
order to clarify the application of the provisions of 108.6 Authority to Condemn EqUipment. When the
this code. Such interpretations, rules, and regulations Authority Having Jurisdiction ascertains that any
shall be in accordance with the intent and purpose of equipment, or portion thereof, regulated by this code
this code. has become hazardous to life, health, or property, it

2
ADMINISTRATION 108.6 - 111.0

shall order in writing that the equipment either be required in the discharge of the duties required by this
removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condition, as code or other pertinent law or ordinance.
appropriate. The written notice shall contain a fixed
time limit for compliance with such order. Persons 109.0 Unsafe Equipment.
shall not use or maintain defective equipment after
Equipment regulated by this code that is unsafe or
receiving a notice.
that constitutes a fire or health hazard or is otherwise
When equipment or an installation is to be dangerous to human life is, for the purpose of this
disconnected, written notice of the disconnection and section, unsafe. Use of equipment regulated by this
causes therefore shall be given within twenty-four code constituting a hazard to safety, health, or public
(24) hours to the serving utility, owner, and occupant welfare by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapi-
of the building, structure, or premises. When any dation, obsolescence, fire hazard, disaster, damage,
equipment is maintained in violation of this code, or abandonment is, for the purpose of this section, an
and in violation of a notice issued pursuant to the unsafe use. Unsafe equipment is hereby declared to
provisions of this section, the Authority Having be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair,
Jurisdiction shall institute an appropriate action to rehabilitation, demolition, or removal in accordance
prevent, restrain, correct, or abate the violation. with procedures as may be adopted by this jurisdic-
108.7 Connection After Order to Disconnect. tion. As an alternative, the Authority Having Juris-
Persons shall not make connections from an energy, diction or other employee or official of this jurisdic-
fuel, or power supply nor supply energy or fuel to tion, as designated by the governing body, shall be
any equipment regulated by this code that has been permitted to institute other appropriate action to
prevent, restrain, correct, or abate the violation.
disconnected or ordered to be disconnected by the
Authority Having Jurisdiction until it has authorized
the reconnection and use of such equipment. 110.0 Board of Appeals.
108.8 liability. The Authority Having Jurisdiction 110.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of
charged with the enforcement of this code acting in orders, decisions, or determinations made by the
good faith and without malice in the discharge of the Authority Having Jurisdiction relative to the applica-
duties required by this code or other pertinent law or tion and interpretations of this code, there shall be and
ordinance shall not thereby be rendered personally is hereby created a Board of Appeals consisting of
liable for damages that may accrue to persons or members who are qualified by experience and training
property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or to pass upon matters pertaining to mechanical design,
omission in the discharge of such duties. A suit construction, and maintenance and the public health
brought against the Authority Having Jurisdiction or aspects of mechanical systems and who are not
employee because of such act or omission performed employees of the jurisdiction. The Authority Having
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or employee in Jurisdiction shall be an ex-officio member and shall act
the enforcement of any provision of such codes or as secretary to said board but shall have no vote upon
other pertinent laws or ordinances implemented any matter before the board. The Board of Appeals
through the enforcement of this code or enforced by shall be appointed by the governing body and shall
the code enforcement agency shall be defended by hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules
of procedure for conducting its business and shall
this jurisdiction until final termination of such
render all decisions and findings in writing to the
proceedings, and any judgment resulting therefrom
appellant with a duplicate copy to the Authority
shall be assumed by this jurisdiction.
Having Jurisdiction.
This code shall not be construed to relieve from
110.2 Limitations of Authority. The Board of
or lessen the responsibility of any person owning,
Appeals shall have no authority relative to interpre-
operating, or controlling any equipment regulated
tation of the administrative provisions of this code,
herein for damages to persons or property caused by
nor shall the board be empowered to waive require-
defects, nor shall the code enforcement agency or its
parent jurisdiction be held as assuming any such ments of this code.
liability by reason of the inspections authorized by
this code or any permits or certificates issued under 111.0 Violations.
this code. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm, or corporation to
108.9 Cooperation of Other Officials and Officers. erect, construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, improve,
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted remove, convert or demolish, equip, use, or maintain
to request, and shall receive, the assistance and cooper- mechanical systems or equipment or cause or permit
ation of other officials of this jurisdiction so far as the same to be done in violation of this code.

3
112.0 - 114.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Part III - Permits and Inspections 113.2 Plans and Specifications. Plans, engineering
calculations, diagrams, and other data shall be
submitted in one (1) or more sets with each applica-
112.0 Permits.
tion for a permit. When such plans are not prepared
112.1 Permits Required. Except as permitted in by an architect or engineer, the Authority Having
Section 112.2, no mechanical system regulated by Jurisdiction shall be permitted to require any appli-
thi s code shall be installed, altered, repaired, cant submitting such plans or other data to demon-
replaced, or remodeled unless a separate mechanical
strate that state law does not require that the plans be
permit for each separate building or structure has
prepared by an architect or engineer. The Authority
first been obtained.
Having Jurisdiction shall also be permitted to require
112.2 Exempt Work. A mechanical permit shall not plans, computations, and specifications to be
be required for the following: prepared and designed by an engineer or architect
112.2.1 A portable heating appliance, portable licensed by the state to practice as such even if not
ventilating equipment, a portable cooling unit, required by state law.
or a portable evaporative cooler. Exception: The Authority Having Jurisdiction
112.2.2 A closed system of steam, hot, or chilled shall be permitted to waive the submission of
water piping within heating or cooling equip- plans, calculations, or other data if it is found
ment regulated by this code. that the nature of the work applied for is such
112.2.3 Replacement of any component part or that review of plans is not necessary to obtain
assembly of an appliance that does not alter its compliance with this code.
original approval and complies with other appli- 113.3 Information on Plans and Specifications.
cable requirements of this code. Plans and specifications shall be drawn to scale upon
112.2.4 Refrigerating equipment that is part of substantial paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient
the equipment for which a permit has been clarity to indicate the location, nature, and extent of
issued pursuant to the requirements of this code. the work proposed and show in detail that it will
112.2.5 A unit refrigerating system. Exemption conform to the provisions of this code and relevant
from the permit requirements of this code shall laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations.
not be deemed to grant authorization for work to Plans for buildings exceeding two (2) stories in
be done in violation of the provisions of this code height of other than Group R, Division 3 and Group
or other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. U Occupancies shall indicate how required structural
and fire-resistive integrity will be maintained where
113.0 Application for Permit. a penetration will be made for electrical, mechanical,
plumbing, and communication conduits, pipes, and
113.1 Application. To obtain a permit, the applicant
similar systems.
shall first file an application in writing on a form
furnished by the code enforcement agency for that The installer shall submit plans showing the
purpose. Every such application shall: proposed installation, indicating the location of the
heater and such accessories as may be required to
113.1.1 Identify and describe the work to be
ensure the proper and safe performance of its function.
covered by the permit for which application is
made.
113.1.2 Describe the land on which the proposed 114.0 Permit Issuance.
work is to be done by legal description, street 114.1 Issuance. If the Authority Having Jurisdiction
address, or similar description that will readily finds that the work described in an application for a
identify and definitely locate the proposed permit and the plans, specifications, and other data
building or work. filed are in accordance with the requirements of this
113.1.3 Indicate the use or occupancy for which code and other pertinent laws and ordinances and
the proposed work is intended. that the fees specified in Section 115.0 have been
113.1.4 Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, paid, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall issue a
computations, and specifications and other data permit to the applicant.
as required in Section 113.2. When issuing a permit where plans are required,
113.1.5 Be signed by the applicant or an autho- the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall endorse in
rized agent of the applicant. writing or stamp the plans and specifications
113.1.6 Give such other data and information as APPROVED." Such approved plans and specifica-
/I

may be required by the Authority Having Juris- tions shall not be changed, modified, or altered
diction. without approval from the Authority Having Juris-

4
ADMINISTRATION 114.1 -115.4

diction, and all work regulated by this code shall be renew action on a permit after expiration, the
done in accordance with the approved plans. permittee shall pay a new full permit fee.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction has the A permittee holding an unexpired permit shall
authority to issue a permit for the construction of a be permitted to apply for an extension of the time
part of a mechanical system before the entire plans within which work may be commenced under that
and specifications for the whole system have been permit when the permittee is unable to commence
submitted or approved, provided adequate informa- work within the time required by this section for
tion and detailed statements have been filed good and satisfactory reasons. The Authority Having
complying with all pertinent requirements of this Jurisdiction shall have the authority to extend the
code. time for action by the permittee for a period not
The holder of a partial permit shall be permitted exceeding one-hundred and eighty (180) days upon
to proceed without assurance that the permit for the written request by the permittee showing that
circumstances beyond the control of said permittee
entire building, structure, or mechanical system will
have prevented action from being taken.
be granted.
114.5 Suspension or Revocation. The Authority
114.2 Retention of Plans. One (1) set of approved
Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to
plans, specifications, and computations shall be
retained by the Authority Having Jurisdiction until suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provi-
sions of this code whenever the permit is issued in
final approval of the work is covered therein. One (1)
set of approved plans and specifications shall be error or on the basis of incorrect information
returned to the applicant, and shall be kept on the supplied or in violation of other ordinances or regula-
site of the building or work at all times during which tions of the jurisdiction.
the work authorized thereby is in progress.
114.3 Validity of Permit. The issuance of a permit or 115.0 Fees.
approval of plans, specifications, and computations 115.1 General. Fees shall be assessed in accordance
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an with the provisions of this section and as set forth in
approval of, any violation of the provisions of this the fee schedule, Table 1-1. The fees are to be deter-
code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. mined and adopted by this jurisdiction.
Permits presuming to give authority to violate or 115.2 Permit Fees. The fee for each permit shall be
cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordi- as set forth in Table 1-1.
nances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. 115.3 Plan Review Fees. When plans or other data
The issuance of a permit based upon plans, spec- are required to be submitted by Section 113.2, a plan
ifications, computations, and other data shall not review fee shall be paid at the time of submitting
prevent the Authority Having Jurisdiction from plans and specifications for review. The plan review
thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said fees for mechanical work shall be determined and
plans, specifications, and other data or from adopted by this jurisdiction.
preventing building operations being carried on The plan review fees specified in this subsection
thereunder when in violation of this code or of other are separate fees from the permit fees specified in
ordinances of this jurisdiction. Section 115.2 and are in addition to the permit fees.
114.4 Expiration. Every permit issued under the When plans are incomplete or changed so as to
provisions of this code shall expire by limitation and require additional plan review, an additional plan
become null and void if the work authorized by such review fee shall be charged at the rate shown in
permit is not commenced within one-hundred and Table 1-1.
eighty (180) days from the date of such permit, or if 115.4 Expiration of Plan Review. Applications for
the work authorized by such permit is suspended or which no permit is issued within one-hundred and
abandoned at any time after the work is commenced eighty (180) days following the date of application
for a period of one-hundred and eighty (180) days. shall expire by limitation, and plans and other data
Before such work can be recommenced, a new permit submitted for review shall be permitted to be
shall be first obtained, and the fee therefore shall be returned to the applicant or destroyed by the
one-half (1/2) the amount required for a new permit Authority Having Jurisdiction. The Authority
for such work, provided no changes have been made Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to extend the
or will be made in the original plans and specifica- time for action by the applicant for a period not
tions for such work and provided further that such exceeding one-hundred and eighty (180) days upon
suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one (1) request by the applicant showing that circumstances
year. No permit shall be extended more than once. To beyond the control of the applicant have prevented

5
115.4 -116.6 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

action from being taken. No application shall be tion of a mechanical system is complete, an addi-
extended more than once. In order to renew action tional and final inspection shall be made. Mechanical
on an application after expiration, the applicant shall systems regulated by this code shall not be
resubmit plans and pay a new plan review fee. connected to the energy fuel supply lines until
115.5 Investigation Fees - Work Without a Permit. authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
115.5.1 Investigation. Whenever any work for Approval, as a result of an inspection, shall not
which a permit is required by this code has been be construed to be an approval of a violation of the
commenced without first obtaining said permit, provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the
a special investigation shall be made before a jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority
permit shall be permitted to be issued for such to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of
work. other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.
115.5.2 Fee. An investigation fee, in addition to 116.2 Operation of Mechanical Equipment. The
the permit fee, shall be collected whether or not requirements of this section shall not be considered
a permit is then or subsequently issued. The to prohibit the operation of mechanical systems
investigation fee shall be equal to the amount of installed to replace existing equipment or fixtures
the permit fee that would be required by this serving an occupied portion of the building in the
code if a permit were to be issued. The payment event a request for inspection of such equipment or
of such investigation fee shall not exempt any fixture has been filed with the Authority Having
person from compliance with other provisions of
Jurisdiction not exceeding forty-eight (48) hours after
this code or from any penalty prescribed by law.
such replacement work is completed and before any
115.6 Fee Refunds. The Authority Having Jurisdic- portion of such mechanical system is concealed by
tion shall be permitted to authorize the refunding of any permanent portion of the building.
any fee paid hereunder that has been erroneously
116.3 Testing of Equipment. Refrigeration equip-
paid or collected.
ment regulated by this code shall be tested and
115.6.1 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall
approved as required by Section 1124.0 of this code.
be permitted to authorize a refund not exceeding
a percentage, as determined by this jurisdiction, Steam and hot-water boilers and piping shall be
when no work has been done under a permit tested and approved as required by Sections 1022,
issued in accordance with this code. 1201.2.8, and 1207.0 of this code.
115.6.2 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall Where applicable (see Section 103.0), fuel gas
be permitted to authorize refunding not piping shall be tested and approved as required by
exceeding a percentage, as determined by this Section 1304.0 of this code.
jurisdiction, when an application for a permit for 116.4 Inspection Requests. It shall be the duty of
which a plan review fee has been paid is with- the person doing the work authorized by a permit to
drawn or canceled before any plan review effort notify the Authority Having Jurisdiction that such
has been expended. work is ready for inspection. The request for inspec-
115.6.3 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall tion must be filed not less than one (1) working day
not authorize refunding of any fee paid except before such inspection is desired.
upon written application filed by the original
It shall be the duty of the person requesting
permittee not exceeding one-hundred and eighty
inspections required by this code to provide access to
(180) days after the date of fee payment.
and means for inspection of such work.
116.5 Other inspections. In addition to the called
116.0 Inspections. inspections required by this code, the Authority
116.1 General. Mechanical systems for which a Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to make or
permit is required by this code shall be subject to require other inspections of mechanical work to ascer-
inspection and such mechanical systems shall remain tain compliance with the provisions of this code and
accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until other laws that are enforced by the code enforcement
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. agency.
It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to 116.6 Reinspections. The Authority Having Juris-
cause the mechanical systems to remain accessible diction shall be permitted to assess a reinspection fee
and exposed for inspection purposes. The Authority for each inspection or reinspection when such
Having Jurisdiction shall not be liable for expense portion of work for which inspection is requested is
entailed in the removal or replacement of any mate- not complete or when required corrections have not
rial required to pennit inspection. When the installa- been made.

6
ADM IN ISTRATION 116.6-117.2

This provision shall not be interpreted as


requiring reinspection fees the first time a job is
rejected for failure to comply with the requirements
of this code, but as controlling the practice of calling
for inspections before the job is ready for inspection
or reinspection.
To obtain reinspection, the applicant shall file an
application therefore in writing upon a form
furnished for that purpose and pay the reinspection
fee in accordance with Table I-lor as set forth in the
fee schedule adopted by the jurisdiction.
In instances when reinspection fees have been
assessed, no additional inspection of the work will
be performed until the required fees have been paid.

117.0 Connection Approval.


117.1 Energy Connections. No person shall make
connections from a source of energy or fuel to any
mechanical system or equipment regulated by this
code and for which a permit is required until
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
117.2 Temporary Connections. The Authority
Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to authorize
temporary connection of the mechanical equipment
to the source of energy or fuel for the purpose of
testing the equipment or for use under a temporary
certificate of occupancy.

7
Table 1-1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 1-1
Mechanical Permit Fees
Permit Issuance
1. For the issuance of each permit.. ........................................................................................................_ _ *
2. For issuing each supplemental permit for which the original permit has not expired or been
canceled or finalized ...........................................................................................................................

Unit Fee Schedule


Note: The following do not include permit-issuing fees.
1. Furnaces
For the installation or relocation of each forced-air or gravity-type furnace or burner, including ducts
and vents attached to such appliance, up to and including 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) ......................... _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each forced-air or gravity-type furnace or burner, including ducts
and vents attached to such appliance, over 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) ................................................ _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each floor furnace, including vent ................................................ _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each suspended heater, recessed wall heater, or floor-mounted
unit heater ...........................................................................................................................................
2. Appliance Vents
For the installation, relocation, or replacement of each appliance vent installed and not included in
an appliance permit ............................................................................................................................_ _ *
3. Repairs or Additions
For the repair of, alteration of, or addition to each heating appliance, refrigeration unit, cooling unit,
absorption unit, or each heating, cooling, absorption, or evaporative cooling system, including instal-
lation of controls regulated by this code .............................................................................................._ _ *
4. Boilers, Compressors, and Absorption Systems
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor, up to and including three (3) horse-
power, or each absorption system up to and including 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) ............................... _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding three (3) horsepower
(2.24 kW), up to and including 15 horsepower (11.19 kW), or each absorption system exceeding
100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) and including 500,000 Btu/h (146.48 kW) ................................................... _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding 15 horsepower (11.19 kW),
up to and including thirty (30) horsepower (22.37 kW), or each absorption system exceeding
500,000 Btu/h (146.48 kW), up to and including 1,000,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) ...................................... _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding thirty (30) horsepower
(22.37 kW), up to and including fifty (50) horsepower (37.3 kW), or for each absorption system
exceeding 1,000,000 Btu/h (292.95 kW), up to and including 1,750,000 Btu/h (512.66 kW) .............. _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding fifty (50) horsepower
(37.3 kW), or each absorption system exceeding 1,750,000 Btu/h (512.66 kW) ................................ _ _ *
5. Air Handlers
For each air-handling unit up to and including 10,000 cfm (4.72 m /S), including ducts attached thereto " _ _ *
3

Note: This fee shall not apply to an air-handling unit that is a portion of a factory-assembled appli-
ance, cooling unit, evaporative cooler, or absorption unit for which a permit is required elsewhere
in this code.
6. Evaporative Coolers
For each air-handling unit exceeding 10,000 cfm (4.72 m3 /S)
For each evaporative cooler other than portable type ........................................................................._ _ *

8
ADMINISTRATION Table 1-1 continued

TABLE 1-1 (continued)


Mechanical Permit Fees

7. Ventilation and Exhaust


For each ventilation fan connected to a single duct ............................................................................_ _ *
For each ventilation system that is not a portion of any heating or air-conditioning system authorized
by a permit ........................................................................................................................................._ _ *
For the installation of each hood that is served by mechanical exhaust, including the ducts for
such hood ..........................................................................................................................................._ _ *
8. Incinerators
For the installation or relocation of each domestic-type incinerator .................................................... _ _ *
For the installation or relocation of each commercial or industrial-type incinerator ............................ _ _ *
9. Miscellaneous
For each appliance or piece of equipment regulated by this code, but not classed in other appliance
categories, or for which no other fee is listed in this table ..................................................................._ _ *
10. When Chapter 13 or Appendix B is applicable (see Section 103.0), permit fees for fuel-gas piping
shall be as follows:
For each gas piping system of one (1) to five (5) outlets .................................................................... _ _ *
For each additional gas piping system, per outlet.. ............................................................................._ _ *
11. Process Piping:
For each hazardous process piping system (HPP) of one (1) to four (4) outlets ................................ _ _ *
For each HPP piping system of five (5) or more outlets, per outlet.. ................................................... _ _ *
For each nonhazardous process piping system (NPP) of one (1) to four (4) outlets .......................... _ _ *
For each NPP piping system of five (5) or more outlets, per outlet. .................................................... _ _ *

Other Inspections and Fees


1. Inspections outside of normal business hours, per hour (minimum charge - two (2) hours) .............. _ _ *
2. Reinspection fees assessed under provisions of Section 116.6, per inspection ................................. _ _ *
3. Inspections for which no fee is specifically indicated, per hour (minimum charge - one-half (1/2) hour) ._ _ *
4. Additional plan review required by changes, additions, or revisions to plans or to plans for which an
initial review has been completed, per hour (minimum charge - one-half (1/2) hour) ........................ _ _ *
* Jurisdiction will indicate their fees here.

9
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

10
CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

201.0 General. AIR, OUTSIDE - Air from outside the building


For the purpose of this code, certain abbreviations, intentionally conveyed by openings or ducts to
terms, phrases, words, and their derivatives shall be rooms or to conditioning equipment.
construed as specified in this chapter. Words used in AIR, RETURN - Air from the conditioned area that is
the singular include the plural, and the plural the returned to the conditioning equipment for recondi-
singular. Words used in the masculine gender tioning.
include the feminine, and the feminine the mascu- AIR, SUPPLY - Air being conveyed to a conditioned
line. area through ducts or plenums from a heat
exchanger of a heating, cooling, absorption, or evap-
202.0 Accepted Meanings. orative cooling system.
Except as defined in this chapter or elsewhere in this APPLIANCE - A device that utilizes fuel or other
code, the interpretation of words used in this code forms of energy to produce light, heat, power, refrig-
shall be in accordance with the meanings defined in eration, or air-conditioning. This definition also shall
the applicable building, electric, fire, or plumbing include a vented decorative appliance.
code and Webster's Third New International Dictionary APPROVED - Acceptable to the Authority Having
of the English Language, Unabridged, copyright 1993. Jurisdicti on.
APPROVED TESTING AGENCY - An organization
203.0 -A- primarily established for purposes of testing to
ABSORPTION UNIT - An absorption refrigeration approved standards and approved by the Authority
system that has been factory-assembled and tested Having Jurisdiction. [UPC:203.0]
prior to its installation. ASSEMBLY BUILDING - A building or a portion of
ACCESSIBLE - Having access to but which first a building used for the gathering together of fifty
shall be permitted to require the removal of an access (50) or more persons for such purposes as delibera-
panel, door, or similar obstruction covering the item tion, education, instruction, worship, entertainment,
described. amusement, drinking, dining, or awaiting trans-
portation.
ACCESSIBLE, READilY - Capable of being
reached safely and quickly for operation, repair, or AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION - The organi-
inspection without requiring those to whom ready zation, office, or individual responsible for enforcing
access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles, the requirements of a code or standard, or for
or to resort to the use of portable access equipment. approving equipment, materials, installations, or
procedures. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall
AIR, COMBUSTION - See Combustion Air.
be a federal, state, local, or other regional depart-
AIR, CONDITIONED - Air that has been treated to ment or an individual such as a plumbing official,
achieve a desired level of temperature, humidity, or mechanical official, labor department official, health
cleanliness. department official, building official, or others
AIR, EXHAUST - Air being removed from any space having statutory authority. In the absence of a statu-
or piece of equipment and conveyed directly to the tory authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction
atmosphere by means of openings or ducts. may be some other responsible party. This definition
AIR-HANDLING UNIT - A blower or fan used for the shall include the Authority Having Jurisdiction's
purpose of distributing supply air to a room, space, duly authorized representative.
or area. AUTOMATIC - That which provides a function
AIR, MAKEUP - Air that is provided to replace air without the necessity of human intervention. [NFPA
being exhausted. 96:3.3.6]
AIR-MOVING SYSTEM - A system designed to AZEOTROPE - A refrigerant blend comprising
provide heating, cooling, or ventilation in which one multiple components of different volatiles that, when
or more air-handling units are used to supply air to a used in refrigeration cycles, do not change volu-
common space or are drawing air from a common metric composition or saturation temperature as they
plenum or space. evaporate or condense at constant pressure.

11
204.0 - 205.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

204.0 -B- Metal Chimney - A chimney constructed of


BOILER, HIGH-PRESSURE - A boiler furnishing metal with a minimum thickness not less than
steam at pressures in excess of fifteen (15) pounds one-hundred and twenty-seven one-hundredths
per square inch (103.4 kPa) or hot water at tempera- (0.127) inch (3.23 mm) (No. 10 manufacturer's
tures in excess of 250°F (121°C) or at pressures in standard gauge) steel sheet.
excess of one-hundred and sixty (160) pounds per CHIMNEY CLASSIFICATIONS:
square inch (1,102.4 kPa). Chimney, Residential Appliance-Type - A
BOILER ROOM - Any room containing a steam or factory-built or masonry chilnney suitable for
hot water boiler. removing products of combustion from residen-
BONDING JUMPER - A reliable conductor to ensure tial-type appliances producing combustion gases
the required electrical conductivity between metal not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C), measured at the
parts required to be electrically connected. [NFPA appliance flue outlet. Factory-built Type HT
70:100.1] chimneys have high-temperature thermal shock
resistance.
BREATHING ZONE - The region within an occupied
space between three (3) planes three (3) and seventy- Chimney, Low-Heat Appliance-Type - A
two (72) inches (75 and 1,800 mm) above the floor factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suit-
and more than two (2) feet (600 mm) from the walls able for removing the products of combustion
or fixed air-conditioning equipment. [ASHRAE from fuel-burning low-heat appliances
62.1:3] producing combustion gases not in excess of
1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating condi-
BREATHING ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW (Vbz) -
tions, but capable of producing combustion
The rate of outdoor airflow required in the breathing
gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent
zone of an occupiable space.
forced firing for periods up to one hour. All
BREECHING - A metal connector for medium- and temperatures are measured at the appliance flue
high-heat appliances. outlet.
BTU/H - The listed maximum capacity of any appli- Chimney, Medium-Heat Appliance-Type - A
ance, absorption unit, or burner expressed in British factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suit-
thermal units input per hour, unless otherwise able for removing the products of combustion
noted. from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances
BUILDING CODE - The building code that is producing combustion gases not in excess of
adopted by this jurisdiction. 2,000°F (1,093°C), measured at the appliance flue
BUILDING OFFICIAL- See Authority Having Juris- outlet.
diction. Chimney, High-Heat Appliance-Type - A
factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suit-
able for removing the products of combustion
205.0 -C-
from fuel-burning high-heat appliances
CAS NUMBER - The Chemical Abstract System producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F
registry number. (1,093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.
CENTRAL HEATING PLANT or HEATING PLANT - CHIMNEY CONNECTOR - The pipe that connects a
Environmental heating equipment installed in a fuel-burning appliance to a chimney.
manner to supply heat by means of ducts or pipes to
CLOSED COMBUSTION SOUD-FUEL-BURNING
areas other than the room or space in which the
APPLIANCE - A heat-producing appliance that
equipment is located.
employs a combustion chamber that has no openings
CERTIFIED - A formally stated recognition and other than the flue collar, fuel-charging door, and
approval of an acceptable level of competency, adjustable openings provided to control the amount
acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. of combustion air that enters the combustion
[NFPA 96:3.3.9] chamber.
CHIMNEY - A vertical shaft enclosing one or more CLOSET - See Confined Space.
flues for conveying flue gases to the outside atmo-
CLOTHES DRYER - An appliance used to dry wet
sphere.
laundry by means of heat derived from the combus-
Factory-Built Chimney - A listed chimney. tion of fuel gases or electric heating elements. I
Masonry Chimney - A chimney of solid masonry CLOTHES DRYER, TYPE 1 - Primarily used in
units, bricks, stones, listed masonry units, or rein- family living environment. Mayor may not be coin
forced concrete, lined with suitable flue liners. operated for public use. [NFPA 54:3.3.18.1]

12
DEFINITIONS 205.0 - 206.0

CLOTHES DRYER, TYPE 2 - Used in business with


direct intercourse of the function with the public.
CRAWL SPACE - In a building, an area accessible
by crawling, having a clearance less than human
I
Mayor may not be operated by public or hired atten- height, for access to plumbing or wiring, storage, etc.
dant. Mayor may not be coin operated. [NFP A CSST - An acronym for corrugated stainless steel I
54:3.3.18.2 ] tubing.
CODE - A standard that is an extensive compilation
of provisions covering broad subject matter or that is 206.0 -D-
suitable for adoption into law independently of other DAMPERS - shall be defined as follows:
codes and standards.
Fire Damper - An automatic-closing metal
COMBUSTION AIR - The total amount of air assembly consisting of one or more louvers,
provided to the space that contains fuel-burning blades, slats, or vanes that closes upon detection
equipment. Includes air for fuel combustion, draft of heat so as to restrict the passage of flame and
hood dilution, and ventilation of the equipment is listed to the applicable recognized standards.
enclosure. Smoke Damper - A damper arranged to seal off
COMPRESSOR, POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT - A airflow automatically through a part of an air duct
compressor in which increase in pressure is attained system so as to restrict the passage of smoke and
by changing the internal volume of the compression is listed to the applicable recognized standard. I
chamber. Volume Damper - Any device that, when
COMPRESSOR, REFRIGERANT - A machine, with installed, will restrict, retard, or direct the flow
or without accessories, for compressing a refrigerant of air in any duct, or the products of combustion
vapor. in any heat-producing equipment, its vent
connector, vent, or chimney.
CONDENSER - The part of the system designed to
liquefy refrigerant vapor by removal of heat. DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION - The elevation of the
"design flood," including wave height, relative to the
CONDENSING APPLIANCE - An appliance that datum specified on the community's legally desig-
condenses part of the water vapor generated by the nated flood hazard map.
burning of hydrogen in fuels.
DIRECT GAS-FIRED MAKEUP AIR HEATER - A
CONDENSING UNIT - A mechanical refrigeration heater in which all the products of combustion
system, consisting of one or more power-driven generated by the gas-burning device are released
compressors, condensers, liquid receivers if into the outside airstream being heated.
provided, and the regularly furnished accessories DIRECT VENT APPLIANCE - An appliance that is
that have been factory assembled and tested prior to constructed and installed so that all air for combus-
its installation. tion is derived from the outside atmosphere and all
CONDITIONED SPACE - An area, room, or space flue gases are discharged to the outside atmosphere.
normally occupied and being heated or cooled for DISTRICT HEATING PLANT - A power boiler plant
human habitation by any equipment. designed to distribute hot water or steam to users
CONFINED SPACE - A room or space having a located off the premises.
volume less than fifty (50) cubic feet (1.42 m3) per DRAFT HOOD - A device built into an appliance or
1,000 Btu/h (293 W) of the aggregate input rating of made a part of the vent connector from an appliance,
all fuel-burning appliances installed in that space. that is designed to:
COOLING - Air cooling to provide a room or space (1) Assure the ready escape of the flue gases in the
temperature of 68°F (20°C) or above. event of no draft, back draft, or stoppage beyond
the draft hood.
COOLING SYSTEM - All of that equipment,
including associated refrigeration, intended or (2) Prevent a back draft from entering the appliance.
installed for the purpose of cooling air by mechanical (3) Neutralize the effect of stack action of the
means and discharging such air into any room or chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the
space. This definition shall not include any evapora- appliance.
tive cooler. DUCT - Any tube or conduit for transmission of air,
fumes, vapors, or dusts. This definition shall not
COOLING UNIT - A self-contained refrigeration
include:
system that has been factory assembled, tested, and
installed with or without conditioned air and ducts, (1) A vent, vent connector, or chimney connector.
without connecting any refrigerant-containing parts. (2) Any tube or conduit wherein the pressure of the
This definition shall not include a portable cooling air exceeds one (1) pound per square inch.
unit or an absorption unit. (3) The air passages of listed self-contained systems.

13
206.0 - 209.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

DUCT FURNACE - A warm-air furnace normally FIRE-RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION - Construction


installed in an air-distribution duct to supply warm complying with the requirements of the Building
air for heating. This definition shall apply only to a Code for the time period specified.
warm-air heating appliance that depends for air FLOOD HAZARD AREA - The greater of the
circulation on a blower not furnished as part of the following two areas:
furnace. (1) The area within a floodplain subject to a 1
DUCT SYSTEM - Includes all ducts, duct fittings, percent or greater chance of flooding in any
plenums, and fans assembled to form a continuous given year.
passageway for the distribution of air. (2) The area designated as a flood hazard area on a
community's flood hazard map, or otherwise
DWELLING - A building or portion thereof that
legally designated.
contains not more than two dwelling units.
FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH
DWELLING UNIT - A building or portion thereof VELOCITY WAVE ACTION - Area within the flood
that contains living facilities, including provisions hazard area that is subject to high-velocity wave
for sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation, as action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or
required by this code, for not more than one family. other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or VI-30.
FLOOR FURNACE - A completely self-contained
207.0 -E- furnace suspended from the floor of the space being
heated, taking air for combustion from outside such
ELECTRIC HEATING APPLIANCE - A device that space and with means for observing flames and
produces heat energy to create a warm environment lighting the appliance from such space.
by the application of electric power to resistance
FORCED-AIR-TYPE CENTRAL FURNACE - A
elements, refrigerant compressors, or dissimilar central furnace equipped with a fan or blower that
material junctions. provides the primary means for circulation of air.
ELECTRICAL CODE - The National Electrical Code Horizontal-Type Central Furnace - A furnace
promulgated by the National Fire Protection Associ- designed for low-headroom installations with
ation, as adopted by this jurisdiction. airflow through the appliance in a horizontal
EQUIPMENT - A general term including materials, path.
fittings, devices, appliances, and apparatus used as Upflow-Type Central Furnace - A furnace
part of or in connection with installations regulated designed with airflow essentially in a vertical
by this code. path, discharging air at or near the top of the
furnace.
EVAPORATIVE COOLER - A device used for
Downflow-Type Central Furnace - A furnace
reducing the sensible heat of air for cooling by the
designed with airflow essentially in a vertical
process of evaporation of water into an airstream.
path, discharging air at or near the bottom of the
EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM - All of that furnace.
equipment intended or installed for the purpose of Enclosed Furnace - A specific heating or
environmental cooling by an evaporative cooler from heating and ventilating furnace incorporating an
which the conditioned air is distributed through integral total enclosure and using only outside
ducts or plenums to the conditioned area. air for combustion.
EVAPORATOR - That part of a refrigeration system FRACTIONATION - A change in composition of a
in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized to produce blend by preferential evaporation of the more
refrigeration. volatile component or condensation of the less
volatile component.
EXCESS FLOW VALVE (EFV) - A valve designed
to activate when the fuel gas passing through it FUSIBLE PLUG - A device arranged to relieve pres-
exceeds a prescribed flow rate. sure by operation of a fusible member at a predeter-
mined temperature.

208.0 -F- 209.0 -G-


FIRE CODE - The fire code adopted by this jurisdic-
GALVANIZED STEEL - Any steel conforming to the
tion. requirements of UMC Standard No. 2-2.
FIREPLACE STOVE - A chimney-connected, GENERATOR - A device equipped with a means of
solid-fuel-burning stove (appliance) having part of heating used in an absorption system to drive refrig-
its fire chamber open to the room. erant out of solution.

14
DEFINITIONS 209.0 - 213.0

GRAVITY HEATING SYSTEM - Any heating system HOOD - An air-intake device connected to a
consisting of a gravity-type warm-air furnace, mechanical exhaust system for collecting vapors!
together with all air ducts or pipes and accessory fumes! smoke! dust! steam! heat or odors from! at! or
apparatus installed in connection therewith. near the equipment, place! or area where generated!
GRAVITY-TYPE WARM-AIR FURNACE - A warm- produced, or released.
air furnace depending primarily on circulation of air
through the furnace by gravity. This definition also 211.0 -1-
shall include any furnace approved with a
IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Ufe and Health) -
booster-type fan that does not materially restrict free
A concentration of airborne contaminant's, normally
circulation of air through the furnace when the fan is
expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams
not in operation.
per cubic meter (mg / m 3 ), that represents the
GROUNDING ELECTRODE - A conducting object maximum level from which one could escape within

I
through which a direct connection to earth is estab-
lished. [NFPA 70:100.1]
thirty (30) minutes without any escape-impairing
symptoms or irreversible health effects. This level is
established by the National Institute of Occupational
210.0 -H- Safety and Health (NIOSH).
HAZARDOUS LOCATION - Any area or space INDUSTRIAL HEATING EQUIPMENT - Includes
where combustible dust, ignitable fibers or appliances! devices! or equipment used! or intended
flammable, volatile liquids, gases, vapors or mixtures to be used! in an industrial, manufacturing, or
are or may be present in the air in quantities suffi- commercial occupancy for applying heat to any
cient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. material being processed! but shall not include water
heaters, boilers, or portable equipment used by arti-
HEAT (ENERGY) RECOVERY VENTILATOR - A
sans in pursuit of a trade.
device intended to remove air from buildings,
replace it with outside air, and in the process transfer INSANITARY LOCATION - An area, space, or room
heat from the warmer to the colder airstreams. where the air is unfit or undesirable for circulation to
occupied parts of a building.
HEATING DEGREE DAY - A unit, based upon
temperature difference and time, used in estimating
fuel consumption and specifying nominal annual 212.0 -J-
heating load of a building. For anyone day when the JOINT, BRAZED - Any joint obtained by joining of
mean temperature is less than 65°F (1s0e), there exist metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures
as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees higher than 840°F (449°e) but lower than the melting
difference in temperature between mean tempera- temperature of the parts being joined.
ture for the day and 65°F (1s0e).
JOINT, COMPRESSION - Any multipiece joint with
HEATING EQUIPMENT - Includes all warm-air cup-shaped threaded nuts that, when tightened,
furnaces, warm-air heaters, combustion products compress tapered sleeves so that they form a tight
vents, heating air-distribution ducts and fans, and all joint on the periphery of the tubing they connect.
steam and hot water piping, together with all control
JOINT, FLANGED - One made by bolting together a
devices and accessories installed as part of, or in
pair of flanged ends.
connection with, any environmental heating system
or appliance regulated by this code. JOINT, FLARED - Any metal-to-metal compression
joint in which a conical spread is made on the end of
HEATING SYSTEM - A warm air heating plant
a tube that is compressed by a flare nut against a
consisting of a heat exchanger enclosed in a casing,
mating flare.
from which the heated air is distributed through
ducts to various rooms and areas. A heating system JOINT, MECHANICAL - General form for gastight
includes the outside air, return air and supply air joints obtained by the joining of metal parts through
system! and all accessory apparatus and equipment a positive holding mechanical construction (such as
flanged joint, screwed joint or flared joint),
installed in connection therewith.
JOINT, SOLDERED - A joint made by the joining of
HEAT PUMP - A refrigeration system that extracts
metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys that melt
heat from one substance and transfers it to another
at a temperature up to and including 840°F (449"e).
portion of the same substance or to a second substance
at a higher temperature for a beneficial purpose.
HIGH SIDE - The parts of a refrigeration system 213.0 -K-
subjected to approximately condenser pressure. No definitions.

15
214.0 - 217.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

214.0 -l- LOW SIDE - Refers to the parts of a refrigeration


LABELED - Equipment or materials bearing a label system subjected to approximate evaporator pressure.
of a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment
body). See listed (Th i rd Party Certified). 215.0 -M-
[UPC:214.0]
MACHINERY - The refrigeration equipment forming
LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) - See LFl. a part of the refrigeration system, including, but not
LFL (Lower Flammable limit or Lower limit of limited to! the following: compressors! condensers,
Flammability) - The minimum concentration of a liquid receivers! evaporators, and connecting piping.
combustible substance that is capable of propagating
MANUFACTURER - The company or organization
a flame through homogeneous mixture of the
that evidences its responsibility by affixing its name,
combustible and a gaseous oxidizer under the speci-
trademark, or trade name to equipment or devices.
fied condition of test. The LFL is sometimes referred
to as LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). For the purposes MANUFACTURER'S INSTALLATION INSTRUC-
of this definition, LFL and LEL are identical. TIONS - Printed instructions included with equip-
LINE CONTACT INSTALLATION - An installation ment or devices for the purpose of providing infor-
in which a furnace is installed so that building joists, mation regarding safe and proper installation and use I
studs, or framing are contacted by the furnace jacket whether or not as part of the conditions of listing.
upon the lines formed by the intersection of the
jacket sides with the top surface. 216.0 -N-
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS or LPG (LP Gas) - NONCOMBUSTIBLE - As applied to building
Means and includes a material composed pre-domi- construction material, means a material that in the
nantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or form in which it is used is either one of the following:
mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane's
(1) A material that, in the form in which it is used
(normal butane or isobutane), and butylenes. When
reference is made to liquefied petroleum gas in this and under the conditions anticipated, will not
code, it shal1 refer to liquefied petroleum gases in ignite, burn, support combustion, or release
either the liquid or gaseous state. flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat.
Materials that are reported as passing ASTM E
LISTED (THIRD PARTY CERTIFIED) - Equipment or
136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials
materials included in a list published by a listing
in a vertical Tube Furnace at 750°, are considered
agency (accredited conformity assessment body) that
noncombustible material. [NFPA 220:3.3.4]
maintains periodic inspection on current production of
listed equipment or materials and whose listing states (2) Material having a structural base of noncom-
either that the equipment or material complies with bustible material as defined in 1 above, with a
approved standards or has been tested and found suit- surfacing material not over one-eighth (1/8) inch
able for use in a specified manner. [UPC:214.0] (3.2 mm) thick that has a flame-spread index not
LISTING AGENCY - An agency accredited by an higher than fifty (50).
independent and authoritative conformity assess- Noncombustible does not apply to surface finish
ment body to operate a material and product listing materials. Material required to be noncombustible
and labeling (certification) system and that is for reduced clearances to flues, heating appliances,
accepted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, or other sources of high temperature shall refer to
which is in the business of listing or labeling. The material conforming to 1 above. No material shall be
system includes initial and ongoing product testing, classed as noncombustible that is subject to increase
a periodic inspection on current production of listed in combustibility or flame-spread index beyond the
(certified) products, and that makes available a limits herein established, through the effects of age,
published report of such listing in which specific moisture, or other atmospheric condition.
information is included that the material or product
conforms to applicable standards and found safe for
use in a specific manner. [UPC:214.0] 217.0 -0-
LOW-PRESSURE HOT-WATER-HEATING BOILER - OCCUPANCY - The purpose for which a building or
A boiler furnishing hot water at pressures not part thereof is used or intended to be used.
exceeding 160 pounds per square inch (1,102.4 kPa) OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION - Classifications
and at temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C). are defined in the Building Code.
LOW-PRESSURE STEAM-HEATING BOILER - A OCCUPIED SPACE - An enclosed space intended
boiler furnishing steam at pressures not exceeding for human activities excluding those spaces intended
fifteen (15) pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa). primarily for other purposes such as storage rooms

16
DEFINITIONS 217.0 - 220.0

and equipment rooms that are only occupied occa- by changing the internal volume of the compression
sionally and for short periods of time. chamber.
POWER BOILER PLANT - One or more power steam
boilers or power hot water boilers and connecting
218.0 -P-
piping and vessels within the same premises.
PEL (Permissible Exposure limit) - The maximum
PP - An acronym for polypropylene.
permitted eight-hour time-weighted average concen-
tration of an airborne contaminant. The maximum PRESSURE, DESIGN - The maximum working
permitted time-weighted average exposures to be pressure for which a specific part of a refrigeration
utilized are those published in 29 CFR 1910.1000. system is designed.
PRESSURE, FIELD TEST - A test performed in the
PEX - An acronym for cross-linked polyethylene.
field to prove system tightness.
PIPING - The pipe or tube mains for interconnecting
PRESSURE-IMPOSING ELEMENT - A device or
the various parts of a system. Piping includes pipe,
portion of the equipment used for the purpose of
tube, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings the increasing the pressure of the refrigerant vapor.
pressure-containing parts of other components such
PRESSURE-LIMITING DEVICE - A pressure-
as expansion joints, strainers, and devices that serve
responsive mechanism designed to automatically
such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing,
stop the operation of the pressure-imposing element
distributing, metering, or controlling flow pipe-
at a predetermined pressure.
supporting fixtures and structural attachments.
PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICE - A pressure-actuated
PLENUM - An air compartment or chamber valve or rupture member or fusible plug designed to
including uninhabited crawl spaces areas above a automatically relieve excessive pressure.
ceiling or below a floor, including air spaces below
PRESSURE TEST - The minimum gauge pressure
raised floors of computer / data processing centers or
to which a specific system component is subjected
attic spaces, to that one or more ducts are connected under test condition.
and that forms part of either the supply-air,
PRESSURE VESSEL - REFRIGERANT - A refrig-
return-air or exhaust-air system, other than the occu-
erant-containing receptacle that is a portion of a refrig-
pied space being conditioned.
eration system, but shall not include evaporators,
PLUMBING CODE - The Uniform Plumbing Code headers, or piping of certain limited size and capacity.
promulgated by the International Association of
Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, as adopted by
219.0 -Q-
this jurisdiction.
QUALIFIED - A competent and capable person or
PORTABLE COOLING UNIT - A self-contained
company that has met the requirements and training
refrigerating system, not over 3 horsepower rating, for a given field acceptable to the Authority Having
that has been factory assembled and tested, installed Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.38]
without supply-air ducts and without connecting
any refrigerant-containing parts. This definition shall
not include an absorption unit. 220.0 -R-
PORTABLE EVAPORATIVE COOLER - An evapo- RADIANT HEATER - A heater designed to transfer
rative cooler that discharges the conditioned air heat primarily by direct radiation.
directly into the conditioned area without the use of RECEIVER, LIQUiD - A vessel permanently
ducts and can be readily transported from place to connected to a refrigeration system by inlet and
place without dismantling any portion thereof. outlet pipes for storage of liquid.
PORTABLE HEATING APPLIANCE - A heating REFRIGERANT SAFETY CLASSIFICATIONS -
Made up of a letter (A or B), that indicates the toxicity
appliance designed for environmental heating that
class, followed by a number (1, 2, or 3), that indicates
may have a self-contained fuel supply and is not
the flammability class. Refrigerant blends are simi-
secured or attached to a building by any means other
larly classified, based on the compositions at t.heir
than by a factory-installed power supply cord. worst cases of fractionation, as separately determmed
PORTABLE VENTILATING EQUIPMENT - Venti- for toxicity and flammability. In some cases, the
lating equipment that can be readily transpor~ed worst case of fractionation is the original formulation.
from place to place without dismantling a porhon TOXICITY - Classes A and B signify refrigerants
thereof and that is not connected to a duct. with "lower toxicity" and "higher toxicity,"
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR - A respectively, based on prescribed measures of
compressor in which increase in pressure is attained chronic (long-term, repeated exposures) toxicity.

17
220.0 - 222.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

FLAMMABILITY - Class 1 indicates refrigerants of a room is greater than eight (8) feet (2,438 mm),
that do not show flame propagation in air when the volume of the room is figured on the basis of a
tested by prescribed methods at specified condi- ceiling height of eight (8) feet (2,438 mm).
tions. Classes 2 and 3 signify refrigerants with RUPTURE MEMBER - A pressure-relief device that
"lower flammability" and "higher flamma- operates by the rupture of a diaphragm within the
bility," respectively. The distinction depends on device on a rise to a predetermined pressure.
both the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and
heat of combustion.
REFRIGERATION MACHINERY ROOM - A space
221.0 -S-
designed to safely house compressors and pressure SEAM, WELDED - See Joint, Welded.
vessels. SELF-CONTAINED - Having all essential working
REFRIGERATION ROOM or SPACE - A room or parts, except energy and control connections, so
space in which an evaporator or brine coil is located contained in a case or framework that they do not
for the purpose of reducing or controlling the temper- depend on appliances or fastenings outside of the
ature within the room or space to below 68°F (20°C). machine.
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, ABSORPTION - A SHAFT - An interior space enclosed by walls or
heat-operated closed-refrigeration cycle in which a construction extending through one or more stories
secondary fluid, the absorbent, absorbs a primary or basements that connects openings in successive
floors, or floors and roof, to accommodate elevators,
fluid, the refrigerant, that has been vaporized in the
dumbwaiters, mechanical equipment, or similar
evaporator.
devices to transmit light or ventilation air.
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, MECHANICAL - A
SHAFT ENCLOSURE - The walls or construction
combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing
forming the boundaries of a shaft.
parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in
SHALL - Indicates a mandatory requirement.
which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of
extracting heat and in which a compressor is used SHOULD - Indicates a recommendation or that
for compressing the refrigerant vapor. which is advised but not required.
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, SELF-CONTAINED - SMOKE DETECTOR - An approved device that
A complete factory-assembled and tested system that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.
is shipped in one or more sections and has no refrig- STANDARD - A document, the main text of which
erant-containing parts that are joined in the field by contains only mandatory provisions using the word
other than companion or block valves. "shall" to indicate requirements and that is in a form
generally suitable for mandatory reference by
RESIDENTiAL BUILDING - A building or portion
another standard or code or for adoption into law.
thereof designed or used for human habitation.
Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an
RISER HEAT PIPE - A duct that extends at an angle appendix, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to
of more than forty-five (45) degrees (0.79 rad) from be considered a part of the requirements of a stan-
the horizontal. This definition shall not include any dard.
boot connection.
STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT - A
ROOM HEATER - A freestanding, nonrecessed, self-contained package or factory-matched packages
environmental heating appliance installed in the that constitute an automatically operated assembly
space being heated and not connected to ducts. of integrated systems for generating useful electrical
ROOM HEATER, UNVENTED - An unvented, self- energy and recoverable energy that is permanently
contained, freestanding, nonrecessed, fuel-gas connected and fixed in place.
burning appliance for furnishing warm air by STRENGTH, ULTIMATE - The highest stress level
gravity or fan circulation to the space in which that the component can tolerate without rupture.
installed, directly from the heater without duct
SYSTEM OUTDOOR AIRFLOW (Vot) - The rate of
connection. [NFPA 54:3.3.55.6]
outdoor airflow required at the ventilation system
ROOM LARGE IN COMPARISON WITH SIZE OF outdoor air intake.
EQUIPMENT - A room having a volume of at least
twelve (12) times the total volume of a furnace or
air-conditioning appliance and at least sixteen (16) 222.0 -T-
times the total volume of a boiler. Total volume of TRAINED - A person who has become proficient in
the appliance is determined from exterior dimen- performing a skill reliably and safely through instruc-
sions and includes fan compartments and burner tion and practice / field experience acceptable to the
vestibules when used. When the actual ceiling height Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.48]

18
DEFINITIONS 223.0 - 224.0

223.0 -U- VENTED APPLIANCE CATEGORIES


UNIT HEATER - A heating appliance designed for Category I - An appliance that operates with a
nonresidential space heating and equipped with an nonpositive vent static pressure and with a vent
integral means for circulation of air. gas temperature that avoids excessive conden-
UNUSUALLY TIGHT CONSTRUCTION is construc- sate production in the vent.
tion where: Category II - An appliance that operates with a
(1) Walls and ceilings exposed to the outside atmo- non-positive vent static pressure and with a vent
sphere have a continuous water vapor retarder gas temperature that may cause excessive
with a rating of one (1) perm or less with any condensate production in the vent.
openings gasketed or sealed; Category III - An appliance that operates with a
(2) Weatherstripping is on openable windows and positive vent static pressure and with a vent gas
doors; and temperature that avoids excessive condensate
(3) Caulking or sealants are applied to areas such as production in the vent.
joints around window and door frames, between Category IV - An appliance that operates with a
sole plates and floors, between wall-ceiling positive vent static pressure and with a vent gas
joints, between wall panels, and at penetrations temperature that may cause excessive conden-
for plumbing, electrical, and gas lines and at sate production in the vent.
other openings. VENTED DECORATIVE APPLIANCE - A vented
appliance whose only function is providing an
224.0 -V- aesthetic effect of flames.
VALVE, PRESSURE-RELIEF - A pressure-actuated VENTED WALL FURNACE - A vented environ-
valve held closed by a spring or other means and mental heating appliance designed for incorporation
designed to automatically relieve pressure in excess in, or permanent attachment to, a wall, floor, ceiling,
of its setting; also called a safety valve. or partition and arranged to furnish heated air by
V ALVE, STOP - A device in a piping system to shut gravity or by a fan. This definition shall not include
off the flow of the fluid. floor furnaces, unit heaters, and room heaters.
VALVE, THREE-WAY-TYPE STOP - A manually VENTILATING CEILING - A suspended ceiling
operated valve with one inlet that alternately can containing many small apertures through which air,
stop flow to either of two outlets. at low pressure, is forced downward from an over-
head plenum dimensioned by the concealed space
VALVES, COMPANION OR BLOCK - Pairs of
between the suspended ceiling and the floor or roof
mating stop valves valving off sections of refrigera-
above.
tion systems and arranged so that these sections may
be joined before opening these valves or separated VENTILATION SYSTEM - All of that equipment
after closing them. intended or installed for the purpose of supplying air
VENT - A listed factory-made vent pipe and vent
to, or removing air from, any room or space by
mechanical means, other than equipment that is a
fittings for conveying flue gases to the outside atmo-
sphere. portion of an environmental heating, cooling,
absorption, or evaporative cooling system.
Type B Gas Vent - A factory-made gas vent
listed by a nationally recognized testing agency VENTING COLLAR - The outlet opening of an appli-
for venting listed or approved appliances ance provided for connection of the vent system.
equipped to burn only gas. VENTING SYSTEM - The vent or chimney and its
Type BW Gas Vent - A factory-made gas vent connectors, assembled to form a continuous open
listed by a nationally recognized testing agency passageway from an appliance to the outside atmo-
for venting listed or approved gas-fired vented sphere for the purpose of removing products of
wall furnaces. combustion. This definition also shall include a venting
assembly that is an integral part of an appliance.
Type L - A venting system consisting of listed
vent piping and fittings for use with oil-burning VENTING SYSTEM-GRAViTY-TYPE - A system
appliances listed for use with Type L or with that depends entirely on the heat from the fuel being
listed gas appliances. used to provide the energy required to vent an appli-
VENT CONNECTOR, GAS - That portion of a
ance.
gas-venting system that connects a listed gas appli- VENTING SYSTEM-POWER-TYPE - A system
ance to a gas vent and is installed within the space or that depends on a mechanical device to provide a
area in which the appliance is located. positive draft within the venting system.

19
224.0 - 228.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

VOLUME, INTERNAL GROSS - The volume as


determined from internal dimensions of the
container, with no allowance for the volume of the
internal parts.

225.0 -W-
WALL HEATER - See Vented Wall Furnace.
WARM AIR FURNACE - An environmental heating
appliance designed or arranged to discharge heated
air through any duct or ducts. This definition shall
not include a unit heater.
WATER HEATER or HOT-WATER-HEATING
BOILER - An appliance designed primarily to
supply hot water and equipped with automatic
controls limiting water temperature to a maximum
of 210 0 P (99°C).

226.0 -x-
No definitions.

227.0 -y-
No definitions.

228.0 -Z-
ZEOTROPE - A blend comprising multiple compo-
nents of different volatiles that, when used in refrig-
eration cycles, change volumetric composition and
saturation temperatures as they evaporate or
condense at constant pressure.

20
CHAPTER 3
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

301.0 Scope. Exception: The installation clearances for


This chapter covers general requirements for furnaces and boilers in rooms not large in
heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigeration, comparison with the size of the equipment shall
miscellaneous heat-producing, and energy-utilizing be as specified in the appliance listing regardless
equipment. Such equipment shall conform to the of whether the enclosure is of combustible or
requirements of this code. noncombustible materials and shall not be
reduced by the protection methods described in
Equipment shall not be installed or altered in
Table 3-3 or any other method.
violation of this code, nor shall the fuel input rate to
equipment be increased in excess of the approved If the ceiling height of the room or space is
Btu/h (kW) rating at the altitude where it is being greater than eight (8) feet (2A38 mmt the volume
used. shall be calculated on the basis of an eight (8) foot
(2A38 mm) height.
Defective material or parts shall be replaced in
such a manner as not to invalidate any approval. 303.3 Unlisted Appliances. Unlisted appliances
shall be installed with the standard clearances from
combustible construction speci fied in Table 3-2.
302.0 Approval. Unlisted appliances may have the standard clear-
302.1 How Obtained. Each appliance shall be ances of Table 3-2 reduced by employing the forms
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction for of protection specified in Table 3-3. Forms of protec-
safe use or comply with applicable nationally recog- tion specified in Table 3-3 may be utilized to reduce
nized standards as evidenced by the listing and label clearances to combustible construction for all appli-
of an approved agency. A list of accepted standards cable appliances.
is included in Chapter 17. 303.4 Anchorage of Appliances. Appliances
302.2 Complying Design of Equipment. Installers designed to be fixed in position shall be securely
shall furnish satisfactory evidence that the appliance fastened in place. Supports for appliances shall be
is constructed in conformity with the requirements designed and constructed to sustain vertical and
of this code. The permanently attached label of an horizontal loads within the stress limitations speci-
approved agency may be accepted as such evidence. fied in the Building Code.
302.3 Oil-Burning Appliances. The tank, piping, 303.5 Movement of appliances with casters shall be
and valves for appliances burning oil shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accor-
installed in accordance with the requirements of dance with the connector and appliance manufac-
NFPA 31 Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning
1
l
turer s installation instructions.
Equipment. 303.6 Identification of EqUipment. When more
than one heating, cooling, ventilating, or refriger-
303.0 Installation. ating system is installed on the roof of a building or
within a building, it shall be permanently identified
303.1 Listed Appliances. Except as otherwise
as to the area or space served by the equipment.
provided in the code, the installation of appliances
regulated by this code shall conform to the condi- 303.7 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Facilities.
Containers, container valves regulating equipment,
tions of listing. The appliance installer shall leave the
and appurtenances for the storage and supply of
manufacturer' s installation and operating instruc-
liquefied petroleum gas shall be installed in accor-
tions attached to the appliance. Clearances of listed
dance with NFP A 58. I
appliances from combustible materials shall be as
specified in the listing or on the rating plate. 303.8 Equipment on Roofs.
303.2 Room Large in Comparison to Size of 303.8.1 General.
Equipment. Central-heating furnaces not listed for 303.8.1.1 Enclosures. Equipment on roof
closet or alcove installation shall be installed in a shall be designed or enclosed so as to with-
room or space having a volume at least twelve (12) stand climatic conditions in the areas in
times the total volume of the furnace; central-heating which it is installed. Where enclosures are
boilers not listed for closet or alcove installation shall provided, each enclosure shall be of reason-
be installed in a room or space having a volume able height, and shall have at least a thirty
sixteen (16) times the volume of the boiler. (30) inch (762 mm) clearance between the

21
303.8 - 305.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

entire service access panel(s) of the equip- 304.1 Access to Equipment on Roofs.
ment and the wall of the enclosure. 304.1.1 General. Equipment and appliances
303.8.1.2 Roof Support. Roofs on which located on roofs or other elevated locations shall
equipment is to be installed shall be capable be accessible. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.1]
of supporting the additional load or shall be 304.1.2 Access from Inside. Buildings of more
reinforced to support the additional load. than fifteen (15) feet (4,572 mm) in height shall
303.8.1.3 Corrosion Resistance. All access have an inside means of access to the roof,
locks, screws, and bolts shall be of corro- unless other means acceptable to the Authority
sion-resistant material. Having Jurisdiction are used. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.2]
303.8.1.4 Roof Drainage. Equipment shall 304.1.2.1 Door or Scuttle. The inside
be installed on a well-drained surface of the means of access shall be a permanent or
roof. foldaway inside stairway or ladder, termi-
303.8.1.5 Guards or Rails. At least six (6) nating in an enclosure, scuttle, or trap door.
ft. (1,829 mm) between any part of the Such scuttles or trap doors shall be at least
equipment and the edge of a roof or similar twenty-two (22) inches x twenty-four (24)
hazard, or rigidly fixed rail, guards, para- inches (560 mm x 610 mm) in size, shall
pets, or other building structures at least open easily and safely under all conditions,
forty-two (42) inches (1,067 mm) in height especially snow, and shall be constructed so
shall be provided on the exposed side. as to permit access on the inside.
303.8.1.6 Electrical Power. All equipment 304.1.2.2 Guards or Rails. At least six (6)
requiring an external source of electrical feet (1,829 mm) of clearance shall be avail-
power for its operation shall be provided able between the access opening and the
with: edge of the roof or similar hazard, or rigidly
fixed rails or guards a minimum of forty-
(1) Readily accessible electrical discon-
two (42) inches (1,067 mm) in height shall be
necting means within sight of the equip-
provided on the exposed side. Where para-
ment.
pets or other building structures are utilized
(2) A 120 VAC grounding-type receptacle in lieu of guards or rails, they shall be a
outlet on the roof adjacent to the equip- minimum of forty-two (42) inches (1,067
ment. The receptacle outlet shall be on mm) in height. [NFP A 54:9.4.3.3]
the supply side of the disconnect
304.1.3 Permanent lighting. Permanent
switch.
lighting shall be provided at the roof access. The
switch for such lighting shall be located inside
304.0 Service and Access to Equipment and the building near the access means leading to the
Appliances. roof. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.4]
Equipment and appliances shall be accessible for 304.1.4 Standing Water. Where water stands
inspection, service, repair, and replacement without on the roof at the equipment, in the passageways
removing permanent construction. Sufficient clear- to the equipment, where the roof is of a design
ance shall be maintained to permit cleaning of having a water seat a suitable platform,
heating surfaces; the replacement of filters, blowers, walkway, or both shall be provided above the
motors, burners, controls, and vent connections; the waterline. Such platform(s) or walkway(s) shall
lubrication of moving parts where necessary; the be located adjacent to the equipment and control
adjustment and cleaning of burners and pilots; and panels so that the equipment can be safely
the proper functioning of explosion vents, if serviced where water stands on the roof.
provided. [NFPA 54-09:9.2.1]
Unless otherwise specified, not less than thirty 305.0 Automatic Control Devices.
(30) inches (762 mm) in depth, width, and height of Heating appliances shall be equipped with a listed
working space shall be provided. device or devices that will shut off the fuel supply to
Exception: Unit heaters and room heaters may be the main burner or burners in the event of pilot or
installed with an eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) ignition failure. In addition, liquefied petroleum
minimum depth working space. A platform shall gas-air-burning heating appliances shall be equipped
not be required for unit heaters or room heaters. with a listed automatic device or devices that will
The operating instructions shall be attached to shut off the flow of gas to the pilot in the event of
the appliance where they can be read easily. ignition failure.

22
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 305.0 - 307.1

Exception: The listed shutoff devices shall not be 306.2.4 The output rating in Btu/h or kW.
required on range or cooking tops, log lighters, 306.2.5 The electrical rating in volts, amperes, or
lights, or other open-burner manually operated watts of each field-replaceable electrical compo-
appliances, or listed appliances not requiring nent.
such devices and specific industrial appliances as
306.2.6 The symbol of an approved agency certi-
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
fying compliance of equipment with recognized
Heating appliances whose manual fuel controls standards.
are not readily accessible from the main portion
306.2.7 Required clearances from combustible
of the building being heated shall be equipped
surfaces on which or adjacent to which it may be
with remote controls.
mounted.
Forced-air and gravity-type warm-air furnaces
Also, the appliance shall be accompanied by
shall be equipped with a listed air outlet temperature
clear and complete installation instructions,
limit control that cannot be set for temperatures
including required clearances from combustibles
higher than 250°F (121°C). Such controls shall be
other than mounting or adjacent surfaces, and
located in the bonnet or plenum, within two (2) feet
temperature rating of field-installed wiring
(610 mm) of the discharge side of the heating
connections of over 140°F (60°C).
element of gravity furnaces or in accordance with the
conditions of listing. 306.3 Heat Pump and Electric Cooling Appli-
ances. Heat pumps and electric cooling appliances I
Electric duct heaters shall be equipped with an
shall bear a permanent and legible factory-applied
approved automatic reset air outlet temperature limit
nameplate on which shall appear:
control that will limit the outlet air temperature to not
more than 200°F (93°C). The electric elements of the 306.3.1 The name or trademark of the manufac-
heater shall be equipped with fusible links or a manual turer.
reset temperature limit control that will prevent outlet 306.3.2 The catalog model nomenclature.
air temperature in excess of 250°F (121°C). 306.3.3 The amount and type of refrigerant.
306.3.4 The factory test pressures or pressures
306.0 labeling. applied.
306.1 Fuel-Burning Appliances. Fuel-burning 306.3.5 The electrical rating in volts, amperes,
heating appliances shall bear a permanent and legible and, for other than single phase, the number of
factory-applied nameplate on which shall appear: phases.
306.1.1 The manufacturer's name. 306.3.6 The output rating in Btu/h or W.
306.1.2 The approved fuel input rating of the 306.3.7 The electrical rating in volts, amperes, or
appliance, expressed in Btu/h (W). watts of each field replaceable electrical compo-
nent.
306.1.3 The model and serial number.
306.3.8 The symbol of an approved agency certi-
306.1.4 Instructions for the lighting, operation,
fying compliance of the equipment with recog-
and shutdown of the appliance.
nized standards.
306.1.5 The type of fuel approved for use with
306.3.9 Required clearances from combustible
the appliance.
surfaces on which or adjacent to which it is
306.1.6 The symbol of an approved agency certi- permitted to be mounted.
fying compliance of the equipment with recog-
Also, the appliance shall be accompanied by
nized standards.
clear and complete installation instructions,
306.1.7 Required clearances from combustible including required clearances from combustible
surfaces on which or adjacent to which it may be other than mounting or adjacent surfaces, and
mounted. temperature rating of field-installed wiring
306.2 Electric Heating Appliances. Electric heating connections over 140°F (60°C).
appliances shall bear a permanent and legible
factory-applied nameplate on which shall appear: 307.0 location.
306.2.1 The name or h'ademark of the manufacturer. 307.1 Protection Against Damage. Appliances
306.2.2 The catalog (model) number or equiva- installed in garages, warehouses, or other areas
lent. subject to mechanical damage shall be guarded
306.2.3 The electrical rating in volts, amperes (or against such damage by being installed behind
watts), and; for other than single phase, the protective barriers or by being elevated or located
number of phases. out of the normal path of vehicles.

23
307.1 - 309.3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Heating and cooling equipment located in a 309.0 Condensate Wastes and Control.
garage and that generates a glow, spark, or flame 309.1 Condensate Disposal. Condensate from air
capable of igniting flammable vapors shall be washers, air-cooling coils, fuel-burning condensing
installed with the pilots and burners or heating appliances, and the overflow from evaporative
elements and switches at least eighteen (18) inches coolers and similar water-supplied equipment or
(457 mm) above the floor level. similar air-conditioning equipment shall be collected
Where such appliances installed within a garage and discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or
are enclosed in a separate, approved compartment disposal area. If discharged into the drainage system,
having access only from outside of the garage, such equipment shall drain by means of an indirect waste
appliances may be installed at floor level, provided pipe. The waste pipe shall have a slope of not less
the required combustion air is taken from and than 1/8 inch per foot (10.5 mm / m) or 1 percent
discharged to the exterior of the garage. slope and shall be of approved corrosion-resistant
Heating equipment located in rooms where material not smaller than the outlet size as required
cellulose nitrate plastic is stored or processed shall in either Section 309.3 or 309.4 for air-cooling coils or
comply with the Fire Code. condensing fuel-burning appliances, respectively.
Condensate or wastewater shall not drain over a
307.2 Protection Against Flood Damage. For
public way.
buildings located in flood hazard areas, heating,
ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigeration, miscella- 309.2 Condensate Control. When a cooling coil or
neous heat-producing, and energy-utilizing equip- cooling unit is located in an attic or furred space
ment and appliances shall be elevated at or above the where damage may result from condensate over-
design flood elevation. flow, an additional watertight pan of corrosion-resis-
tant metal shall be installed beneath the cooling coil
Exception: Equipment and appliances are
or unit top to catch the overflow condensate due to a
permitted to be located below the design flood
clogged primary condensate drain, or one pan with a
elevation provided that they are designed and
standing overflow and a separate secondary drain
installed to prevent water from entering or accu-
may be provided in lieu of the secondary drain pan.
mulating within the components and to resist
The additional pan or the standing overflow shall be
hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and
provided with a drain pipe, minimum 3/4 inch (19.1
stresses, including the effects of buoyancy,
mm) nominal pipe size, discharging at a point that
during the occurrence of flooding to the design
can be readily observed.
flood elevation in compliance with the flood-
resistant construction requirements of the This requirement is in addition to the require-
Building Code. ments in Sections 309.3 and 309.4.
307.2.1 Walls Below Buildings in Flood 309.3 Condensate Waste Sizing. Condensate waste
Hazard Areas Subject to High Velocity Wave pipes from air-cooling coils shall be sized in accor-
Action. In flood hazard areas subject to high dance with equipment capacity as follows:
velocity wave action, equipment and appliances,
including piping, shall not be mounted on or TABLE 3-1
penetrate walls intended to break away under
Minimum Condensate Pipe Size
flood loads.
-----Equipment CapaCity --- rMTnimum-Condensate
307.2.2 Air Exhaust and Intake Openings.
in Pipe Diameter
i

Outside air exhaust openings and air intake


Tons of
openings shall be located at or above the design
Refrigeration (kW) Inches (mm)
flood elevation. ------"---"-----.---- --
.. .... --._-_ _-
--~--. ...

Up to 20 (Up to 70.34) 3/4 (20)


21-40 (73.85 - 140.67) 1 (25)
308.0 Electrical Connections.
41- 90 (144.19 - 316.6)1 1-1/4 (32)
Equipment regulated by this code requiring electrical
connections of more than fifty (50) volts shall have a 91-125 (320.03 - 439.6)1 1-1/2 (40)
positive means of disconnect adjacent to and in sight 126 - 250 (443.12 - 879.2)! 2 (50)
I
from the equipment served. A 120 volt receptacle
shall be located within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620 The size of condensate waste pipes may be for
mm) of the equipment for service and maintenance one unit or a combination of units, or as recom-
purposes. The receptacle need not be located on the mended by the manufacturer. The capacity of waste
same level as the equipment. Low-voltage wiring of pipes assumes a one-eights (1/8) inch per foot (10.5
fifty (50) volts or less within a structure shall be mm/m) or 1 percent slope, with the pipe running
installed in a manner to prevent physical damage. three-quarters (3/4) full at the following conditions:

24
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 309.3 - 311.5

Outside Air - 20% Room Air - 80% (3) A hazardous or insanitary location or a refriger- TIA
TIA
DB DB WB ation machinery room as defined in this code. TIA
(4) From an area, the volume of which is less than TIA
90°F 75°F 62.5°F TIA
(32"C) (24°C) (lTC)
25 percent of the entire volume served by such TIA
system, unless there is a permanent opening to TIA
TIA
an area the volume of which is equal to 25 TIA
Condensate drain sizing for other slopes or other percent of the entire volume served. TIA
conditions shall be approved by the Authority Exception: Such openings when used for a TIA
TIA
Having Jurisdiction. heating or cooling air system in a dwelling TIA
309.4 Fuel-Burning Appliance Condensate unit shall be permitted to be reduced to not TIA
TIA
Drains. Condensate drain lines from individual less than 50 percent of the required area, TIA
fuel-burning condensing appliances shall be sized provided the balance of the required return TIA
according to the manufacturer's recommendations. air is taken from a room or hall having not TIA
TIA
Condensate drain lines serving more than one appli- less than three (3) doors leading to other TIA
ance shall be approved by the Authority Having rooms served by the furnace. TIA
TIA
Jurisdiction prior to installation. (5) A closet, bathroom, toilet room or kitchen. TIA
309.5 Plastic FiUings. Female PVC screwed fittings TlA
(6) From rooms or spaces containing a fuel-burning TlA
shall be used with plastic male fittings and plastic appliance therein. Where such room or space TlA
male threads only. serves as source of return air. TIA
TIA
Exceptions: TIA
TIA
310.0 Personnel Protection. (1) This shall not apply to fireplaces, fire- TIA
A suitable and substantial metal guard shall be place appliance, residential cooking TIA
TIA
provided around exposed flywheels, fans, pulleys, appliance, direct vent appliance, TIA
belts, and moving machinery that are portions of a enclosed furnaces and domestic-type TIA
heating, ventilating, or refrigerating system. clothes dryers installed within the room TIA
TIA
or space. TIA
(2) This shall not apply to a gravity-type or TIA
311.0 Heating or Cooling Air System. TIA
listed vented wall heating or cooling air TIA
TIA 311.1 Source. A heating or cooling air system shall system. TIA
TIA be provided with return air, outside air, or both. A TIA
TIA (3) This shall not apply to a blower-type TIA
TIA heating or cooling air system regulated by this code
heating or cooling air system complying TIA
TIA and designed to replace required ventilation shall be with the following requirements: TIA
TIA TIA
TIA
arranged to discharge into a conditioned space not
(a) Where the return air is taken from a TIA
TIA less than the amount of outside air specified in TIA
TIA room or space having a volume
Chapter 4. TIA
exceeding one (1) cubic foot for TIA
311.2 Air Filters. Air filters shall be installed in a each ten (10) Btu/h (2.93 W) fuel TIA
heating, cooling or makeup air system. Such filters input rating of all fuel-burning TlA
TIA
shall comply with the standard, Air Filter Units, Test appliances therein. TlA
Performance of, that is referenced in Chapter 17, as (b) N at less than 75 percent of the TlA
Class I or II filters. TIA
supply air is discharged back into TIA
Exception: Systems serving single guest rooms the same room or space. TIA
TIA
or dwelling units shall not require a listed filter. (c) Return-air inlets shall not be located TIA
TIA 311.3 Prohibited Source. Outside or return air for a within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from TIA
TIA
heating or cooling air system shall not be taken from any appliance firebox or draft TIA
TIA TIA
the following locations: diverter in the same enclosed room TlA
TIA
TIA or confined space. TIA
TIA (1) Closer than ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from an TlA
311.4 Return-Air Limitations. Return air from one
TIA appliance vent outlet, a vent opening of a TIA
TIA dwelling unit shall not discharge into another TlA
TIA
plumbing drainage system, or the discharge dwelling unit through the heating or cooling air TIA
TIA outlet of an exhaust fan, unless the outlet is three system. TIA
TIA (3) feet (914 mm) above the outside-air inlet. TIA
TIA 311.5 Outside Air Inlet Protection. Required TIA
TIA (2) Where it is less than ten (10) feet above the outside-air inlets shall be covered with a screen TIA
TIA TIA
surface of any abutting public way, driveway, having not less than one-fourth (1/4) inch (6.4 mm) TIA
TIA
TIA sidewalk, street, alley or driveway. openings. TIA

25
311.5-312.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TIA Exception: An outside-air inlet serving a nonres-


TIA
TIA
idential portion of a building shall be permitted
TIA to be covered with a screen having openings
TIA larger than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), but in no case
TIA
TlA exceeding one (1) inch (25.4 mm).

312.0 Water Supply.


Water supplies and backflow protection shall be as
required by the Uniform Plumbing Code.

26
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Table 3-2

TABLE 3-2
Standard Installation Clearances in Inches for Unlisted Heat-Producing Appliances
[NFPA 54: Table 10.3.3]
See Section 303.0.
APPLIANCE
.......-.. ----------I-FR-OMTOP.~~l~·····

RESIDENTIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES I AND SIDES OF I


ABOVE TOP I WARM-AIR
CASING ORI BONNET OR FROM
i
FROM FROM
1
FUEL APPLIANCE PLENUM' FRONT BACK SIDES
BOILERS AND WATER HEATERSll I

Steam Boilers-IS psi (103.4 kPa) Automatic Oil or


Water Boilers-2S0°F (12PC) Comb. Gas-Oil 6 24 6 6
w.a.... t.e. l' Heaters-200.0...F... (. .93°C). . ~~t.·on.1.a. tic Gas 6
18 6 6
~id ......._____. _____----T---_ _6___~_7_------.-.-
=- 48 6
I

All Water Walled or Jacketed ... -


6
I Aut~~~tic Oil or
l1
FURNXCES=--CENTRAL OR HEATIRS
ELECTRIC CENTRAL WARM-AIR FURNACESI Comb. Gas-Oil 24 6 6
Gravity, Upflow, Downflow, Horizontal and Automatic Gas 18 6 6
Duct Warm-Air-250°F (121°C) max. Solid 48 18 18
i
Electric
i

---~-------.--~-~-,--~
18 6 6
FURNACES-FLOOR , Automatic Oil or
For Mounting in Combustible Floors Comb. Gas-Oil 36 12 12 12
Automatic Gas 36 12 12 12
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Steam-15 psi (103.4 kPa) max.
Hot Water-250°F (121°C) max. ------.----_____~I __ -
ROOM HEATERS4
- - --~-~.~--~~-"-

Oil or Solid
Gas
I 36
36
24 12 12
Circulating Type I
24 12 12
Radiant or Other Type Oil or Solid 36 36 36 36
Gas 36 36 18 18
Gas with double metal
or ceramic back 36
fl~~Q!~~e_S.!.()~~._ Solid
RADIATORS
Steam or Hot Water 6 36 6 6 6
RANGES-COOKING STOVES

Oil 9 24 18
Gas 6 6 6
Solid Clay-Lined
Firepot 24 24 18
Solid Unlined
Firepot 36
Electric 6
INCIN ERATORS
Domestic 36 36
APPLIANCE
-------------------------- ..... , - ----r-----·--,····--·········-·-I
FROM TOP
COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES AND SlDES OF
ANY AND ALL PHYSICAL SIZES EXCEPT AS NOTED l1 WARM-AIR
BONNET OR FROM
i FUEL PLENUM SIDES 9
BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS
100 cu. ft. (2.832 m 3 ) or less
Steam, any pressure All Fuels 48 18 18
50 psi (345 kPa) or less
_________.bJJy?ize
UNIT HEATERS or Hot
Floor Mounted or Suspended-Any Size Water
Suspended-lOa cu. ft. (2.832 m 3 ) or less Oil or Comb.
Gas-Oil 6 24 18
Suspended-lOa cu. ft. (2.832 m 3 ) or less Gas 6 18 18
Suspended-Over 100 cu. ft. (2.832 m 3 ) All Fuels 18 48 18
Floor Mount~~~~!"1L~~_z;_~________ _ All Fuels 18 48 18
RANGES-RESTAURANT -TYPE
Floor Mounted All Fuels 48 48 18
OTHER LOW -HEA-~fTr\i5D-STRIA[APPLtANCES
Floor Mounted or Suspended All Fuels 18 18 48 18

27
Table 3-2 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 3-2 (continued)


Standard Installation Clearances in Inches for Unlisted Heat-Producing Appliances [NFPA 54: Table10.3.3]

APPLIANCE
FROM TOP
COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES AND SIDES OF
ANY AND ALL PHYSICAL SIZES EXCEPT AS NOTED 11 ABOVE TOP WARM·AIR
OF CASING OR BONNET OR FROM FROM FROM
1 10 10
FUEL APPLIANCE PLENUM FRONT BACK SIDES

BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS


Over 50 psi (345 kPa) All Fuels 48 96 36 36
3
Over 100 cu. ft. (2832 m )
OTHER MEDIUM-HEAT INDUSTRIAL
APPLIANCES
All Sizes All Fuels 48 36 96 36 36
INCINERATORS
All Sizes 48 96 36 36
INDUSTRIAL-TYPE HIGH-HEAT APPLIANCES
HIGH-HEAT INDUSTRIAL APPLIANCES
All Sizes All Fuels 180 360 120 120

Notes:
The minimum dimension shall be that necessary for servicing the appliance, including access for cleaning and normal care, tube removal,
etc.
2 For a listed oil, combination gas-oil, gas, or electric furnace, this dimension may be two (2) inches (51 mm) if the furnace limit control
cannot be set higher than 250'F (121°C), or this dimension may be one (1) inch (25.4 mm) if the limit control cannot be set higher than
200°F (93 QC), or the appliance shall be marked to indicate that the outlet air temperature cannot exceed 200°F (93°C).
3 The dimension may be six (6) inches (152 mm) for an automatically stoker-fired forced-warm-air furnace equipped with 250°F (121°C) limit
control and with barometric draft control operated by draft intensity and permanently set to limit draft to a maximum intensity of 0.13 inch
(3.3 mm) water gauge.
Unlisted appliances shall be installed on noncombustible floors and may be installed on protected combustible floors. Heating appliances
approved for installation on protected combustible flooring shall be so constructed that flame and hot gases do not come in contact with the
appliance base. Protection for combustible floors shall consist of four (4) inch (102 mm) hollow masonry covered with sheet metal at least
0.021 inch (0.53 mm) thick (No. 24 manufacturer's standard gauge). Masonry shall be permanently fastened in place in an approved
manner with the ends unsealed and joints matched so as to provide free circulation of air through the masonry. Floor protection shall
extend twelve (12) inches (305 mm) at the sides and rear of the appliance, except that at least eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) shall be
required on the appliance-opening side or sides measured horizontally from the edges of the opening.
S The forty-eight (48) inch (1,219 mm) clearance may be reduced to 36 inches (914 mm) when protection equivalent to that provided by
(a)-(g) of Table 3-2 is applied to the combustible construction.
Steam pipes and hot water heating pipes shall be installed with a clearance of at least one (1) inch (25 mm) to all combustible construction
or material, except that at the points where pipes carrying steam at not over fifteen (15) pounds gauge pressure (103.4 kPa) or hot water
that emerge from a floor, wall, or ceiling, the clearance at the opening through the finish floorboards or wall-ceiling boards may be reduced
to not less than one-half (1/2) inch (12.7 mm). Each such opening shall be covered with a plate of noncombustible material.
Such pipes passing through stock shelving shall be covered with not less than one (1) inch (25.4 mm) of approved insulation.
Wood boxes or casings enclosing uninsulated steam or hot water heating pipes or wooden covers to recesses in walls in which such unin-
sulated pipes are placed shall be lined with metal or insulating millboard.
Where the temperature of the boiler piping does not exceed 160°F (71 QC), the provisions of this table shall not apply.
Coverings or insulation used on steam or hot water pipes shall be of material suitable for the operating temperature of the system. The
insulation or jackets shall be of noncombustible materials, or the insulation or jackets and lap-seal adhesives shall be tested as a composite
product. Such composite product shall have a flame-spread rating of not more than twenty-five (25) and a smoke-developed rating not to
exceed fifty (50) when tested in accordance with USC Standard No. 42-1.
To combustible material or metal cabinets. If the underside of such combustible material or metal cabinet is protected with insulating mill-
board at least one-quarter (1/4) inch (6.4 mm) thick covered with sheet metal of not less than 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) (No. 28 gauge), the
distance may be reduced to twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm).
Clearance above charging door shall be at least forty-eight (48) inches (1,219 mm).
If the appliance is encased in brick, the eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) clearance above and at the sides and rear may be reduced to twelve
(12) inches (305 mm).
10 If the appliance is encased in brick, the clearance above may be reduced to thirty-six (36) inches (914 mm) and at the sides and rear may
be reduced to eighteen (18) inches (457 mm).
11 A central heating boiler or furnace shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall be installed on a floor of
noncombustible construction with noncombustible flooring and surface finish and with no combustible material against the underside
thereof, or on fire-resistive slabs or arches having no combustible material against the underside thereof.
Exception NO.1: Appliances listed for installation on a combustible floor.
Exception NO.2: Installation on a floor protected in an approved manner.
1 in. = 25.4 mm

28
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Table 3-3 - Figure 3-1

TABLE 3-3
Clearances, in Inches, with Specified Forms of Protection 1,2
Where the Standard Clearance in Table 3-1 with No Protection is:
4
TYPE OF PROTECTION 36 inches 18 inches 12 inches 9 inches 6 inches
Applied to the Combustible Material Unless
Otherwise Specified and Covering All Chimney Chimney Chimney Chimney
Surfaces within the Distance Specified as Sides or Vent Sides or Vent Sides or Vent Sides or Vent
the Required Clearance with No Protection and Con- and Con- and Con- and Con-
(Thicknesses Are Minimum) Above Rear nectar Above Rear nectar Above Rear nectar Above Rear nector

(a) 1/4" insulating millboard spaced out 1,,3 30 18 30 15 9 12 9 6 6 3 2 3


(b)0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard
gauge) steel sheet on 1/4" insulating
millboard 24 18 24 12 9 12 9 6 4 3 2 2
(c) 0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard
gauge) steel sheet spaced out 1,,3 18 12 18 9 6 9 6 4 4 2 2 2
(d)0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard
gauge) steel sheet on 1/8" insulating
millboard spaced out 1,,3 18 12 18 9 6 9 6 4 4 2 2 2
(e)1-1/2" insulating cement covering on heating
appliance 18 12 36 9 6 18 6 4 9 2 1 6
(f) 1/4" insulating millboard on 1" mineral fiber
batts reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent 18 12 18 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2
(g)0.027" (No. 22 manufacturer's standard
gauge) steel sheet on 1" mineral fiber batts
reinforced with wire or equivalent 18 12 12 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
(h) 1/4" insulating millboard 36 36 36 18 18 18 12 12 9 4 4 4

Notes:
1 For appliances complying with Sections 303.2 and 303.3
Except for the protection described in (e), all clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of the appliance to the combustible material,
disregarding any intervening protection applied to the combustible material.
3 Spacers shall be of noncombustible material.
4 Insulating millboard is a factory-made product formed of noncombustible materials, normally fibers, and having a thermal conductivity of 1
Btu-inch per square foot per degree F [1.73 W / (m. K)] or less.
1 in = 25.4 mm

Construction using Combustible Material


Wallboard, Plaster or Other Finish
Sheet Metal or Other Protection
/ "- l
1
~ IX!
/{F, 1><1
t@ ~
t C~
--- //~/
B

A
~
/ t
1

Appliance or Connector

Notes:
1. Dimension shall not be less than the required clearance with no protection set forth in
Tables 3-2 and 3-4 and in sections applying to various types of appliances.
2. Dimension shall be not less than the reduced clearance set forth in Table 3-3
3. Dimension shall not be less that the clearance required for dimension A.

FIGURE 3-1 Extent of Protection Required to Reduce Clearances from Appliance, Chimney, or Vent
Connectors.

29
Table 3-4 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 3-4
Chimney Connector and Vent Connector Clearances
from Combustible Materials

Minimum Clearance,1
DESCRIPTION OF APPLIANCE Inches (mm)
RESIDENTIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES
2
Single-Wall Metal Pipe Connectors
Gas appliances without draft hoods 18 (457)
Electric, gas, and oil incinerators 18 (457)
Oil and solid-fuel appliances 18 (457)
Unlisted gas appliances with draft hoods 9 (229)
Boilers and furnaces equipped with listed gas burners
3
and with draft hoods 9 (229)
Oil appliances listed as suitable for use with Type L
venting systems (but only when connected to chimneys) 9 (229)
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods 6 (152)
Type l Venting System Piping Connectors
Gas appliances without draft hoods 9 (229)
Electric, gas, and oil incinerators 9 (229)
Oil and solid-fuel appliances 9 (229)
Unlisted gas appliances with draft hoods 6 (152)
Boilers and furnaces equipped with listed gas burners
and with draft hoods 6 (152)
Oil appliances listed as suitable for use with Type L
venting systems 4
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods 5
Type B Gas Vent Piping Connectors
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods 5
COMMERCIAL-INDUSTRIAL TYPE APPLIANCES
low-Heat Appliances
Single-Wall Metal Pipe Connectors 2
Gas, oil, and solid-fuel boilers, furnaces, and water heaters 18 (457)
Ranges, restaurant-type 18 (457)
Oil unit heaters 18 (457)
Unlisted gas unit heaters 18 (457)
Listed gas unit heaters with draft hoods 6 (152)
Other low-heat industrial appliances 18 (457)
Medium-Heat Appliances
Single-Wall Metal Pipe Connectors2
All gas, oil, and solid-fuel appliances 36 (914)

Notes:
1 These clearances apply except if the listing of an appliance specifies different clearance, in which case the listed clearance takes
2 precedence.
The clearances from connectors to combustible materials may be reduced if the combustible material is protected in accordance
with Table 3-3.
The dimension may be six (6) inches (152 mm), provided the maximum flue temperatures entering the draft hood do not exceed
550°F (288°C).
4 1£ listed Type L venting system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting system listing.

S 1£ listed Type B or Type L venting system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting system listing.

30
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Table 3-5 - Table 3-6

TABLE 3-5
Capacities of listed Metal Appliance Connectors 1
For use with gas pressures 8-inch or more water column (1.99-kPa)

Capacities for Various Lengths in Thousands Btu/h


(based on a pressure drop of 0.2 inch (10.2 mm) water column)
Flexible Natural Gas of 1,100 Btu/cu. flo (11.4 W/L)4
Semirigid Connector
Connector Nominal l' 1-112' 2' 2-1/2' 3' 4' 5' 6'
0.0. 2 1.0. 3 Ranges and
Inches (mm) Inches (mm) All Gas Appliances Clothes Oryers
3/8 (10) 1/4 (8) 40 33 29 27 25
1/2 (15) 3/8 (10) 93 76 66 62 58
5/8 (18) 1/2 (15) 189 155 134 125 116 101 90 80
- 3/4 (20) 404 330 287 266 244
- 1 (25) 803 661 573 534 500
Notes:
1 Gas connectors are certified by the testing agency as complete assemblies, including the fittings and valves. Capacities
shown are based on the use of fittings and valves supplied with the connector.
Outside diameter.
3 Internal diameter.

4 For liquefied petroleum gas, use 1.6 times the natural gas capacities shown.

1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1 Btu/h = 0.29 Watt

TABLE 3-6
Capacities of listed Metal Appliance Connectors 1
For use with gas pressures less than 8-inch water column (1.99-kPa)

Capacities for Various Lengths in Thousands Btu/h


(based on a pressure drop of 0.2 inch (10.2 mm) water column)
Flexible Natural Gas of 1,100 Btu/cu. ft. (11.4 W/L)4
Semirigid Connector
Connector Nominal 1' 1-1/2' 2' 2-1/2' 3' 4' 5' 6'
0.0. 2 1.0. 3 Ranges and
Inches (mm) Inches (mm) All Gas Appliances Clothes Dryers
3/8 (10) 1/4 (8) 28 23 20 19 17
1/2 (15) 3/8 (10) 66 54 47 44 41
5/8 (18) 1/2 (15) 134 110 95 88 82 72 63 57
- 3/4 (20) 285 233 202 188 174
- 1 (25) 567 467 405 378 353
Notes:
1 Gas connectors are certified by the testing agency as complete assemblies, including the fittings and valves. Capacities shown
are based on the use of fittings and valves supplied with the connector.
Semirigid connector listings are based on the outside diameter.
Flexible connector listings are based on nominal diameter.
4 For liquefied petroleum gas, use 1.6 times the natural gas capacities shown.

1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1 Btu/h = 0.29 Watt

31
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

32
CHAPTER 4
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY

401.0 General. uously provided with the required ventilation rate


This chapter contains requirements for ventilation air while occupied.
supply and exhaust, evaporative cooling systems and
makeup-air requirements for direct-gas-fired heaters, 403.0 Ventilation Rates.
industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters.
The design outdoor air intake flow rate for a ventila-
tion system shall be determined in accordance with
402.0 Ventilation Air. Sections 403.1 through 403.6.
402.1 General Requirements. All rooms and occu- 403.1 Zone Calculations. Zone parameters shall be
pied spaces listed in Table 4-1 shall be designed to determined in accordance wi th Sections 403.1.1
have ventilation (outdoor) air for occupants in accor- through 403.1.3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2]
dance with this chapter. 403.1.1 Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow. The
402.1.1 Construction Documents. The outdoor design outdoor airflow required in the breathing
air ventilation rate and air distribution assump- zone of the occupiable space or spaces in a zone,
tions made in the design of the ventilation system i.e., the breathing zone outdoor airflmu (Vbz)' shall
shall be clearly identified on the construction be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1.
documents. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]
402.2 Natural Ventilation. Use of natural ventilation
systems designed in accordance with this section (Equation 4-1)
shall be permitted in lieu of or in conjunction with
mechanical ventilation systems. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1]
Where:
Exception: An engineered natural ventilation
system when approved by the Authority Having A z = zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area
Jurisdiction need not meet the requirements of of the zone ft. 2 (m2 ).
402.2.1 and 402.2.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1] p z = zone population: The largest number of people
402.2.1 Location and Size of Openings. Natu- expected to occupy the zone during typical
rally ventilated spaces shall be permanently open usage. If the number of people expected to
to and within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620 mm) of occupy the zone fluctuates, P z shall be
operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors, permitted to be estimated based on aver-
the open able area of which is a minimum of 4 aging approaches described in Section
percent of the net occupiable floor area. Where 403.5.2. If Pz cam10t be accurately predicted
the openings are covered with louvers or other- during design, it shall be estimated based on
wise obstructed, openable area shall be based on the zone floor area and the default occupant
the free unobstructed area through the opening. density listed in Table 4-1.
Where interior spaces without direct openings to Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as
the outdoors are ventilated through adjoining determined from Table 4-1.
rooms, the opening between rooms shall be Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area
permanently unobstructed and have a free area as determined from Table 4-1. [ASHRAE
of not less than 8 percent of the area of the inte- 62.1:6.2.2.1]
rior room nor less than 25 ft 2 (2.3 m 2 ). [ASHRAE 403.1.2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness.
62.1:5.1.1]
The zone air distribution effectiveness (E z ) shall be
402.2.2 Control and Accessibility. The means determined using Table 4-2. [ASHRAE
to open required operable openings shall be 62.1:6.2.2.2]
readily accessible to building occupants when- 403.1.3 Zone Outdoor Airflow. The design zone
ever the space is occupied. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1.2] outdoor airflow (Voz )' i.e., the outdoor airflow that
402.3 Mechanical Ventilation. Where natural venti- must be provided to the zone by the supply air
lation is not permitted by this section or the Building distribution system, shall be determined in accor-
Code, mechanical ventilation systems shall be dance with Equation 4-2. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.3]
designed, constructed, and installed to provide a
method of supply air and exhaust air. The system
shall operate so that all rooms and spaces are contin- (Equation 4-2)

33
403.2 - 404.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

403.2 Single-Zone Systems. When one air handler Where the system population (P s) is the total popu-
supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air lation in the area served by the system. Alterna-
to only one zone, the outdoor air intake flozu (Vot) shall tive methods shall be permitted to be used to
be determined in accordance with Equation 4-3. account for population diversity when calculating
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.3] VoU' provided that the resulting value is no less
than that determined by Equation 4-6. [ASHRAE
62.1 :6.2.5.3]
(Equation 4-3)
403.4.4 Outdoor Air Intake. The design outdoor
air intake flOU) (Vot) shall be determined in accor-
403.3 100% Outdoor Air Systems. When one air dance with Equation 4-8. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.4]
handler supplies only outdoor air to one or more
zones, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be deter-
(Equation 4-8)
mined in accordance with Equation 4-4. [ASHRAE
62.1:6.2.4]
403.5 Design for Varying Operating Conditions.
Vot = Lall zones V oz (Equation 4-4) 403.5.1 Variable load Conditions. Ventilation
systems shall be designed to be capable of
providing the required ventilation rates in the
403.4 Multiple-Zone Recirculating Systems. When breathing zone whenever the zones served by
one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and the system are occupied, including all full and
recirculated return air to more than one zone, the part-load conditions. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.1]
outdoor air in take flow (V ot) shall be determined in 403.5.2 Short-Term Conditions. If it is known
accordance with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.4. that peak occupancy will be of short duration or
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5] the ventilation rate will be varied or interrupted
403.4.1 Primary Outdoor Air Fraction. When for a short period of time, the design shall be
Table 4-3 is used to determine system ventilation permitted to be based on the average conditions
efficiency, the zone primary outdoor air fraction over a time period T determined by Equation 4-9.
(Zp) shall be determined in accordance with [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.2]:
Equation 4-5. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]
T = 3v / Vbz (4-9) IP (Equation 4-9)
(Equation 4-5)
Where:
Vpz is the primary airflow to the zone from the T averaging time period, (min)
air handler, including outdoor air and recircu-
v the volume of the zone for which aver
lated return air. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]
aging is being applied, ft. 3 (m 3 ).
403.4.2 System Ventilation Efficiency. The
Vbz = the breathing zone outdoor airflow calcu-
system ventilation efficiency (E v ) shall be deter- lated using Equation 4-1 and the design
mined using Table 4-3 or Appendix A of value of the zone population PZ' dm (L / s).
ASHRAE 62.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.2]
403.4.3 Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake. The
design uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) shall be 403.6 Dynamic Reset. The system shall be
determined in accordance with Equation 4-6. permitted to be designed to vary the design outdoor
air intake flow (Vot), or the space or zone airflow as
operating conditions change.
V ou = V Lall zones RpPz + Lall zones RaAz 403.7 Exhaust Ventilation. Exhaust airflow shall be
(Equation 4-6) provided in accordance with the requirements in
Table 4-4. Exhaust makeup air shall be permitted to
The occupant diversity, V, shall be permitted to be be any combination of outdoor air, recirculated air,
used to account for variations in occupancy and transfer air.
within the zones served by the system.
The occupancy diversity is defined as: 404.0 Makeup Air.
Makeup-air requirements for direct gas-fired heaters,
industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters are
V = Ps/Lall zones Pz (Equation 4-7)
found in Chapters 5 and 9.

34
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY 405.0 - 405.3

405.0 Evaporative Cooling Systems.


Evaporative cooling systems shall comply with this
chapter.
Evaporative cooling systems shall be provided
with outside air as specified for cooling systems in
this code.
Air ducts and fire dampers that are a portion of an
evaporative cooling system shall comply with this code.
405.1 Location. Evaporative cooling systems shall
be installed so as to minimize the probability of
damage from an external source.
405.2 Access, Inspection, and Repair. Evaporative
coolers shall be accessible for inspection, service, and
replacement without removing permanent construction.
405.3 Installation. An evaporative cooler supported
by the building structure shall be installed on a
substantial level base and shall be secured directly or
indirectly to the building structure by suitable means
to prevent displacement of the cooler.
Modifications made to the supporting frame-
work of buildings as a result of the installation shall
be in accordance with the requirements of the
Building Code. Openings in exterior walls shall be
flashed in an approved manner in accordance with
the requirements of the Building Code.
An evaporative cooler supported directly by the
ground shall be isolated from the ground by a level
concrete slab extending not less than three (3) inches
(76 mm) above the adjoining ground level.
An evaporative cooler supported on an above-
ground platform shall be elevated at least six (6)
inches (152 mm) above adjoining ground level.
Example: Determine the outdoor air rate
required for a single zone AC unit serving an
interior 2,000 ft. 2 meeting/ conference room with
a design occupancy of 100 people. The system
supplies and returns air from the ceiling.
Per Table 4-2, the zone air distribution effec-
tiveness is 1.0 since the system supplies cooling
only from the ceiling. Using the rates from Table
4-1 for a meeting / conference room, the
minimum system outdoor air rate is calculated
to be:

Vat = RpP z + RaAz


Ez
= 5 x 100 + 0.06 x 2,000
1.0
= 620 dm

35
Table 4-1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 4-1
MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE 1,2
[ASHRAE 62.1: Table 6-1]
Occupancy People Outdoor Area Outdoor Default Occupant
Category4 Air Rate Rp Air Rate RA Density 3
(cfmlperson) (cfmlft.2) (people/1 ,000 ft. 2)

Correctional Facilities
Cell 5 0.12 25
Day room 5 0.06 30
Guard stations 5 0.06 15
Booking / waiting 7.5 0.06 50
Educational Facilities
Day care (through age 4) 10 0.18 25
~~~:~~ I Day care sickroom 10 0.18 25
Classrooms (ages 5-8) 10 0.12 25
Classrooms (age 9 plus) 10 0.12 35
Lecture classroom 7.5 0.06 65
Lecture hall (fixed seats) 7.5 0.06 150
Art classroom 10 0.18 20
Science laboratories E 10 0.18 25
~~~:~~ I University / college laboratories 10 0.18 25
Wood / metal shop 10 0.18 20
Computer lab 10 0.12 25
Media cen ter A 10 0.12 25
Music / theater / dance 10 0.06 35
Multi-use assembly 7.5 0.06 100
Food and Beverage Service
Restaurant dining rooms 7.5 0.18 70
Cafeteria / fast food dining 7.5 0.18 100
Bars, cocktail lounges 7.5 0.18 100
General
~~~:~~
~~~:~~
I
Break rooms
Coffee stations
5
5
0.06
0.06
25
20
Conference / meeting 5 0.06 50
Corridors 0.06
Storage roomsFl 0.12
Hotels, Motels, Resorts, Dormitories
Bedroom / living room 5 0.06 10

~~~=~~
~~~:~~
I
Barracks sleeping areas
Laundry rooms, central
Laundry rooms within dwelling units
5
5
5
0.06
0.12
0.12
20
10
10
Lobbies / pre-function 7.5 0.06 30
Multipurpose assembly 5 0.06 120
Office Buildings
Office space 5 0.06 5
Reception areas 5 0.06 30
Telephone / data entry 5 0.06 60
Main entry lobbies 5 0.06 10
Miscellaneous spaces
Bank vaults / safe deposit 5 0.06 5

~~~~~~
~~~=~~
I
Computer (not printing)
Electrical equipment rooms
Elevator machine rooms
5 0.06
0.06
0.12
4

Pharmacy (prep. area) 5 0.18 10

36
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY Table 4-1 continued

TABLE 4-1
MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE 1 ,2 (continued)
[ASHRAE 62.1: Table 6-1]
Photo studios 5 0.12 10
Shipping / receivingR 0.12
Transportation waiting 7.5 0.06 100
Warehouses B 0.06
Public Assembly Spaces
Auditorium seating area 5 0.06 150
Places of religious worship 5 0.06 120
Courtrooms 5 0.06 70
Legislative chambers 5 0.06 50
Libraries 5 0.12 10
Lobbies 5 0.06 150
Museums (children's) 7.5 0.12 40
Museums / galleries 7.5 0.06 40
ASHRAE
Residential ASH RAE

Dwelling UnitF C 5 0.06 F ASH RAE


ASHRAE
Comnlon corridors 0.06 ASHRAE
ASHRAE
Retail
Sales (except as below) 7.5 0.12 15
Mall common areas 7.5 0.06 40
Barber shop 7.5 0.06 25
Beauty and nail salons 20 0.12 25
Pet shops (animal areas) 7.5 0.18 10
Supermarket 7.5 0.06 8
Coin-operated laundries 7.5 0.06 20
Sports and Entertainment
Sports arena (play area) 0.30
Gym, stadium (play area) 0.30 30
Spectator areas 7.5 0.06 150
Swimming (pool & deckf 0.48
Disco / dance floors 20 0.06 100
Health club / aerobics room 20 0.06 40
Health club / weight rooms 20 0.06 10
Bowling alley (seating) 10 0.12 40
Gambling casinos 7.5 0.18 120
Game arcades 7.5 0.18 20
Stages, studios D 10 0.06 70

Notes:
I Smoking: This table applies to no-smoking areas. Rates for smoking-permitted spaces must be determined using other methods.

2 Air Density: Volumetric airflow rates are based on an air density of 1.2 kgda / m 3 (0.075 lbda / ft 3 ), which corresponds to dry air at

a barometric pressure of 101.3 kPa (1 atm) and an air temperature of 21°C (70 OF). Rates shall be permitted to be adjusted for
actual density but such adjustment is not required for compliance with this chapter.
3 Default Occupant Density: The default occupant density shall be used when actual occupant density is not known.
4 Unlisted Occupancies: If the occupancy category for a proposed space or zone is not listed, the requirements for the listed occu-

pancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density, activities, and building construction shall be used.
1 ft. = 0.305 m

ITEM-SPECIFIC NOTES FOR TABLE 4-1


A For high school and college libraries, use values shown for Public Spaces - Library.

R Rate may not be sufficient when stored materials include those having potentially harmful emissions.

C Rate does not allow for humidity control. Additional ventilation or dehumidification may be required to remove moisture.

/) Rate does not include special exhaust for stage effects, e.g., dry ice vapors, smoke.
E No class of air has been established for this occupancy category.

F Default occupancy for dwelling units shall be two persons for studio and one-bedroom units, with one additional person for ASHRAE
ASHRAE
each additional bedroom. ASHRAE
ASHRAE
C Air from one residential dwelling shall not be recirculated or transferred to any other space outside of that dwelling. ASHRAE

37
Table 4-2 - Table 4-3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 4-2
Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
[ASHRAE 62.1: Table 6-2]

Air Distribution Configuration Ez


Ceiling supply of cool air ................................................................ 1.0

Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return ................................................ 1.0

Ceiling supply of warm air at least 15°F (SOC) above space temperature ........................ O.S
and ceiling return.

Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15°F (SOC) above space .................................. 1.0
temperature and ceiling return provided that the 150 fpm (O.S m/ s)
supply air jet reaches to within 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) of floor level.

Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return provided that the 150 fpm .......................... 1.0
(O.S m/ s) supply jet reaches at least 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) above the floor.

Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return, provided low velocity ............................. 1.2
displacement ventilation achieves unidirectional flow and thermal
stratification.

Floor supply of warm air and floor return .................................................. 1.0

Floor supply of warm air and ceiling return ................................................ 0.7

Makeup supply drawn in on the opposite side of the room from the ........................... O.S
exhaust or return.

Makeup supply drawn in near to the exhaust or return location ............................... 0.5

Notes:
l. "Cool air" is air cooler than space temperature.
2. "Warm air" is air warmer than space temperature.
3. "Ceiling" includes any point above the breathing zone.
4. "Floor" includes any point below the breathing zone.
5. As an alternative to using the above values, determine Ez in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 129 for all air distribution
configurations except unidirectional flow.

TABLE 4-3
System Ventilation Efficiency
[ASHRAE 62.1: Table 6-3]

Max (Zp)
< 0.15 1.0
< 0.25 0.9
< 0.35 O.S
< 0.45 0.7
< 0.55 0.6
> 0.55 Use ASHRAE 62.1, Appendix A

Notes:
1. "Max Zp" refers to the largest value of Zp' calculated using Equation 4-5, among all the zones served by the system.
2. Interpolating between table values is permitted.

38
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY Table 4-4

TABLE 4-4
Minimum Exhaust Rates
[ASHRAE 62.1: Table 6-4]

Occupancy Category6 Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate
cfm/unit cfm/ff Us-unit Us-m 2

Art classrooms 0.70 3.5


Auto repair rooms 1 1.50 7.5
Barber shop 0.50 2.5
Beauty and nail salons 0.60 3.0
Cell with toilet 1.00 5.0
Darkrooms 1.00 5.0
Arena 2 0.50 2.5
Kitchen - commercial 0.70 3.5
Kitchenettes 0.30 1.5
Locker rooms 0.50 2.5
Locker / dressing rooms 0.25 1.25
Parking garages 3,7 0.75 3.7
Janitor, trash, recycle 1.00 5.0
Pet shops (animal areas) 0.90 4.5
Copy, printing rooms 0.50 2.5
Science lab classrooms 1.00 5.0
Toilets - public 4 50/70 25/35
Toilet - private 5 25/50 12.5/25
Woodwork shop/ classroom 0.50 2.5

Notes:
I Stands where engines are run shall have exhaust systems that directly connect to the engine exhaust and prevent escape of
fumes.
2 The rates do not include exhaust from vehicles or equipment with internal combustion engines.
3 Exhaust rate is not required for open parking garages as defined in accordance with the Building Code. TIA
4 Rate is per water closet or urinal. Provide the higher rate where periods of heavy use are expected to occur (e.g., toilets in
theatres, schools, and sports facilities).
5 Rate is for a toilet room intended to be occupied by one person at a time. For continuous system operation during normal hours
of use, the lower rate may be used. Otherwise use the higher rate.
6 For unlisted occupancies for a proposed space not listed in the table, the requirements for the listed occupancy that is most TIA
similar in terms of occupant density and occupancy type shall be used. TIA
TIA
7 Exhaust rate is not required for enclosed parking garages having a floor area of one-thousand (1,000) square feet or less and used TIA
for the storage of five (5) or less motorized vehicles. TIA

39
UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

40
CHAPTER 5
EXHAUST SYSTEMS

501.0 Scope. CLOSED COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION -


This chapter includes requirements for environ- Combustible building construction, including walls,
mental air ducts, product-conveying systems, and structural framing, roofs, roof ceilings, floors, and
commercial hoods and kitchen ventilation. floor-ceiling assemblies continuously enclosing a
grease duct on four sides where one or more sides
require protection per Section 507.2. [NFPA
Part I - Environmental Air Ducts and Product- 96:3.3.13.1]
Conveying Systems.
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL - Material subject to an
increase in combustibility or flame-spread rating
502.0 Definitions. beyond the limits established in the definition of
For the purposes of this chapter, the following defi- Limited-Combustible Material.
nitions apply: COMMERCIAL FOOD HEAT-PROCESSING
ACCESS PANEL - A closure device used to cover EQUIPMENT - Equipment used in a food establish-
an opening into a duct, an enclosure, equipment, or ment for heat-processing food or utensils and that
an appurtenance. [NFPA 96:3.3.1] produces grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke, or
odors that are required to be removed through a
AIR INTAKES - An opening in a building's envelope
local exhaust ventilation system.
whose purpose is to allow outside air to be drawn
into the structure to replace inside air that is COMPENSATING HOOD - A hood that has an
removed by exhaust systems or to improve the outside-air supply with air delivered below or
quality of the inside air by providing a source of air within the hood. When makeup air is diffused
having a lower concentration of odors, suspended directly into the exhaust within the hood cavity, it
particles, or heating content. [NFPA 96:3.3.2] becomes a short-circuit hood.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES - Equip- CONCEALED SPACES - That portion(s) of a
ment and devices used for the purpose of cleaning building behind walls, over suspended ceilings, in
air passing through them or by them in such a pipe chases, attics, and elsewhere whose size might
manner as to reduce or remove the impurities normally range from 1-3/4 inch (44.45 mm) stud
contained therein. [NFPA 96:3.3.3] spaces to eight (8) foot (2.44 m) interstitial truss
spaces and that might contain combustible materials
APPURTENANCE - An accessory or a subordinate
such as building structural members, thermal
part that enables the primary device to perform or
and / or electrical insulation, and ducting. Such
improve its intended function. [NFP A 96:3.3.5]
spaces have sometimes been used as HVAC plenum
BAFFLE PLATE - An object placed in or near an chambers. [NFPA 96:3.3.45.1]
appliance to change the direction or retard the flow of
CONTINUOUS ENCLOSURE - A recognized archi-
air, air-fuel mixtures, or flue gases. [NFPA 96:3.3.7]
tectural or mechanical component of a building
CERTIFIED PERSON - A person trained and certi- having a fire resistance rating as required for the
fied by the equipment manufacturer, or by a recog- structure and whose purpose is to enclose the vapor
nized organization through a formal certification removal duct for its full length to its termination
program for the system to be serviced or cleaned, point outside the structure without any portion of
that is acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdic- the enclosure having a fire resistance rating less than
tion. the required value. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.1]
CLASSIFIED - See Listed. CONTINUOUS WELD - A metal-joining method that
CLEAN(ING) - For kitchen exhaust systems and produces a product without visible interruption or
cooking equipment, the act of removing grease, oil variation in quality. For the purpose of the defini-
deposits, and other residue. [NFPA 96:3.3.11] tion, it specifically includes the exhaust compartment
CLEARLY IDENTIFIED - Capable of being recog- of hoods and welded joints of exhaust ducts, yet
nized by a person of normal vision without causing specifically does not include filter support frames or
uncertainty and indecisiveness about the location or appendages inside hoods. [NFPA 96:3.3.14]
operating process of the identified item. [NFP A COOKING APPLIANCE FLUE OUTLET - The
96:3.3.12] opening or openings in a cooking device where

41
502.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

vapors, combustion gases, or both leave the cooking accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests
device. There might or might not be ductwork of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Mate-
attached to this opening. rials.
DAMPER - A valve or plate within a duct or its FUME INCINERATORS - Devices utilizing intense
terminal components for controlling draft or the flow heat or fire to break down and/ or oxidize vapors
of gases, including air. [NFP A 96:3.3.15] and odors contained in gases or air being exhausted
DETECTION DEVICES - Electrical, pneumatic, into the atmosphere. [NFP A 96:3.3.27]
thermal, mechanical, or optical sensing instruments, FUSIBLE LINK - A form of fixed-temperature heat-
or subcomponents of such instruments, whose detecting device sometimes employed to restrain the
purpose is to cause an automatic action upon the operation of an electrical or mechanical control until
occurrence of some preselected event. In the context its designed temperature is reached. Such devices are
of this document, the event in question could be to be replaced following each operation.
excessive temperature or flame, and the action could GREASE - Rendered animal fat, vegetable short-
be the operation of a fire-extinguishing system. ening, and other such oily matter used for the
DIPS - Depression or cup like places in horizontal purposes of and resulting from cooking and / or
duct runs in which liquids could accumulate. [NFP A preparing foods. Grease might be liberated and
96:3.3.17] entrained with exhaust air or might be visible as a
DISCHARGE - The final portion of a duct or pipe
liquid or solid.
where the product being conveyed is emptied or GREASE DUCTS - A containment system for the
released from confinement; the termination point of transportation of air and grease vapors that is
the pipe or duct. [NFPA 96:3.3.18] designed and installed to reduce the possibility of
the accumulation of combustible condensation and
EASILY ACCESSIBLE - See Accessible, Readily in
the occurrence of damage if a fire occurs within the
Section 203.0, Chapter 2.
system. [NFPA 96:3.3.20.2]
ENVIRONMENTAL AIR DUCT - Ducting used for
GREASE FILTER - A removable component of the
conveying air at temperatures not exceeding 250°F
grease removal system designed to capture grease
(12rC) to or from occupied areas of any occupancy
and direct it to a safe collection pOint before it enters
through other than heating or air-conditioning
a duct system. Filters are expected to minimize the
systems, such as ventilation for human usage,
projection of flames downstream when attacked by
domestic kitchen range exhaust, bathroom exhaust
flame on the upstream side and are expected to
ducts, and domestic-type clothes dryer exhaust ducts.
maintain their strength, shape, and integrity when
FACTORY-BUILT GREASE ENCLOSURES - A exposed to the anticipated rough handling, cleaning,
listed factory-built grease duct enclosure system and service found in the field.
evaluated for reduced clearances to combustibles,
GREASE FILTER, MESH-TYPE - A general-
and as an alternative to a duct with its fire-rated
purpose air filter designed to collect and retain lint
enclosure. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.2.1]
and grease from the air passing through it. This type
FIELD-APPLIED GREASE DUCT ENCLOSURES - of filter is not tested, listed, or acceptable for
A listed system evaluated for reduced clearances to commercial cooking operations due to the increased
combustibles, and as an alternative to a duct with its fire hazard.
fire-rated enclosure. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.2.2] GREASE REMOVAL DEVICES - A system of
FLAMMABLE VAPOR OR FUMES - The concentra- components designed for and intended to process
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceeds vapors, gases, and / or air as it is drawn through such
twenty-five percent (25%) of its Lower Flammability devices by collecting the airborne grease particles
Limit (LFL). and concentrating them for further action at some
FIRE BARRIER WALL - A wall assembly future time, leaving the exiting air with a lower
complying with the requirements of NFPA 221, Stan- amount of combustible matter. [NFPA 96:3.3.30]
dard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, having a fire GREASE-TIGHT - Constructed and performing in
resistance rating of four (4) hours. such a manner as not to permit the passage of any
FIRE PARTITION - An interior wall or partition of a grease under normal cooking conditions. [NFP A
building that separates two areas and serves to 96:3.3.31]
restrict the spread of fire but does not qualify as a HIGH BROILER - See Upright Broiler.[NFPA
fire wall. 96:3.3.8.1]
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING - A relative value in HIGH LIMIT CONTROL - An operating device
minutes or hours assigned to materials or assemblies installed in and serving as an integral component of
that have withstood a fire exposure as established in a deep-fat fryer. Its purpose is the secondary limita-

42
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 502.0

tion of temperature allowed by the cooking opera- tions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support
tion and, if that temperature is exceeded, the auto- combustion, or release flammable vapors when
matic interruption of the thermal energy input. subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are reported
[NFPA 96:3.3.32] as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for
HOOD - An air-intake device connected to a Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at
mechanical exhaust system for collecting and 750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials.
removing grease, vapors, fumes, smoke, steam, heat, [NFPA 220:3.3.4]
or odors from commercial food heat-processing OPEN COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION -
equipment. Combustible building constructions including wall,
Fixed Baffle - A listed unitary exhaust hood structural framing, roof, roof ceiling, floor, and floor
design where the grease removal device is a ceiling assemblies adjacent to a grease duct on three
nonremovable assembly that contains an inte- or fewer sides where one or more sides require
gral fire-activated water-wash fire-extinguishing protection per Section 507.2. [NFPA 96:3.3.13.2]
system listed for this purpose. [NFP A
PITCHED - To be fixed or set at a desired angle or
96:3.3.33.1]
inclination. [NFP A 96:3.3.37]
Type I - is a kitchen hood for collecting and
removing grease and smoke. PRODUCT-CONVEYING DUCT - Ducting used for
conveying solid particulates, such as refuse, dust,
Type II - is a general kitchen hood for collecting
fumes, and smoke; liquid particulate matter, such as
and removing steam, vapor, heat, or odors.
spray residue, mists, and fogs; vapors, such as
INTERCONNECTED - Mutually assembled to vapors from flammable or corrosive liquids; noxious
another component in such a manner that the opera- and toxic gases; and air at temperatures exceeding
tion of one directly affects the other or that the 250°F (121°C).
contents of one specific duct system are allowed to
encounter or contact the products being moved by RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS - Systems for control
another duct system. [NFPA 96:3.3.34] of smoke or grease-laden vapors from commercial
LIMITED-COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL - A building
cooking equipment that do not exhaust to the
outside. [NFPA 96:3.3.39]
construction material that does not comply with the
definition of noncombustible material, that, in the REMOVABLE - Capable of being transferred to
form in which it is used, has a potential heat value another location with a limited application of effort
not exceeding 3,500 Btu/lb. (8141 kJ /kg) (see NFPA and tools. [NFPA 96:3.3.40]
259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building REPLACEMENT AIR - See Air, Makeup in Section
Materials), and that complies with either of the 203.0, Chapter 2.
following (A) or (B). Materials subject to an increase
in combustibility or flame-spread rating beyond the SALAMANDER BROILER - See Upright Broiler.
limits herein established through the effects of age, [NFPA 96:3.3.8.2]
moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall be SECONDARY FILTRATION - Fume incinerators,
considered combustible. thermal recovery units, air pollution control devices
(A) Materials having a structural base of noncom- or other filtration media installed in ducts or hoods
bustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding located in the path of travel of exhaust products after
a thickness of 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), and with a the initial filtration.
flame-spread rating not greater than fifty (50).
SHALL - Indicates a mandatory requirement.
(B) Materials in the form and thickness used, other
SINGLE HAZARD AREA - As considered in the
than as described in (A), having neither a flame-
applicable extinguishing system standard (see
spread rating greater than twenty-five (25) nor
Section 513.2) or as determined by the Authority
evidence of continued progressive combustion
and of such composition that surfaces that Having Jurisdiction.
would be exposed by cutting through the mate- SOLID COOKING FUEL - Any solid, organic,
rial on any plane would have neither a flame- consumable fuel such as briquette, mesquite, hard-
spread rating greater than twenty-five (25) nor wood, or charcoal. [NFPA 96:3.3.43]
evidence of continued progressive combustion. SOLID-FUEL COOKING EQUIPMENT - Cooking
lIQUID-TIGHT - Constructed and performing in equipment that is fired with solid cooking fuel. This
such a manner as not to permit the passage of any equipment includes ovens, tandoori charcoal pots,
liquid at any temperature. [NFPA 96:3.3.35] grills, broilers, rotisseries, barbecue pits, or any other
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL - A material that, type of cooking equipment that derives all or part of
in the form in which it is used and under the condi- its heat source from the burning of solid cooking fuel.

43
502.0 - 504.2 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

SOLVENT - A substance (usually liquid) capable of operated remote control installed at an approved
dissolving or dispersing another substance; a chem- location shall be provided to shut off fans or blowers
ical compound designed and used to convert solidi- in flammable vapor or dust systems. Electrical equip-
fied grease into a liquid or semi-liquid state in order ment used in operations that generate explosive or
to facilitate a cleaning operation. [NFPA 96:3.3.44] flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be inter-
SPARK ARRESTER - A device or method that locked with the ventilation system so that the equip-
minimizes the passage of airborne sparks and ment cannot be operated unless the ventilation fans
embers into a plenum, duct, and flue. [NFPA are in operation. Motors for fans used to convey
96:3.3.46] flammable vapors or dusts shall be located outside
the duct or shall be protected with approved shields
TERMINATION - The final or intended end portion
and dustproofing. Motors and fans shall be acces-
of a duct system that is designed and functions to
sible for servicing and maintenance.
fulfill the obligations of the system in a satisfactory
luanner. 503.2 Fans. Parts of fans in contact with explosive or
flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be of nonfer-
THERMAL RECOVERY UNIT - A device or series of
rous or nonsparking materials or their casing shall be
devices whose purpose is to reclaim only the heat
lined or constructed of such material. When the size
content of air, vapors, gases, or fluids that are being
and hardness of materials passing through a fan
expelled through the exhaust system and to transfer
could produce a spark, both the fan and the casing
the thermal energy so reclaimed to a location
shall be of nonsparking materials. When fans are
whereby a useful purpose can be served. [NFPA
required to be spark-resistant, their bearings shall
96:3.3.47]
not be within the airstream, and all parts of the fan
TRAP - A cup like or U-shaped configuration shall be grounded. Fans in systems handling mate-
located on the inside of a duct system component rials that are likely to clog the blades, and fans in
where liquids can accumulate. [NFPA 96:3.3.49] buffing or woodworking exhaust systems, shall be of
UPRIGHT BROILER - An appliance used in the the radial-blade or tube-axial type.
preparation of food whereby foods are exposed to Equipment used to exhaust explosive or
intense radiant heat, and perhaps to convective heat, flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall bear an
with the food and the radiant source not limited to a identification plate stating the ventilation rate for
horizontal mode. [NFPA 96:3.3.8.3] which the system was designed.
502.1 Product-Conveying Ducts - Classification. Fans located in systems conveying corrosives
Product-conveying ducts shaH be classified shall be of materials that are resistant to the corrosive
according to their use, as follows: or shall be coated with corrosion-resistant materials.
Class 1. Ducts conveying nonabrasives, such as 503.3 Air filters shall be listed units. Liquid adhesive
smoke, spray, mists, fogs, noncorrosive coatings used on filters shall have a flash point of
fumes and gases, light fine dusts, or 350°F (17TC) or higher, as determined by the Fire
powders. Code standards.
Class 2. Ducts conveying moderately abrasive
particulate in light concentrations, such 504.0 Environmental Air Ducts.
as sawdust and grain dust, and buffing
504.1 Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts. Environ-
and polishing dust.
mental air ducts not regulated by other provisions of
Class 3. Ducts conveying Class 2 materials in this code shall comply with this section. Ducts shall
high concentrations and highly abrasive be substantially airtight and shall comply with the
materials in low concentrations, such as provisions of Chapter 6. Exhaust ducts under posi-
manganese, steel chips, and coke. tive pressure shall not extend into or through ducts
Class 4. Ducts conveying highly abrasive mate- or plenums. Exhaust ducts shall terminate outside
rial in high concentrations. the building and shall be equipped with back-draft
Class 5. Ducts conveying corrosives, such as dampers. Environmental air ducts that have an alter-
acid vapors. nate function as a part of an approved smoke-control
system do not require design as Class 1
product-conveying ducts.
503.0 Motors, Fans, and Filters.
504.2 Domestic Range Vents. Ducts used for
503.1 General. Motors and fans shall be sized to domestic kitchen range ventilation shall be of metal
provide the required air movement. Motors in areas and shall have smooth interior surfaces. Ducts for
that contain flammable vapors or dusts shall be of a domestic range hoods shall only serve cooking appli-
type approved for such environments. A manually ances.

44
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 504.2 - 505.1

Exception: Ducts for domestic kitchen down- 504.3.2.2 length limitation. Unless other-
draft grill-range ventilation installed under a wise permitted or required by the dryer
concrete slab floor may be of approved Schedule manufacturer's installation instructions and
40 PVC provided: approved by the Authority Having Jurisdic-
(1) The under-floor trench in which the duct is tion, domestic dryer moisture exhaust ducts
installed shall be completely backfilled with shall not exceed a total combined horizontal
sand or gravel. and vertical length of fourteen (14) feet
(4,263 mm), including two (2) 90 degree
(2) Not more than one (1) inch (25 mm) of six
(1.57 rad) elbows. Two (2) feet (610 mm)
(6) inch diameter (152 mm) PVC coupling
shall be deducted for each 90 degree (1.57
may protrude above the concrete floor
rad) elbow in excess of two.
surface.
504.3.3 Commercial Clothes Dryers. Commer-
(3) PVC pipe joints shall be solvent cemented to cial dryer exhaust ducts shall be installed in
provided an air and grease-tight duct. accordance with their listings. The installation of
(4) The duct shall terminate above grade commercial clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall
outside the building and shall be equipped comply with the appliance manufacturer's
with a back-draft damper. installation instructions.
504.3 Clothes Dryers. 504.4 Heat (Energy) Recovery Ventilators.
504.3.1 Moisture Exhaust Ducts. Moisture 504.4.1 Heat (energy) recovery ventilators shall
exhaust ducts shall terminate on the outside of be installed in accordance with their listings and
the building and shall be equipped with a back- comply with the appliance manufacturer's
draft damper. Screens shall not be installed at installation instructions. Heat (energy) recovery
the duct termination. Ducts for exhausting ventilator ducts shall comply with the provi-
clothes dryers shall not be connected or installed sions of Chapter 6.
with sheet metal screws or other fasteners that
will obstruct the flow. Clothes dryer moisture
exhaust ducts shall not be connected to a gas
504.5 Termination of Environmental Air Ducts.
Environmental air duct exhaust shall terminate a
minimum of three (3) feet (914 mm) from property
I
vent connector, gas vent, or chimney, and shall line and three (3) feet (914 mm) from openings into
only serve clothes dryers. Clothes dryer mois- the building.
ture exhaust ducts under positive pressure shall
504.6 Gypsum Wallboard Ducts. Bathroom and
not extend into or through ducts or plenums.
laundry room exhaust ducts may be of gypsum wall-
504.3.2 Domestic Clothes Dryers. When a board subject to the limitations of Section 602.1.
compartment or space for a domestic clothes
dryer is provided, a minimum four (4) inch
diameter (102 mm) moisture exhaust duct of 505.0 Design of Product-Conveying Ventilation
approved material shall be installed in accor- Systems.
dance with this section and Section 504.0. 505.1 General. A mechanical ventilation or exhaust
When a closet is designed for the installation system shall be installed to control, capture, and
of a clothes dryer, a minimum opening of 100 remove emissions generated from product use or
square inches (64,516 mm2) for makeup air shall handling when required by the Building Code or
be provided in the door or by other approved Fire Code and when such emissions result in a
Ineans. hazard to life or property. The design of the system
shall be such that the emissions are confined to the
504.3.2.1 Domestic Dryer Vents. Domestic area in which they are generated by air currents,
clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall hoods, or enclosures and shall be exhausted by a
be of metal and shall have smooth interior duct system to a safe location or treated by removing
surfaces. contaminant's. Ducts conveying explosives or
Exception: Listed clothes dryer transi- flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall extend
tion ducts not more than six (6) feet directly to the exterior of the building without
(1,829 mm) in length may be used in entering other spaces and shall not extend into or
connection with domestic dryer through ducts and plenums.
exhausts. Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes
Flexible clothes dryer transition having flammable constituents less than 25
ducts shall not be concealed within percent of their Lower Flammability Limit (LFL)
construction. may pass through other spaces.

45
505.1 - Table 5-1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

505.1.1 Incompatible materials shall not be Systems for removal of vapors, gases, and smoke
conveyed in the same system. shall be designed by the constant velocity or equal
505.1.2 In systems conveying flammable vapors, friction methods. Systems conveying particulate
gases, or mists, the concentration shall not matter shall be designed employing the constant
exceed 25 percent of the lower flammability limit velocity method. Systems conveying explosive or
(LFL). radioactive materials shall be prebalanced through
duct sizing. Other systems may be designed with
Exception: Higher concentrations shall be balancing devices such as dampers. Dampers
permitted if the exhaust system is designed provided to balance airflow shall be provided with
and protected in accordance with the Stan- securely fixed minimum-position blocking devices to
dard on Explosion Prevention Systems in prevent restricting flow below the required volume
Chapter 17, using one or more of the or velocity.
following techniques:
505.3 Makeup Air. Makeup air shall be provided to
(a) Combustible concentration reduction replenish air exhausted by the ventilation system.
(b) Oxidant concentration reduction Makeup-air intakes shall be located so as to avoid
(c) Deflagration suppression recirculation of contaminated air within enclosures.
(d) Deflagration pressure containment 505.4 Hoods and Enclosures. Hoods and enclo-
sures shall be used when contaminant's originate in a
Separate and distinct systems shall be
concentrated area. The design of the hood or enclo-
provided for incompatible materials. sure shall be such that air currents created by the
Contaminated air shall not be recirculated to exhaust systems will capture the contaminant's and
occupied areas unless contaminant's have been transport them directly to the exhaust duct. The
removed. Air contaminated with explosive or volume of air shall be sufficient to dilute explosive or
flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts; flammable flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts as set forth in
or toxic gases; or radioactive material shall not Section 505.2. Hoods of steel shall have a base metal
be recirculated. thickness not less than 0.027 inch (0.69 mm) (No. 22
505.2 Minimum Velocities and Circulation. The gauge) for Class 1 and Class 5 metal duct systems;
velocity and circulation of air in work areas shall be 0.033 inch (0.84 mm) (No. 20 gauge) for hoods
such that contaminant's are captured by an airstream serving a Class 2 duct system; 0.044 inch (1.12 mm)
at the area where the emissions are generated and (No. 18 gauge) for hoods serving a Class 3 duct
conveyed into a product-conveying duct system. system; and 0.068 inch (1.73 mm) (No. 14 gauge) for
Mixtures within work areas where contaminant's are hoods serving a Class 4 duct system.
generated shall be diluted below twenty-five (25) Approved nonmetallic hoods and duct systems
percent of their lower explosive limit or lower may be used for Class 5 corrosive systems when the
flammability limit with air that does not contain corrosive mixture is nonflammable. Metal hoods
other contaminant's. The velocity of air within the used with Class 5 duct systems shall be protected
duct shall be not less than set forth in Table 5-1. with suitable corrosion-resistant material. Edges of

TABLE 5-1
..
Minimum
---
---------------~----
Conveying Velocities
-----~.~----~-

Feet per Minute (m/s)


Vapors, gases, smoke, fumes Any
--~~.-~~--- ..--

I Fi~~iight cl~sts~s~~has cottor;~li~t:~l~d wood flo-~~l1o-6- 2,000 (10.2)


land under)
lOry dusts; powde1.·s,su~h-~sfine~1..l.bber molding power, soap 2,500 1 (12.7)1
[dust
!industrial dusts--------------~----~~----
A verage dusts, such as sawdust, grinding dust, coal dust 3,500 (17.8)
Heavy dusts, such as metal turnings, lead dusts 4,000 (20.3)
Moist dusts and chips, such as lead dust with chips, sticky buffing
L~il1t~quick-lime dust 4,500 (22.9)
Note:
I The velocity for aluminum and magnesium powder shall be not less than 4,000 feet per minute (20.3 m/ s).

46
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 505.4 - 506.4

hoods shall be rounded. The minimum clearance 506.2 Construction. Ducts used for conveying prod-
between hoods and combustible construction shall ucts shall be of substantial airtight construction and
be the clearance required by the duct system. shall not have openings other than those required for
operation and maintenance of the system. Ducts
constructed of steel shall comply with Table 5-5 or 5-6.
506.0 Product-Conveying Ducts.
Exceptions:
506.1 Materials. Materials used in product-
conveying duct systems shall be suitable for the (1) Class 1 product-conveying ducts that
operate at less than four (4) inches (102 mm)
intended use and shall be of metal.
water column (995.6 Pa) negative pressure
Exceptions: and convey noncorrosive, nonflammable,
(1) Asbestos-cement, concrete, clay, or ceramic and nonexplosive materials at temperatures
materials may be used when it is shown that not exceeding 250°F (121°C) may be
these materials will be equivalent to metal constructed in accordance with Tables 6-1,
ducts installed in accordance with this 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-7, 6-8, or, with prior
chapter. approval, UMC Standard No. 6-2.
(2) Ducts serving a Class 5 system may be (2) Ducts used in central vacuuming systems
constructed of approved nonmetallic mate- within a dwelling unit shall be constructed
rial when the corrosive characteristics of the of materials in compllance with the appli-
material being conveyed make a metal cable standards referenced in Chapter 17.
system unsuitable and when the mixture Penetrations of fire-resistive walls, or
being conveyed is nonflammable. floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall
comply with the Building Code. Copper or
Approved nonmetallic material shall be ferrous pipes or conduit extending from
either a listed product having a within the separation between a garage and
flame-spread index of twenty-five (25) or dwelling unit to the central vacuum unit
less and a smoke-developed rating of fifty may be used.
(50) or less on both inside and outside
The use of rectangular ducts conveying particu-
surfaces without evidence of continued
lates shall be subject to approval of the building offi-
progressive combustion, or shall have a
cial. The design of rectangular ducts shall consider
flame-spread index of twenty-five (25) or
the adhesiveness and buildup of products being
less and shall be installed with an automatic conveyed within the duct.
fire-sprinkler protection system inside the
duct. Aluminum construction may be used in Class 1
duct systems only. The thickness of aluminum ducts
(3) Ducts used in central vacuum cleaning shall be at least two Brown and Sharpe gauges
systems within a dwelling unit shall be thicker than the gauges required for steel ducts set
constructed of materials in compliance with forth in Tables 5-5 and 5-6.
the applicable standards referenced in
506.3 Fittings. Fittings in Class 2, 3, and 4 systems
Chapter 17. Penetrations of fire walls or
shall be not less than two gauges thicker than the
floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall
thickness required for straight runs. Flexible metallic
comply with the Building Code. duct may be used for connecting ductwork to
Copper or ferrous pipes or conduits vibrating equipment. Duct systems subject to wide
extending from within the separation temperature fluctuations shall be provided with
between a garage and dwelling unit to the expansion joints.
central vacuuming unit may be used. Branches shall connect to main ducts at the large
Aluminum ducts shall not be used in systems end of transitions at an angle not exceeding forty-
conveying flammable vapors, fumes, or explosive five (45) degrees (0.79 rad).
dusts, nor in Class 2, 3, or 4 systems. Galvanized Except for ducts used to convey noncorrosive
steel and aluminum ducts shall not be used when the vapors with no particulate, accessible cleanouts shall
temperature of the material being conveyed exceeds be provided at ten (10) foot (3,048 mm) intervals and
400°F (205°C). at changes in direction. Access openings shall also be
Metal ducts used in Class 5 systems that are not provided for access to sprinklers and other equip-
resistant to the corrosiveness of the product shall be ment within the duct that require servicing.
protected with appropriate corrosion-resistant mate- 506.4 Explosion Venting. Ducts conveying explo-
rial. sive dusts shall have explosion vents, openings

47
506.4 - 506.7 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

protected by antiflashback swing valves, or rupture specific hazard, the clearance shall be
diaphragms. Openings to relieve explosive forces permitted to be reduced to six (6) inches
shall be located outside the building. When relief (152 mm ) from combustible materials and
devices cannot provide sufficient pressure relief, 1/2 inch (13 mm) from combustible
ductwork shall be designed to withstand an internal construction.
pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch Exception No.2: When the combustible
(689 kPa). material and construction is protected by the
If a room or building contains a dust explosion use of materials or products listed for
hazard that is external to protected equipment, as protection purposes or in accordance with
defined in 2.2.3.1 of NFP A 654, such areas shall be Table 5-2.
provided with deflagration venting to a safe outside 506.7.1.1 Spacers and ties for protection
location. materials shall be of noncombustible mate-
506.5 Supports. Spacing of supports for ducts shall rial and shall not be used directly behind the
not exceed twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) for eight (8) duct.
inch (203 mm) ducts nor twenty (20) feet (6,096 mm) 506.7.1.2 With all clearance reduction
for larger ducts, unless justified by the design. systems using a ventilated airspace, air
506.5.1 Duct supports shall be designed to carry circulation shall be provided as described in
the weight of the duct half filled with material. Table 5-2. There shall be at least one (1) inch
Where sprinkler protection is provided in the (25 mm) between the wall protector and
duct, the hanger's design shall include the combustible walls and ceilings for clearance,
weight of the duct half filled with water or with reduction systems using a ventilated space.
the material being conveyed, whichever has the 506.7.1.3 Mineral wool batts (blanket or
higher density. Loads shall not be placed on board) shall have a minimum density of
connecting equipment. eight (8) lb. / ft. 3 (3.6 kq / m 3 ) and have a
Exception: Where adequate drainage is minimum melting point of 1,500°F (816°C).
provided, the weight of the water shall not 506.7.1.4 Insulation board used as a part of
require consideration. a clearance-reduction system shall have a
506.5.2 Hangers and supports exposed to corro- thermal conductivity of 1 Btu in. / ft? hr()F
sive atmospheres shall be Type 316 SS or equiva- (0.14 W/m 2 hrOC) or less. Insulation board
lent. shall be formed of noncombustible material.
506.5.3 To avoid vibration and stress on the 506.7.1.5 There shall be at least one (1) inch
duct, hangers and supports shall be securely (25 mm) between the duct and the wall
fastened to the building or structure. protector. In no case shall the clearance
506.5.4 Hangers and supports shall be designed between the duct and the wall surface be
to allow for expansion and contraction. [NFPA reduced below that shown in Table 5-2.
91:4.5.6] 506.7.2 Duct systems operating at elevated
506.6 Fire Protection. Sprinklers or other temperatures above 140°F (60°C) shall have
fire-protection devices shall be installed within ducts clearances from combustible building construc-
having a cross-sectional dimension exceeding ten tion or any combustible material of not less than
(10) inches (254 mm) when the duct conveys eighteen (18) inch (457 mm).
flammable vapors or fumes. Sprinklers shall be 506.7.3 Where clearance is reduced by using an
installed at twelve (12) foot (3,658 mm) intervals in airspace between the combustible wall and the
horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In wall protector, air circulation shall be provided
vertical runs, sprinklers shall be installed at the top by one of the following methods.
and at alternate floor levels. 506.7.3.1 Air circulation shall be permitted
506.7 Duct Clearances. to be provided by leaving all edges of the
506.7.1 All ductwork and system components wall protector open with at least a one (1)
handling combustible material and operating at inch (25 mm) airgap.
less than 140°F (60°C) shall have a clearance of 506.7.3.2 If the wall protector is mounted
not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) from on a single flat wall away from corners, air
combustible construction or any combustible circulation shall be permitted to be provided
material. by one of the following:
Exception No.1: When the ductwork (A) Leaving top and bottom edges open to
system is equipped with an approved auto- circulation by maintaining the one (1)
matic extinguishing system designed for the inch (25 mm) airgap.

48
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Table 5-2 - 506.9

TABLE 5-2
Reduction of Duct Clearance with Specified Forms of Protection
Clearance reduction applied to and covering all combustible Minimum Allowable Reduction
surfaces with the distance specified as required clearance in Clearance (%)
with no protection in 506.7.2
Form of Protection ---------------------------- -
As Wall Protector As Ce!iii_rl9 Protector
(a) 3-1/2 in. (90 mm) thick masonry wall without ventilated airspace 33
(b) 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick noncombustible insulation board over 1 in. 50 33
(25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts without ventilated airspace
(c) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal over 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass 66 66
fiber or mineral wool batts reinforced with wire, or equivalent, on rear face
with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap
(d) 3-1/2 in (90 mm) thick masonry wall with at least a 1 in (25.4 mm) air gap 66
(e) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) 66 50
air gap
(f) 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick noncombustible insulation board with at least a 1 in. 66 50
(25.4 mm) air gap
(g) 0.024 in. (0.61mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with ventilated airspace over 66 50
0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm)
air gap
(h) 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts sandwiched between two 66 50
sheets 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in.
(25.4 mm) air gap

I ..- Construction Llsing


combustible material I
,Construclion using
combustible materi;]\.
@ ~ ==~=n==~~==~r==== ~ , ~-~===n==
f
A

[J 8
Duct

Notes:
1. A = required clearance with no protection.
2. R reduced clearance permitted.
:1. The protection applied to the construction using combustible material shall extend far enough in each direction rn<lke C = A

Extent of protection required to reduce clearances from ducts.

(B) Leaving top and both side edges open 506.9.1 Ducts conveying explosive or flammable
to circulation by maintaining the (1) vapors, fumes, or dusts: thirty (30) feet (9,144
inch (25 mm) air gap. mm) from property line; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm)
506.7.3.3 Wall protectors that cover two from openings into the building, six (6) feet
walls in a corner shall be permitted to be (1,829 mm) from exterior walls or roofs; thirty
open at the top and bottom edges with at (30) feet (9J44 mm) from combustible wans or
least a one (1) inch (25 mm) air gap. [NFPA openings into the building that are in the direc-
91:4.6.3.3] tion of the exhaust discharge; ten (10) feet (3,048
mm) above adjoining grade.
506.8 Protection from Physical Damage. Ducts
installed in locations where they are subject to phys- 506.9.2 Other product-conveying outlets: ten
ical damage shall be protected by suitable guards. (10) feet (3,048 mm) from property line; three (3)
506.9 Exhaust Outlets. The termination point for feet (914 mm) from exterior wall or roof; ten (10)
exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall be feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the building;
not less than the following: ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) above adjoining grade.

49
Table 5-3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 5-3
Reduction of Clearances with Specified Forms of Protection
lJiFPlt54~J"clble JQ.2.3(Q}~~ .
Where the required clearance with no protection from appliance, vent connector, or single-
wall metal pipe is:
36 in. ~_~_~___---1~8~in~- J~.~~~ 12 i~=-:~~~i~ ...
____ 9~~~_:~~=~~I~------6fn.

...... ....-.-.-..
~
Allowable
..
--.--~~.-.-- ~
Clearances with Specified
.~.-.-.~--.--~-.
Protection
.....- ..
(in.) - . -... ..
. --~ ..... ~ ~~.--~

Type of protection applied to Use Col. 1 for clearances above appliance or horizontal connector. Use Col. 2 for clearances from

:f!
,and covering surfaces of appliances, vertical connector, and single-wall metal pipe.
combustible material within
the distance specified as the Sides
and
Above :: ~b~ve I I ~:ove II ::·-·-··-·~A~··-b··o··-ve···········r-····~~--i;····:·.~~.-.i
Irequired clearance with no

Iprotection [See Figures 5-4 Above Rear


Ithrough 5-6.] Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 1 I Col. 2 I Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 1 Col. 2
1(1) 3-1·/··2······i··n·······.·····thi····~·······c···k·· masonry
I ",:,all without ventilated
24 12
--I 9 I-~I 6 '
5

i aIr space
(2) 1/2 in. insulation board 24 18 12 9 9 6 6 5 4 3
over 1 in. glass fiber or I

minera 1wool batts


(3) 0.024 sheet metal over 1 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
in. glass fiber or mineral
wool batts reinforced
with wire on rear face
with ventilated air space
3-1/2 in. thick masonry 12 6 6 6 6
wall with ventilated air
space
(5) 0.024 sheet metal with 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 2
ventilated air space
I(6) 1/2 in. thick insulation 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
board with ventilated
space
1(7) 0.024 sheet metal with 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
.
ventilated air space over
0.024 sheet metal with
ventilated air space
(8) 1 in. glass fiber or 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
mineral wool batts sand-
wiched between two
sheets 0.024 sheet metal
with ventilated air space

Notes:
1 Reduction of clearances from combustible materials shall not interfere with combustion air, draft hood clearance and relief, and accessibility of
servicing.
2 Clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of the combustible material to the nearest point on the surface of the appliance, disre~
garding any intervening protection applied to the combustible material.
Spacers and ties shall be of noncombustible material. No spacer or tie shall be used directly opposite the appliance or connector.
4 Where clearance reduction systems use a ventilated air space, adequate provision for air circulation shall be provided as described. [See Figure
5-5 and Figure 5-6.]
There shall be not less than one (1) in. (25 mm) between clearance reduction systems and combustible walls and ceilings for reduction systems
, using a ventilated air space.
D Where a wall protector is mounted on a single flat wall away from corners, it shall have a minimum one (1) inch (25 mm) air gap. To provide
adequate air circulation, the bottom and top edges, or only the side and top edges, or edges shall be left open.
3 3
7 Mineral wool batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of eight (8) Ib/ft. (128 kg/m ) and a minimum melting pOint of 1,500°F
(816"C).
o Insulation material used as part of a clearance reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 Btu in. / ftl /h~oF (0.144 W / m-K) or less.
9 There shall be not less than (1) inch (25 mm) between the appliance and the protector. In no case shall the clearance between the appliance and
the combustible surface be reduced below that allowed in this table,
10 Clearances and thicknesses are minimum; larger clearances and thicknesses are acceptable.
11 Listed single-wall connectors shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
1 in. = 25-4 mm

50
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 507.0 - 507.2

Part II - Commercial Hoods and Kitchen 507.1.7 Cooking equipment used in fixed,
Ventilation. mobile, or temporary concessions, such as
trucks, buses, trailers, pavilions, tents, or any
form of roofed enclosure, shall comply with this
507.0 General Requirements.
standard unless all or part of the installation is
507.1 Cooking equipment used in processes exempted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
producing smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be 507.2 Clearance.
equipped with an exhaust system that complies with
507.2.1 Where enclosures are not required,
all the equipment and performance requirements of
hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust fans,
this standard, and all such equipment and perfor-
and ducts shall have a clearance of at least eigh-
mance shall be maintained per this standard during teen (18) inches (457 mm) to combustible mate-
all periods of operation of the cooking equipment. rial, three (3) inches (76 mm) to limited-
Specifically, the following equipment shall be kept in combustible material, and zero (0) inches (0 mm)
good working condition: to noncombustible material. [NFPA 96:4.2.1]
(A) Cooking equipment 507.2.2 Where a hood, duct, or grease removal
(8) Hoods device is listed for clearances less than those
(C) Ducts (if applicable) required in 507.2.1, the listing requirements shall
be permitted. [NFPA 96:4.2.2]
(0) Fans
507.2.3 Clearance Reduction.
(E) Fire suppression systems
507.2.3.1 Where a clearance reduction
(F) Special effluent or energy control equipment system consisting of 0.013 in. (0.33 mm) (28
All airflows shall be maintained. Maintenance gauge) sheet metal spaced out one (1) inch
and repairs shall be performed on all components at (25 mm) on noncombustible spacers is
intervals necessary to maintain these conditions. provided, there shall be a minimum of nine
507.1.1 Cooking equipment that has been listed (9) inches (229 mm) clearance to combustible
in accordance with UL 197 or an equivalent stan- material. [NFPA 96:4.2.3.1]
dard for reduced emissions shall not be required 507.2.3.2 Where a clearance reduction
to be provided with an exhaust system. [NFPA system consisting of 0.027 in. (0.69 mm) (22
96:4.1.1.1 *] gauge) sheet metal on one (1) inch (25 mm)
507.1.2 The listing evaluation of cooking equip- mineral wool batts or ceramic fiber blanket
ment covered by Section 507.1.1 shall demon- reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent
spaced out one (1) inch (25 mm) on non-
strate that the grease discharge at the exhaust
combustible spacers is provided, there shall
duct of a test hood placed over the appliance
be a minimum of three (3) inches (76 mm)
shall not exceed 5 mg / m 3 when operated with a
clearance to combustible material. [NFPA
total airflow of 0.236 cubic meters per second
96:4.2.3.2]
(500 dm). [NFPA 96:4.1.1.2]
507.2.3.3 Zero clearance to limited-
507.1.3 The responsibility for inspection, main-
combustible materials shall be permitted
tenance, and cleanliness of the ventilation where protected by metal lath and plaster,
control and fire protection of the commercial ceramic tile, quarry tile, other non-
cooking operations shall be the ultimate respon- combustible materials or assembly of
sibility of the owner of the system provided that noncombustible materials, or materials and
this responsibility has not been transferred in products that are listed for the purpose of
written form to a management company or other reducing clearance. [NFPA 96:4.2.3.3]
party. [NFPA 96:4.1.5] 507.2.4 Clearance Integrity.
507.1.4 All solid-fuel cooking equipment shall 507.2.4.1 In the event of damage, the mate-
comply with the requirements of Section 517.0. rial or product shall be repaired and
507.1.5 Multiple-tenancy applications shall restored to meet its intended listing or clear-
require the concerted cooperation of design, ance requirements and shall be acceptable to
installation, operation, and maintenance respon- the authority having jurisdiction. [NFPA
sibilities by tenants and by the building owner. 96:4.2.4.1 ]
507.1.6 All interior surfaces of the exhaust 507.2.4.2 In the event of a fire within a
system shall be accessible for cleaning and kitchen exhaust system, the duct and its
inspection purposes. enclosure (rated shaft, factory-built grease

51
507.2 - 507.3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

duct enclosure, or field-applied grease duct 507.2.7.1 Measures shall be taken to prevent
enclosure) shall be inspected by qualified physical damage to any material or product
personnel to determine whether the duct used for the purpose of reducing clearances.
and protection method are structurally
Exception: When the duct is protected
sound, capable of maintaining their fire
with a field-applied grease duct enclo-
protection function, and in compliance with
this standard for continued operation.
sure or factory-built grease duct enclo-
[NFPA 96:4.2.4.2] sure.
507.2.4.3 Protection shall be provided on 507.2.7.2 The specifications of material,
the wall from the bottom of the hood to the gauge, and construction of the duct used in
floor, or to the top of the noncombustible the testing and listing of field-applied grease
material extending to the floor, to the same duct enclosures and factory-built grease
level as required in 507.2.1. [NFP A duct enclosures shall be included as
96:4.2.4.3] minimum requirements in their listing and
507.2.4.4 The protection methods for ducts installation documentation. [NFPA 96:4.3.5]
to reduce clearance shall be applied to the 507.2.7.3 The following clearance options
combustible or limited-combustible construc- for which field-applied grease duct enclo-
tion, not to the duct itself. [NFPA 96:4.2.4.4] sures and factory-built grease duct enclo-
507.2.5 Factory-built grease duct enclosures sures have been successfully evaluated shall
shall be protected with a through-penetration be clearly identified in their listing and
firestop system classified in accordance with installation documentation and on their
ASTM E 814 having an "F" and "T" rating equal label: [NFP A 96:4.3.6]
to the fire resistance rating of the assembly being (1) Open combustible clearance at manu-
penetrated from the point at which the duct facturer's requested dimensions. [NFPA
penetrates a ceiling, wall or floor to the outlet 96:4.3.6(1)]
terminal, and the factory-built grease duct
protection system shall be listed in accordance (2) Closed combustible clearance at manu-
with UL 2221, Standard for Tests of Fire Resistive facturer's requested dimensions, with or
Grease Duct Enclosure Assemblies and installed in without specified ventilation. [NFP A
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 96:4.3.6(2)]
and the listing requirements. [NFP A 96:4.3.3, (3) Rated shaft clearance at manufacturer's
4.3.3.1, 4.3.3.2] requested dimensions, with or without
507.2.6 Field-applied grease duct enclosures specified ventilation. [NFPA 96:4.3.6(3)]
shall be protected with a through penetration 507.2.8 A duct shall be permitted to contact
firestop system classified in accordance with noncombustible floors, interior walls, and other
ASTM E 814 having an "F" and "T" rating equal noncombustible structures or supports, but it
to the fire resistance rating of the assembly being shall not be in contact for more than fifty (50)
penetrated. The surface of the field fabricated percent of its surface area per each lineal foot of
grease duct shall be continuously covered on all contact length. [NFPA 96:4.4.1]
sides from the point at which the duct enclosure
507.2.8.1 Where duct contact must exceed
penetrates a ceiling, wall or floor to the outlet
the requirements of 507.2.8, the duct shall be
terminal, and listed in accordance with ASTM E
protected from corrosion. [NFPA 96:4.4.2]
2336 Standard Test Methods for Fire resistive Grease
Duct Enclosure Systems, and installed in accor- 507.2.8.2 Where the duct is listed for zero
dance with the manufacturer's instructions and clearance to combustibles or otherwise
the listing requirements. [NFPA 96:4.3.1, 4.3.1.1, protected with a material or product listed
4.3.1.2] for the purpose of reducing clearance to
zero, the duct shall be permitted to exceed
507.2.7 Field-applied grease duct enclosures
the contact limits of 507.2.8 without addi-
and factory-built grease duct enclosures shall
tional corrosion protection. [NFPA 96:4.4.3]
demonstrate that they provide sufficient
mechanical and structural integrity, resiliency, 507.2.9 Clearances between the duct and inte-
and stability when subjected to expected rior surfaces of enclosures shall meet the
building environmental conditions, duct move- requirements of Section 507.2.
ment under general operating conditions, and 507.3 A drawing(s) of the exhaust system installa-
duct movement due to fire conditions. [NFP A tion along with a copy of operating instructions for
96:4.3.4] subassemblies and components used in the exhaust

52
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 507.3 - 508.2

system, including electrical schematics, shall be 508.2 All seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood
available on the premises. enclosure that direct and capture grease-laden
507.4 If required by the Authority Having Jurisdic- vapors and exhaust gases shall have a liquid-tight
tion, notification in writing shall be given of any continuous external weld to the hood's lower outer-
alteration, replacement, or relocation of any exhaust most perimeter. [NFPA 96:5.1.2]
or extinguishing system or part thereof or cooking 508.2.1 Seams, joints, and penetrations of the
equipment. Satisfaction shall be provided to the hood shall be permitted to be internally welded,
Authority Having Jurisdiction that the complete provided that the weld is formed smooth or
exhaust system as addressed in this standard is ground smooth, so as to not trap grease, and is
installed and operable in accordance with the cleanable. [NFPA 96:5.1.3]
approved design and the manufacturer's instruc- 508.2.2 Internal hood joints, seams, filter
tions. support frames, and appurtenances attached
inside the hood shall be sealed or otherwise
508.0 Hoods. made grease-tight. [NFPA 96:5.1.4]
508.1 Where Required. Hoods shall be installed at 508.2.3 Penetrations shall be permitted to be
or above all commercial-type deep fat fryers, sealed by devices that are listed for such use and
broilers, fry grills, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top whose presence does not detract from the hood's
ranges, ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, dishwashing or duct's structural integrity. [NFPA 96:5.1.5]
machines, and similar equipment that produces 508.2.4 Listed exhaust hoods with or without
comparable amounts of steam, smoke, grease, or exhaust dampers shall be permitted to be
heat in a food-processing establishment. For the constructed of materials required by the listing.
purpose of this section, a food-processing establish- [NFPA 96:5.1.6]
ment shall include any building or portion thereof 508.2.5 Listed exhaust hoods with or without
used for the processing of food, but shall not include exhaust dampers shall be permitted to be assem-
a dwelling uni t. bled in accordance with the listing requirements.
508.1.1 Construction. The hood or that portion [NFPA 96:5.1.7]
of a primary collection means designed for 508.2.6 Eyebrow-type hoods over gas or electric
collecting cooking vapors and residues shall be ovens shall be permitted to have a duct
constructed of and be supported by steel not less constructed as required in Section 510.0 from the
than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thick- oven flue(s) connected to the hood canopy
ness, stainless steel not less than 0.037 inch (0.94 upstream of the exhaust plenum as shown in
mm) (No. 20 MSG) in thickness, or other Figure 5-1. [NFPA 96:5.1.8.1]
approved material of equivalent strength and 508.2.7 The duct connecting the oven flue(s) to
fire and corrosion resistance. the hood canopy shall be connected with a
Exceptions: continuous weld or have a duct-to-duct connec-
(1) Listed exhaust hoods with or without tion. [See Figure 5-6(a) through Figure 5-6(d)]
exhaust dampers. [NFPA 96:5.1.8.2]
(2) Type II hoods shall be constructed of at 508.2.8 Insulation materials other than electrical
least 0.024 inch (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge insulation shall have a flame spread rating of 25
steel. Hoods constructed of copper shall or less when tested in accordance with UL 723.
be of copper sheets weighing at least [NFPA 96:5.1.9]
twenty-four (24) ounces per square foot 508.2.9 Adhesives or cements used in the instal-
(7.32 kg/m2). Joints and seams shall be lation of insulating materials shall comply with
substantially tight. Solder shall not be the requirements of 508.2.8, when tested with
used except for sealing a joint or seam. the specific insulating material. [NFPA 96:5.1.10]
All hoods shall be secured in place by 508.2.10 Penetrations shall be sealed with listed
noncombustible supports. devices in accordance with the requirements of
508.1.2 Wall mounted exhaust hood assemblies 508.2.11. [NFPA 96:5.1.11]
shall be tight fitting against the back wall as to 508.2.11 Devices that require penetration of the
not permit passage of grease vapor behind the hood, such as pipe and conduit penetration
hood, or between the back wall and the hood fittings and fasteners, shall be listed in accor-
assembly. [NFPA 96:5.1.13] dance with UL 1978. [NFPA 96:5.1.12]

53
Figure 5-1 - 508.4 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

D = distance in feet (mm) between the lower


lip of the hood and the cooking surface.
Q = quantity of air, in cubic feet per minute
r Oven flue duct
(L/ s).
- -'- - - -.... Oven flue When cooking equipment is installed
L==I===P~ -- --- -- - -- -~
-- j
duct collar back to back and is covered by a common
Exhaust hood
island-type hood, the airflow required may
be calculated using the formula for three
[
sides exposed. Type II hood airflow require-
ments shall be in accordance with the
i
requirements for low-temperature appliance
Oven !
hoods.

! 508.4.1.2 The minimum airflow for solid-


fuel cooking equipment, grease-burning
i charbroilers, and undefined equipment shall
j
be:
! Number of Exposed Sides Formula
FIGURE 5-1 Typical Section of Eyebrow-Type 4 (island or central hood) Q = 300A
Hood. [N FPA 96 :5.1.8.1] 3 or less Q = 200A
Alternate formula Q = 100PD
508.3 Insulation materials other than electrical insu-
508.4.1.3 Type I hoods when the cooking
lation shall have a flame-spread rating of twenty-five
equipment includes high-temperature appli-
(25) or less when tested in accordance with UL 723,
Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of ances such as deep-fat fryers:
Building Materials. Adhesives or cements used in the Number of Exposed Sides Formula
installation of insulating materials shall comply with 4 (island or central hood) Q = 150A
the preceding requirements when tested with the
3 or less Q = 100A
specific insulating material.
Alternate formula Q = lOOPD
508.4 Hood Size. Hoods shall be sized according to
the following calculations and configured to provide 508.4.1.4 Type I hoods where the cooking
for the capture and removal of grease-laden vapors. equipment includes medium-temperature
(See Section 511.2.3) appliances such as rotisseries, grills, and
508.4.1 Canopy Size and location. For ranges:
canopy-type commercial cooking hoods, the Number of Exposed Sides Formula
inside edge thereof shall overhang or extend a 4 (island or central hood) Q = lOOA
horizontal distance of not less than six (6) inches
3 or less Q = 75A
(152 mm) beyond the edge of the cooking
surface on all open sides, and the vertical Alternate formula Q = 50PD
distance between the lip of the hood and the 508.4.1.5 Type I hoods where the cooking
cooking surface shall not exceed four (4) feet equipment includes low-temperature appli-
(1,219 mm). ances such as medium-to-Iow-temperature
Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to be ranges, roasters, roasting ovens, pastry
installed in accordance with the terms of ovens, and equipment approved for use
their listings and the manufacturer's instal- under a Type II hood, such as pizza ovens:
lation instructions.
Number of Exposed Sides Formula
508.4.1.1 Capacity of Hoods. Canopy-type
commercial cooking hoods shall exhaust 4 (island or central hood) Q = 75A
through the hood a minimum quantity of air 3 or less Q=50A
determined by application of the following Alternate formula Q = 50PD
formulas:
Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to
WHERE: be installed in accordance with the
A = the horizontal surface area of the hood, terms of their listing and the manufac-
in square feet (m2). turer's installation instructions.
P = that part of the perimeter of the hood 508.4.2 Capacity for Noncanopy Hoods. In
that is open, in feet (mm). addition to all other requirements for hoods

54
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 508.4 - 509.2

specified in this section, the volume of air 508.8 listed Ultra-Violet Hoods. Listed ultra-violet
exhausting through a noncanopy-type hood to hoods shall be installed and maintained in accor-
the duct system shall be not less than 300 cubic dance with the terms of their listing and the manu-
feet per minute per lineal foot (465 L/ s per m) of facturer's instructions. [NFPA 96:5.5]
cooking equipment. Listed noncanopy exhaust 508.9 Exhaust Outlets. An exhaust outlet within an
hoods and filters shall be sized and installed in unlisted hood shall be located so as to optimize the
accordance with the terms of their listing and the capture of particulate matter. Each outlet shall serve
manufacturer's installation instructions. not more than a twelve (12) foot (3,65S mm) section
Exception: Listed hood assemblies designed of an unlisted hood.
and installed specifically for the intended
use.
509.0 Grease Removal Devices in Hoods.
508.5 Exhaust Hood Assemblies with Integrated
509.1 Grease Removal Devices. Listed grease
Supply-Air Plenums.
filters, baffles, or other approved grease removal
508.5.1 The construction and size of exhaust devices for use with commercial cooking equipment
hood assemblies with integrated supply air shall be provided. Listed grease filters shall be tested
plenums shall comply with the requirements of in accordance with UL 1046, Grease Filters for
Sections 50S.1 and 50S.4. [NFPA 96:5.3.1] Exhaust Ducts. Mesh filters shall not be used.
508.5.2 The construction of the outer shell or the 509.2 Installation.
inner exhaust shell shall comply with Section
509.2.1 The distance between the grease
50S.1. [NFPA 96:5.3.2]
removal device and the cooking surface shall be
508.5.3 Where the outer shell is welded, the as great as possible but not less than eighteen
inner shell shall be of grease-tight construction. (IS) inches (457 mm). [NFPA 96:6.2.1.1]
[NFP A 96:5.3.3]
509.2.2 Where grease removal devices are used
508.5.4 Fire Dampers. in conjunction with charcoal or charcoal-type
508.5.4.1 A fire-actuated damper shall be broilers, including gas or electrically heated
installed in the supply air plenum at each charbroilers, a minimum vertical distance of four
point where a supply air duct inlet or a (4) feet (1,219 mm) shall be maintained between
supply air outlet penetrates the continu- the lower edge of the grease removal device and
ously welded shell of the assembly. [NFPA the cooking surface. [NFPA 96:6.2.1.2]
96:5.3.4.1] Exception No.1: Grease removal devices
508.5.4.2 The fire damper shall be listed for supplied as part of listed hood assemblies
such use or be part of a listed exhaust hood shall be installed in accordance with the
with or without exhaust damper. [NFPA terms of the listing and the manufacturer's
96:5.3.4.2] instructions. [NFP A 96:6.2.1.5]
508.5.4.3 The actuation device shall have a Exception No.2: For cooking equipment
maximum temperature rating of 141°C without exposed flame and where flue gases
(2S6°F). [NFPA 96:5.3.4.3] bypass grease removal devices, the
508.5.5 Supply air plenums that discharge air minimum vertical distance shall be
from the face rather than from the bottom or into permitted to be reduced to not less than six
the exhaust hood and that are isolated from the (6) inches (152 mm). [NFPA 96:6.2.1.3]
exhaust hood by the continuously welded shell Exception No.3: Where a grease removal
extending to the lower outermost perimeter of device is listed for separation distances less
the entire hood assembly shall not require a fire-
actuated damper. [NFPA 96:5.3.4.4]
than those required in 509.2.1 and 509.2.2, I
the listing requirements shall be permitted.
508.6 listed Hood Assemblies. Listed hood assem- [NFPA 96:6.2.1.4]
blies shall be installed in accordance with the terms 509.2.3 Grease Removal Device Protection.
of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions. Grease removal devices shall be protected from
[NFP A 96:5.4.1] Listed hood assemblies shall be combustion gas outlets and from direct flame
tested in accordance with UL 710 or equivalent. impingement occurring during normal opera-
[NFP A 96:5.4.2] tion of cooking appliances producing high flue
508.7 Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies. Where solid- gas temperatures, such as deep-fat fryers or
fuel cooking equipment is to be used, the solid-fuel upright or high broilers (salamander broilers),
hood assembly shall comply with Section 517.0. where the distance between the grease removal

55
509.2 - 510.3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

device and the appliance flue outlet (heat 510.1.2 All ducts shall lead as directly as is prac-
source) is less than eighteen (18) inches (457 ticable to the exterior of the building, so as not to
mm). [NFPA 96:6.2.2.1] unduly increase any fire hazard.
509.2.3.1 This protection shall be permitted 510.1.3 Duct systems shall not be interconnected
to be accomplished by the installation of a with any other building ventilation or exhaust
steel or stainless steel baffle plate between system.
the heat source and the grease removal 510.1.4 All ducts shall be installed without
device. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.2] forming dips or traps that might collect residues.
509.2.3.2 The baffle plate shall be sized and In manifold (common duct) systems, the lowest
located so that flames or combustion gases end of the main duct shall be connected flush on
shall travel a distance not less than eighteen the bottom with the branch duct. Duct systems
(18) inches (457 mm) from the heat source to serving a Type I hood shall be so constructed
the grease removal device. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.3] and installed that grease cannot become pock-
509.2.3.3 The baffle shall be located not less eted in any portion thereo( and the system shall
than six (6) inches (152 mm) from the grease slope not less than 1/4 inch per lineal foot (21
removal devices. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.4] mm / m) toward the hood or toward an
approved grease reservoir. Where horizontal
509.2.4 Grease Filters. Grease filters shall be
ducts exceed seventy-five (75) feet (22,860 mm)
listed and constructed of steel or listed equiva-
in length, the slope shall be not less than one (1)
lent material and shall be of rigid construction
inch per lineal foot (83 mm/m).
that will not distort or crush under normal oper-
ation, handling, and cleaning conditions. [NFPA 510.1.5 Openings required for accessibility shall
96:6.2.3.1 and 6.2.3.2] comply with Section 510.3.
509.2.4.1 Filters shall be tight fitting and 510.1.6 A sign shall be placed on all access
firmly held in place and grease filters shall panels stating the following:
be arranged so that all exhaust air passes ACCESS PANEL-DO NOT OBSTRUCT
through the grease filters. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.3] 510.1.7 Duct bracing and supports shall be of
509.2.4.2 Filters shall be easily accessible and noncombustible material, securely attached to
removable for cleaning. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.4] the structure and designed to carry gravity and
509.2.4.3 Filters shall be installed at an lateral loads within the stress limitations of the
angle not less than forty-five (45) degrees Building Code. Bolts, screws, rivets, and other
from the horizontal. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.5] mechanical fasteners shall not penetrate duct
509.2.5 Grease Drip Trays. Filters shall be walls.
equipped with a drip tray beneath their lower 510.1.8 Ducts, Non-Grease. Ducts and
edges. [NFPA 96:6.2.4.1] plenums serving Type II hoods shall be
509.2.5.1 The tray shall be kept to the constructed of rigid metallic materials as set
minimum size needed to collect grease and forth in Chapter 6. Duct bracing and supports
shall comply with Chapter 6. Ducts subject to
shall be pitched to drain into an enclosed
positive pressure shall be adequately sealed.
metal container having a capacity not
exceeding one (1) gallon (3.785 L) [NFPA 510.2 Clearance.
96:6.2.4.2, and 6.2.4.3]. 510.2.1 Clearance between ducts and
509.2.6 Grease Filter Orientation. Grease filters combustible materials shall be provided in accor-
that require a specific orientation to drain grease dance with the requirements of Section 507.2.
shall be clearly so designated, or the hood shall 510.2.2 Listed grease ducts shall be installed in
be constructed so that filters cannot be installed accordance with the terms of their listings and
in the wrong orientation. [NFPA 96:6.2.5] manufacturers' instructions.
509.3 Solid-Fuel Grease Removal Devices. 510.3 Openings.
Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is provided
510.3.1 Openings shall be provided at the sides
with grease removal devices, these devices shall
or at the top of the duct, whichever is more
comply with Section 517.0.
accessible, and at changes of direction. Openings
shall be protected by approved access panels
510.0 Exhaust Duct Systems. that comply with Section 510.3.4.5.
510.1 General. Exception: Openings shall not be required
510.1.1 Ducts shall not pass through fire walls in portions of the duct that are accessible
or fire partitions. from the duct entry or discharge.

56
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 510.3 - 510.5

510.3.2 For hoods with dampers in the exhaust 510.3.4.4 Access Panels. Access panels
or supply collar, an access panel for cleaning and shall be of the same material and thickness
inspection shall be provided in the duct or the as the duct (Section 510.5.1). Access panels
hood collar. This access panel shall be as close to shall have a gasket or sealant that is rated
the hood as possible but shall not exceed eigh- for 1,500°F (815.6°C) and shall be grease-
teen (18) inches (457 mm). tight. Fasteners, such as bolts, weld studs,
Exception: Dampers that are accessible from latches, or wing nuts, used to secure the
under the hood. access panels shall be carbon steel or stain-
less steel and shall not penetrate duct walls.
510.3.3 Exhaust fans with ductwork connected
to both sides shall have access for cleaning and Exception: Listed grease duct access
inspection within three (3) feet (914 mm) of each door assemblies (access panels) shall be
side of the fan. [NFP A 96:7.3.7] installed in accordance with their terms
510.3.4 Openings in Ducts. Openings shall of the listings and the manufacturer's
conform with Sections 510.3.4.1 through instructions.
510.3.4.5. [NFPA 96:7.4] 510.3.4.5 Openings for installation,
510.3.4.1 Horizontal Ducts. On horizontal servicing, and inspection of listed fire
ducts, at least one 20 inch by 20 inch (508 protection system devices and for duct
mm x 508 mm) opening shall be provided cleaning shall be provided in ducts and
for personnel entry. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.1] enclosures and shall conform to the require-
ments of 510.3. Enclosure openings required
510.3.4.1.1 Horizontal ducting shall be
to reach access panels in the ductwork shall
secured sufficiently to allow for the
be large enough for the removal of the
weight of personnel entry into the duct.
access panel.
Where an opening of this size is not
possible, openings large enough to 510.4 listed Grease Ducts. Listed grease ducts
permi t thorough cleaning shall be shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the
provided at twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
intervals. [NFP A 96:7.4.1.2] 510.5 Other Grease Ducts. Other grease ducts shall
510.3.4.1.2 Openings on horizontal comply with the requirements of this section.
grease duct systems shall be provided 510.5.1 Materials. Ducts shall be constructed of
with safe access and a work platform and supported by carbon steel not less than
when not easily accessible from a 10 feet 0.054 inch (1.37 mm) (No. 16 MSG) in thickness
(3 m) stepladder. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.3] or stainless steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09
mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thickness.
510.3.4.1.3 Support systems for hori-
zontal grease duct systems twenty-four 510.5.2 Installation.
(24) inches (609 mm) and larger in any 510.5.2.1 All seams, joints, penetrations, and
cross-sectional dimension shall be duct-to-hood collar connections shall have a
designed for the weight of the ductwork liquid-tight continuous external weld.
plus 363 kg (800 lb) at any point in the Exception No.1: Duct-to-hood collar
duct systems. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.4] connections as shown in Figure 5-2 shal1
510.3.4.2 On nonlisted ductwork, the edge be permitted.
of the opening shall be not less than 1-1/2 Exception No.2: Penetrations shall be
inch (38.1 mm) from all outside edges of the permitted to be sealed by other listed
duct or welded seams. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.5] devices that are tested to be grease-tight
510.3.4.3 Vertical Ducts. On vertical duct- and are evaluated under the same
work where personnel entry is possible, conditions of fire severity as the hood or
access shall be provided at the top of the enclosure of listed grease extractors and
vertical riser to accommodate descent. whose presence does not detract from
[NFPA 96:7.4.2.1] the hood's or duct's structural integrity.
510.3.4.3.1 Where personnel entry is Exception No.3: Internal welding shall
not possible, adequate access for be permitted, provided the joint is
cleaning shall be provided on each formed or ground smooth and is readily
floor. [NFPA 96:7.4.2.2] accessible for inspection.

57
Figure 5-2 - 510.7 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Telescoping duct Joint


v

~ Exhaust duct
Inside section
1.0. (in.)

Weld around

'=.}-_ 2 in. (rna,)


[50.8 mm (max)]

Perspective !.D. (in.) + 0.25 in.


Outside section f 16-gauge [1/16 in. (1.6 m m)
(max) If black iron
1 in. x 1 in. angle.
(25.4 mm x 25.4 mm) Square, rectangular,
(min), same gauge or round in shape
(~ig)~~O.l? of duct ~~ Continuous perimeter weld Notes:
"
1i81n. (32 mm) 1/4 in. (6.4 mm weld studs or

K"
1. Duct size decreases (going upward) with each telescope.
I less than 1.0. I ' bolts at each corner and 2. Smaller (inside) duct seclion is always above or uphill (on sloped
of hood collar in. (102 mm) (max) cr. duct), to be self draining into larger (outside) duct.
1 in. = 25.4
Bell duct joint
Weld studs or bolts Joint with 1500°F (815.6°C) rated
1/4 in. (6.4 mm) gasket or sealant
steel (min) ,>-----'30i!=iJ1
Male end
Detail of sealed hood-duct joint
FIGURE 5-2 Permitted Duct-to-Hood Collar
Connection. [NFPA 96:7.5.2.2] 2 in. (max)
[50.8 mm (max)]
510.5.2.2 Overlapping duct connections of
either the telescoping or the bell type shall be
used for welded field joints, not butt-weld Female end
connections. The inside duct section shall
always be uphill of the outside duct section.
The difference between inside dimensions of
over lapping sections shall not exceed 1/4 Notes:
1. Duct size stays the same throughout the duct system.
inch (6.4 mm). The overlap shall not exceed 2. Smaller (inside) male duct end is always above or uphill (on sloped
two (2) inches (50.8 mm). (See Figure 5-3.) duct), to be self-draining into larger (outside) female duct end.
510.6 Exterior Installations. FIGURE 5-3 Telescoping and BeU-Type Duct
510.6.1 The exterior portion of the ductwork Connections. [NFPA 96:7.5.5.1 (a)(b)]
shall be vertical wherever possible and shall
be installed and adequately supported on the required by the applicable Building Code provi-
exterior of a building. Bolts, screws, rivets, sions. The enclosure shall be sealed around the
and other mechanical fasteners shall not duct at the point of penetration of the lowest fire-
penetrate duct walls. Clearance of any ducts rated ceiling or floor above the hood in order to
shall comply with Section 507.2. maintain the fire resistance rating of the enclosure
and shall be vented to the exterior of the building
510.6.2 All ducts shall be protected on the
through weather-protected openings.
exterior by paint or other suitable weather-
Exception: The continuous enclosure provi-
protective coating or shall be constructed of
sions shall not be required where a field-
noncorrosi ve stainless steel. Ductwork applied grease duct enclosure or a factory-
subject to corrosion shall have minimal built grease duct enclosure (see Section
contact with the building surface. 507.2.3) is protected with a listed d uct-
510.7 Interior Installations. through-penetration protection system
510.7.1 In all buildings more than one story in equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the
height, and in one-story buildings where the roof- assembly being penetrated, and the materials
ceiling assembly is required to have a fire resis- are installed in accordance with the condi-
tance rating, the ducts shall be enclosed in a tions of their listings and the manufacturers'
continuous enclosure extending from the lowest instructions and are acceptable to the
fire-rated ceiling or floor above the hood, through Authority Having Jurisdiction.
any concealed spaces, to or through the roof so as 510.7.2 The enclosure required in Section 510.7.1
to maintain the integrity of the fire separations shall conform to Sections 510.7.2.1 through 510.7.2.3.

58
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 510.7 - 510.8

510.7.2.1 If the building is less than four 510.7.3.3 In the event of a fire within a
stories in height, the enclosure wall shall kitchen exhaust system, the duct, the enclo-
have a fire resistance rating of not less than sure, or the covering directly applied to the
one (1) hour. duct shall be inspected by qualified
personnel to determine whether the duct,
510.7.2.2 If the building is four stories or
the enclosure, and the· covering directly
more in height, the enclosure wall shall have
applied to the duct are structurally sound,
a fire resistance rating of not less than two
capable of maintaining their fire protection
(2) hours.
functions, suitable for continued operation,
510.7.2.3 Clearance from the duct or the and acceptable to the Authority Having
exhaust fan to the interior surface of enclo- Jurisdiction.
sures of combustible construction shall be not 510.7.4 For listed grease ducts, see Section 510.4.
less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm), and
510.7.5 If openings in the enclosure walls are
clearance from the duct to the interior surface
provided, they shall be protected by approved
of enclosures of noncombustible or limited-
self-closing fire doors of proper rating. Fire
combustible construction shall be not less doors shall be installed in accordance with
than six (6) inches (152 mm). Provisions for NFP A 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire
reducing clearances as described in Section Wind07us. Openings on other listed materials or
507.2 are not applicable to enclosures. products shall be clearly identified and labeled
Exception: Clearance from the outer according to the terms of the listing and the
surfaces of field-applied grease duct manufacturer's instructions and shall be accept-
enclosures and factory-built grease duct able to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The
enclosures to the interior surfaces of panels shall be readily accessible.
construction installed around them shall 510.7.6 Each duct system shall constitute an
be permitted to be reduced where the individual system serving only exhaust hoods in
field-applied grease duct enclosure one fire zone on one floor. Multiple ducts shall
materials and the factory-built grease not be permitted in a single enclosure unless
duct enclosures are installed in accor- acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
dance with the conditions of their list- 510.8 Termination of Exhaust System.
ings and the manufacturers' instruc- 510.8.1 The exhaust system shall terminate as
tions and are acceptable to the follows:
Authority Having Jurisdiction.
(A) Outside the building with a fan or duct.
510.7.3 For field-applied grease duct enclosures (8) Through the roof, or to the roof from
and factory-built grease duct enclosures, the outside, as in Section 510.8.2, or through a
materials and products shall conform to Sections wall, as in Section 510.8.3.
510.7.3.1 through 510.7.3.3.
510.8.2 Rooftop Terminations.
510.7.3.1 Field-applied grease duct enclo-
510.8.2.1 Rooftop terminations shall be
sures and factory-built grease duct enclo-
arranged with or provided with the
sures shall demonstrate that they provide following:
sufficient mechanical and structural
(A) A minimum of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm)
integrity, resiliency, and stability when
of clearance from the outlet to adjacent
subjected to expected building environ-
buildings, property lines, and air
mental conditions, duct movement under
intakes. Where space limitations abso-
general operating conditions, and duct lutely prevent a ten (10) foot (3,048 mm)
movement due to interior and exterior fire horizontal separation from an air intake,
conditions. a vertical separation shall be permitted,
510.7.3.2 Measures shall be taken to prevent with the exhaust outlet being a
physical damage to any covering or enclo- minimum of three (3) feet (914 mm)
sure material. Any damage to the covering above any air intake located within ten
or enclosure shall be repaired and the (10) feet (3,048 mm) horizontally.
covering or enclosure restored to meet its (8) The exhaust flow directed up and away
intended listing and fire-resistive rating and from the surface of the roof and a
to be acceptable to the Authority Having minimum of forty (40) inches (1,016
Jurisdiction. mm) above the roof surface.

59
510.8-511.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

(C) The ability to drain grease out of any feet (0.076m) for each one (1) degree
traps or low points formed in the fan or from horizontal, the angle of degree
duct near the termination of the system being measured from the center of the
into a collection container that is exhaust termination to the center of the
noncombustible, closed, rainproof, struc- air intake or operable door or window.
turally sound for the service to which it (See Figure 5-4.)
is applied, and will not sustain combus- Exception: A wall termination in a
tion. A grease collection device that is secured area can be at a lower
applied to exhaust systems shall not height above grade if acceptable to
inhibit the performance of any fan. the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Exception: Grease containers that (8) The exhaust flow directed perpendicu-
are evaluated for equivalency with larly outward from the wall face or
the preceding requirements and upward.
listed as such. (C) All the ductwork pitched to drain the
(D) A listed grease duct complying with grease back into the hood(s), or with a
Section 510.4, or with ductwork drain provided to bring the grease back
complying with Section 510.5. into a container within the building or
(E) A hinged upblast fan supplied with flex- into a remote grease trap.
ible weatherproof electrical cable and (D) A listed grease duct complying with
service hold-open retainer to permit Section 510.4, or other ducts complying
proper inspection and cleaning that is with Section 510.5.
listed for commercial cooking equip- (E) An approved fan, provided it meets the
ment, provided the ductwork extends a requirements of Sections 510.8.3.l(C)
minimum of eighteen (18) inches (457 and 511.1.1 or 511.1.3.
mm) above the roof surface and the fan
discharges a minimum of forty (40) 510.9 Solid-Fuel Duct Systems. Where solid-fuel
inches (1,016 mm) above the roof surface. cooking equipment is to be vented, the duct system
(See Section 511.1.1.) shall comply with Section 517.0.
(F) Other approved fan, provided (1) it
meets the requirements of Sections 511.0 Ai r Movement.
510.8.2(C) and 511.1.3, and (2) its 511.1 Exhaust Fans for Commercial Cooking
discharge or its extended duct discharge Equipment.
meets the requirements of Section Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be vented,
510.8.2(B). the duct system shall comply with Section 517.0.
510.8.2.2 Listed flexible connectors may be 511.1.1 Approved upblast fans with motors
used on exterior roof locations when required surrounded by the airstream shall be hinged,
for proper equipment vibration isolation. supplied with flexible weatherproof electrical
510.8.2.3 Fans shall be provided with safe cable and service hold-open retainers, and listed
access and a work surface for inspection and for this use. (See Figure 5-5.) Installation shall
cleaning. [NFPA 96:7.8.2.2] conform to the requirements of Section 510.8.
510.8.3 Wall Terminations. 511.1.2 In-line Exhaust Fans.
510.8.3.1 Wall terminations shall be 511.1.2.1 In-line fans shall be of the type
arranged with or provided with the with the motor located outside the airstream
following properties: and with belts and pulleys protected from
(A) Through a noncombustible wall with a the airstream by a grease-tight housing. They
minimum of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of shall be connected to the exhaust duct by
clearance from the outlet to adjacent flanges securely bolted as shown in Figures
buildings, property lines, grade level,
5-6(a) - 5-6(d), or by a system specifically
combustible construction, or electrical
listed for such use. Flexible connectors shall
equipment or lines, and the closest point
not be used. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.1- 8.1.2.3]
of any air intake or operable door or
window at or below the plane of the 511.1.2.2 If the design or positioning of the
exhaust termination. The closest point fan allows grease to be trapped, a drain
of any air intake or operable door or directed to a readily accessible and visible
window above the plane of the exhaust grease receptacle, not exceeding one (1) gallon
termination shall be a minimum of ten (3.8 L), shall be provided. In-line exhaust fans
(10) feet (3,048 mm) distant, plus 0.25 shall be located in an easily accessible area of

60
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Figure 5-4 - 511.2

511.1.3 Utility set exhaust fans, if installed at the


rooftop termination point, shall meet the require-
ments of Sections 510.8.2.1(A) and Section
510.8.2.3. If the fan is installed within the
building, it shall be located in an easily accessible
area of adequate size to allow for service or
removal. If the duct system connected to the fan is
in an enclosure, the space or room in which the
exhaust fan is located shall have the same fire
resistance rating as the enclosure. The fan shall be
connected to the exhaust duct by flanges securely
bolted as shown in Figures 5-6(a) through 5-6(d)
or by a system specifically listed for such use.
Flexible connectors shall not be used. Exhaust
fans shall have a drain directed to a readily acces-
sible and visible grease receptacle not to exceed
one (1) gallon (3.8 L). [NFPA 96:8.1.3.1 - 8.1.3.6]
511.1.4 Exhaust fan housings shall be constructed
of carbon steel not less than 0.054 inch (1.37 mm)
(No. 16 MSG) in thickness or stainless steel not
less than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in
thickness or, if listed, constructed in accordance
Notes:
with the terms of the listing. [NFPA 96:8.1.4]
1. Fresh air intake (FAl) applies to any air intake, including an
operable door or window.
511.1.5 Openings for cleaning, servicing, and
2. Example: inspection shall conform to the requirements of
FAl is same plane as exhaust or lower: 10 ft. [3 m (min.)] between
closet edges.
Section 510.3.3. Clearances shall conform to the
FAT above plane of exhaust: 10 ft. + 0.25 ft. (3 m -I- 0.076 m) requirements of Sections 507.2, or 510.7.2.3 if
degee between closet edge.
installed within an enclosure.
FIGURE 5-4 Exhaust Termination Distance from 511.1.6 All wiring and electrical equipment shall
Fresh Air Intake (FAI) or Operable Door or Window. comply with NFP A 70, National Electrical Code.
[NFPA 96:7.8.3]
511.2 Airflow.
//'
Wind direction
/ / Exhaust air
511.2.1 The air velocity through any duct shall
be not less than 500 feet per minute (152.4 meters I
!! 40 in. (min) /
per minute) and not more than 2,500 feet per TIA
.I'J1 .02 m (min)] Possible minute (457.2 m per minute). [NFPA 96:8.2.1.1] TIA
r
it .
,-L----.L,
/
. roof line
Exception: Transition duct sections shall be
penni tted to be connected to hoods and
i
3ft. (min)
exhaust fans that do not meet this velocity,
provided that they do not exceed three (3)
[0.92 m (min)]
_---F-----=l ~-r-r- 18 in. (min)
[0.46 m (min)] feet (914 mm) in length and do not contain
traps for grease.
511.2.2 Transition duct sections that do not
exceed three (3) feet (914 mm) in length and do
not contain grease traps shall be permitted to be
FIGURE 5-5 Upblast Fan Clearances. [NFPA connected to hoods and exhaust fans that do not
96:7.8.2.1 ] meet this velocity. [NFPA 96:8.2.1.2]
511.2.3 Exhaust-air volumes for hoods shall be
adequate size to allow for service or removal. of sufficient level to provide for capture and
If the duct system connected to the fan is in an removal of grease-laden cooking vapors. Test
enclosure, the space or room in which the data, performance acceptable to the Authority
exhaust fan is located shall have the same fire Having Jurisdiction, or both, shall be provided,
resistance rating as the enclosure. [NFP A displayed, or both, upon request. [NFPA
96:8.1.2.4 - 8.1.2.6] 96:8.2.2.1,8.2.2.2]

61
Figure 5-6(a) - 511.4 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Flanges to be positioned 0 0 1/4 in. (6.4 .mm) carbon


so that the gasket is 1500 F (815.6 C) steel or. stainless steel
protected from direct rates gasket bolts 4 In. (max) 1500°F (815.6°C) 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) carbon
contact with grease~ [102 mm (max)] rated gasket steel or stainless steel
Minimum on center weld studs 4 in. (max)
1 in. x 1 in. x 1/8 in. [102 mm (max)]
~ (25.4 x 25.4 x 3.2 mm on center
\ angle flange
~~=::::::{ cone

'-- Continuous
permiter
weld
Unassembled position Assembled position

Unassembled position Assembled position FIGURE 5-6(d) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan


FIGURE 5-6(a) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan Connection-Direct to Fan Inlet Cone Method.
Connection-Butt Joint Method. [NFPA [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(d)]
96:8.1.2.2(a)] Exception: Lower exhaust-air volumes shall
be permitted during no-load cooking condi-
Flanges to be positioned
so that the gasket is
protected from direct
contact with grease/
1500°F (81S.6°C)
rated gasket
..
Minimum
(my
1/4 in. (6.4 mm) carbon
steel or stainless steel
bolts 4 in.
[102 mm (max)]
on center
ax)
tions, provided they are sufficient to capture
and remove flue gases and residual vapors
from cooking equipment.
1 in.x1 in.x1/8in
/ (25.4 x 25.4 x 3.2 mm) 511.2.4 A hood exhaust fan(s) shall continue to
\ angle flange
C:::::::::~===I operate after the extinguishing system has been
activated, unless fan shutdown is required by a
listed component of the ventilation system or by
the design of the extinguishing system. It shall
not be required to restart the hood exhaust fan
when the extinguishing system is activated if the
exhaust fan and all cooking equipment served
by the fan had previously been shut down. The
hood exhaust fan shall not be required to start
Unassembled position Assembled position upon activation of the extinguishing system if
the exhaust fan and all cooking equipment
FIGURE 5-6(b) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan served by the fan have previously been shut
Connection-Overlapping Method. [NFPA 96: down. [NFPA 96:8.2.3.1 - 8.2.3.2]
8.1.2.2(b))
511.3 Replacement Air. Replacement air quantity
1/4 in. (6.4 mm) carbon shall be adequate to prevent negative pressures in
steel or stainless steel
bolts 4 in. (max) the commercial cooking area(s) from exceeding 0.02
[102 mm (max)]7
on center
inch water column (4.98 kPa). When its fire-extin-
Minimum 1 in.
guishing system discharges, makeup air supplied
(25.4 mm) flange internally to a hood shall be shut off. [NFP A 96:8.3.1
- 8.3.2]
Exception: Compensating hoods shall meet the I
airflow requirements specified in Sections
508.4.1.3 through 508.4.1.5. Compensating hoods
shall extract at least 20 percent of their required
exhaust airflow from the kitchen area.
511.4 Common Duct (Manifold) Systems.
Unassembled position Assembled position 511.4.1 Master kitchen exhaust ducts that serve
FIGURE 5-6(c) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan multiple tenants shall include provision to bleed
Connection-Sealant Method. [NFPA 96: air from outdoors or from adjacent spaces into
8.1.2.2(c)] the master exhaust duct where required to main-

62
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 511.4- 513.1

tain the necessary minimum air velocity in the 512.2.5 Listed lighting units specifically listed
master exhaust duct. [NFPA 96:8.4.1] for such use and installed in accordance with the
511.4.2 The bleed-air ducts shall connect to the terms of the listing shall be permitted to be
top or side of the master exhaust duct. [NFPA installed in concealed spaces. [NFPA 96:9.2.3.4]
96:8.4.2] 512.2.6 All electrical equipment shall be
511.4.3 The bleed-air duct shall have a fire installed in accordance with NFP A 70, National
damper at least twelve (12) inches (305 mm) from Electrical Code, with due regard to the effects of
the exhaust duct connection. [NFPA 96:8.4.3] heat, vapor, and grease on the equipment.
511.4.4 The bleed-air duct shall have the same 512.3 Other Equipment.
construction and clearance requirements as the 512.3.1 Fume incinerators, thermal recovery
main exhaust duct from the connection to the units, air pollution control devices, or other
exhaust duct to at least twelve (12) inches (305 devices shall be permitted to be installed in
mm) on both sides of the fire damper. [NFPA ducts or hoods or located in the path of travel of
96:8.4.4]
exhaust products where specifically approved
511.4.5 Each bleed air duct shall have a means for such use. Downgrading other parts of the
of adjusting (e.g., using volume dampers) the exhaust system due to the installation of these
bleed-air quantity. [NFPA 96:8.4.5] approved devices, whether listed or not, shall
511.4.6 Such means to adjust the bleed air quality not be allowed. [NFPA 96:9.3.1 - 9.3.2]
shall be installed in between the fire damper and 512.3.2 Any equipment, listed or otherwise, that
the source of bleed air. [NFPA 96:8.4.6]
provides secondary filtration or air pollution
511.4.7 A bleed air duct shall not be used for the control and that is installed in the path of travel
exhaust of grease-laden vapors and shall be so of exhaust products shall be provided with an
labeled. [NFPA 96:8.4.7] approved automatic fire-extinguishing system
511.4.8 Unused tenant exhaust connections to for the protection of the component sections of
the master exhaust duct that are not used as the equipment and shall include protection of
bleed air connections shall be disconnected and the ductwork downstream of the equipment,
sealed at the main duct. [NFPA 96:8.4.8] whether or not the equipment is provided with a
511.5 Solid-Fuel Air Movement Requirements. damper. Filter media used in secondary filtra-
Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is used, exhaust tion or air pollution control units and not
and replacement air also shall comply with Section complying with Section 509.2.4 shall have fire
517.0. protection that is adequate for the filter media
being used in accordance with the fire-extin-
512.0 Auxiliary Equipment. guishing system manufacturer's instructions. If
512.1 Dampers. Dampers shall not be installed in the equipment can be a source of ignition, it shall
exhaust ducts or exhaust duct systems. [NFPA be provided with appropriate detection to
96:9.1.1] operate the fire-extinguishing system. [NFPA
96:9.3.3,9.3.3.1,9.3.4]
512.1.1 Where specifically listed for such use or
where required as part of a listed device or 512.3.3 Where a cooking exhaust system
system, dampers in exhaust ducts or exhaust employs an air pollution control device that
duct systems shall be permitted. [NFPA 96:9.1.2] recirculates air into the building, the provisions
of Section 516.0 shall apply. [NFPA 96:9.3.5]
512.2 Electrical Equipment.
512.4 Solid-Fuel Auxiliary Equipment. Where solid
512.2.1 Wiring systems of any type shall not be
fuel cooking comprises any part of a cooking opera-
installed in ducts. [NFPA 96:9.2.1]
tion, additional provisions and equipment as
512.2.2 Only where specifically listed for such described in Section 517.0 shall be used where
use shall motors, lights, and other electrical required.
devices be permitted to be installed in ducts or
hoods or located in the path of travel of exhaust
products. [NFPA 96:9.2.2] 513.0 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment.
512.2.3 Lighting units on hoods shall not be 513.1 General Requirements.
located in concealed spaces. 513.1.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment for the
512.2.4 Lighting units shall be permitted in protection of grease removal devices, hood
concealed spaces where such units are part of a exhaust plenums, and exhaust duct systems
listed exhaust hood. [NFPA 96:9.2.3.3] shall be provided. [NFPA 96:10.1.1]

63
513.1 - 513.2 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

513.1.2 Cooking equipment that produces 513.2.4.2 Penetrations and holes resulting
grease-laden vapors (such as, but not limited to, from the removal of conduit or piping shall
deep-fat fryers, ranges, griddles, broilers, woks, be sealed with listed or equivalent liquid
tilting skillets, and braising pans) shall be tight sealing devices. [NFPA 96:10.2.7.2]
protected by fire-extinguishing equipment. 513.2.4.3 The addition of obstructions to
[NFPA 96:10.1.2] spray patterns from the cooking appliance
513.2 Types of Equipment. nozzle(s) such as baffle plates, shelves, or
513.2.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall any modification shall not be permitted.
include both automatic fire-extinguishing [NFPA 96:10.2.7.3]
systems as primary protection and portable fire 513.2.4.4 Changes or modifications to the
extinguishers as secondary backup. [NFP A hazard after installation of the fire extin-
96:10.2.1] guishing systems shall result in reevaluation
513.2.1.1 A placard identifying the use of of the system design by a properly trained,
the extinguisher as secondary backup means qualified, and certified person(s). [NFPA I
to the automatic fire suppression system 96:10.2.7.4]
shall be conspicuously placed near each 513.2.5 Fixed Baffle Hoods with Water Wash.
portable fire extinguisher in the cooking Grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums,
area. [NFPA 96:10.2.2] and exhaust ducts requiring protection in accor-
513.2.2 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems dance with Section 513.1.1 shall be permitted to
shall comply with standard UL 300, Fire Testing be protected by a listed fixed baffle hood
of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of containing a constant or fire-actuated water
Restaurant Cooking Areas, or other equivalent wash system that is listed and in compliance
standards and shall be installed in accordance with UL 300 or other equivalent standards and
with their listings. [NFPA 96:10.2.3] shall be installed in accordance with the require-
ments of their listing. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.1]
Exception: Automatic fire-extinguishing
equipment provided as part of listed recir- 513.2.5.1 The water for listed, fixed baffle
culating systems complying with standard hood assemblies shall be permitted to be
UL 710B, Outline of Investigation for Recircu- supplied from the domestic water supply
lating Exhaust System. when the minimum water pressure and
flow are provided in accordance with the
513.2.2.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing
terms of the listing. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.3]
systems shall be installed in accordance with
the terms of their listing, the manufacturer's
instructions, and the following standards
513.2.5.2 The water supply shall be
controlled by a supervised water supply
control valve. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.4]
I
where applicable. [NFPA 96:10.2.6]
(1) NFP A 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide 513.2.5.3 The water wash in the fixed baffle
Extinguishing Systems hood shall be activated by the cooking
equipment extinguishing system. [NFP A
(2) NFP A 13, Standard for the Installation of
96:10.2.8.5]
Sprinkler Systems
513.2.5.4 A water-wash system approved to
(3) NFP A 17, Standard for Dry Chemical
be used for protection of the grease removal
Extinguishing Systems
device(s), hood exhaust plenum(s), exhaust
(4) NFP A 17 A, Standard for Wet Chemical duct(s), or combination thereof shall include
Extinguishing Systems instruction and appropriate electrical inter-
513.2.3 In existing systems, when changes in the face for simultaneous activation of the
cooking media, positioning, or replacement of water-wash system from an automatic fire-
cooking equipment occur, the fire-extinguishing extinguishing system, where the automatic
system shall be made to comply with 513.2.2. fire-extinguishing system is used for
[NFPA 96:10.2.3.1] cooking equipment protection only. [NFP A
513.2.4 Modification of Existing Hood 96:10.2.8.6]
Systems. 513.2.5.5 Where the fire-extinguishing
513.2.4.1 Any abandoned pipe or conduit system provides protection for the cooking
from a previous installation shall be equipment, hood, and duct, activation of the
removed from within the hood, plenum, water wash shall not be required. [NFP A
and exhaust duct. [NFPA 96:10.2.7.1] 96:10.2.8.7]

64
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 513.2 - 513.7

513.2.5.6 The water required for listed auto- 513.4.4 Shutoff devices shall require manual
matic fire-extinguishing systems shall be reset. [NFPA 96:10.4.4]
permitted to be supplied from the domestic 513.5 Manual Activation.
water supply where the minimum water 513.5.1 A readily accessible means for manual
pressure and flow are provided in accor-
dance with the terms of the listing. The
water supply shall be controlled by a super-
activation shall be located between forty-two
(42) inches and forty-eight (48) inches (1,067 mm
and 1,219 mm) above the floor, located in a path
I
vised water supply control valve. [NFP A of exit or egress, and clearly identify the hazard
96:10.2.9] protected. A manual actuation device shall be
513.2.6 Water Valve Supervision. Valves located a minimum of ten (10) feet (3 m) when
controlling the water supply to listed fixed baffle possible and a maximum of twenty (20) feet (6
hood assemblies, automatic fire-extinguishing m) from the protected kitchen appliance(s)
systems, or both shall be listed indicating type of within the path of egress. Manual actuation
valve and shall be supervised open by one of the using a cable-operated pull station shall not
following methods: require more than forty (40) pounds (178 N) of
force, with a pull movement not to exceed four-
(1) Central station, proprietary, or remote teen (14) inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire
station alarm service suppression system. The automatic and manual
(2) Local alarm service that will cause the means of system activation external to the
sounding of an audible signal at a constantly control head or releasing device shall be separate
attended point and independent of each other so that failure of
(3) Locking valves open one will not impair the operation of the other.
[NFPA 96:10.5.1 -10.5.2]
(4) Sealing of valves and approved weekly
513.5.2 The manual means of system activation
recorded inspection. [NFPA 96:10.2.10]
shall be permitted to be common with the auto-
513.3 Simultaneous Operation. Fixed-pipe extin- matic means if the manual activation device is
guishing systems in a single hazard area shall be located between the control head or releasing
arranged for simultaneous automatic operation upon device and the first fusible link. [NFPA 96:10.5.3]
actuation of anyone of the systems. [NFPA 96:10.3.1]
513.5.3 An automatic sprinkler system shall not
513.3.1 Simultaneous operation shall not be require a manual means of system activation.
required where the fixed pipe extinguishing [NFPA 96:10.5.4]
system is an automatic sprinkler system. [NFPA 513.5.4 The means for manual actuator(s) shall
96:10.3.2] be mechanical or rely on electrical power for
513.3.2 Simultaneous operation shall not be actuation. [NFPA 96:10.5.5]
required where dry or wet chemical system shall 513.5.5 Electrical power shall be permitted to be I
be permitted to be used to protect common used for manual activation if a standby power
exhaust ductwork by one of the methods speci- supply is provided or if supervision is provided
fied in NFPA 17 or NFPA 17A. [NFPA 96:10.3.3] in accordance with Section 513.7. [NFP A
513.4 Fuel Shutoff. 96:10.5.6]
513.4.1 Upon activation of any fire-extin- 513.6 System Annunciation.
guishing system for a cooking operation, all 513.6.1 Upon activation of an automatic fire
sources of fuel and electric power that produce extinguishing system, an audible alarm or visual
heat to all equipment requiring protection by indicator shall be provided to show that the
that system shall automatically shut off. [NFPA system has activated. [NFPA 96:10.6.1]
96:10.4.1] 513.6.2 Where a fire alarm signaling system is
Exception: Solid-fuel cooking operations. serving the occupancy where the extinguishing
system is located, the activation of the automatic
513.4.2 Steam supplied from an external source fire-extinguishing system shall activate the fire
shall not be required to automatically shut off. alarm signaling system. [NFPA 96:10.6.2]
[NFPA 96:10.4.2] 513.7 System Supervision.
513.4.3 Any gas appliance not requiring protec- 513.7.1 Where electrical power is required to
tion, but located under the same ventilating operate the automatic fire-extinguishing system,
equipment, shall also automatically shut off it shall be monitored by a supervisory alarm,
upon activation of any extinguishing system. with a standby power supply provided. [NFPA
[NFPA 96:10.4.3] 96:10.7.1]

65
513.7-514.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

513.7.2 System supervision shall not be required sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate
where an automatic fire-extinguishing system(s) dry chemical and potassium carbonate solutions.
includes automatic mechanical detection and Class B gas-type portables such as C02 and
actuation as a backup detection system. halon shall not be permitted in kitchen cooking
[NFPA 96:10.7.2] areas. Manufacturer's recommendations shall be
513.7.3 System supervision shall not be required followed. [NFPA 96:10.10.1-10.10.4]
w here a fire-extinguishing system(s) is intercon- 513.11.1.1 Portable fire extinguishers listed
nected or interlocked with the cooking equip- specifically for use in the kitchen cooking
ment power source(s) so that if the fire extin- areas shall also be permitted.
guishing system becomes inoperable due to
power failure, all sources of fuel or electric 513.11.2 Other fire extingUishers in the kitchen
power that produce heat to all cooking equip- area shall be installed in accordance with NFP A
ment serviced by that hood shall automatically 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. [NFPA
shut off. [NFPA 96:10.7.3] 96:10.10.5]
513.7.4 System supervision shall not be required 513.12 Solid-Fuel Fire-Extinguishing Equipment.
where an automatic fire-extinguishing system, Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is served by fire
including automatic mechanical detection and extinguishing equipment, the provisions of Section
actuation, is electrically connected to a listed fire- 517.0 shall apply.
actuated water-wash system for simultaneous
operation of both systems. [NFPA 96:10.7.4]
514.0 Procedures for the Use and Maintenance of
513.8 Special Design and Application. Equipment.
513.8.1 Hoods containing automatic fire extin- 514.1 Operating Procedures.
guishing systems are protected areas; therefore,
514.1.1 Exhaust systems shall be operated
these hoods are not considered obstructions to
overhead sprinkler systems and shall not require whenever cooking eqUipment is turned on.
floor coverage underneath. [NFPA 96:10.8.1] [NFPA 96:11.1.1]
513.8.2 A single listed detection device, listed 514.1.2 Filter-equipped exhaust systems shall not
with the extinguishing system, shall be be operated with filters removed. [NFPA 96:11.1.2]
permitted for more than one (1) appliance when 514.1.3 Openings provided for replacing air
installed in accordance with the terms of the exhausted through ventilating equipment shall
listing. [NFPA 96:10.8.2] not be restricted by covers, dampers, or any
513.9 Review and Certification. other means that would reduce the operating
efficiency of the exhaust system. [NFP A
513.9.1 Where required, complete drawings of
96:11.1.3]
the system installation, including the hood(s),
exhaust duct(s), and appliances, along with the 514.1.4 Instructions for manually operating the
interface of the fire-extinguishing system detec- fire-extinguishing system shall be posted
tors, piping, nozzles, fuel shutoff devices, agent conspicuously in the kitchen and shall be
storage container(s), and manual actuation reviewed periodically with employees by the
device(s), shall be submitted to the Authority management. [NFP A 96: 11.1.4]
Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:10.9.1] 514.1.5 Listed exhaust hoods shall be operated
513.10 Installation Requirements. in accordance with the terms of their listings and
513.10.1 Installation of systems shall be the manufacturer's instructions. [NFP A
performed only by persons properly trained and 96:11.1.5]
qualified to install the specific system being 514.1.6 Cooking equipment shall not be oper-
provided. The installer shall provide certification ated while its fire-extinguishing system or
that the installation is in agreement with the exhaust system is nonoperational or otherwise
terms of the listing and the manufacturer's impaired. [NFPA 96:11.1.6]
instructions and / or approved design. [NFP A 514.1.7 Secondary filtration and pollution
96:10.9.2] control equipment shall be operated in accor-
513.11 Portable Fire Extinguishers. dance with the terms of its listing and the manu-
513.11.1 Portable fire extinguishers shall be facturer's recommendations. [NFPA 96:11.1.7]
installed in kitchen cooking areas in accordance 514.1.8 Inspection and maintenance of equip-
with NFP A 10, Standard for Portable Fire extin- ment allowed in Section 512.3.1 shall be
guishers. Such extinguishers shall use agents that conducted by properly trained and qualified
saponify upon contact with hot grease, such as persons at a frequency determined by the manu-

66
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 514.1 - 514.4

facturer's instructions or equipment listing.


TABLE 5-4
[NFPA 96:11.1.8]
Exhaust System Inspection Schedule
514.2 Inspection. Maintenance of the fire-extin- [NFPA 96: Table 11.4]
guishing systems and listed exhaust hoods ~~~,~~~~~~-~~.~~~ ~~~.~ .~.

Type or Volume of Cooking Frequency


containing a constant or fire-activated water system
that is listed to extinguish a fire in the grease Frequency_~__~__ ~ ~..._~_~~
removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and Systems serving solid-fuel cooking I~Monthiy
exhaust ducts shall be made by properly trained, operations ._~___~~~_~~ .~~~~_~~.~~ ~~~I
qualified, and certified person(s) or company accept- Systems serving high-volume co.oking Quarterly
I

able to the Authority Having Jurisdiction at least operations such as 24-hou.r cooking,
charbroiling, or wok cookmg
every six (6) months. [NFPA 96:11.2.1]
Systemss-ervmgl11()der~aie~v~oI ume
514.2.1 All actuation components, including cooking operations annually ~
remote manual pull stations, mechanical or elec-
trical devices, detectors, actuators, and fire-actu- ~~~~~~~~~,~~~~~~~~l~i~:, ~Oa~<ing Annually
ated dampers, shall be checked for proper opera- camps, seasonal businesses, or senior
tion during the inspection in accordance with centers.
the manufacturer's listed procedures. In addition
grease-laden vapors, the contaminated portions
to these requirements, the specific inspection
of the exhaust system shall be cleaned by a prop-
requirements of the applicable NFP A standard
erly trained, qualified, and certified company or
shall also be followed. [NFP A 96-04:11.2.2 -
person(s) acceptable to the Authority Having
11.2.3]
Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.6.1]
514.2.2 Fusible links (including fusible links on
514.4.2 Hoods, grease removal devices, fans,
fire damper assemblies) and automatic sprinkler
ducts, and other appurtenances shall be cleaned
heads shall be replaced at least semiannually, or
to remove combustible contaminant's prior to
more frequently if necessary where required by
surfaces becoming heavily contaminated with
the manufacturer. [NFPA 96-04:11.2.4]
grease or oily sludge. [NFPA 96:11.6.2]
514.2.3 The year of manufacture and the date of
514.4.3 At the start of the cleaning process, elec-
installation of the fusible links shall be marked trical switches that could be activated acciden-
on the system inspection tag. The tag shall be tally shall be locked out. [NFPA 96:11.6.3]
signed or initialed by the installer. [NFP A
96:11.2.5] 514.4.4 Components of the fire suppression
system shall not be rendered inoperable during
Other detection devices not including the cleaning process. [NFPA 96:11.6.4]
fusible links and automatic sprinklers shall be
514.4.5 Fire-extinguishing systems shall be
serviced or replaced in accordance with the
permitted to be rendered inoperable during the
manufacturer's recommendations. [NFP A 96-
cleaning process where serviced by properly
04:11.2.6] trained and qualified persons. [NFPA 96:11.6.5]
514.2.4 Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or 514.4.6 Flammable solvents or other flammable
spray nozzles are used and annual examination cleaning aids shall not be used. [NFPA 96:11.6.6]
shows no buildup of grease or other material on
514.4.7 Cleaning chemicals shall not be applied
the sprinkler or spray nozzles, annual replace-
on fusible links or other detection devices of the
ment shall not be required. [NFPA 96:11.2.7]
automatic extinguishing system. [NFPA 96: 11.6. 7]
514.2.5 If required, certificates of inspection and
514.4.8 After the exhaust system is cleaned, it
maintenance shall be forwarded to the Authority
shall not be coated with powder or other
Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.2.8]
substance. [NFPA 96:11.6.8]
514.3 inspection for Grease Buildup.
514.4.9 When cleaning procedures are
514.3.1 The entire exhaust system shall be completed, all access panels (doors) and cover
inspected for grease buildup by a properly plates shall be restored to their normal opera-
trained, qualified, and certified company or tional condition. [NFPA 96:11.6.9]
person(s) acceptable to the Authority Having
514.4.10 When an access panel is removed, a
Jurisdiction in accordance with Table 5-4.
service company label or tag preprinted with the
514.4 Cleaning of Exhaust Systems. name of the company and giving the date of
514.4.1 Upon inspection, if the exhaust system is inspection or cleaning shall be affixed near the
found to be contaminated with deposits from affected access panels. [NFPA 96:11.6.10]

67
514.4-516.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

514.4.11 Dampers and diffusers shall be posi- reconnected in accordance with the
tioned for proper airflow. [NFPA 96: 11.6.11] manufacturer's listed design manual.
514.4.12 When cleaning procedures are [NFPA 96:12.1.2.3]
completed, all electrical switches and system 515.1.2.4 All deep-fat fryers shall be
components shall be returned to an operable installed with at least a sixteen (16) inch (406
state. [NFPA 96:11.6.12] mm) space between the fryer and surface
514.4.13 When an exhaust cleaning service is flames from adjacent cooking equipment.
used, a certificate showing the name of the [NFPA 96:12.1.2.4]
servicing company, the name of the person 515.1.2.5 Where a steel or tempered glass
performing the work, and the date of inspection baffle plate is installed at a minimum eight
or cleaning shall be maintained on the premises. (8) inches (203 mm) in height between the
[NFPA 96:11.6.13] fryer and surface flames of the adjacent
appliance, the requirement for a sixteen (16)
514.4.14 After cleaning or inspection is
inch (406 mm) space shall not apply. [NFPA
completed, the exhaust cleaning company and
96:12.1.2.5]
the person performing the work at the location
shall provide the owner of the system with a 515.1.2.6 If the fryer and the surface flames
are at different horizontal planes, the
written report that also specifies areas that were
minimum height of eight (8) inches (203
inaccessible or not cleaned. [NFPA 96:11.6.14]
mm) shall be measured from the higher of
514.4.15 Where required, certificates of inspec- the two. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.5.1]
tion and cleaning and reports of areas not
515.2 Operating Controls. Deep-fat fryers shall be
cleaned shall be submitted to the Authority equipped with a separate high-limit control in addi-
Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.6.15] tion to the adjustable operating control (thermostat)
to shut off fuel or energy when the fat temperature
515.0 Minimum Safety Requirements for Cooking reaches 475°F (246°C) at one (1) inch (25 mm) below
Equipment. the surface. [NFPA 96:12.2]
515.1 Cooking Equipment. 515.3 Cooking Equipment Maintenance.
515.1.1 Cooking equipment shall be approved 515.3.1 An inspection and servicing of the
based on one of the following criteria: cooking equipment shall be made at least annu-
ally by properly trained and qualified persons.
(A) Listings by a testing laboratory.
[NFPA 96:11.5.1]
(8) Test data acceptable to the Authority
515.3.2 Cooking equipment that collects grease
Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:12.1.1]
below the surface, behind the equipment, or in
515.1.2 Installation. cooking equipment flue gas exhaust, such as
515.1.2.1 All listed appliances shall be griddles or charbroilers, shall be inspected and,
installed in accordance with the terms of if found with grease accumulation, cleaned by a
their listings and the manufacturer's instruc- properly trained, qualified, and certified person
tions. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.1] acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
515.1.2.2 Cooking appliances requiring [NFPA 96:11.5.2]
protection shall not be moved, modified, or
rearranged without prior reevaluation of the 516.0 Recirculating Systems.
fire-extinguishing system by the system 516.1 General Requirements. Recirculating
installer or servicing agent, unless otherwise systems containing or for use with appliances used
allowed by the design of the fire-extin- in processes producing smoke or grease-laden
guishing system. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.2] vapors shall be equipped with components
515.1.2.3 The fire-extinguishing system complying with the following:
shall not require re-evaluation where (A) The clearance requirements of Section 507.2.
the cooking appliances are moved to
(8) A hood complying with the requirements of
perform maintenance and cleaning
Section 508.0.
provided the appliances are returned to
approved design location prior to (C) Grease removal devices complying with Section
cooking operations, and any discon- 509.0.
nected fire-extinguishing system (D) The air movement requirements of Sections
nozzles attached to the appliances are 511.2.1 and 511.2.2.

68
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 516.1-516.3

(E) Auxiliary equipment (such as particulate and 516.2.8 The power supply of any electrostatic
odor removal devices) complying with Section precipitator (ESP) shall be of the "cold spark,"
512.0. ferro-resonant type in that the voltage falls off as
(F) Fire-extinguishing equipment complying with the current draw of a short increases. [NFP A
the requirements of Section 513.0. 96:13.2.11]
Exception: References to ducts in Sections 516.2.9 Listing evaluation shall include the
513.1.1 and 513.5.1. following:
(G) The use and maintenance requirements of 514.0. (A) Capture and containment of vapors at
(H) The minimum safety requirements of Section published and labeled airflows.
515.0. (8) Grease discharge at the exhaust outlet of the
(I) All the requirements of this chapter. [NFP A system not to exceed an average of 5 mg / m 3
96:13.1] of exhausted air sampled from that equip-
516.2 Design Restrictions. All recirculating systems ment at maximum amount of product that is
shall comply with Section 516.2. [NFPA 96:13.2] capable of being processed over a contin-
uous eight (8) hour test per EPA Test
516.2.1 Only gas- or electrically fueled cooking
Method 202, Determination of Condensable
appliances shall be used. Gas-fueled appliances
Particulate Emissions for Stationary Sources,
shall not have the combustion flue outlet(s)
directly connected to the recirculating system. with the system operating at its minimum
Gas-fueled appliances shall have a minimum listed airflow.
eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) clearance from the (C) Listing and labeling of clearance to
flue outlet to the filter inlet in accordance with combustibles from all sides, top, and bottom.
Section 509.2.3 and shall meet the installation (D) Electrical connection in the field in accor-
requirements of NFP A 54, National Fuel Gas Code, dance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.
or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [NFPA
96:13.2.1 -13.2.3] (E) Interlocks on all removable components that
lie in the path of airflow within the unit to
516.2.2 Recirculating systems shall be listed ensure that they are in place during opera-
with a testing laboratory. The recirculating
tion of the cooking appliance. [NFP A
system listing shall include integral fire protec-
96:13.2.12]
tion for recirculating hoods, including canopy
type [NFPA 96:13.2.4.1] 516.3 Interlocks. The recirculating system shall be
provided with interlocks of all critical components
516.2.3 Cooking appliances that require protec-
tion and that are under a recirculating hood shall and operations as indicated in Sections 516.3.1
be protected by either the integral fire protection through 516.3.4 such that, if any of these interlocks
system for the hood or a system in accordance are interrupted, the cooking appliance shall not be
with Section 513.0. [NFPA 96:13.2.4.2] able to operate. [NFPA 96:13.3.1]
516.2.4 A recirculating system shall not use 516.3.1 All closure panels encompassing airflow
cooking equipment that exceeds that recircu- sections shall have interlocks to ensure the
lating system's labeled maximum limits for that panels are in place and fully sealed. [NFP A
type of equipment, stated in maximum energy 96:13.3.2]
input, maximum cooking temperature, and 516.3.2 Each filter component (grease and odor)
maximum square area of cooking surface or
shall have an interlock to prove the component
cubic volume of cooking cavity. [NFPA
is in place. [NFPA 96:13.3.3]
96:13.2.6]
516.2.5 The listing label shall show the type(s) 516.3.3 ESP Interlocks.
of cooking equipment tested and the maximum 516.3.3.1 Each ESP shall have a sensor to
limits specified in 516.2.4. [NFPA 96:13.2.7] prove its performance is as designed, with
516.2.6 A fire-actuated damper shall be installed no interruption of the power to exceed two
at the exhaust outlet of the system. The actua- (2) minutes. [NFPA 96:13.3.4.1]
tion device shall have a maximum temperature 516.3.3.2 The sensor shall be a manual reset
rating of 375°F (190°C). [NFPA 96:13.2.8, 13.2.10] device or circuit. [NFPA 96:13.3.4.2]
516.2.7 No electrical wiring shall be installed in 516.3.4 An airflow switch or transducer shall be
the interior sections of the hood plenum that provided after the last filter component to
might become exposed to grease. ensure that a minimum airflow is maintained.
Exception: As permitted by NFPA 70, This device opens the interlock circuit when the
National Electrical Code. airflow falls twenty-five (25) percent below the

69
516.3 - 517.3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

system's normal operating flow or ten ~10) 517.0 Solid-Fuel Cooking Operations.
percent below its listed minimum ratIng, 517.1 Venting Application. Venting requirements of
\vhichever is lower. This switch or transducer solid-fuel cooking operations shall be determined in
shall be a manual reset device or circuit. [NFP A accordance with Sections 517.1.1 through 517.1.6.
96:13.3.5]
517.1.1 Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is
516.4 location and Application Restrictions. The required by the manufacturer to have a natural
location of recirculating systems shall be approved draft, the vent shall comply with Section 517.4.
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Iten:s to be
reviewed in the fire risk assessment shall mclude, 517.1.2 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment
but not be limited to, life safety, combustibility of has a self-contained top, is the only appliance to
surroundings, proximity to air vents, and total fuel be vented in an isolated space (except for a single
load. [NFPA 96:13.4] water heater with its own separate vent), has a
separate makeup-air system, and is provided
516.5 Additional Fire Safety Requirements.
with supply and return air (not supplied or
516.5.1 In addition to the appliance nozzle(s), a returned from other spaces), the system shall
recirculating system shall be listed with the comply with Sections 517.4 and 517.6.
appropriate fire protection for grease filters,
517.1.3 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment
grease filtration, odor filtration units, and duct-
is located in a space with other vented equip-
work where applicable. [NFPA 96:13.5.1]
ment, all vented equipment shall have an
516.5.2 In addition to any other fire-extin- exhaust system interlocked with a makeup-air
guishing system actuation device, th~re shall.be system for the space as per Section 517.6.
a fire-extinguishing system actuatIOn device
installed downstream of any ESP. [NFP A 517.1.4 Natural draft ventilation systems and
96:13.5.2] power-exhausted ventilation systems shall
comply with Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.
516.5.3 The requirements of Section 513.6 shall
also apply to recirculating system locations. 517.1.5 Where a solid-fuel cooking appliance
[NFPA 96:13.5.3] allows effluent to escape from the appliance
opening, this opening shall be covered by a hood
516.6 Use and Maintenance.
and an exhaust system that meets the require-
516.6.1 Automatic or manual covers on cooking ments of Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.
appliances, especially fryers, shall not inter~ere
517.1.6 Solid-fuel cooking operations shall have
with the application of the fire suppressIOn
spark arresters to minimize the passage of
system.[NFPA 96:13.6.1]
airborne sparks and embers into plenums and
516.6.2 All filters shall be cleaned or replaced in ducts. Where the solid-fuel cooking operation is
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. not located under a hood, a spark arrester shall
[NFPA 96:13.6.2] be provided to minimize the passage of sparks
516.6.3 All ESPs shall be cleaned a minimum of and embers into flues and chimneys.
once per week following manufacturer's 517.2 location of Appliances.
cleaning instructions. [NFPA 96:13.6.3]
517.2.1 Every appliance shall be located with
516.6.4 The entire hood plenum and the blower
respect to building construction and other equip-
section shall be cleaned a minimum of once ment so as to permit access to the appliance.
every three (3) months. [NFPA 96:13.6.4]
517.2.2 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not I
516.6.5 Inspection and testing of the total opera- be installed in confined spaces.
tion and all safety interlocks in accordance with
Exception: Solid-fuel cooking appliances listed
the manufacturer's instructions shall be
for installation in confined spaces shall be
performed by qualified service personnel a
installed in accordance with the terms of the
minimum of once every six (6) months, or more
listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
frequently if required. [NFPA 96:13.6.5]
517.2.3 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not
516.6.6 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be
be installed in any location where gasoline or
inspected in accordance with Section 514.2.
[NFPA 96:13.6.6] any other flammable vapors or gases are likely
to be present.
516.6.7 A signed and dated log of maintenance
as performed in accordance with Sections 516.6.4 517.3 Hoods for Solid-Fuel Cooking.
and 516.6.5 shall be available on the premises for 517.3.1 Hoods shall be sized and located in a
use by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. manner capable of capturing and containing all
[NFPA 96:13.6.7] of the effluent discharging from the appliances.

70
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 517.3 - 517.7

The hood and its exhaust system shall comply exhaust-air system and powered, if necessary, to
with the provisions of the code. prevent the space from attaining a negative pres-
517.3.2 All solid-fuel cooking equipment served sure while the solid-fuel appliance is in opera-
by hood and duct systems shall be separate from tion.
all other exhaust systems. 517.7 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment for Solid-
Exception: Cooking equipment not Fuel Cooking.
requiring automatic fire-extinguishing 517.7.1 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
equipment (as per the provisions of Section shall be provided to protect all solid-fuel-
510.0) shall be permitted to be installed burning cooking appliances that might be a
under a common hood with solid-fuel source of ignition of grease in the hood, grease
cooking equipment that is served by a duct removal device, or duct.
system separate from all other exhaust Exception: If acceptable to the Authority
systems. Having Jurisdiction, solid -fuel-burning
517.4 Exhaust Systems for Solid-Fuel Cooking. cooking appliances constructed of solid
masonry or reinforced portland or refractory
Where a hood is not required, in buildings where the
cement concrete and vented in accordance
duct system is three (3) stories or less in height, a
with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fire-
duct complying with Section 510.0 shall be provided.
places, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appli-
517.4.1 If a hood is used, the duct system shall ances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require fixed
conform with the Section 510.0. automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.
517.4.2 A listed or approved grease duct system 517.7.2 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
shall be provided for solid-fuel cooking exhaust shall be provided for the protection of grease
systems that are four (4) stories in height or removal devices, hoods, and duct systems.
greater. Exception: If acceptable to the Authority
517.4.3 Where a hood is used, the duct system Having Jurisdiction, solid-fuel-burning
shall conform with the requirements of Section cooking appliances constructed of solid
510.0. masonry or reinforced portland or refractory
cement concrete and vented in accordance
517.4.4 Wall terminations of solid-fuel exhaust
with NFP A 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fire-
systems shall be prohibited.
places, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appli-
517.5 Grease Removal Devices for Solid-Fuel ances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require
Cooking. Grease removal devices shall be automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.
constructed of steel or stainless steel or be approved
517.7.3 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
for solid-fuel cooking.
for solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances, where
517.5.1 If airborne sparks and embers can be required, shall comply with NFPA 211 and shall
generated by the solid-fuel cooking operation, be comprised of water-based agents.
spark arrester devices shall be used prior to the
517.7.4 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be
grease removal device to minimize the entrance
rated and designed to extinguish solid-fuel
of these sparks and embers into the grease
cooking fires, in accordance with the manufac-
removal device and into the hood and duct
turer's recommendations. The fire-extinguishing
system.
equipment shall be of sufficient size to totally
517.5.2 Filters shall be a minimum of four (4) extinguish fire in the entire hazard area and
feet (1.2 m) above the appliance cooking surface. prevent reignition of the fuel.
517.6 Air Movement for Solid-Fuel Cooking. 517.7.5 All solid-fuel appliances (whether or not
Exhaust system requirements shall comply with the under a hood) with fireboxes of five (5) ft. 3 (0.14
provisions of the code for hooded operation or shall m 3 ) volume or less shall at least have a listed 2-A
be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's rated water-type fire extinguisher or a 1.6 gal (6
recommendation for unhooded applications. L) wet chemical fire extinguisher listed for Class
517.6.1 A replacement or makeup-air system K fires in accordance with NFP A 10, in the
shall be provided to ensure a positive supply of immediate vicinity of the appliance. [NFP A
replacement air at all times during cooking oper- 96:14.7.8]
ations. 517.7.6 Solid-fuel appliances with fireboxes
517.6.2 Makeup-air systems serving solid-fuel exceeding five (5) ft. 3 (0.14 m J ) shall be provided
cooking operations shall be interlocked with the with a fixed-water-pipe system with a hose in

71
517.7-517.8 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

the immediate vicinity of the appliance. The


hose shall be equipped with an adjustable nozzle
capable of producing a fine to medium spray or
mist. The nozzle shall be of the type that cannot
produce a straight stream. The system shall have
a minimum operating pressure of forty (40) psi
(275.8 kPa) and shall provide a minimum of five
(5) gpm. [NFPA 96:14.7.9.1-14.7.9.2]
517.7.7 Fire suppression for fuel storage areas
shall comply with Section 513.2.2.1(2).
517.7.8 In addition to the requirements of
Sections 517.7.5 or 517.7.6, where any solid-fuel
cooking appliance is also provided with auxil-
iary electric, gas, oil, or other fuel for ignition or
supplemental heat and the appliance is also
served by any portion of a fire-extinguishing
system complying with Section 513.0, such auxil-
iary fuel shall be shut off upon actuation of the
fire-extinguishing system.
517.8 Other Safety Requirements.
517.8.1 Metal-fabricated solid-fuel cooking
appliances shall be listed for the application
where produced in practical quantities or shall be
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
When listed, they shall be installed in accordance
with the terms of their listings and with the
applicable requirements of this standard.
517.8.2 Site-built solid-fuel cooking appliances
shall be submitted for approval to the Authority
Having Jurisdiction before being considered for
installation. All units shall be installed, operated,
and maintained in accordance with the
approved terms of the manufacturer's instruc-
tions and any additional requirements set forth
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
517.8.3 Except for the spark arrester required in
Section 517.1.6, there shall be no additional
devices of any type in any portion of the appli-
ance, flue pipe, and chimney of a natural draft
solid-fuel operation.
517.8.4 No solid-fuel cooking device of any type
shall be permitted for deep-fat frying involving
more than one (1) quart of liquid shortening, nor
shall any solid-fuel cooking device be permitted
within three (3) feet (0.92 m) of any deep-fat
frying unit.

72
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Table 5-5

TABLE 5-5
Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Round Ducts for Product-Conveying System Ducts
Reinf. Class 1
Negative Spacing
Pressure (Inches) Up to 7" 8" to 11" 12" to 15" 16" to 19" 20" to 23" 24" to 35" 36" to 47" 48" to 59" 60"

To 7" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
24 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

12" to 15" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (ll ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (J 4 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
24 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

Class 2
To 7" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

12" to 15" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

Class 3

To 7" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

73
Table 5-5 continued - Table 5-6 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 5-5 (continued)


Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness f or Roun dD ucts for P ro d uct- onveymg Siystem Ducts c
Reinf. Class 3
Negative Spacing
Pressure i(lnches} Up to 7" 8" to 11" 12" to 15" 16" to 19" 20" to 23" 24" to 35" 36" to 47" 48" to 59" 60"
12" to 15" a .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

16" to 20" a .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 o-a.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
Class 4
To 7" a .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

12" to 15" a .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
Note: 1111. = 25.4 mm

TABLE 5-6
Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Rectangular Ducts
Longest Side of Duct
Class 1 Class 2
Negative Reinf.
Pressure Spacing Up to 12" 13" to 24" 25" to 36" 37" to 48" 49" to 60" Up to 12" 13" to 24" 25" to 36" 37" to 48" 49" to 60"

To T 48 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 gEl.) .068 (14 ga.)
ToT 24 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
To T 12 .O2l (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

8" to U" 48 .027 (22 ga.) .068 (14 gEl.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
ll" to 11" 24 .027 (22 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
8" to 11" 12 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

12" to 15" 48 .044 (18 ga.) .Cl97 (12 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.)
12" to 15" 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .097(12ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
-12" to -15" 12 .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044(18ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 48 .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
16" to 20" 24 .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112(l1ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112(llga.) .068 (14 gal .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 gil.)
16" to 20" 12 .033 (20 oa.) .068 (14 oa.) .068 (14 oa.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 oa.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14ga.)
Class 3 Class 4
ToT 48 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
ToT 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
ToT ]2 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

8" to II" 48 .044 (Ill ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
8" toll" 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .06ll (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 gil.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (J2ga.)
8" to 11" 12 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 gil.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

12" to 15" 48 .044 (18 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
12" to 15" 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .cm (12 ga.)
12" to 15" 12 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

16" to 20" 48 .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .112 (1] ga.)
16" to 20" 24 .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .J 12 (11 ga.)
16" to 20" 12 .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
~ Note: 1 lfl. = 25.4 mm

74
CHAPTER 6
DUCT SYSTEMS

601.0 Scope. Exhaust ducts under positive pressure and


601.1 Ducts and plenums that are portions of a venting systems shall not extend into or pass
heating, cooling, absorption or evaporative cooling, through ducts or plenums. For appliance vents and
or product-conveying system shall comply with the chimneys, see Chapter 8.
requirements of this chapter. 602.2 Combustibles Within Ducts or Plenums.
601.2 Sizing Requirements. Duct systems used Materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall be
with blower-type equipment that are portions of a noncombustible or shall have a flame spread index
heating, cooling, absorption, evaporative cooling, or not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke devel-
outdoor-air ventilation system shall be sized in oped index not greater than fifty (50), when tested as
accordance with Chapter 17, or by other approved a composite product in accordance with one of the
methods. following test methods: NFPA 255, Method of Test of
SUlface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials,
ASTM E 84, SLl1face Burning Characteristics of Building
602.0 Material. Materials, or UL 723, Test for Swface Burning Charac-
602.1 General. Supply air, return air, and outside air teristics of Building Materials, except as indicated
for heating, cooling, or evaporative cooling systems below.
shall be conducted through duct systems constructed Exceptions:
of metal as set forth in Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-7, 6-
8, 6-9, and 6-10, or metal ducts complying with UMC (1) Return-air and outside-air ducts, plenums,
Standard No. 6-2 or the referenced HVAC duct or concealed spaces that serve a dwelling
construction standard in Chapter 17. Rectangular unit shall be permitted to be of combustible
ducts in excess of two (2) inches w.g. shall comply construction.
with UMC Standard No. 6-2 or the referenced HVAC (2) Air filters meeting the requirements of
duct construction standard in Chapter 17. Ducts, Sections 311.2 and 503.3.
plenums, and fittings may be constructed of (3) Water evaporation media in an evaporative
concrete, clay, or ceramics when installed in the cooler.
ground or in a concrete slab, provided the joints are
(4) Charcoal filters when protected with an
tightly sealed.
approved fire suppression system.
Corridors shall not be used to convey air to or
(5) Electrical wiring in plenums shall comply
from rooms if the corridor is required to be of fire-
with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Elec-
resistive construction per the Building Code.
trical wires and cables and optical fiber
Concealed building spaces or independent cables shall be listed and labeled as suitable
construction within buildings may be used as ducts for use in plenums and shall have a flame
or plenums. spread distance not greater than five (5) feet
When gypsum products are exposed in ducts or (1,524 mm), an average optical density not
plenums, the air temperature shall be restricted to a greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density
range from 50°F (10°C) to 125°F (52°C), and moisture not greater than 0.5, when tested in accor-
content shall be controlled so that the material is not dance with NFP A 262, Flame TraveL and
adversely affected. For the purpose of this section, Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-
gypsum products shall not be exposed in ducts Handling Spaces.
serving as supply from evaporative coolers, and in (6) Nonmetallic fire sprinkler pi ping in
other air-handling systems regulated by this chapter plenums shall be listed and labeled as suit-
when the temperature of the gypsum product will be able for use in plenums and shall have a
below the dew point temperature. flame spread distance not greater than five
See Chapter 8 for limitations on combustion (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical
products venting systems extending into or through density not greater than 0.15 and, a peak
ducts or plenums. optical density not greater than 0.5, when
See Chapter 5 for limitations on environmental tested in accordance with UL 1887, Fire Test
air systems exhaust ducts extending into or through of Plastic Sprinkler Pipe for Visible Flame and
ducts or plenums. Smoke Characteristics.

75
602.2 - 603.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

(7) Nonmetallic pneumatic tubing in plenums Joints and seams for flat oval ducts and round
shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use ducts in other than single-dwelling units shall be as
in plenums and shall have a flame spread specified in Table 6-8.
distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 Joints and seams and all reinforcements for
mm), an average optical density not greater factory-made air ducts and plenums shall meet with
than 0.15, and a peak optical density not the conditions of prior approval in accordance with
greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance
the installation instructions that shall accompany the
with UL 1820, Fire Test of Pneumatic Tubing
product. Closure systems for rigid air ducts and
for Flame and Smoke Characteristics.
plenums shall be listed in accordance with UL 181A,
(8) Loudspeakers and recessed lighting fixtures, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Rigid Air
including their assemblies and accessories, in Ducts and Air Connectors. Closure systems for flexible
plenums shall be listed and labeled as suit- air ducts shall be listed in accordance with UL 181B,
able for use in plenums and shall have a peak Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Flexible Air
rate of heat release not greater than 100 kilo- Ducts and Air Connectors.
watts, an average optical density not greater
602.5 Metal. Every duct, plenum, or fitting of metal
than 0.15, and a peak optical density not
shall comply with Table 6-1 or 6-8.
greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance
with UL 2043, Fire Test for Heat and Visible Exceptions:
Smoke Release for Discrete Products and their (1) Ducts, plenums, and fittings for systems
Accessories Installed in Air-Handling Spaces. serving single-dwelling units may comply
(9) Smoke detectors. with Table 6-9.
(10) Duct insulation, coverings, and linings and (2) Duct systems complying with UMC Stan-
other supplementary materials complying dard No. 6-2 or the referenced HVAC duct
with 605.0. construction standard in Chapter 17, with
prior approval, or duct systems complying
(11) Materials in a Group H, Division 6, fabrica-
with UL 181, Standard for Factory-Made Air
tion area including the areas above and
Ducts and Air Connectors.
below the fabrication area sharing a
common air recirculation path with the (3) Duct systems complying with the UMC
fabrication area. Standard No. 6-2 or the referenced HVAC
duct construction standard in Chapter 17,
602.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Factory-made air
with prior approval.
ducts shall be approved for the use intended or shall
conform to the requirements of the referenced stan- 602.6 Tin. Existing tin ducts may be used when
dard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Each portion of a cooling coils are added to a heating system, provided
factory-made air duct system shall be identified by the first ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of the duct or
the manufacturer with a label or other suitable iden- plenum measured from the cooling coil discharge
tification indicating compliance with the referenced are constructed of metal of the gauge thickness set
standard for air ducts in Chapter 17 and its class forth in Tables 6-1, 6-8, or 6-9 of this chapter or are of
designation. These ducts shall be listed and shall be approved material and construction. Tin ducts
installed in accordance with the terms of their listing completely enclosed in inaccessible concealed areas
and the requirements of UMC Standard No. 6-5. need not be replaced. All accessible ducts shall be
Flexible air connectors are not permitted. insulated to comply with Table 6-6 of this chapter.
602.4 Joints and Seams of Ducts. Joints of duct For the purpose of this subsection, ducts shall be
systems shall be made substantially air-tight by considered accessible where the access space is thirty
means of tapes, mastics, gasketing, or other means. (30) inches (762 mm) or greater in height.
Crimp joints for round ducts shall have a contact 602.7 Vibration Isolators. Vibration isolators
lap of at least 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) and shall be installed between mechanical equipment and metal
mechanically fastened by means of at least three (3) ducts (or casings) shall be made of an approved
sheet-metal screws equally spaced around the joint, material and shall not exceed ten (10) inches (254
or an equivalent fastening method. mm) in length.
Joints and seams for 0.016 inch (0.41 mm) (No. 28
gauge) and 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) (No. 30 gauge) resi- 603.0 Quality of Material.
dential rectangular ducts shall be as specified in Table Galvanized steel shall be of lock-forming quality
6-1 for 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 gauge) material. with a minimum coating of 1.25 ounces of zinc per
Joints and seams for rectangular duct systems square foot (0.04 kg/m 3 ) conforming to the require-
shall be as specified in Table 6-1. ments of UMC Standard No. 2-2.

76
DUCT SYSTEMS 604.0 - 605.0

604.0 Installation of Ducts. Factory-made air ducts shall not be used for
604.1 General Ducts Under Floor or Crawl Space. vertical risers in air-duct systems serving more than
Air ducts installed under a floor in a crawl space two stories. Such ducts shall not penetrate construc-
shall be installed as follows: tion where fire dampers are required.
(A) Shall not prevent access to any area of the crawl Factory-made air ducts shall be installed with at
space. least four (4) inches (102 mm) of separation from
earth, except when installed as a liner inside of
(8) Where it is required to move under ducts for
concrete, tile, or metal pipe; they shall be protected
access to areas of the crawl space a minimum
from physical damage.
vertical clearance of eighteen (18) inches (457
mm) shall be provided. The temperature of the air to be conveyed in any
of these classes of ducts shall not exceed 250"F
604.2 Metal Ducts. Ducts shall be securely fastened
(122°C).
in place at each change of direction and as set forth
in Table 6-7. Vertical rectangular ducts and vertical 604.4 Protection of Ducts. Ducts installed in loca-
round ducts shall be supported as set forth in Table tions where they are exposed to mechanical damage
6-7, Part A. Riser ducts shall be held in place by by vehicles or from other causes shall be protected
means of metal straps or angles and channels to by approved barriers.
secure the riser to the structure. 604.5 Support of Ducts. Installers shall provide the
Metal ducts shall be installed with at least four manufacturer's field fabrication and installation
(4) inches (102 mm) separation from earth. Metal instructions.
ducts when installed in or under a concrete slab shall In the absence of specific supporting materials
be encased in at least two (2) inches (51 mm) of and spacing, approved factory-made air ducts may
concrete. be installed as set forth in Table 6-10.
Ducts shall be installed in a building with 604.6 Protection Against Flood Damage. In flood
adequate clearance so as to permit retaining the full hazard areas, ducts shall be located above the design
thickness of fireproofing on structural members. flood elevation or shall be designed and constructed
Supports for rectangular ducts as set forth in to prevent water from entering or accumulating
Table 6-7, when suspended from above, shall be within the ducts during floods up to the design flood
installed on two opposite sides of each duct and shall elevation. If the ducts are located below the design
be riveted, bolted, or metal screwed to each side of flood elevation, the ducts shall be capable of resisting
the duct at not more than the intervals specified. hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses,
including the effects of buoyancy, during the occur-
Horizontal round ducts forty (40) inches (1,016
rence of flooding to the design flood elevation.
mm) or less in diameter when suspended from above
shall be supported at intervals not more than as set
forth in Table 6-7 with one hanger installed to 605.0 Insulation of Ducts.
comply with the requirements listed below: Supply-, return-air ducts and plenums of a heating
604.2.1 Ducts shall be equipped with tight- or cooling system shall be insulated to achieve the
fitting circular bands extending around the minimum thermal (R) value as set forth in Tables 6-6
entire perimeter of the duct at each specified A and B.
support interval. Exceptions:
604.2.2 Circular bands shall be not less than one (A) Factory-installed plenums, casings, or duct-
(1) inch (25 mm) wide nor less than equivalent to work furnished as a part of HVAC equip-
the gauge of the duct material it supports. ment tested and rated in accordance with
Exception: Ducts ten (10) inches (254 mm) approved energy efficiency standards.
and less in diameter may be supported by (8) Ducts or plenums located in conditioned
No. 18 gauge galvanized steel wire. spaces.
604.2.3 Each circular band shall be provided (C) For runouts less than ten (10) feet (3,048
with a sui table means of connecting to the mm) in length to air terminals or air outlets,
suspending support. the rated R value of insulation need not
604.2.4 Ducts shall be braced and guyed to exceed R-3.5 (R-0.6).
prevent lateral or horizontal swing. (D) Backs of air outlets and outlet plenums
604.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Listed Class 0 or exposed to unconditioned or indirectly
Class 1 factory-made air ducts may be installed in conditioned spaces with face areas exceeding
any occupancy covered by this code. five (5) square feet (0.5 m 2 ) need not exceed

77
605.0 - 606.7 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

R-2 (R-OA); those five (5) square feet (0.5 m 2 ) Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with
or smaller need not be insulated. the approved manufacturer's installation instruc-
(E) Ducts and plenums used exclusively for tions when required by the Building Code. Fire
evaporative cooling systems. dampers shall have been tested for closure under
airflow conditions and shall be labeled for both
Approved materials shall be installed within
maximum airflow permitted and direction of flow.
ducts and plenums for insulating, sound deadening,
or other purposes. Materials shall have a mold, When more than one damper is installed at a point in
humidity, and erosion-resistant surface that meets a single air path, the entire airflow shall be assumed
the requirements of the referenced standard for air to be passing through the smallest damper area. Fire
ducts in Chapter 17. Duct liners in systems operating dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.
with air velocities exceeding 2,000 feet per minute Ductwork shall be connected to damper sleeves
(10.16 m/s) shall be fastened with both adhesive and or assemblies in accordance with the fire damper
mechanical fasteners, and exposed edges shall have manufacturer's installation instructions.
adequate treatment to withstand the operating 606.3 Ceiling Radiation Dampers. Ceiling radiation
velocity. dampers shall comply with the standard for ceiling
Insulation applied to the surface of ducts, radiation dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and
including duct coverings, linings, tapes, and adhe- shall be installed in accordance with the manufac-
sives, located in buildings shall have a flame-spread turer's approved installation instructions in the fire-
index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke resistive ceiling element of floor-ceiling and roof-
developed index not greater than fifty (50), when ceiling assemblies when required by the Building
tested in accordance with NFPA 255, Method of Test of Code. Fire dampers not meeting the temperature
Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in limitation of ceiling radiation dampers shall not be
accordance with ASTM E 84, Surface Burning Charac-
used as a substitute. Ceiling radiation dampers shall
teristics of Building Materials, or in accordance with
be labeled by an approved agency.
the provisions of UL 723, Test for Surface Burning
Characteristics of Building Materials. The specimen 606.4 Multiple Arrangements. When size requires
preparation and mounting procedures of ASTM E the use of multiple dampers, the installation shall be
2231, Specimen Preparation and Mounting of Pipe and framed in an approved manner to ensure that the
Duct Insulation Materials to Assess Swface Burning dampers remain in place.
Characteristics, shall be used. Air duct coverings and 606.5 Access and Identification. Dampers shall be
linings shall not flame, glow, smolder, or smoke provided with an approved means of access large
when tested in accordance with ASTM C 411, Hot- enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the
Swface Performance of High-Temperature Thermal Insu- damper and its operating parts. The access shall not
lation, at the temperature to which they are exposed impair fire-resistive construction. Access shall not
in service. In no case shall the test temperature be require the use of tools, keys, or special knowledge.
below 250"F (121°C). Access points shall be permanently identified on the
Factory-made air ducts and faced insulations exterior by a label with letters not less than 1 /2 inch
intended for installation on the exterior of ducts shall (12.7 mm) in height reading: SMOKE DAMPER or
be legibly printed with the name of the manufac- FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight
turer, the thermal resistance (R) value at installed fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.
thickness, and the flame-spread index and smoke 606.6 Freedom from Interference. Dampers shall be
developed index of the composite material. installed in a manner to ensure positive closing or
opening as required by function. Interior liners or
606.0 Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers, and Ceiling insulation shall be held back from portions of a
Dampers. damper, its sleeve, or adjoining duct that would
606.1 Smoke Dampers. Smoke dampers shall interfere with the damper's proper operation. Exte-
comply with the standards for leakage-rated rior materials shall be installed so as to avoid interfer-
dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be ence with the operation or maintenance of external
installed in accordance with approved manufac- operating devices needed for proper function.
turer's installation instructions when required by the 606.7 Temperature Classification of Operating
Building Code. Smoke dampers shall be labeled by Elements. Fusible links, thermal sensors, and pneu-
an approved agency. matic or electric operators shall have a temperature
606.2 Fire Dampers. Fire dampers shall comply rating or classification as required by the Building
with the standard for fire dampers referenced in Code.

78
DUCT SYSTEMS 607.0 - 609.0

607.0 Ventilating Ceilings. 608.7 A noncombustible receptacle shall be placed


607.1 General. Perforated ceilings may be used for below each floor opening into the air chamber, and
air supply within the limitations of this section. Exit such receptacle shall conform to the following:
corridors, when required to be of fire-resistive 608.7.1 The receptacle shall be secure1y
construction by the Building Code, shall not have suspended from the floor members and shall be
ventilating ceilings. not more than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm)
607.2 Requirements. Ventilating ceilings shall below the floor opening.
comply with the following provisions: 608.7.2 The area of the receptacle shall extend
607.2.1 Suspended ventilating ceiling material three (3) inches (76 mm) beyond the opening on
shall have a Class I flame-spread classification all sides.
on both sides, determined in accordance with 608.7.3 The perimeter of the receptacle shall
the Building Code. Suspended ventilating have a vertical lip at least one (1) inch (25.4 mm)
ceiling supports shall be of noncombustible high at the open sides if it is at the level of the
materials. bottom of the joists, or three (3) inches (76 mm)
607.2.2 Lighting fixtures recessed into venti- high if the receptacle is suspended.
lating ceilings shall be of a type approved for 608.8 Ploor registers shall be designed for easy
that purpose. removal in order to give access for cleaning the
receptacles.
608.0 Use of Under-Floor Space as Supply 608.9 Exterior walls and interior stud partitions shall
Plenum for Dwelling Units. be fire-stopped at the floor.
An under-floor space may be used as a supply 608.10 Each wall register shall be connected to the
plenum, provided: air chamber by a register box or boot.
608.1 The use of under-floor space shall be limited to 608.11 A duct conforming with Section 602.0 shall
dwelling units not more than two stories in height. extend from the furnace supply outlet at least six (6)
Except for the floor immediately above the under- inches (152 mm) below combustible framing.
floor plenum, supply ducts shall be provided
608.12 The entire ground surface of the under-floor
extending from the plenum to registers on other
space shall be covered with a vapor barrier having a
floor levels.
minimum thickness of four (4) mils (0.1016 mm) and
Exception: In flood hazard areas, under-floor a flame-spread index of 200 or less.
spaces shall not be used as supply plenums
unless the flood opening requirements in the 608.13 Fuel-gas lines and plumbing waste cleanouts
Building Code are satisfied. are not located within the space.
608.2 Such spaces shall be cleaned of all loose
combustible scrap material and shall be tightly and 609.0 Automatic Shutoffs.
substantially enclosed. Air-moving systems supplying air in excess of 2,000
608.3 The enclosing material of the under-floor cubic feet per minute (944 L/ s) to enclosed spaces
space, including the sidewall insulation,. shall be not within buildings shall be equipped with an auto-
more flammable than one (1) inch (25 mm) (nominal) matic shutoff. Automatic shutoff shaH be accom-
wood boards (flame-spread index of 200). Installa- plished by interrupting the power source of the air-
tion of foam plastics is regulated by the Building moving equipment upon detection of smoke in the
Code. main supply-air duct served by such equipment.
608.4 Access shall be through an opening in the floor Smoke detectors shall be labeled by an approved
and shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches by agency for air duct installation and shall be installed
twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm x 610 mm). in accordance with the manufacturer's approved
608.5 A furnace supplying warm air to under-floor instructions. Such devices shall be compatible with
space shall be equipped with an automatic control the operating velocities, pressures, temperatures,
that will start the air-circulating fan when the air in and humidities of the system. Where fire-detection
the furnace bonnet reaches a temperature not higher or alarm systems are provided for the building, the
than 150 0 P (66°C). Such control shall be one that smoke detectors required by this section shall be
cannot be set higher than 1500 P (66°C). supervised by such systems.
608.6 A furnace supplying warm air to such space Exceptions:
shall be equipped with an approved temperature (1) When the space supplied by the air-moving
limit control that will limit outlet air temperature to equipment is served by a total coverage
200 0 P (93°C). smoke-detection system complying with the

79
609.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Fire Code, interconnection to such system


may be used to accomplish the required
shutoff.
(2) Automatic shutoff is not required when all
occupied rooms served by the air-handling
equipment have direct exit to the exterior
and the travel distance does not exceed 100
feet (30,480 mm).
(3) Automatic shutoff is not required for Group
R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies.
(4) Automatic shutoff is not required for
approved smoke-control systems or where
analysis demonstrates shutoff would create
a greater hazard, such as may be encoun-
tered in air-moving equipment supplying
specialized portions of Group H Occupan-
cies. Such equipment shall be required to
have smoke detection with remote indica-
tion and manual shutoff capability at an
approved location.
(5) Smoke detectors that are factory installed in
listed air-moving equipment may be used in
lieu of smoke detectors installed in the main
supply-air duct served by such equipment.

80
2"w.g ------------TABLE 6-1 DuctCo-nsfruction for 4 Feet Duct lengfhs--~-----

STATIC __ (?MAC_r-.J~_ HVAr; Duct Constru~tion S!~!1_dard~§E:!cond Edi!io_I1~_!~_~~l~~ INTERMEDIATE o


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11"-20 " 26 4' C 24 * 1x 22 ga. 1x 24 gao 1 x\/;,
1 x 20 ga. or 26 gao 1 x 22 gao 1 X)\j x 18 gao
21"-28 " 26 4' D 24 * 1 Vsx20ga. NOT
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29"-30 " 26 4' E 24 . 1V, x 18 gao


1 x 18 gao or
11hx 20 gao
USED
24 gao
1 % x 12 gao
or
11hx 20 gao 1 x V& HR
1 % x 22 gao
31"-42 " 24 4' F 24 * 1 % x 18 gao 11hx 18 gao 22 ga
1 1/2 X Vb Bar
11/zx % x 16 gao
1 % x20 gao
43"-48" 22 4' G 24 * 1 %, x 18 gao 11h x 18 gao 20 gao 1lhx 18 gao
1 Yzx Ys Bar
1 1/2 x lis
1 % x22ga.
49"-60 " 24 2' F 24 1 % x 18 gao 11hx18ga. 22 gao 11h x 20 gao
1 Yzx Vs Bar
1% x18ga. 1 :h x ;Y;l
61"-72" 24 2' H 24 2xVs X \/;,
11/2 X % Bar
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73"-84 " 22 2' I 22 2% x 20 gao
2 x }'lG 2 x 1 Yli x 12 gao
85"-96 " 22 2' I 22 2 x lis Angle

Notes:
*l\;ieans use back-up member from columns 11 or 12. Exception: The drive onl y 5. Contents of the narrow scope tables and these notes do not constitute all
requires back-up over 18" length. requirements for the construction's compliance. Complete details are provided
2. Spacing in column :1 refers to joint-to-joint, joint-to-intemlediate, or in the manual entitled HVAC Duct Construction standards, Metal and Flexible.
intermediate-to intermediate. The manual is (Wailclble from local SMACi\iA chapter offices of the National
,). The same sheet thickness must be used on all side of duct. Each duct Association office; inquire for terms.
dimension, width, or depth, controls the minimum reinforcement requirements 6. Construction conforming to the standard does not some traditionally
for that particular side. acceptable rumble (noise) under sudden pressure conditions such as start
4. Duct sides 19" wide and larger which have more than ten feet of up and shut down of systems.
1 in. c- 25.4 mm --i
unbraced panel shall be beaded or crossbroken unless the will have \l)
external. insulation or internal liner. The applies to duct of 20 ga, or less. Comment: cr
Construction tables are prepared in "narrolV scope" for 2" 'water and J" \vater ro
co pressure classification. These tables have been produced for convenience of ~
--A. .......
contractors or engineers who wish to have fewer options.
Sheet :t\;Ietal and Air Conditioning
Contractors' National Association, Chantilly, VA
2"w.g TABLE 6-2 Duct Construction for 5 Feet Duct Lengths
[SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards; Second Edition - 1995] INTERMEDIATE
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10" dn 26 None 24 None HxT HxT H x T + HR H x 1 %" HxT HxT(MIN) H x B x T (MIN)

11"-20 " 26 5' C 24 * 1x 22 gao 1 x 22 ga, 1x1$

21"-26 "
27"-30 "
26
24
5'
5'
D
E
24
24
· 11$ x 20 ga,

1 Y"x 18ga.
1 x 20 gao
1x18ga.
NOT
USED
26 gao

24 gao
1x22ga.

1 % x 12 gao
1x %x 18 gao

or
31"-36 " 22 5' F 24
· 1 '1& x 18 gao 1 %x 18 gao
1'Y,<;x22ga.
1 Y2 x 1$ Bar
22 ga
1 %x 20 gao
1x1$

1 %x%x 16ga.
1 % x 20 gao
37"-54 " 24 2\1::' F 24 * 1 % x 18 gao 1%x18ga. 22 gao
1 %x Vs Bar
1%x1$
55"-60" 24 2W G 24
· 1 % x 18 gao 1 %x 18 gao
1 %x22 gao
1 Y2X % Bar
22 gao + rods 1 %x 18ga.

1 '1& x 18 gao
61"-72 " 22 2W H 24 * 2x Vb 1 %x:%x\{;
1 %x1$Angle
NOT GIVEN NOT GIVEN 20 gao + rods NOT GIVEN
73"-84" 22 2W I 22 * 21$ x 20 gao
85"-96" 20 2W I 22 * 2 x 1$ Angle
2X'Xfi 2x11$x12ga. c
Z
."
Notes:
l.*Means use back-up member from columns 11 or 12. Exception: The drive only 5. Contents of the narrow scope tables and these notes do not constitute all
o
JJ
requires back-up over 18" length. requirements for the construction's compliance. Complete details are provided s:;:
2. in column 3 refers to joint-to-joint, joint-to-intermediate, or in the manual entitled HVAC Duct Construction standards, Metal and Flexible. s:;:
internn e(]iate-l:o intermediate. The manual is avai lable from local SMACNA chapter offices of the National m
3. The same sheet thickness must be used on all side of duct. EDch duct Association office; inquire for terms. ()
6. Construction conforming to the standard docs not prevent some traditionally I
dimension, width, or depth, controls the minimum reinforcement requirements
»
for that particular side. acceptable rumble (noise) under sudden pressure change conditions such as start z
4. Duct sides 19" wide and larger \vhich have more than ten square feet of
unbraced panel shall be beaded or crossbroken tmless the ducts will hDve
lip and shut down of systems.
1 in. = 25.4 mm

external insulation or internal liner. The applies to duct of 20 gao or less. Comment: r
Consh"uction tables are prepared in "narrow scope" for 2" water gage and ]" water o
gage pressure classification. These tables have been produced for the convenience of o
those contractors or engineers who \vish to have fewer options. o
m
Sheet ,\;letal and Air Conditioning
Contractors' National Association, Chantilly, VA
DUCT SYSTEMS Table 6-3 - Table 6-5

RECTANGULAR ALUMINUM DUCT


ADAPTED FROM 3" W.G. (750 Pal or LOWER
TABLE 6-3
THICKNESS ADJUSTMENTS
Calvo Steel Ca (mm) 28 (0.48)--2Cn0.55) 24 (0.76)--22 (O.78Y--- 20 (1.00) lS-(T31) 1(;-(-i.61)
nominal
-----

IMin. Alum. equivalene (mm) 0.023 0.027 0.034 0.043 0.052 0.067 0.083
I (0.58) (0.69) (0.86) (1.09) (1.32) (1.70) (2.11)
1- --------..---.-----.-.-.. --.--.-.-.------ --- - - - - - - .....- - - -..- - - - . - - . - . - - - - - - -
Commercial size (mm) 0.025 0.032 0.04 0.05 0.063 0.071 0.09
(0.60) (0.80) (1.00) (1.27) (1.60) (1.80) (2.29)
------
Consult Appendix-5 for Weights
Note:
1Alloy 3003-H-14.

TABLE 6-4
DIMENSION ADJUSTMENTS

I~alv. Rigidity Cla.___s_s______ A B C D E F G H K L

I_~l~~. dim. per Calvo Class C E E F H K


Note:
I Calculate an effective Ix= 3x that used for steel.

TABLE 6-5
REINFORCEMENTS
i Steel Angle Size, Equivalent Alumn,1
[Inches (mm) Cod Angle Size, Inches Steel Bar Aluminum Bar1
,1 x 1 x16 Ca. --------------.--. -1- iT4~1-1/ 4 ;1]8- -~1}8 1~-lT2-~ 1/8 or 1-1/4 x
C
(25 x 25 x 1.61) (31.8 x 31.8 x 3.2) (25 x 3.2) (38.1 x 3.2 or 31.8 x 4.8)
Ii xix T/s---- D ----i~i/i-~1-1 /2 x 178~ T-i72x 1 /8----- 1-1/2 x 1 /8 x or 1-1
l~~-~ 25~_~:~L_ (38.1 x 38.1 x 3.2) (38.1 x 3.2) (38.1 x 3.2 or 38.1 x 4.8)
~1-1/4xl-1/4xl/8 F -i=3/4 xl-3 !4xl /8--'---
(31.8 x 31.8 x 3.2) (44.5 x 44.5 x 3.2)
~----.--~ ---
iI-I xl-l/2xl/8 C 2-172x-2~fT2-x178
l~~-,1 x 3~~~~_~-,_~) (63.5 x 63.5 x 3.2)
2x2xl/8 H 2-1/2 x 2-1 x 16
(51 x 51 x 3.2) (63.5 x 63.5 x 4.8)
~------- ---------------_.
i2 x 2 x 3/16 2-1/2 x 2-1/2 x 3/8 or 3 x 3 x 1

2x2xl/4
_
l~~~ ~_?_I_X 4._...8. . __)____.___ ._. __ J
(63.5 x 63.5 x 9.5 or 76.2 x 76.2 x 6.4)
2--=iT~2-1 / 2 x 3/ 8-or :f;Z3~ / 4 ----.-.-------.---.

(51 x 51 x 6.4) (63.5 x 63.5 x 7.9 or 76.2 x 76.2 x 6.4)


... _-,---_._-- ... ----_._.. _--._.. ....
_ -----~--- ------------
[2-1 x 2-1/2 x 16 K 3 x 3 x 3/8 or 3-1 /2 x 3-1 /2 x 1 /4
I(63.5 x 63.5 x 4.8) (76.2 x 76.2 x 9.5 or 88.9 x 88.9 x 6.4)
I
Notes:
1Alloy 6061-T6 Strength normally.
Any aluminum shape substitute must have a moment of inertia three times that of steel and have 30,000 psi minimum yield
strength.

83
Table 6-6 A UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6-6 A (I-P Units)


Minimum Duct Insulation R Valuea Cooling and Heating Only Supply Ducts and Return Ducts d , e

Climate Zone Duct location


- -~--.-~--- -------~--

Envelope HDD65 CDD50 Exterior Ventilated Unvented Unvented Uncon- Indirectly Buried
Criteria Table Attic Attic wI Attic wI ditioned Con-
b
Backloaded Roof Space ditioned
a
~eil~!lg Insulation ____~~cec

Heating-Only Ducts

5-1 to 5-7 0-1,800 all none none none none none none none
5-8 to 5-12 1,801-3,600 all R-3.5 none none none none none none
5-13 to 5-15 3,601-5,400 all R-3.5 none none none none none none
5-16 to 5-18 5,401-7,200 all R-6 R-3.5 none none none none R-3.5
5-19 to 5-20 7,201-9,000 all R-6 R-6 R-3.5 none none none R-3.5
5-21 to 5-22 9,001-10,800 all R-8 R-6 R-6 none R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-23 10,801-12,600 all R-8 R-6 R-6 none R-6 none R-6
5-24 12,601-16,200 all R-8 R-8 R-6 none R-6 none R-6
5-25 16,201-19,800 all R-10 R-8 R-8 none R-6 none R-6
5-26 19,801 + all R-10 R-lO R-8 none R-8 none R-6

Cooling-Only Ducts

5-15, 18, 20, all 0-1,800 R-1.9 R-1.9 R-1.9 R-1.9 R-1.9 none none
22 to 26
5-12, 14, 17, all 1,801-3,600 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-1.9 none none
19,21
5-7,9, II, 13, all 3,601-5,400 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-1.9 none none
16
5-4,6,8, 10 all 5,401-7,200 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-1.9 none none
5-3,5-5 all 7,201-9,000 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-2 all 9,001-10,800 R-6 R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-1 all 10,801+ R-8 R-8 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5

Return Ducts

5-15 to 5-26 all climates R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 none none none none none

Notes:
a
Insulation R-values, measured in (h·ft 2 .oF)/Btu, are for the insulation as installed and do not include film resistance. The
required minimum thicknesses do not consider water vapor transmission and possible surface condensation. Where exterior
walls are used as plenum walls, wall insulation shall be as required by the most restrictive condition. Insulation resistance
measured on a horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C) at the installed thickness.
b
Includes crawl spaces, both ventilated and nonventilated.
C Includes return-air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.
d Vapor retarders shall be installed on supply ducts in spaces vented to the outside in geographic areas where the average
summer dewpoint temperature based on the 2-1/2 percent column of dry-bulb and mean coincident wet-bulb temperature
exceeds 60°F (I6°C).
C Insulation shall have an approved weatherproof barrier.

84
DUCT SYSTEMS Table 6-6 B

TABLE 6-6 B (I-P Units)


Minimum Duct Insulation R Valuea Combined Heating and Cooling Ducts d , e

Climate Zone Duct location


-~--~-.~-~-----.~~~".-

Envelope HDD6S CDDSO Exterior Ventilated Unvented Unvented Uncon- Indirectly Buried
Criteria Attic Attic wi Attic wi Roof ditioned Conditioned
Table Backloaded Insulation a Space b Spacec
Ceiling --.. -.-~~~-~-------

5-1 0-900 10,801+ R-8 R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-2 0-900 9,001-10,800 R-6 R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-3 0-900 7,201-9,000 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-4 0-900 0-7,200 R-6 R-3.5 R-6 R-3.5 R-1.9 none R-3.5
5-5 901-1,800 7,201+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-6 901-1,800 5,401-7,200 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-7 901-1,800 0-5,400 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-8 1,801-2,700 5,401 + R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-9 1,801-2,700 0-5,400 R-6 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-10 2,701-3,600 5,401 + R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-11 2,701-3,600 3,601-5,400 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-l.9
5-12 2,701-3,600 0-3,600 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-13 3,601-5,400 3,601+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-14 3,601-5,400 1,801-3,600 R-6 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-1.9
5-15 3,601-5,400 0-1,800 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-16 5,401-7,200 3,601+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-17 5,401-7,200 1,801-3,600 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-18 5,401-7,200 0-1,800 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-19 7,201-9,000 1,801+ R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-20 7,201-9,000 0-1,800 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-21 9,001-10,800 1,801+ R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-6 none R-3.5
5-22 9,001-10,800 0-1,800 R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-23 10,801-12,600 all R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-6 none R-6
5-24 12,601-16,200 all R-8 R-8 R-8 R-1.9 R-6 none R-6
5-25 16,201-19,800 all R-I0 R-8 R-8 R-3.5 R-6 none R-6
5-26 19,801 + all R-I0 R-I0 R-8 R-3.5 R-8 R-3.5 R-6
Notes:
a
Insulation R-values, measured in (h·ft2 .oF) /Btu, are for the insulation as installed and do not include film resistance. The required
minimum thicknesses do not consider water vapor transmission and possible surface condensation. Where exterior walls are
used as plenum walls, wall insulation shall be as required by the most restrictive condition. Insulation resistance measured on a
horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C) at the installed thickness.
b
Includes crawl spaces, both ventilated and nonventilated.
c
Includes return air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.
d Vapor retarders shall be installed on cooling supply ducts in spaces vented to the outside in geographic areas where the average
summer dewpoint temperature based on the 2-1/2 percent column of dry-bulb and mean coincident wet-bulb temperature
exceeds 60°F (l6°C).
e
Insulation shall have an approved weatherproof barrier.

85
Table 6-7 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6-7
Duct Support

A. Vertical Ducts

Maximum Maximum
Side of Diameter
Rectangular Metal Strap or of Round Strap
Duct Angle Bracket Ducts

24" l"x 1/8" strap 1 10" 0.047" (No. 18 gauge)


galvanized steel 2" wide 1

36" 1" x 1" x 1/8" angle 1 20" 0.05S" (No. 16 gauge)


galvanized steel 2" wide 1

4S" l-l/S" x l-l/S" x l/S" angle1 40" 1/8" steelx 1-1/2"1

60" 1 60" 1/8" steel x 2,,1


1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/8" angle

Over 60" 2" x 2" x 1/8" angle 1 Over 60" 3/16" steel x 2,,1

B. Horizontal Ducts

18" 1" x IS gauge 2 Same gauge as galvanized steel duct,


10" 1" wide or (No. 18 gauge galvanized
30" 1" x 18 gauge 2 steel wire) on 10' centers

48" 1"xl/S,,2 20" Same gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1" wide or (No. S gauge
60" l"xl/S,,2 galvanized steel wire) tied to
40" 1" galvanized steel band
SO" 1" x 1/S,,2 around duct on 10' centers

60" Same gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1-1/2" wide on 6' centers

Over 60" Same gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1-1/2" wide on 4' centers

c. Horizontal Ducts - Trapeze-Type Supports

Maximum
Diameter of Round Horizontal
Duct or Side of Support Hanger
Rectangular Duct Angle 3

36" 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/8" 1/4" round rod or 1" xI" x 1/ S" angle

4S" 2"x2"xl/S" 1/4" round rod or 1" x 1" xl /S" angle

60" 2"x2"xl/S" 5/16" round rod or 1" x 1" x l/S" angle

84" 2" x 2" xl / S" 3/8" round rod or 1" x 1" xI /S" angle

Notes:
1 Spaced vertically not more than 12 feet on centers.
2 Spaced horizontally not more than 10 feet on centers.
3 Spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.
1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m

86
DUCT SYSTEMS Table 6-8 - Table 6-9

TABLE 6-8
Construction Details for Round and Flat-Oval Ducts

Aluminum STEEl- THICKNESS IN INCHES


1
B. & S. Gage (STEEL - GALVANIZED SHEET GAUGE) GIRTH JOINTS
2
Duct Diameter Pressure < 2" W.C. Pressure < 2" W.C. Pressure> 2" < 10" W.C. Minimum Girth
Max. Width Spiral longitudinal Welded Reinforcing, Maximum
(In Inches) Round Round Flat-Oval Seam Seam Fittings Pressure> 2" < 10" w.e. Spacing and Angle Size

Up to 9 24 0.019 0.024 0.019 0.024 0.030 2"Slip None


(26) (24) (26) (24) (22)
Over 9 24 0.019 0.024 0.024 0.030 0.036 4"Slip None
Up to 14 (26) (24) (24) (22) (20)

Over 14 22 0.024 0.030 0.024 0.030 0.036 4"Slip None


Up to 23 (24) (22) (24) (22) (20)

Over 23 20 0.030 0.036 0.030 0.036 0.036 4" Slip None


Up to 37 (22) (20) (22) (20) (20)

Over 37 18 0.036 0.047 0.036 0.036 0.047 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8" 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8"
Up to 51 (20) (18) (20) (20) (18) Flange on 72"
Over 51 16 0.047 0.058 X 0.047 0.047 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8" 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8"
Up to 61 (18) (16) (18) (18) Flange on 72"

Over 61 14 0.058 0.070 X 0.058 0.058 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/8" 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/8"
Up to 84 (16) (14) (16) (16) Flange on 48"

Notes:
1 For pressure < 2 inches W.C, any of the following joints are acceptable: butt slip; pipe slip; pipe lock; roll slip; snap slip; plenum
lock; and companion flange.
2 Acceptable longitudinal seams for pressure < 2 inches W.e.: Acme (grooved); snap lock; standing; and spiral.

1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in. W.e. = 0.249 kPa

TABLE 6-9
Thickness of Metal Ducts and Plenums Used for Heating or Cooling for a Single-Dwelling Unit

GALVANIZED STEEL

Minimum Equivalent Approximate


Thickness, Galvanized Sheet Aluminum
Inches (mm) Gauge No. 8.&5. Gauge

Round ducts and enclosed


rectangular ducts
14" (356 mm) or less 0.013 (0.33) 30 26
Over 14" (356 mm) 0.016 (0.41) 28 24
Exposed rectangular ducts
14" (356 mm) or less 0.016 (0.41) 28 24
Over 14" (356 mm) 0.019 (0.48) 26 22

87
Table 6-10 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6-10
Alternate Supports for Factory-Made Air Ducts

Maximum Support
Class 1 Duct Material Minimum Support Material Spacing, Feet

Rigid round fibrous No. 26 gauge x 5/8" 6


wide galvanized iron strap

Corrugated metal No. 18 gauge galvanized 6


iron wire

Flexible No. 26 gauge x 1-1/2" 4


wide galvanized iron
-~~~-~--------~--------~~----- -
Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m

88
CHAPTER 7
COMBUSTION AIR

701.0 Air for Combustion and Ventilation. 701.2.1 Standard Method. The minimum
701.1 General. required volume shall be fifty (50) cubic feet per
tOOO Btu/hour (4.8 m 3 /kW) [NFPA 54:9.3.2.1].
701.1.1 Air for combustion, ventilation, and
dilution of flue gases for gas utilization 701.2.1.1 Known Air Infiltration Rate
equi pment installed in buildings shall be Method Equations.
obtained by application of one of the methods Equation 701.2.1.1(a):
covered in Sections 701.2 through 701.8.3. Gas Required Volume other ~ (21 ft.3 / ACH) X
utilization equipment of other than natural draft (lather/ 1,000 Btu/h)
and Category I vented appliances shall be
Equation 701.2.1.l(b):
provided with combustion, ventilation, and
dilution air in accordance with the equipment Required Volume fail ~ (15 ft. 3 / ACH) X

manufacturer's instructions. Where infiltration (Ijm r!l,OOO Btu/h)


does not provide the necessary air, outdoor air
shall be introduced in accordance with methods WHERE:
covered in Sections 701.4 through 701.8.3.
I other = all appliances other than fan-assisted
Exceptions: input in Btu per hour
(1) This provision shall not apply to direct- I jan = fan-assisted appliance input in Btu
vent appliances. per hour
(2) Type 1 clothes dryers that are provided ACH = air change per hour (percent of
wi th makeup air in accordance with volume of space exchanged per
Section 504.3.2. hour, expressed as a decimal)
701.1.2 Gas appliances of other than natural 701.2.2 Known Air Infiltration Rate Method.
draft design and other than Category I vented Where the air infiltration rate of a structure is
appliances shall be provided with combustion, known, the minimum required volume shall be
ventilation, and dilution air in accordance with determined as follows [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2]:
the appliance manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA
(1) For appliances having other than fan-
54:9.3.1.2]
assisted combustion systems: calculate using
701.1.3 Where used, a draft hood or a barometric equation 701.2.1.1(a) but no smaller than
draft regulator shall be installed in the same room thirty-five (35) cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/hour
or enclosure as the equipment served so as to (3.4 m 3 /kW). [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2(1)]
prevent any difference in pressure between the
(2) For fan-assisted combustion system appliances:
hood or regulator and the combustion-air supply.
calculate using equation 701.2.1.1 (b) but no
[NFPA 54:9.3.1.4]
smaller than twenty-five (25) cubic feet per
701.1.4 Where exhaust fans, clothes dryers, and 1,000 Btu / hour (2.4 m 3 / k W). [NFP A 54:
kitchen ventilation systems interfere with the 9.3.2.2(2)]
operation of appliances, makeup air shall be
(3) For purposes of this calculation, an
provided. [NFPA 54-09:9.3.1.5]
infiltration rate greater than 0.60 ACH shaH
701.2 Indoor Combustion Air. The required volume not be used in the equations. [NFP A 54:
of indoor air shall be determined in accordance with 9.3.2.2(3)]
the method in section 701.2.1 or 701.2.2, except that
701.3 Indoor Opening Size and location.
where the air infiltration rate is known to be less than
0.40 ACH, the method in Section 701.2.2 shall be used. 701.3.1 Openings used to connect indoor spaces
The total required volume shall be the sum of the shall be sized and located in accordance with the
required volume calculated for all appliances located following [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3]:
within the space. Rooms communicating directly with (1) Combining spaces on the same story. Each
the space in which the appliances are installed through opening shall have a minimum free area of 1
openings not furnished with doors, and through in. 2 /1,000 Btu / h. (220 mm3 / k W) of the total
combustion air openings sized and located in input rating of all gas utilization equipment
accordance with Section 701.3.1, are considered a part in the space, but not less than 100 in. 2 (0.06 m 2 ).
of the required volume. [NFPA 54:9.3.2] One opening shall commence within twelve

89
701.3 - 701.8 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

(12) inches (300 mm) of the top, and one (1) One (1) square inch / 3,000 Btu / h (700
opening shall commence within twelve (12) mm 2 /kW) of the total input rating of all
in. (300 mm) of the bottom, of the enclosure. equipment located in the enclosure, and
(See Figure 7-1.) The minimum dimension of [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2(1)]
air openings shall be not less than three (3) (2) Not less than the sum of the areas of all vent
inches (80 mm). [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3(1)] connectors in the space. [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2
(2) Combining spaces in different stories. The (2)]
volumes of spaces in different stories shall be 701.5 Combination Indoor and Outdoor Combustion
considered as communicating spaces where Air. The use of a combination of indoor and outdoor
such spaces are connected by one or more combustion air shall be in accordance with Sections
openings in doors or floors having a total 701.5.1 through 701.5.3. [NFPA 54:9.3.4]
minimum free area of 2 in. 2 /1,000 Btu / h
701.5.1 Indoor Openings. Where used, openings
(4,400 mm 2 /kw) of total input rating of all
connecting the interior spaces shall comply with
gas utilization equipment. [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3(2)]
Section 701.3.1. [NFPA 54:9.3.4(1)]
701.4 Outdoor Combustion Air. Outdoor combustion
701.5.2 Outdoor opening(s) shall be located in
air shall be provided through opening(s) to the
accordance with Section 701.4. [NFPA 54: 9.3.4(2)]
outdoors in accordance with the methods in Section
701.4.1 or 701.4.2. The minimum dimension of air 701.5.3 Outdoor Opening(s) Size. The outdoor
openings shall not be less than three (3) inches (80 opening(s) size shall be calculated in accordance
mm). [NFPA 54:9.3.3] with the following [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)]:
701.4.1 Two Permanent Openings Method. (1) The ratio of interior spaces shall be the
Two permanent openings, one commencing available volume of all communicating
within twelve (12) inches (300 mm) of the top spaces divided by the required volume.
and one commencing within twelve (12) inches [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(a)]
(300 mm) of the bottom of the enclosure, shall be (2) The outdoor size reduction factor shall be
provided. The openings shall communicate one (1) minus the ratio of interior spaces.
directly, or by ducts, with the outdoors or spaces [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(b)]
that freely communicate with the outdoors, as (3) The minimum size of outdoor opening(s)
follows [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1]: shall be the full size of outdoor opening(s)
(1) Where directly communicating with the calculated in accordance with Section 701.4,
outdoors or where communicating to the multiplied by the reduction factor. The
outdoors through vertical ducts, each minimum dimension of air openings shall
opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 not be less than three (3) inches (80 mm).
in. 2 / 4,000 Btu/h (550 mm2 /kW) of total input [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(c)]
rating of all appliances in the enclosure. (See 701.6 Engineered Installations. Engineered
Figures 7-2 and 7-3.) [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1(1)] combustion air installations shall provide adequate
(2) Where communicating with the outdoors supply of combustion, ventilation, and dilution air
through horizontal ducts, each opening shall and shall be approved by the Authority Having
have a minimum free area of 1 in. 2 / 2,000 Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:9.3.5]
Btu/h (1,100 mm2 /kW) of total input rating 701.7 Mechanical Combustion Air Supply. Where
of all appliances in the enclosure. (See Figure all combustion air is provided by a mechanical air
7-4.) [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1(2)] supply system, the combustion air shall be supplied
701.4.2 One Permanent Opening Method. One from outdoors at the minimum rate of 0.35 feee / min
permanent opening, commencing within twelve per 1,000 Btu / h (0.034 m 3 / min per kW) for all
(12) inches (300 mm) of the top of the enclosure, appliances located within the space. [NFPA 54:9.3.6]
shall be provided. The equipment shall have 701.8 Mechanical Combustion Air Requirements.
clearances of at least one (1) inch (25 mm) from the 701.8.1 Where exhaust fans are installed,
sides and back and six (6) inches (160 mm) from additional air shall be provided to replace the
the front of the appliance. The opening shall exhausted air. [NFPA 54:9.3.6.1]
directly communicate with the outdoors or shall 701.8.2 Each of the appliances served shall be
communicate through a vertical or horizontal duct interlocked to the mechanical air supply system
to the outdoors or spaces that freely communicate to prevent main burner operation where the
with the outdoors (see Figure 7-5) and shall have a mechanical air supply system is not in operation.
minimum free area of [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2]: [NFPA 54:9.3.6.2]

90
COMBUSTION AIR 701.8 - Figure 7-1

701.8.3 Where combustion air is provided by (5) Ducts terminating in attics shall not be screened.
the building's mechanical ventilation system, the [NFPA 54:9.3.8.5]
system shall provide the specified combustion (6) Intakes for combustion-air ducts located exterior
air rate in addition to the required ventilation to the building shall have the lowest side of the
air. [NFPA 54:9.3.6.3] combustion air intake openings located at least
701.9 Louvers, Grilles and Screens. twelve (12) inches vertically from the adjoining
(A) Louvers and Grilles. The required size of grade level. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.8]
openings for combustion, ventilation, and (7) Horizontal upper combustion-air ducts shall not
dilution air shall be based on the net free area of slope downward toward the source of
each opening. Where the free area through a combustion air. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.6]
design of louver, grille or screen is known, it shall (8) The remaining space surrounding a chimney
be used in calculating the size opening required liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or plastic piping
to provide the free area specified. Where the installed within a masonry, metal, or factory-
louver and grille design and free area are not built chimney shall not be used to supply
known, it shall be assumed that wood louvers combustion air, unless it is listed and shown in
will have a 25 percent free area and metal louvers the manufacturer's installation instructions.
and grilles will have a 75 percent free area. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.7]
Nonmotorized louvers and grilles shall be fixed
701.11 Dampers Prohibited. Combustion-air ducts
in the open position. [NFPA 54:9.3.7.1]
or plenums shall not be installed so as to require
(8) Minimum Screen Mesh Size. Screens shall not openings in or penetrations through construction
be smaller than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) mesh. [NFP A where fire dampers are required. Manually operated
54:9.3.7.2] dampers shall not be installed in combustion-air
(C) Motorized Louvers. Motorized louvers shall be openings. With prior approval, power-actuated
interlocked with the equipment so they are movable louvers admitting combustion air may be
proven in the full open position prior to main used and, if installed, shall be electrically interlocked
burner ignition and during main burner with the main burner fuel-supply valve so as to
operation. Means shall be provided to prevent prevent fuel delivery unless the louvers are in the
the main burner from igniting should the louver fully open position.
fail to open during burner startup and to shut
down the main burner if the louvers close
during burner operation. [NFPA 54:9.3.7.3]
- Chimney or gas vent
701.10 Combustion-Air Ducts. Combustion-air ducts
shall comply with the following: {NFPA 54:9.3.8]
(1) Ducts shall be of galvanized steel or a material
having equivalent corrosion resistance, strength,
and rigidity.
Exception: Within dwellings units,
unobstructed stud and joist spaces shall not
be prohibited from conveying combustion
air, provided that not more than one
fireblock is removed. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.1]
(2) Ducts shall terminate in an unobstructed space,
allowing free movement of combustion air to the
appliances. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.2]
(3) Ducts shall serve a single space. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.3]
(4) Ducts shall not service both upper and lower
combustion air openings where both such
openings are used.
FIGURE 7-1 All Combustion Air from Adjacent
The separation between ducts serving upper Indoor Spaces Through Indoor Combustion Air
and lower combustion-air openings shall be Openings. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.2.3(1)]
maintained to the source of combustion air.
[NFPA 54:9.3.8.4]

91
Figure 7-2 - Figure 7-5 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

- Chimney or gas vent

Altemate
Inlet air duct

air 'n~'e~t~~~~~~=~b~;:=;::
Ventilation louvers for
unheated crawl space
FIGURE 7-2 All Combustion Air from Outdoors- FIGURE 7-4 All Combustion Air from Outdoors
Inlet Air from Ventilated Crawl Space and Outlet Through Horizontal Ducts. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.3.1 (2)]
Air to Ventilated Attic. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.3.1 (1 )(A)]

Chimney or gas vent

Opening
Fumace Water
heater
Inlet air duct
[ends 1 ft.(300 mm)
o above floor] o

FIGURE 7-3 All Combustion Air from Outdoors FIGURE 7-5 All Combustion Air from Outdoors
Through Ventilated Attic. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.3.1 (1)(8)] Through Single Combustion Air Opening. [NFPA
54:A.9.3.3.2]

92
CHAPTER 8
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS

801.0 Scope. 802.2.2.3 Listed hot plates and listed


The requirements of this chapter shall govern the laundry stoves. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(3)]
venting of fuel-burning appliances. 802.2.2.4 Listed Type 1 clothes dryers
801.1 Venting of Gas Appliances. Low-heat gas exhausted in accordance with Section
appliances shall be vented in accordance with this 504.3.2. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(4)]
chapter. Other gas appliances shall be vented in 802.2.2.5 A single listed booster-type (auto-
accordance with NFPA 211 or other applicable stan- matic instantaneous) water heater! when
dards. designed and used solely for the sanitizing
801.2 Appliances Fueled by Other Fuels. Appli- rinse requirements of a dishwashing
ances fueled by fuels other than gas shall be vented machine! provided that the appliance is I
in accordance with NFPA 211 and the appliance installed with the draft hood in place and
manufacturer's instructions. unaltered, if a draft hood is required, in a
commercial kitchen having a mechanical
exhaust system; where installed in this
802.0 Venting of Appliances. manner, the draft hood outlet shall not be
802.1 General. This section recognizes that the less than thirty-six (36) inches (910 mm)
choice of venting materials and the methods of vertically and six (6) inches (150 mm) hori-
installation of venting systems are dependent on the zontally from any surface other than the
operating characteristics of the appliance. appliance. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(5)] I
802.1.1 Categories. The operating characteris- 802.2.2.6 Listed refrigerators. [NFPA
tics of vented appliances can be categorized with 54:12.3.2(6)]
respect to positive or negative pressure within
802.2.2.7 Counter appliances. [NFP A
the venting system and whether or not the appli- 54:12.3.2(7)]
ance generates flue or vent gases that can
condense in the venting system. See Section 802.2.2.8 Room heaters listed for un vented
224.0 for the definition of these vented appliance use (see Sections 924.1 and 924.2). [NFPA
categories. [NFPA 54:12.2.2] 54:12.3.2(8)]
802.1.2 Installation. Listed vents shall be 802.2.2.9 Direct gas-fired makeup air
heaters. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(9)]
installed in accordance with Chapter 8 and the
manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFP A 802.2.2.10 Other appliances listed for I
54:12.2.3] unvented use and not provided with flue
collars. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(10)]
802.1.3 Appliance vents shall not discharge into
any space enclosed by screens having openings 802.2.2.11 Specialized appliances of limited I
smaller than one-quarter (1/4) inch (6.4 mm) input such as laboratory burners or gas
mesh. lights. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(11)]
802.2 Specification for Venting. Where any or all of the appliances in I
802.2.1 Connection to Venting Systems. Sections 802.2.2.5 through 802.2.2.11 are
Except as permitted in Section 802.2.2 through installed so the aggregate input rating
802.2.6, all appliances shall be connected to exceeds twenty (20) Btu/h/ ft. 3 (207 W / m 3 ) I
venting systems. [NFPA 54:12.3.1] of room or space in which it is installed, one
or more shall be provided with venting
802.2.2 Appliances Not Required to Be systems or other approved means for
Vented. The following appliances shall not be removing the vent gases to the outside
required to be vented [NFPA 54:12.3.2]:
802.2.2.1 Listed ranges. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(1)]
802.2.2.2 Built-in domestic cooking units
atmosphere so the aggregate input rating of
the remaining unvented appliances do not
exceed twenty (20) Btu /h / fe (207 W / m 3 ).
I
listed and marked for optional venting. Where the calculation includes the volume
[NFPA 54:12.3.2(2)] of an adjacent room or space, the room or

93
802.2 - 802.4 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

space in which the appliance is installed 802.3.4.3 Forced draft systems and all
shall be directly connected to the adjacent portions of induced draft systems under
room or space by a doorway, archway, or positive pressure during operation shall be
other opening of comparable size that designed and installed so as to prevent
cannot be closed. [NFPA 54:12.3.2] leakage of flue or vent gases into a building.
802.2.3 Ventilating Hoods. Ventilating hoods [NFPA 54:12.4.3.3]
and exhaust systems shall be permitted to be 802.3.4.4 Vent connectors serving appli-I
used to vent appliances installed in commercial ances vented by natural draft shall not be
applications (see Section 802.3.5) and to vent connected into any portion of mechanical
industrial appliance, particularly where the draft systems operating under positive pres-
process itself requires fume disposal. [NFP A sure. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.4]
54:12.3.3] 802.3.4.5 Where a mechanical draft system
802.2.4 Well-Ventilated Spaces. The operation is employed, provision shall be made to
of industrial appliances such that its flue gases prevent the flow of gas to the main burners
are discharged directly into a large and well- when the draft system is not performing so
ventilated space shall be permitted. [NFP A as to satisfy the operating requirements of
54:12.3.4] the appliance for safe performance. [NFP A I
802.2.5 Direct-Vent Appliance. Listed direct- 54:12.4.3.5]
vent appliances shall be considered properly 802.3.4.6 The exit terminals of mechanical
vented where installed in accordance with the draft systems shall be not less than seven (7)
terms of its listing, the manufacturer's instruc- feet (2,134 mm) above grade where located
tions, and Section 802.8.3. [NFPA 54:12.3.5] adjacent to public walkways and shall be
802.2.6 Appliances with Integral Vents. Appli- located as specified in Sections 802.8.1 and
ances incorporating integral venting means shall 802.8.2. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.6]
be considered properly vented where installed 802.3.5 Ventilating Hoods and Exhaust
in accordance with its listing, the manufacturer's Systems.
instructions, and Sections 802.8.1 and 802.8.2. 802.3.5.1 Ventilating hoods and exhaust
[NFP A 54:12.3.6] systems shall be permitted to be used to
802.3 Design and Construction. vent appliances installed in commercial I
802.3.1 Minimum Safe Performance. A applications. [NFPA 54:12.4.4.1]
venting system shall be designed and 802.3.5.2 Where automatically operated
constructed so as to develop a positive flow appliances are vented through a ventilating I
adequate to remove flue or vent gases to the hood or exhaust system equipped with a
outside atmosphere. [NFPA 54:12.1] damper or with a power means of exhaust,
802.3.2 Appliance Draft Requirements. A provisions shall be made to allow the flow of
venting system shall satisfy the draft require- gas to the main burners only when the
ments of the appliance in accordance with the damper is open to a position to properly vent
manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.4.1] the appliance and when the power means of I
802.3.3 Design and Construction. Appliances exhaust is in operation. [NFPA 54:12.4.4.2]
required to be vented shall be connected to a 802.3.6 Circulating Air Ducts and Furnace
venting system designed and installed in accor- Plenums. No portion of a venting system shall
dance with the provisions of Sections 802.4 extend into or pass through any circulating air
through 802.15. [NFPA 54:12.4.2] duct or furnace plenum. [NFPA 54:12.4.5.1]
802.3.4 Mechanical Draft Systems. 802.4 Type of Venting System to Be Used.
802.3.4.1 Mechanical draft systems shall be 802.4.1 The type of venting system to be used
listed and shall be installed in accordance with shall be in accordance with Table 8-1. [NFPA
the terms of their listing and both the appli- 54:12.5.1]
ance and the mechanical draft system manu- 802.4.2 Plastic Piping. Plastic piping used for
facturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.1] venting appliances listed for use with such I
802.3.4.2 Appliances requiring venting shall venting materials shall be approved. [NFP A
be permitted to be vented by means of 54:12.5.2]
mechanical draft systems of either forced or 802.4.3 Plastic Vent Joints. Plastic pipe and
induced draft design. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.2] fittings used to vent appliances shall be installed
Exception: Incinerators. in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's

94
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.4 - 802.5

installation instructions. Where primer is TABLE 8-1


required, it shall be of a contrasting color. Type of Venting System to Be Used
[NFPA 54-09:12.5.3]
[NFPA 54: Table 12.5.1]
802.4.4 Special Gas Vent. A special gas vent - - -. . .- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........... . ................... .

Appliance Type of Venting System


shall be listed and installed in accordance with
the terms of the special gas vent listing and the Liste2fCate-goiyr~a pp liall~ce·---~··Typ-e --So. ga s-·-·ve"nt--(802-. 6)
manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.5.3] Listed appliance equipped Chimney (802.5)
with draft hood :Single-wall metal pipe
802.5 Masonry, Metal, and Factory-Built Chimneys.
Appliance listed for use with 1(802.7)
802.5.1 Listing or Construction. Type B gas vent IListed chimney lining
802.5.1.1 Factory-built chimneys shall be i system for gas venting

installed in accordance with their listing and 1(802.5.1.3)


the manufacturer's instructions. Factory-built Special gas vent listed for
chimneys used to vent appliances that .. _.... _... this~EE!~~nce (802.4.4)
operate at positive vent pressure shall be Listed vented wall furnaces .Type B-W gas vent
listed for such application. [NFPA 54: 12.6.1.1]
802.5.1.2 Metal chimneys shall be built and
installed in accordance with NFPA 211,
Category II appliance
Category III appliance
1(802.6,928.0) . ................ ... .
......j.............................
i As specified or furnished
Iby manufacturers of listed
I
Category IV appliance !appliance (802.4.2, 802.4.4)
Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and
Incinerators, outdoors iSingle-wall metal pipe
Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances. [NFPA
(~g~:7,80~:7.3-?)
54:12.6.1.2] --~-.---.----.- -
Incinerators, indoors
802.5.1.3 Masonry chimneys shall be built Appliance that can be .
and installed in accordance with NFPA 211, converted to use of solid fuel I
Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Unlisted combination gas- and:
Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances, and lined with oil-burning appliance !Chimney (802.5)
an approved clay flue lining, a listed Combination gas- and solid-I
chimney lining system, or other approved fuel-burning appliance !

material that will resist corrosion, erosion, Appliance listed for use with
softening, or cracking from vent gases at chimneys only
temperatures up to l,800°F (982°C). Unlis.ted ~pp~~~ce ............. c.......... ... . .•.................

Listed combination gas- and Type L vent (802.6) or


Exception: Masonry chimney flues lined
oil-burning appliance ,chimney (802.5)
with a chimney lining system specifi-
Decor~tive~ppli~~ce in ... ··chimneY [907.2]·
cally listed for use with listed gas appli-
ances with draft hoods, Category I vented fireplace
appliances, and other gas appliances Gas-fired toilets ·Si~1gle-w~1l m~t~ipipe
listed for use with Type B vents shall be (802.7,926.3)
permitted. The liner shall be installed in Direct-vent appliance 'See 802.2.5
accordance with the liner manufactur- Ap£~~anc~~~~~~eiral vent ISee 802.2.6
er's instructions and the terms of the
listing. A permanent identifying label a horizontal distance of ten (10) feet (3,048
shall be attached at the point where the mm). (See Figure 8-1.) [NFPA 54:12.6.2.1]
connection is to be made to the liner. 802.5.2.2 A chimney for medium-heat
The label shall read: "This chimney liner appliances shall extend at least ten (10) feet I
is for appliances that burn gas only. Do (3,048 mm) higher than any portion of any
not connect to solid or liquid fuel- building within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620
burning appliances or incinerators." mm). [NFP A 54:12.6.2.2]
[NFPA 54: 12.6.1.3] 802.5.2.3 A chimney shall extend at least
802.5.2 Termination. five (5) feet (1,524 mm) above the highest
802.5.2.1 A chimney for residential-type or connected appliance draft hood outlet or I
low-heat appliances shall extend at least flue collar. [NFPA 54:12.6.2.3]
three (3) feet (914 mm) above the highest 802.5.2.4 Decorative shrouds shall not be
point where it passes through a roof of a installed at the termination of factory-built
building and at least two (2) feet (610 mm) chimneys except where such shrouds are
higher than any portion of a building within listed and labeled for use with the specific

95
Figure 8-1 - 802.5 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

factory-built chimney system and are


installed in accordance with manufacturer's
installation instructions. [NFPA 54:12.6.2.4]
802.5.3 Size of Chimneys. The effective area of
2 ~.(0.6 I::J.. II"
minimumm)- · a chimney venting system serving listed gas
t 2 ft.(O.S m) minimum
-t
3 ft.(O.9m) appliances with draft hoods, Category I appli-
- ~ minimum
ances, and other appliances listed for use with
t
~ Type B vents shall be in accordance with one of
the following methods [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1]:
(1) Section 803.0. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(1)]
Chimney
Chimney (2) For sizing an individual chimney venting
10ft.(3.0m) system for a single appliance with a draft
• Orle~s , I hood, the effective areas of the vent
connector and chimney flue shall be not less
2 ft.(O.S m) -t- than the area of the appliance flue collar or

~
Ridge

,
minimt!:Jm .-IT---ijf-3_ft...l..(0_.9 draft hood outlet or greater than seven times
minimumm)
the draft hood outlet area. [NFP A
~ 54:12.6.3.1(2)]
(3) For sizing a chimney venting system
connected to two (2) appliances with draft
Chimney hoods, the effective area of the chimney flue
shall be not less than the area of the larger
(a) Termination 10 ft.(3.0 m) or Less from Ridge, Wall, or Parapet
draft hood outlet plus 50 percent of the area
of the smaller draft hood outlet, or greater
than seven (7) times the smallest draft hood
More than
i'Oft(3.0m l ---j outlet area. [NFPA 54: 12.6.3.1 (3)]
f (4) Other approved engineering methods.
3 ft.(0.9m) [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(5)]
minimum

Note: No height
above parapet
d1 (5) Chimney venting systems using mechanical
draft shall be sized in accordance with
approved engineering methods. [NFP A
required when 54: 12.6.3.1 (4)]
Wall or distance from walls
parapet or parapet is more Chimney 802.5.4 Inspection of Chimneys.
than 10 ft.(3.0 m).
802.5.4.1 Before replacing an existing appli-
ance or connecting a vent connector to a
Morethan ~
+ - 10 ft (3.0 m) Height above any chimney, the chimney passageway shall be
+ 10 ft.(3.0 m).. roof surface wit~1n
+ 10 ft.(3.0 m) hOrizontally examined to ascertain that it is clear and free
Ridge 2 ft.(O.S m) k --j- of obstructions and shall be cleaned if previ-
~~minimUt 3~.(0.9 m) ously used for venting solid or liqUid fuel-
1

::,
1
~ : minimum burning appliances or fireplaces. [NFP A
1
,
! 54: 12.6.4.1]
802.5.4.2 Chimneys shall be lined in accor-
dance with NFP A 211, Standard for Chim-

c~mn~' neys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning


Appliances. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.2]
(b) Termination More Than 10 ft.(3.0 m) from Ridge, Wall, or Parapet Exception: Existing chimneys shall be
permitted to have their use continued
when an appliance is replaced by an
appliance or similar type, input rating,
FIGURE 8-1 Typical Termination Locations for and efficiency, where the chimney
Chimneys and Single-Wall Metal Pipes Serving complies with 802.5.4/ and the sizing of
Residential-Type and low-Heat Appliance. the chimney is in accordance with
[NFPA 54: Figure 12.6.2.1] 802.5.3.

96
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.5 - 802.6

802.5.4.3 Cleanouts shall be examined to edge is at least six (6) inches (150 mm) below the
determine that they will remain tightly lower edge of the lowest chimney inlet opening.
closed when not in use. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.3] [NFPA 54:12.6.7]
802.5.4.4 When inspection reveals that an 802.5.8 Space Surrounding lining or Vent.
existing chimney is not safe for the intended The remaining space surrounding a chimney
application, it shall be repaired, rebuilt, liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or plastic piping
lined, relined, or replaced with a vent or installed within a masonry chimney flue shall
chimney to conform to NFPA 21t Standard not be used to vent another appliance. [NFP A
for Chirnneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel- 54:12.6.8.1]
Burning Appliances, and shall be suitable for Exception: The insertion of another liner or
the appliance to be attached. [NFP A vent within the chimney as provided in this
54: 12.6.4.4] code and the liner or vent manufacturer's
instructions.
802.5.5 Chimney Serving Appliances Burning
Other Fuels. The remaining space surrounding a
chimney liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or
802.5.5.1 Appliances shall not be connected plastic piping installed within a masonry, metal
to a chitnney flue serving a separate appli- or factory-built chimney flue shall not be used to
ance designed to burn solid fuel. [NFP A supply combustion air. [NFPA 54:12.6.8.2]
54: 12.6.5.1]
Exception: Direct vent gas-fired appliances
802.5.5.2 Where one (1) chimney serves gas designed for installation in a solid-fuel-
appliances and an appliance burning liquid burning fireplace where installed in accor-
fuel, the appliances shall be connected dance with the listing and the manufac-
through separate openings or shall be turer's instruction.
connected through a single opening where 802.6 Gas Vents.
joined by a suitable fitting located as close as 802.6.1 A gas vent passing through a roof shall
practical to the chimney. Where two (2) or extend through the entire roof flashing, roof
more openings are provided into one (1) jack, or roof thimble and be terminated with a
chimney flue, they shall be at different listed termination cap. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(6)]
levels. Where the appliance is automatically 802.6.1.1 Type B or Type L vents shall
controlled, it shall be equipped with a safety extend in a generally vertical direction with
shutoff device. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.2] offsets not exceeding 45 degrees, except that
802.5.5.3 A listed combination gas and solid a vent system having not more than one 60
fuel-burning appliance connected to a single degree offset shall be permitted. Any angle
chimney flue shall be equipped with a greater than 45 degrees from the vertical is
manual reset device to shut off gas to the considered horizontal. The total horizontal
main burner in the event of sustained back- distance of a vent plus the horizontal vent
draft or flue gas spillage. The chimney flue connector serving draft hood equipped
shall be sized to properly vent the appliance. appliances shall not be greater than 75
[NFPA 54: 12.6.5.3] percent of the vertical height of the vent.
802.5.5.4 A single chimney flue serving a [NFPA 54:12.7.3.2]
listed combination gas- and oil-burning Exception: Systems designed and sized
appliance shall be sized to properly vent the as provided in Section 803.0 or in accor-
appliance. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.4] dance with other approved engineering
methods.
802.5.6 Support of Chimneys. All portions of
chimneys shall be supported for the design and Vents serving Category I fan-assisted appliances
shall be installed in accordance with the appli-
weight of the materials employed. Listed
ance manufacturer's instructions and Section
factory-built chimneys shall be supported and
803.0 or other approved engineering methods.
spaced in accordance with their listings and the
[NFPA 54:12.7.1(3)]
manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.6.6]
802.6.2 A gas vent shall terminate in accordance
802.5.7 Cleanouts. Where a chimney that
with one of the following:
formerly carried flue products from liquid or
solid fuel-burning appliances is used with an (1) Above the roof surface with a listed cap or
appliance using fuel gas, an accessible cleanout listed roof assembly. Gas vents twelve (12)
shall be provided. The cleanout shall have a inches (300 mm) in size or smaller with
tight-fitting cover and be installed so its upper listed caps shall be permitted to be termi-

97
802.6 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

nated in accordance with Figure 8-2, 802.6.2.2 A Type B-W gas vent shall termi-
provided they are at least eight (8) feet nate at least twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) in
(2,438 mm) from a vertical wall or similar vertical height above the bottom of the wall
obstruction. All other gas vents shall termi- furnace. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(3)]
nate not less than two (2) feet (610 mm) 802.6.2.3 A gas vent extending through an
above the highest point where they pass exterior wall shall not terminate adjacent to
through the roof and at least two (2) feet the wall or below eaves or parapets, except
(610 mm) higher than any portion of a as provided in Sections 802.2.5 and 802.3.4.
building within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm). [NFPA 54:12.7.2(4)]
[NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(a) and (b)]
802.6.2.4 Decorative shrouds shall not be
(2) Industrial appliance provided in Section installed at the termination of gas vents
802.2.4. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(c)] except where such shrouds are listed for use
(3) Direct-vent systems as provided in Section with the specific gas venting system and are
802.2.5. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(d)] installed in accordance with manufacturers'
(4) Appliance with integral vents as provided in installation instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(5)]
Section 802.2.6. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(e)] 802.6.2.5 Gas vents shall extend through the
(5) Mechanical draft systems as provided in roof flashing, roof jack, or roof thimble and
Section 802.3.4. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(£)] terminate with a listed cap or listed roof
assembly. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(6)]
(6) Ventilating hoods and exhaust systems as
802.6.2.6 A gas vent shall terminate at least
provided in Section 802.3.5. [NFPA
54:12.7.2(1)(g)] three (3) feet (914 mm) above a forced air
inlet located within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm).
802.6.2.1 A Type B or a Type L gas vent [NFPA 54:12.7.2(7)]
shall terminate at least five (5) feet (1,524
802.6.3 Size of Gas Vents. Venting systems
mm) in vertical height above the highest
shall be sized and constructed in accordance
connected appliances draft hood or flue
with Section 803.0 or other approved engi-
collar. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(2)]
neering methods and the gas vent and appliance I
manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.3]
Lowest discharge opening
! 802.6.3.1 Category I Appliances. The
sizing of natural draft venting systems
serving one (1) or more listed appliances
equipped with a draft hood or appliances
listed for use with Type B gas vent, installed
in a single story of a building, shall be in
accordance with one of the following
methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1]
H (minimum) - (1) The provisions of Section 803.0. [NFPA
Minimum height from roof 54:12.7.3.1(1)]
to lowest discharge opening
(2) Vents serving fan-assisted combustion
system appliances, or combinations of
Roof pitch H (minimum) ft m fan-assisted combustion system and
Flat to 6112 1.0 0.30 draft hood-equipped appliances shall be
6/12 to 7/12 1.25 0.38
Over 7/12 to 8/12 1.5 0.46 sized in accordance with Section 803.0
Over 8/12 to 9/12 2.0 0.61 or other approved engineering methods.
Over 9112 to 10/12 2.5 0.76
Over 10/12 to 11/12 3.25 0.99 [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(2)]
Over 11/12 to 12112 4.0 1.22
Over 12112 to 14/12 5.0 1.52 (3) For sizing an individual gas vent for a
Over 14112 to 16/12 6.0 1.83 single, draft hood-equipped appliance,
Over 16/12 to 18/12 7.0 2.13
Over 18/12 to 20/12 7.5 2.27 the effective area of the vent connector
Over 20/12 to 21/12 8.0 2.44 and the gas vent shall be not less than the
area of the appliance draft hood outlet or
FIGURE 8-2 Gas Vent Termination locations for greater than seven (7) times the draft
listed Caps 12 in. (300 mm) or less in Size at hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(3)]
least 8 ft. (2.4 m) from a Vertical Wall. [NFPA 54: (4) For sizing a gas vent connected to two
Figure 12.7.2] (2) appliances, with draft hoods, the

98
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.6 - 802.7

effective area of the vent shall be not


less than the area of the larger draft
hood outlet plus 50 percent of the area Type 8 gas vents

of the smaller draft hood outlet or


greater than seven (7) times the smaller
draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 1..I1.lIl----Air grilles in
_ - _ . _..........J I ...A outside walls
54:12.7.3.1(4)]
(5) Approved engineering practices. [NFPA
54:12.7.3.1(5)] '-----+--Louvered door could
be used in lieu of
802.6.3.2 Category II, Category III, and outside wall grilles
Category IV Appliances. The sizing of gas
vents for Category II, Category III, and Cate-
gory IV appliances shall be in accordance
with the appliance manufacturer's instruc-
tions. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.3]
802.6.3.3 Sizing. Chimney venting systems
using mechanical draft shall be sized in
accordance with approved engineering FIGURE 8-3 Plan View of Practical Separation
methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.4] Method for Multistory Gas Venting. [NFPA 54:
802.6.4 Gas Vents Serving Appliances on Figure 12.7.4.2]
More Than One Floor. A common gas vent the total appliance heat input entering that I
shall be permitted in multistory installations to segment and its available total height.
vent Category I appliances located on more than [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(3)]
one floor level, provided the venting system is
802.6.5 Support of Gas Vents. Gas vents shall
designed and installed in accordance with
be supported and spaced in accordance with
approved engineering methods. For the purpose
their listings and the manufacturers' instruc-
of this section, crawl spaces, basements, and
tions. [NFPA 54:12.7.5]
attics shall be considered as floor levels. [NFPA
54:12.7.4.1] 802.6.6 Marking. In those localities where solid
All appliances connected to the common and liquid fuels are used extensively, gas vents
vent shall be located in rooms separated from a shall be permanently identified by a label
habitable space. Each of these rooms shall have attached to the wall or ceiling at a point where
provisions for an adequate supply of combus- the vent connector enters the gas vent. The label
tion, ventilation, and dilution air that is not shall read: "This gas vent is for appliances that
supplied from a habitable space. (See Figure 8- burn gas. Do not connect to solid or liquid-fuel-
3.) [NFPA 54:12.7.4.2] burning appliances or incinerators." The
The size of the connectors and common Authority Having Jurisdiction shall determine
segments of multistory venting systems for whether its area constitutes such a locality.
appliances listed for use with Type B double- [NFPA 54:12.7.6]
wall gas vent shall be in accordance with Table
802.6.7 Screws, rivets, and other fasteners shall
8-11, provided [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3]:
not penetrate the inner wall of double wall gas
(1) The available total height (H) for each vents, except at the transition from the appliance
segment of a multistory venting system is
draft hood outlet, flue collar or single wall metal
the vertical distance between the level of the
connector to a double wall vent.
highest draft hood outlet or flue collar on
that floor and the centerline of the next 802.7 Single-Wall Metal Pipe.
highest interconnection tee. (See Figure 8-4.) 802.7.1 Construction. Single-wall metal pipe
[NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(1)] shall be constructed of galvanized sheet steel not
(2) The size of the connector for a segment is less than 0.0304 inch (0.7 mm) thick or of other
determined from its appliance heat input approved, noncombustible, corrosion-resistant
and available connector rise, and shall not material. [NFPA 54:12.8.1]
be smaller than the draft hood outlet or flue
802.7.2 Cold Climate. Uninsulated single-wall
collar size. [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(2)]
metal pipe shall not be used outdoors in cold
(3) The size of the common vertical vent climates for venting appliances in regions where I
segment, and of the interconnection tee at the 99 percent winter design temperature is less
the base of that segment, shall be based on than 32°F (O°C). [NFPA 54:12.8.2]

99
Table 8-2 - 802.7 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 8-2
Clearance for Connectors
[NFPA 54: Table 12.8.4.4]
~- ~-"---~·--Minimum Di"st'airice- from Co-mbustf6le Material ~-~----.-----.--.~--~-~""--~-.-
Listed Type B Listed Type l Single-Wall Factory-Built
Appliance Gas Vent Material Vent Material Metal Pipe Chimney Sections
Listed appliance As listed As listed 6 in. As listed
with draft hoods and -
appliance listed for
use with Type B gas vents
Residential boilers and 6 in. 6 in. 9 in. As listed
furnaces with listed gas
conversion burner and
with draft hood
Residential appliances Not permitted As listed 9 in. As listed
listed for use with Type
L vents
Residential incinerators Not permitted 9 in. 18 in. As listed
Listed gas-fired toilets Not permitted As listed As listed As listed
Unlisted residential Not permitted 6 in. 9 in. As listed
appliances with draft
hood
Residential and low-heat Not penni tted 9 in. 18 in. As listed
appliance other
than those above
Medium-heat appliance Not permitted Not permitted 36 in. As listed
--- - ------------~~---- -~-----------------

Notes:
These clearances shall apply unless the listing of an appliance or connector specifies clearances, in which case the listed clearances
shall apply.
1 in.= 25.4 mm
802.7.3 Termination. The termination of single- 802.7.4.2 Single-wall metal pipe shall be
wall metal pipe shall comply with the following used only for runs directly from the space in
requirements: [NFPA 54:12.8.3] which the appliance is located through the I
802.7.3.1 Single-wall metal pipe shall termi- roof or exterior wall to the outer air. A pipe
nate at least five (5) feet (1,524 mm) in vertical passing through a roof shall extend without
height above the highest connected appliance interruption through the roof flashing, roof
draft hood outlet or flue collar. [NFP A jacket, or roof thimble. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.1]
54:12.8.3(1)]
802.7.4.3 Single-wall metal pipe shall not
802.7.3.2 Single-wall metal pipe shall extend
at least two (2) feet (610 mm) above the originate in any unoccupied attic or concealed
highest point where it passes through a roof of space and shall not pass through any attic,
a building and at least two (2) feet (610 mm) inside wall, concealed space, or floor. For the
higher than any portion of a building within a installation of a single-wall metal pipe
horizontal distance of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm). through an exterior combustible wall see
(See Figure 8-1.) [NFPA 54:12.8.3(2)] Section 802.10.14.2. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.2]
802.7.3.3 An approved cap or roof assembly 802.7.4.4 Single-wall metal pipe used for
shall be attached to the terminus of a single- venting an incinerator shall be exposed and
wall metal pipe. (Also see Section 802.7.4.4)
readily examinable for its full length and
[NFPA 54:12.8.3(3)]
shall have suitable clearances maintained.
802.7.4 Installation with Appliances Permitted
[NFPA 54:12.8.4.3]
by Section 802.4.1.
802.7.4.1 Prohibited Use. Single-wall metal 802.7.4.5 Minimum clearances from single-
pipe shall not be used as a vent in dwellings wall metal pipe to combustible material
and residential occupancies. [NFP A 54- shall be in accordance with Table 8-2.
09:12.8.4.1] Reduced clearances from Single-wall metal

100
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.7 - 802.8

pipe to combustible material shall be as


specified for vent connectors in Table 5-3.
802.8 Through-the-Wall Vent Termination.
Through the wall vent termination's shall be in
I
[NFPA 54:12.8.4.4] accordance with the following:
802.7.4.6 Where a single-wall metal pipe 802.8.1 A mechanical draft venting system shall
passes through a roof constructed of terminate at least three (3) feet (914 mm) above
combustible material, a noncombustible, any forced air inlet located within ten (10) feet
nonventilating thimble shall be used at the (3,048 mm). [NFPA 54:12.9.1]
point of passage. The thimble shall extend at Exception 1: This provision shall not apply
least eighteen (18) inches (460 mm) above to the combustion-air intake of a direct-vent
and six (6) inches (150 mm) below the roof, appliance.
with the annular space open at the bottom Exception 2: This provision shall not apply
and closed only at the top. The thimble shall to the separation of the integral outdoor-air
be sized in accordance with Section inlet and flue gas discharge of listed outdoor
802.10.14.2. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.5] appliances.
802.7.5 Size of Single-Wall Metal Pipe. Single- 802.8.2 A mechanical draft venting system of
wall metal piping shall comply with the other than direct-vent type shall terminate at least
following requirements: [NFPA 54:12.8.5] four (4) feet (1,219 mm) below/ four (4) feet (1,219
mm) horizontally from, or one (1) foot (300 mm)
802.7.5.1 A venting system of a single-wall
above any door/ operable window, or gravity air
metal pipe shall be sized in accordance with inlet into any building. The bottom of the vent
one of the following methods and the appli- terminal shall be located at least twelve (12)
ance manufacturer's instructions: [NFP A inches (300 mm) above grade. [NFPA 54:12.9.2]
54: 12.8.5(1)]
802.8.3 The vent terminal of a direct-vent appli-
(1) For a draft hood-equipped appliance, in ance with an input of 10,000 Btu/h (3 kW) or less
accordance with Section 803.0. [NFPA shall be located at least six (6) inches (150 mm)
54:12.8.5(1 )(a)] from any air opening into a building, and such
(2) For a venting system for a single appli- an appliance with an input over 10,000 Btu/h (3
ance with a draft hood, the areas of the kW) but not over 50,000 Btu/h (14.7 kW) shall be
connector and the pipe each shall not be installed with a nine (9) inches (230 mm) vent
less than the area of the appliance flue termination clearance, and an appliance with an
collar or draft hood outlet, whichever is input over 50,000 Btu/h (14.7 kW) shall have at
smaller. The vent area shall not be least a twelve (12) inches (300 mm) vent termina-
greater than seven times the draft hood tion clearance. The bottom of the vent terminal
outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)(b)] and the air intake shall be located at least twelve
(12) inches (300 mm) above grade. [NFP A
(3) Other approved engineering methods.
[NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)(c)] 54:12.9.3]
802.8.4 Through-the-wall vents for Category lJ
802.7.5.2 Where a single-wall metal pipe is
and Category IV appliances and noncategorized
used and has a shape other than round, it
condensing appliances shall not terminate over
shall have an equivalent effective area equal public walkways or over an area where conden-
to the effective area of the round pipe for sate or vapor could create a nuisance or hazard
which it is substituted, and the minimum or could be detrimental to the operation of regu-
internal dimension of the pipe shall be two lators, relief valves, or other equipment. Where
(2) inches (50 mm). [NFPA 54:12.8.5(2)] local experience indicates that condensate is a
802.7.5.3 The vent cap or a roof assembly
shall have a venting capacity not less than
that of the pipe to which it is attached.
problem with Category I and Category III appli-
ances, this provision shall also apply. Drains for
condensate shall be installed in accordance with
I
the manufacturer's installation instructions.
[NFPA 54:12.8.5(3)]
[NFPA 54-09:12.9.4]
802.7.6 Support of Single-Wall Metal Pipe. All
802.8.5 Where vents, including those for direct-
portions of single-wall metal pipe shall be vent appliances, penetrate outside waIls of
supported for the design and weight of the buildings, the annular spaces around such pene-
material employed. [NFPA 54:12.8.6] trations shall be permanently sealed using
802.7.7 Marking. Single-wall metal pipe shall approved materials to prevent entry of combus-
comply with the marking provisions of Section tion products into the building. [NFPA 54-
802.6.6. [NFPA 54:12.8.7] 09:12.9.6]

101
802.9 - Table 8-3 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

802.9 Condensation Drain. ances having draft hoods and equipped


802.9.1 Provision shall be made to collect and with listed conversion burners that are
dispose of condensate from venting systems not installed in attics, crawl spaces, or
serving Category II and Category IV appliances other unconditioned areas shall be one
and noncategorized condensing appliances in of the following: [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4(1)]
accordance with Section 802.8.4. [NFP A (a) Type B or Type L vent material.
54:12.10.1 ] (b) Galvanized sheet steel not less than
802.9.2 Where local experience indicates that 0.018 in. (0.46 mm) thick.
condensation is a problem, provision shall be (c) Aluminum (1100 or 3003 alloy or
made to drain off and dispose of condensate eqUivalent) sheet not less than 0.027
from venting systems serving Category I and in. (0.69 mm) thick.
Category III appliances in accordance with
Section 802.8.4. [NFPA 54:12.10.2] (d) Stainless steel sheet not less than
0.012 in. (0.31 mm) thick.
802.10 Vent Connectors for Category I Appli-
ances. (e) Smooth-interior-wall metal pipe
having resistance to heat and
802.10.1 Where Required. A vent connector
corrosion equal to or greater than
shall be used to connect appliances to a gas vent,
that of b, c, or d above.
chimney, or single-wall metal pipe, except
where the gas vent, chimney, or single-wall (f) A listed vent connector.
metal pipe is directly connected to the appliance. (2) Vent connectors shall not be covered
[NFPA 54:12.11.1] with insulation. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4(2)]
802.10.2 Materials. Exception: Listed insulated vent
802.10.2.1 A vent connector shall be made of connectors shall be installed
noncombustible, corrosion-resistant material
capable of withstanding the vent gas temper-
ature produced by the appliance and of suffi-
according to the terms of their
listing in accordance with the
~anufacturer' s installation instruc-
I
cient thickness to withstand physical tIons.
damage. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.1] 802.10.2.5 A vent connector for non-residen-
802.10.2.2 Where the vent connector used tial low-heat appliance shall be a factory- I
for appliances having a draft hood or a built chimney section or steel pipe having
Category I appliance is located in or passes resistance to heat and corrosion equivalent to
through an unconditioned area, that portion that for the appropriate galvanized pipe as
of the vent connector shall be listed Type B, specified in Table 8-3. Factory-built chimney
Type L, or listed vent material having equiv- sections shall be joined together in accor-
alent insulation qualities. [NFP A dance with the chimney manufacturer's
54:12.11.2.2] instructions. [NFPA 54: 12.11.2.5]
Exception: Single-wall metal pipe 802.10.2.6 Vent connectors for medium-
located within the exterior walls of the heat appliances, commercial and industrial I
building and located in areas having a incinerators shall be constructed of factory-
local 99 percent winter design tempera- built, medium-heat chimney sections or
ture of 5°F (-15°C) or higher. steel of a thickness not less than that speci-
802.10.2.3 Where the vent connector used
TABLE 8-3
for appliances having a draft hood or a
Category I appliance is located in or passes Minimum Thickness for Galvanized Steel Vent
through attics and crawl spaces, that portion Connectors for Low-Heat Appliances
[NFPA 54: Table 12.11.2.5]
of the vent connector shall be listed Type B,
_!?iamete~~~(~onnecior-(in-.fl-~MinTmumThickrless(inT---
Type L, or listed vent material having equiv- Less than 6 ··----r--------~--6:o19
alent insulation qualities. [NFP A
54: 12.11.2.3] 6 to less than 10 0.023
802.10.2.4 Vent connectors for residential- 10 to 12 inclusive 0.029
type appliances shall comply with the 14 to 16 inclusive 0.034
following: [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4] Over 16 0.056
(1) Vent connectors for listed gas appli-
Notes: 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in? = 645 mm 2
ances having draft hoods and for appli-

102
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.10

fied in Table 8-4, and shall comply with the nate method, the effective area of the mani-
following: [NFP A 54: 12.11.2.6] fold shall equal the combined area of the
(1) A steel vent connector for appliances flue collars or draft hood outlets and the
with a vent gas temperature in excess of vent connectors shall have a minimum one
l,OOO°F (538°C) measured at the (1) foot (305 mm) rise. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.2]
entrance to the connector shall be lined 802.10.3.3 Where two or more gas appli-
with medium-duty fire brick (ASTM C ances are connected to a common vent or
64, Specification for Refractories for Incin- chimney, each vent connector shall be sized
erators and Boilers, Type F) or the equiva- in accordance with Section 803.0 or other
lent. approved engineering methods. As an alter-
(2) The lining shall be at least two and one- native method applicable only when all of
half (2-1/2) inches (64 mm) thick for a the appliances are draft hood equipped,
vent connector having a diameter or each vent connector shall have an effective
greatest cross-sectional dimension of area not less than the area of the draft hood
eighteen (18) inches (460 mm) or less. outlet of the appliance to which it is
connected. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.3,12.11.3.4]
(3) The lining shall be at least four and one-
half (4-1/2) inches (110 mm) thick laid 802.10.3.4 Where two (2) or more gas appli-
on the four and one-half (4-1/2) inches ances are vented through a common vent
(110 mm) bed for a vent connector connector or vent manifold, the COlnmon
having diameter or greatest cross- vent connector or vent manifold shall be
sectional dimension greater than eigh- located at the highest level consistent with
teen (18) inches (460 mm). available head-room and clearance to
combustible material and shall be sized in
(4) F actory-buil t chimney sections, if
accordance with Section 803.0 or other
employed, shall be joined together in
approved engineering methods. [NFP A
accordance with the chimney manufac-
54:12.11.3.5]
turer's instructions.
As an alternate method applicable only
802.10.3 Size of Vent Connector.
where there are two (2) draft hood-equipped
802.10.3.1 A vent connector for gas utiliza- appliances, the effective area of the common
tion appliances with a single draft hood or
vent connector or vent manifold and all junc-
for a Category I fan-assisted combustion
tion fittings shall be not less than the area of
system appliance shall be sized and installed
in accordance with Section 803.0 or other the larger vent connector plus 50 percent of
approved engineering methods. [NFPA the areas of smaller flue collar outlets.
54:12.11.3.1] [NFPA 54:12.11.3.6]
802.10.3.2 For a single appliance having 802.10.3.5 Where the size of a vent
more than one (1) draft hood outlet or flue connector is increased to overcome installa-
collar, the manifold shall be constructed tion limitations and obtain connector
according to the instructions of the appli- capacity equal to the appliance input, the
ance manufacturer. Where there are no size increase shall be made at the appliance I
instructions, the manifold shall be designed draft hood outlet. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.7]
and constructed in accordance with 802.10.4 Two or More Appliances Connected
approved engineering practices. As an alter- to a Single Vent.
TABLE 8-4 802.10.4.1 Where two (2) or more openings
Minimum Thickness for Steel Vent Connectors are provided into one (1) chimney flue or
for Medium-Heat Appliances and Commercial vent, the openings shall either be at different
and Industrial Incinerators levels, or the connectors shall be attached to
[NFPA 54: Table 12.11.2.6] the vertical portion of the chimney or vent at
an angle of 45 degrees or less relative to the

. Q~:~~;~=~~~=t~::~n.L
Up to 14 Up to 154 i 0.053
vertical. [NFP A 54-09: 12.11.4.1]
802.10.4.2 Where two (2) or more vent
connectors enter a common gas vent,
Over 14 to 16 154 to 201 0.067 chimney flue, or single-wall metal pipe, the
Over 16 to 18 201 to 254 0.093 smaller connector shall enter at the highest
I
level consistent with the available headroom
Over 18 Larger than 2541 0.123
or clearance to combustible material. [NFPA
Notes: 1 in. = 25.4 111111, 1 inf~6451:;;;T~-c~~----------
54:12.11.4.1]

103
802.10 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

802.10.4.3 Vent connectors serving Cate- for a chimney or vent system serving
gory I appliances shall not be connected to multiple appliances, from the appliance
any portion of a mechanical draft system outlet to the junction with the common vent
operating under positive static pressure, or another connector, shall be 100 percent of
such as those serving Category III or Cate- the height of the chimney or vent. [NFPA 54:
gory IV appliances. [NFPA 54:12.11.4.2] 12.11.9.3]
802.10.5 Clearance. Minimum clearances from 802.10.10 Support. A vent connector shall be
vent connectors to combustible material shall be supported for the design and weight of the
in accordance with Table 8-2. [NFPA 54:12.11.5] material employed to maintain clearances and
Exception: The clearance between a vent prevent phYSical damage and separation of
joints. [NFP A 54:12.11.10]
connector and combustible material shall be
permitted to be reduced where the 802.10.11 Chimney Connection. Where
combustible material is protected as speci- entering a flue in a masonry or metal chimney,
fied for vent connectors in Table 5-3. the vent connector shall be installed above the
extreme bottom to avoid stoppage. Where a
802.10.6 Avoid Unnecessary Bends. A vent
thimble or slip joint is used to facilitate removal
connector shall be installed so as to avoid turns
of the connector, the connector shall be firmly
or other construction features that create exces-
attached to or inserted into the thimble or slip
sive resistance to flow of vent gases. [NFP A
joint to prevent the connector from falling out.
54:12.11.6]
Means shall be employed to prevent the
802.10.7 Joi nts. Joints between sections of connector from entering so far as to restrict the
connector piping and connections to flue collars space between its end and the opposite wall of
or draft hood outlets shall be fastened in accor- the chimney flue. [NFPA 54:12.11.11]
dance with one of the following methods: 802.10.12 Inspection. The entire length of a
[NFPA 54:12.11.7] vent connector shall be readily accessible for
(1) By sheet metal screws. inspection, cleaning, and replacement. [NFPA
(2) Vent connectors of listed vent material shall 54:12.11.12]
be assembled and connected to flue collars 802.10.13 Fi replaces. A vent connector shall
or draft hood outlets in accordance with the not be connected to a chimney flue serving a
manufacturers' instructions. fireplace unless the fireplace flue opening is
(3) Other approved means. permanently sealed. [NFPA 54:12.11.13]
802.10.8 Slope. A vent connector shall be 802.10.14 Passage Through Ceilings, Floors,
installed without any dips or sags and shall or Walls.
slope upward toward the vent or chimney at 802.10.14.1 A vent connector shall not pass
least one-quarter (1/4) in. / ft. (20 mm / m). through any ceiling, floor, or fire-resistance
[NFPA 54:12.11.8] rated wall. A single-wall metal pipe
Exception: Vent connectors attached to a connector shall not pass through any inte-
mechanical draft system installed in accor- rior wall.
dance with the draft system manufacturers' Exception: Vent connectors made of
instructions.
802.10.9 length of Vent Connector.
listed Type B or Type L vent material
and serving listed appliances with draft
hoods and other appliances listed for
I
802.10.9.1 A vent connector shall be as use with Type B gas vents that pass
short as practical, and the appliance located through walls or partitions constructed
as close as practical to the chimney or vent. of combustible material shall be
[NFPA 54:12.11.9.1] installed with not less than the listed
802.10.9.2 The maximum horizontal length clearance to combustible material.
of a single-wall connector shall be 75 percent 802.10.14.2 A vent connector made of a
of the height of the chimney or vent except single-wall metal pipe shall not pass
for engineered systems. [NFPA 54:12.11.9.2] through a combustible exterior wall unless
802.10.9.3 The maximum horizontal length guarded at the point of passage by a venti-
of a Type B double-wall connector shall be lated metal thimble not smaller than the
100 percent of the height of the chimney or following: [NFPA 54:12.11.14.2]
vent, except for engineered systems. The (1) For listed appliances equipped with
maximum length of an individual connector draft hoods and appliances listed for

104
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 802.10 - 802.12

use with Type B gas vents, the thimble appliance manufacturer where one (1) is required, I
shall be a minimum of four (4) inches a draft hood shall be installed, be of a listed or
(100 mm) larger in diameter than the approved type, and, in the absence of other
vent connector. Where there is a run of instructions, be of the same size as the appliance
not less than six (6) feet (305 mm) of flue collar. Where a draft hood is required with a I
vent connector in the opening between conversion burner, it shall be of a listed or
the draft hood outlet and the thimble, approved type. Where it is determined that a
the thimble shall be a minimum of two draft hood of special design is needed or prefer-
(2) inches (50 mm) larger in diameter
able for a particular installation, the installation
than the vent connector.
shall be in accordance with the recommenda-
(2) For unlisted appliances having draft tions of the appliance manufacturer and shall be I
hoods, the thimble shall be a minimum with the approval of the Authority Having Juris-
of six (6) inches (150 mm) larger in diction. [NFPA 54:12.13.2, 12.13.2.1, 12.13.2.2]
diameter than the vent connector.
(3) For residential and low-heat appliances,
the thimble shall be a minimum of
802.12.3 Draft Control Devices. Where a draft
control device is part of the appliance or is
supplied by the appliance manufacturer, it shall
I
twelve (12) inches (300 mm) larger in
be installed in accordance with the manufactur-
diameter than the vent connector.
er's instructions. In the absence of manufactur-
Exception: In lieu of thimble protec- er's instructions, the device shall be attached to
tion, all combustible material in the the flue collar of the appliance or as near to the I
wall shall be removed from the vent appliance as practical. [NFPA 54:12.13.3] I
connector a sufficient distance to
provide the specified clearance 802.12.4 Additional Devices. Appliances I
from such vent connector to (except incinerators) requiring controlled
combustible material. Any material chimney draft shall be permitted to be equipped
used to close up such opening shall with a listed double-acting barometric draft
be noncombustible. regulator installed and adjusted in accordance
with the manufacturers' instructions. [NFP A
802.10.14.3 Vent connectors for medium-
54:12.13.4]
heat appliances shall not pass through walls
or partitions constructed of combustible 802.12.5 Location. Draft hoods and barometric
material. [NFPA 54:12.11.14.3] draft regulators shall be installed in the same
802.11 Vent Connectors for Category Ii, Category room or enclosure as the appliance in such a I
III, and Category IV Appliances. (See Section 802.4.) manner as to prevent any difference in pressure
[NFPA 54:12.12] between the hood or regulator and the combus-
tion air supply. [NFPA 54:12.13.5]
802.12 Draft Hoods and Draft Controls.
802.12.6 Positioning. Draft hoods and draft
802.12.1 Appliances Requiring Draft Hoods.
regulators shall be installed in the position for
Vented appliances shall be installed with draft
hoods. [NFPA 54:12.13.1] that they were designed with reference to the
horizontal and vertical planes and shall be
Exception: Dual oven-type combination
located so that the relief opening is not
ranges; incinerators; direct-vent appliances;
obstructed by any part of the appliance or adja-I
fan-assisted combustion system appliances;
cent construction. The appliance and its draft
appliances requiring chimney draft for oper-
hood shall be located so that the relief opening is
ation; single-firebox boilers equipped with
conversion burners with inputs greater than accessible for checking vent operation. [NFP A
400,000 Btu/h (117 kW); appliances 54:12.13.6]
equipped with blast, power, or pressure 802.12.7 Clearance. A draft hood shall be
burners that are not listed for use with draft located so that its relief opening is not less than
hoods; and appliances designed for forced six (6) inches (150 mm) from any surface except
venting. that of the appliance it serves and the venting I
802.12.2 Installation. A draft hood supplied system to which the draft hood is connected.
with or forming a part of listed vented appliance Where a greater or lesser clearance is indicated
shall be installed without alteration, exactly as on the appliance label, the clearance shall not be I
furnished and specified by the appliance manu- less than that specified on the label. Such clear-
facturer. If a draft hood is not supplied by the ances shall not be reduced. [NFPA 54:12.13.7]

105
802.13 - 803.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

802.13 Manually Operated Dampers. A manually hood outlet or flue collar, the use of the smaller
operated damper shall not be placed in any appli- size shall be permitted provided that the instal-
ance vent connector. Fixed baffles shall not be classi- lation complies with all of the following require-
fied as manually operated dampers. [NFPA 54:12.14] ments: [NFPA 54:13.1.2]
802.14 Automatically Operated Vent Dampers. An (1) The total vent height (H) is at least ten (10)
automatically operated vent damper shall be of a feet (3,048 mm).
listed type. [NFPA 54:12.15] (2) Vents for appliance draft hood outlets or
802.15 Obstructions. Devices that retard the flow of flue collars twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in
vent gases shall not be installed in a vent connector, diameter or smaller are not reduced more
chimney, or vent. The following shall not be consid- than one table size.
ered as obstructions: (3) Vents for appliance draft hood outlets or
(1) Draft regulators and safety controls specifically flue collars larger than twelve (12) inches
listed for installation in venting systems and (300 mm) in diameter are not reduced more
installed in accordance with the terms of their than two table sizes.
listing. (4) The maximum capacity listed in the tables
(2) Approved draft regulators and safety controls for a fan-assisted appliance is reduced by
designed and installed in accordance with ten (10) percent (0.90 maximum table
approved engineering methods. capacity).
(3) Listed heat reclaimers and automatically oper- (5) The draft hood outlet is greater than four (4)
ated vent dampers installed in accordance with inches (100 mm) in diameter. Do not connect
the terms of their listing. a three (3) inches (80 mm) diameter vent to a
four (4) inches (100 mm) diameter draft
(4) Vent dampers serving listed appliances installed hood outlet. This provision shall not apply
in accordance with Sections 803.1 and 803.2.1 or to fan-assisted appliances.
other approved engineering methods.
803.1.2 Single-appliance venting configurations
(5) Approved economizers, heat reclaimers, and with zero (0) lateral lengths in Tables 8-5, 8-6,
recuperators installed in venting systems of and 8-9 shall not have elbows in the venting
appliances not required to be equipped with system. For vent configurations with lateral
draft hoods, provided the appliance manufactur- lengths, the venting tables include allowance for
er's instructions cover the installation of such a two (2) 90 degree turns. For each additional
device in the venting system and performance in elbow up to and including 45 degrees, the
accordance with Sections 802.3.1 and 802.3.2 is maximum capacity listed in the venting tables
obtained. [NFPA 54:12.16] shall be reduced by 5 percent. For each elbow
greater than 45 degrees up to and including 90
803.0 Sizing of Category I Venting Systems. degrees, the maximum capacity listed in the
venting tables shall be reduced by 10 percent.
803.1 These venting tables shall not be used where Where multiple offsets occur in a vent, the total
obstructions (see Section 802.15) are installed in the lateral length of all offsets combined shall not
venting system. The installation of vents serving exceed that specified in Tables 8-5 through 8-9.
listed appliances with vent dampers shall be in [NFPA 54-09:13.1.3]
accordance with the appliance manufacturer's
803.1.3 Zero (0) lateral (L) shall apply only to a
instructions or in accordance with the following:
straight vertical vent attached to a top-outlet
[NFPA 54:13.1.1]
draft hood or flue collar. [NFPA 54:13.1.4]
(1) The maximum capacity of the vent system shall
803.1.4 Sea level input ratings shall be used
be determined using the NAT Max column.
when determining maximum capacity for high-
(2) The minimum capacity shall be determined as if altitude installation. Actual input (derated for
the appliance were a fan-assisted appliance, altitude) shall be used for determining minimum
using the FAN Min column to determine the capacity for high-altitude installation. [NFP A
minimum capacity of the vent system. Where 54:13.1.5]
the corresponding FAN Min is NA, the vent 803.1.5 For appliances with more than one (1)
configuration shall not be permitted and an input rate, the minimum vent capacity (FAN
alternative venting configuration shall be Min) determined from the tables shall be less
utilized. than the lowest appliance input rating, and the
803.1.1 Where the vent size determined from maximum vent capacity (FAN Max/NAT Max)
the tables is smaller than the appliance draft determined from the tables shall be greater than

106
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 803.1 - 803.2

the highest appliance rating input. [NFP A (6) For a space-heating appliance, the input
54:13.1.6] rating is greater than the minimum
803.1.6 Listed corrugated metallic chimney liner capacity given by Table 8-9. [NFPA
systems in masonry chimneys shall be sized by 54:13.1.11]
using Table 8-5 or 8-6 for Type B vents, with the 803.1.9 Corrugated vent connectors shall not be
maximum capacity reduced by 20 percent (0.80
smaller than the listed appliance categorized
maximum capacity) and the minimum capacity
vent diameter, flue collar diameter, or draft
as shown in Table 8-5 or 8-6. Corrugated metallic
liner systems installed with bends or offsets shall hood outlet diameter. [NFPA 54:13.1.12]
have their maximum capacity further reduced in 803.1.10 Vent connectors shall not be upsized
accordance with Section 803.1.2. The 20 percent more than two (2) sizes greater than the listed
reduction for corrugated metallic chimney liner appliance categorized vent diameter, flue collar
systems includes an allowance for one (1) long diameter, or draft hood outlet diameter. [NFP A
radius 90 degree turn at the bottom of the liner. 54:13.1.13]
[NFPA 54:13.1.7]
803.1.11 In a single run of vent or vent
803.1.7 Where the vertical vent has a larger
diameter than the vent connector, the vertical connector, more than one diameter and type
vent diameter shall be used to determine the shall be permitted to be used, provided that all
minimum vent capacity, and the connector the sizes and types are permitted by the tables.
diameter shall be used to determine the [NFPA 54:13.1.14]
maximum vent capacity. The flow area of the 803.1.12 Interpolation shall be permitted in
vertical vent shall not exceed seven (7) times the calculating capacities for vent dimensions that
flow area of the listed appliance categorized vent
fall between table entries. (See Example 8-1 in
area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area
Section 803.2.23.) [NFPA 54:13.1.15]
unless designed in accordance with approved
engineering methods. [NFPA 54:13.1.9] 803.1.13 Extrapolation beyond the table entries
803.1.8 Connection to Chimney liners. shall not be permitted. [NFPA 54:13.1.16]
Connections between chimney liners and listed 803.1.14 For vent heights lower than six (6) feet
double-wall connectors shall be made with listed (1,829 mm) and higher than shown in the tables,
adapters designed for such purpose. [NFP A engineering methods shall be used to calculate
54:13.1.8]
vent capacities. [NFPA 54: 13.1.17]
803.1.8.1 Tables 8-5 through 8-8 shall be
803.1.15 Draft Hood Conversion Accessories.
used for chimneys and vents not exposed to
the outdoors below the roof line. A Type B Draft hood conversion accessories for use with
vent or listed chimney lining system passing masonry chimneys venting listed Category I fan-
through an unused masonry chimney flue assisted appliances shall be listed and installed
shall not be considered to be exposed to the in accordance with the listed accessory manufac-
outdoors. A Type B vent passing through an turer's installation instructions. [NFP A
unventilated enclosure or chase insulated to 54:13.1.10]
a value of not less than R8 shall not be 803.2 Additional Requirements to Multiple Appli-
considered to be exposed to the outdoors. ance Vent Tables 8-11 through 8-19.
Table 8-6 in combination with Table 8-9
shall be used for clay-tile-lined exterior 803.2.1 These venting tables shall not be used
masonry chimneys, provided all of the where obstructions (see Section 802.15) are
following are met: installed in the venting system. The installation
(1) The vent connector is Type B double wall. of vents serving listed appliances with vent
dampers shall be in accordance with the appli-
(2) The vent connector length is limited to
one and one-half (1-1/2) feet for each ance manufacturer's instructions or in accor-
inch (18 mm / mm) of vent connector dance with the following:
diameter. (1) The maximum capacity of the vent
(3) The appliance is draft hood equipped. connector shall be determined using the
(4) The input rating is less than the NAT Max column.
maximum capacity given in Table 8-6. (2) The maximum capacity of the vertical vent
(5) For a water heater, the outdoor design or chimney shall be determined using the
temperature shall not be less than 5°F FAN+NAT column when the second appli-
(-15°C). ance is a fan-assisted appliance, or the

107
803.2 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

NAT +NAT column when the second appli- (A) The maximum capacity (FAN Max or NAT
ance is equipped with a draft hood. Max) of the vent connector shall be reduced
(3) The minimum capacity shall be determined 10 percent for each additional multiple of
as if the appliance were a fan-assisted appli- the length listed in 803.2.2. For example, the
ance. maximum length listed for a four (4) inches
(100 mm) connector is six (6) feet (1,829
(a) The minimum capacity of the vent
mm). With a connector length greater than
connector shall be determined using the
six (6) feet (1,829 mm) but not exceeding
FAN Min column.
twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm), the maximum
(b) The FAN+FAN column shall be used capacity must be reduced by 10 percent
when the second appliance is a fan- (0.90 maximum vent connector capacity).
assisted appliance, and the FAN+NAT With connector length greater than twelve
column shall be used when the second (12) feet (3,658 mm) but not exceeding eigh-
appliance is equipped with a draft teen (18) feet (5,486 mm), the maximum
hood, to determine whether the vertical capacity must be reduced by 20 percent
vent or chimney configuration is not (0.80 maximum vent capacity). [NFPA
permitted (NA). Where the vent config-
54:13.2.3(1)]
uration is NA, the vent configuration
shall not be permitted, and an alterna- (8) For a connector serving a fan-assisted appli-
tive venting configuration shall be ance, the minimum capacity (FAN Min) of
utilized. [NFPA 54:13.2.1] the connector shall be determined by refer-
ring to the corresponding single-appliance
803.2.2 The maximum vent connector horizontal
table. For Type B double-wall connectors,
length shall be 18 in. / in. (18 mm / mm) of
Table 8-5 shall be used. For single-wall
connector diameter (see the Vent Connector
connectors, Table 8-6 shall be used. The
Maximum Length Table). [NFPA 54:13.2.2]
height (H) and lateral (L) shall be measured
Vent Connector Maximum length according to the procedures for a single-
[NFPA 54: Table 13.2.2] appliance vent, as if the other appliances
Connector Connector Horizontal were not present. [NFPA 54:13.2.3(2)]
Diameter Maximum length 803.2.4 Where the vent connectors are combined
(in.) (ft) prior to entering the vertical portion of the
common vent to form a common vent manifold,
3 4-1/2
the size of the common vent manifold and the
4 6 common vent shall be determined by applying a
5 7-1/2 10 percent reduction (0.90 x maximum common
6 9 vent capacity) to the Common Vent Capacity
7 10-1/2 part of the common vent tables. The length of
8 12 the common vent connector manifold (LM) shall
13-1/2 not exceed 18 in. lin. (18 mm/mm) of common
9
vent connector manifold diameter (D). (See
10 15
Figure 8-4.) [NFPA 54:13.2.4]
12 18
803.2.5 Where the common vertical vent is
14 21 offset, the maximum capacity of the common
16 24 vent shall be reduced in accordance with Section
18 27 803.2.6, and the horizontal length of the common
20 30 vent offset shall not exceed 18 in. / in. (18
mm / mm) of common vent diameter. Where
22 33
multiple offsets occur in a common vent, the
24 36 total horizontal length of all offsets combined
Notes: 1 in. = 25.4 Inln, 1 ft. = 0.305 m shall not exceed 18 in./in. (18 mm/mm) of
common vent diameter. [NFPA 54-09:13.2.5]
803.2.3 The vent connector shall be routed to the
vent utilizing the shortest possible route. 803.2.6 For each elbow up to and including 45
Connectors with longer horizontal lengths than degrees in the common vent, the maximum
those listed in Section 803.2.2 are permitted common vent capacity listed in the venting
under the following conditions: [NFPA 54:13.2.3] tables shall be reduced by 5 percent. For each

108
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Figure 8-4 - 803.2

803.2.12 For multistory installations, available


total height (H) for each segment of the system

IT
shall be the vertical distance between the highest
draft hood outlet or flue collar entering that
segment and the centerline of the next higher
Manifold common interconnection tee. (See Figure 8-5.) [NFPA
vent connector 54:13.2.14]

D
1 Vent connector
\

Common vent size


based on all inputs
Tee same size as
segment above

2 entering this segment


and available total height
Available total
FIGURE 8-4 Use of Manifolded Common Vent height H equals
Connector. [NFPA 54: Figure G.1 (k)] rise plus distance
Total input between tees

elbow exceeding 45 degrees up to and including Tee same


size as
90 degrees, the maximum common vent capacity segment
listed in the venting tables shall be reduced by above
10 percent. [NFPA 54:13.2.6]
803.2.7 Common Vent Minimum Size. The
cross-sectional area of the common vent shall be
equal to or greater than the cross-sectional area
of the largest connector. [NFPA 54:13.2.8] Other inputs
from below
803.2.8 Tee and Wye Fittings. Tee and wye
fittings connected to a common gas vent shall be
considered as part of the common gas vent and Multistory gas vent design procedure for each segment
of system
constructed of materials consistent with that of
Vent connector size Common vent size
the common gas vent. [NFPA 54-09:13.2.9] depends on: depends on:
803.2.8.1 At the point where tee or wye -Input • Combined inputs
fittings connect to a common vent, the • Rise • Available total height H
• Available total height H • Table 8-10 common
opening size of the fitting shall be equal to • Table 8-10 connectors vent
the size of the common vent. Such fittings
FIGURE 8-5 Multistory Gas Vent Design Proce-
shall not be prohibited from having reduced
dure for Each Segment of System.
size openings at the point of connection of
[NFPA 54: Figure G.1 (m)]
appliance vent connectors. [NFPA 54:13.2.10]
803.2.9 Sea level input ratings shall be used 803.2.13 The size of the lowest connector and of
when determining maximum capacity for high- the vertical vent leading to the lowest intercon-
altitude installation. Actual input (derated for nection of a multistory system shall be in accor-
altitude) shall be used for determining minimum dance with Table 8-5 or 8-6 for available total
capacity for high-altitude installation. [NFP A height (H) up to the lowest interconnection. (See
54:13.2.11] Figure 8-6.) [NFPA 54:13.2.15]
803.2.10 The connector rise (R) for each appli- 803.2.14 Where used in multistory systems,
ance connector shall be measured from the draft vertical common vents shall be Type B double-
hood outlet or flue collar to the centerline where wall and shall be installed with a listed vent cap.
the vent gas streams come together. [NFPA [NFPA 54:13.2.16]
54:13.2.12] 803.2.15 Offsets in multistory common vent
803.2.11 For multiple units of appliances all systems shall be limited to a single offset in each
located on one (1) floor, available total height (H) system, and systems with an offset shall comply
shall be measured from the highest draft hood with all of the following:
outlet or flue collar up to the level of the outlet (1) The offset angle shall not exceed 45 degrees
of the common vent. [NFPA 54:13.2.13] from vertical.

109
803.2 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

(2) The horizontal length of the offset shall not 803.2.17 For appliances with more than one
exceed eighteen (18) inches for each inch (18 input rate, the minimum vent connector capacity
mm/mm) of common vent diameter of the (FAN Min) determined from the tables shall be
segment in that the offset is located. less than the lowest appliance input rating, and
the maximum vent connector capacity (FAN
(3) For the segment of the common vertical vent
Max or NAT Max) determined from the tables
containing the offset, the common vent
shall be greater than the highest appliance input
capacity listed in the common venting tables
rating. [NFPA 54:13.2.19]
shall be reduced by 20 percent (0.80 x
maximum common vent capacity). 803.2.18 Listed, corrugated metallic chimney
liner systems in masonry chimneys shall be
(4) A multistory common vent shall not be sized by using Table 8-11 or 8-12 for Type B
reduced in size above the offset. [NFPA vents, with the maximum capacity reduced by
54:13.2.17] 20 percent (0.80 maximum capacity) and the
Use individual vent for Listed cap Use available total minimum capacity as shown in Table 8-11 or 8-
top-fioor appliance if ~ height for top-floor
connector ~"J _ _~_ __ appliance and 12. Corrugated metallic liner systems installed
requirement :: combined input of with bends or offsets shall have their maximum
for rise or total I I all appliances on
height cannot :: common vent capacity further reduced in accordance with
be met I I
II Third
Sections 803.2.5 and 803.2.6. The 20 percent
Use vent I I
connector _____ 1r::r:::::;::=:±::=;;=::::::::J:q
interconnection tee' reduction for corrugated metallic chimney liner
table systems includes an allowance for one long
Available total height
for third-floor appliance radius 90 degree turn at the bottom of the liner.
Top-floor
appliance Available total
~d combined input of [NFPA 54:13.2.20]
three appliances (if top-
height for third-
floor appliance is not 803.2.19 Tables 8-11 and 8-12 shall be used for
floor appliance
connected. measure
total height to vent top) chimneys and vents not exposed to the outdoors
Use vent I below the roof line. A Type B vent passing
connector interconnection tee'
table through an unventilated enclosure or chase insu-
Use available total height lated to a value of not less than R 8 shall not be
for second-floor appliance
Third-floor
appliance and combined heat input considered to be exposed to the outdoors. Tables
Available total of two appliances
height for second- 8-16 through 8-19 shall be used for clay-tile-lined
floor appliance
First interconnection tee'
exterior masonry chimneys, provided all of the
Use vent following conditions are met:
connector
table (1) Vent connector is Type B double-wall.
Second-floor Design vent connector for
(2) At least one appliance is draft hood-
appliance first-floor appliance as an equipped.
~ 2 individual vent of this total
height for input of first· floor (3) The combined appliance input rating is less
than the maximum capacity given by Table
r::r:r=e=e=W=ith=c=a=pO=p=tio=n=al=" aPOU,"'! 8-16 (for NAT+NAT) or Table 8-18 (for
FAN+NAT).
First-floor
(4) The input rating of each space-heating
appliance appliance is greater than the minimum
"..1 • Each interconnection tee is same size as
segment of common vent directly above input rating given by Table 8-17 (for
NAT+NAT) or Table 8-19 (for FAN+NAT).
FIGURE 8-6 Principle of Design of Multistory (5) The vent connector sizing is in accordance
Vents Using Vent Connector and Common Vent with Table 8-13. [NFPA 54:13.2.22]
DeSign Tables. [NFPA 54: Figure G.1 (n)]
803.2.20 Vent connectors shall not be increased
more than two sizes greater than the listed appli-
803.2.16 Where two or more appliances are ance categorized vent diameter, flue collar diam-
connected to a vertical vent or chimney, the flow eter, or draft hood outlet diameter. Vent connec-
area of the largest section of vertical vent or tors for draft hood-equipped appliances shall
chimney shall not exceed seven times the not be smaller than the draft hood outlet diam-
smallest listed appliance categorized vent areas, eter. Where a vent connector size(s) determined
flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area, unless from the tables for a fan-assisted appliance(s) is
designed in accordance with approved engi- smaller than the flue collar diameter, the use of
neering methods. [NFPA 54:13.2,18] the smaller size(s) shall be permitted provided

110
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 803.2

that the installation complies with all of the ft. height capacity value and the 10 ft. height
following: capacity value is 10,000 Btu/h. The capacity for a
(1) Vent connectors for fan-assisted appliance vent system with a 12 ft. height is equal to the
flue collars twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in capacity for a 10 ft. height plus 2/5 of the differ-
diameter or smaller are not reduced by more ence between the 10 ft. and 15 ft. height values,
than one table size [e.g., 12 in. to 10 in. (300 or 77,000 + 2/5 x 10,000 = 81,000 Btu/h. There-
mm to 250 mm) is a one-size reduction] and fore, a 4 in. diameter vent can be used in the
those larger than twelve (12) inches (300 installation.
mm) in diameter are not reduced more than 803.2.24 Extrapolation beyond the table entries
two table sizes [e.g., 24 in. to 20 in. (610 mm shall not be permitted. [NFPA 54:13.2.28]
to 510 mm) is a two-size reduction]. 803.2.25 For vent heights lower than six (6) feet
(2) The fan-assisted appliance(s) is common and higher than shown in the tables, engineering
vented with a draft hood equipped appli- methods shall be used to calculate vent capaci-
ance(s). ties. [NFPA 54:13.2.29]
(3) The vent connector has a smooth interior
wall. [NFPA 54:13.2.24]
803.2.21 All combinations of pipe sizes and
single-wall and double-wall metal pipe shall be
allowed within any connector run(s) or within
the common vent provided ALL of the appro-
priate tables permit ALL of the desired sizes and
types of pipe, as if they were used for the entire
length of the subject connector or vent. Where
single-wall and Type B double-wall metal pipes
are used for vent connectors within the same
venting system, the common vent must be sized
using Table 8-12 or 8-14, as appropriate. [NFPA
54:13.2.25]
803.2.22 Where a table permits more than one
(1) diameter of pipe to be used for a connector or
vent, all the permitted sizes shall be permitted to
be used. [NFPA 54:13.2.26]
803.2.23 Interpolation shall be permitted in
calculating capacities for vent dimensions that
fall between table entries. (See Example 8-1.)
[NFP A 54:13.2.27]
Example 8-1: Interpolating between Table
Values. An installer has an 80,000 Btu/h. input
appliance with a four (4) inch diameter draft
hood outlet that needs to be vented into a twelve
(12) foot high Type B vent. The vent connector
has a five (5) foot lateral length and is also Type
B. Can this appliance be vented using a four (4)
inch diameter vent?
Solution
Table 8-5 is used in the case of an all Type B vent
system. However, since there is no entry in
Table 8-5 for a height of 12 ft., interpolation must
be used. Read down the 4 in. diameter NAT Max
column to the row associated with 10 ft. height
and 5 ft. lateral to find the capacity value of
77,000 Btu/h. Read further down to the 15 ft.
height, 5 ft. lateral row to find the capacity value
of 87,000 Btu/h. The difference between the 15

111
Table 8-5 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-5
Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(a)]
Numberof~~~~~~~I~T~~~~~ ___
Appliance Type: Category I
I

-----.. -------~~.~

Appliance Vent Connection: . Connected Directly to Vent


._ ·.·" ________________..__._... __..
_.~~~.r~~'_~~~_._.

Vent Diameter - D (in.)


3 4 5 6 7
Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour
Height lateral FAN FAN FAN
H L
(ft) (ft) Min Max
6 0 0 0 524
2 13 44 321
4 21 66 316
6 25 78 310
8 0 0 0 583
2 12 42 365
5 23 70 356
8 28 84 347
10 0 0 0 631
2 12 40 402
5 23 57 68 392
10 30 51 88 376
15 0 0 94 0 716
2 11 69 38 475
5 22 65 64 463
10 29 59 84 445
15 35 53 98 429
20 0 0 97 0 776
2 10 75 33 531
5 21 71 143 62 519
10 28 64 38 133 8] 499
15 34 58 46 124 94 481
20 48 107 464 295
30 0 0 0 853
2 9 27 613 394
5 21 58 600 385
10 27 77 580 371
15 33 64 90 560 357
20 56 58 343
30 NA NA
50 0 0 101
2 8 86
5 20 82
10 26 73
15 59 85
20 NA 97
30 NA
100 0 NA
2 NA
5 NA 40 557 52
10 NA 53 542 68 801
15 NA 62 528 80 782
20 NA 71 513 90 763
30 NA 92 483 115 726
50 NA NA 147 428 180 651 4()5
2
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in? = 645 mm .

112
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Table 8-5 continued

Table 8-5
Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(a)] (continued)
Number of Appliances: Single i

~~~. ~-Appliance Type:rC-ateg·ory~1


----------------~----~------~"---~---·i---··----···--

Appliance Vent Connection:! Connected Directly to Vent


Vent Diameter - 0 (in.)
8 9 10 12 14
Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour
Height lateral FAN FAN NAT
H L
(tt) (ft) Min Min Max Max
6 0 0 0 2267
2 53 138 1346 890
4 79 191 1338 8S0
6 93 219 1330 870
8 0 0 0 2571 1320
2 50 130 1543 1020
5 83 199 1528 1010
8 99 231 1514 1000
10 0 0 0 2825
2 48 124 1713
5 81 192 1696
10 104 238 1669
15 0 0 970 0 3323
2 45 633 114 2062
5 76 182 2041
10 99 227 2009
15 257 1976
0 0 370J
2 41 107 2343 1520
5 73 174 2320 1498
10 95 220 2282 1460
15 111 248 2245 1425
20 125 273 2210 1390
30 0 0 0 4252
2 33 98 2786
5 69 164 2759 1775
10 91 1944 209 2716 1733
15 105 1908 237 2674 1692.
20 260 2633 1650
30 305 2555 1585
50 0 0 4934
2 86 3409 2125
5 65 151 3380 2102
10 86 196 3332 2064
15 100 222 3285 2026
20 113 244 3239 1987
30 141 287 3150 1910
100 0 0 0 5729
2 21 1155 72 4313
5 60 1141 136 4282
10 80 1118 180 4231
15 93 1095 2920 206 4182
20 105 1073 2880 226 4133
30 131 1029 2803 265 4037
50 197 944 2657 350 3856
For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 fi, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in? = 645 mm 2 .

113
Table 8-5 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-5
Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(a)] (continued)
............ -~---- ..
-----------.--------~-.-~.---.-.~.- ...- .. ----_ ....... .

Number of Appliances: Single


!.----..------..--------~-~- -
Appliance Type: Category I
i·--~-·--··-··-·----~·-------·~··

Appliance Vent Connection: Connected Directly to Vent


_ _............•
............................. ...

Vent Diameter - D (in.)


16 18 20 22 24
Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour
Height Lateral FAN FAN NAT
H L
(tt) (tt)
6 o
2
4
6
8 0
2 401 4634
5 562 4612
8 630 4602
10 0 0 8682
2 5153
5
10 298
15 0 0
2
5 229
10 283
15 318
20 0 0
2 139
5 219
10 273
15 306
20 335
30 0 0
2 127
5 206
10 259
15 292
20 319
30 369
50 0 0
2 113
5 191
10 243
15 274
20 300
30 347
100 0 0
2 95
5 172
10 223
15 252
20 277
30 319
50 415
For SJ units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm 2 .

114
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Table 8-6

Table 8-6
Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(b)]
Number of Appliances:
ISingle
---"--Ap~liance TY~~JCateg()rY""1
--ApplianceVe~nt- Connection: !Shlg-'e-Wali-"Metal Connector
Vent Diameter - D (in.)
3 4 5 6 7

lateral
L
(ft)
0
2
4
6
8 0
2
5
8
10 0
2

15

51
NA
15 NA
"""-------""+---- +----"--",'"-"-"-c"":-""-"+----i "-----7-,,-'"--"~"--,--::" .,-------" --"----"~~----"--"J-"-----I--" - --"--"-"",----"""-"-""-"'"1 "--" "" "-"----"" "
20 o 35
2 37
5 50
10 NA
15 NA
20
30 a
2
5
10
15
20
30
o 33
2 36
5 48
10 NA
15
20
30
100 0
2
5
10
15

2
For S[ units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm •

115
Table 8-6 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-6
Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(b)] (continued)
I .. N·Ur11ber~fApplia·~~es: fSin·g···-le-··-·-_····.·•.... __ ......_..... .
Appliance Type: Category I
Appliance Vent Conn~ctio~~~~~gle-Wall Metal Connector
Vent Diameter - D (in.)
9 I ~.-... - - . . 10
8 12

Height FAN NAT


H
(tt) Min Max
6 371 1118

8
2
5
8
0
2 475
5 584 1224
10 296 688 1194
0 195 488 2374
2 187 457 1491
5 231 562 1469
10 284 664 1433
15 334 750 1399
20 0 190 473 2631
2 182 443 1689
5 224 547 1665
10 277 646
15 325
20 374
30 0 184
2 175
5 215
10 265 440 620 1927
15 312 507 702 1884
360 570 780 1841
461 541 704 937 1759
50 176 220 I

I
295 428 3432
2 168 209 I 280 2426
5 204 257 I 347 2396
10 253 313 1551
299 363
345 415
521
207
2 196
5 194 240 I 2990
10 238 293 i 2938
15 281 342 I 2888
20 325
30 418
50 617
For SI Ul1its, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 ill, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.

116
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Table 8-7

Table 8-7
Masonry Chimney [NFPA 54-09: Table 13.1 (e)]
Number of Appliances: Single
---~-- ~---

Appliance Type: Category I


Appliance Vent ConnectionJ~~pe B Double-Wall Connector
Type B Double-Wall Connector Diameter - D (in.)
To be used with chimney areas within the size limits at bottom
3 4 5 6 7

15
20 NA
30 2 NA
5 NA 281
10 NA 263
NA 243

12 38
chimney
2
On. )

Maximum
internal
area of Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
chimney
(in. 2)

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in? = 645 mm 2.

117
Table 8-7 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-7
Masonry Chimney [NFPA 54-09: Table 13.1(c)] (continued)
_ _N~I1l~er o!Applia~~es: ~~_i~gle ~____ _
__~___ ..____A~plian~~ !!!le:J9~~te_g~~x, ___ _
Appliance Vent Connection: Type B Double-Wall Connector
.-._---_._--- -----~-.~----

Type B Double-Wall Connector Diameter - 0 (in.)


To be used with chimney areas within the size limits at bottom
8 9 10 12

10 2
5
10
15 2
5
10
15
2
5
10
15
20
2
5 90
10 115
15 NA
20 NA
30 NA
2 51
5 83
NA
NA
NA
NA

area of 63 132
chimney
(in?)

area of I Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
chimney
(in. 2 )

For 5I units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm 2 .

118
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Table 8-8

Table 8-8
Masonry Chimney [NFPA 54-09: Table 13.1 (d)]
of Appliances: ;Single

1m ..•• AJlIlIiance v:_~r~~~~:~:~ ~~:i:~~"Meia,connecior


Single-Wall Metal Connector Diameter - D (in.)
To be used with chimney areas within the size limits at bottom
,._ ..................._............. .
3 4 5 6

Height Lateral
H L
(tt) (tt)
6

8
5
8
10 2
5
10
15 2 NA
5 NA
10 NA
15 NA
2 NA
5 NA
10 NA
15 NA
20 NA
30 2 NA
5 NA
10 NA
15 NA
20 NA
30 NA
50 2 NA
5 NA
10 NA
15 NA
20
30
Minimum
internal
area of 12
chimney
(in. 2 )
Maximum
internal
area of Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
chimney
(in. 2)

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm 2.

119
Table 8-8 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-8
Masonry Chimney [NFPA 54-09: Table 13.1(d)] (continued)
N-umber ofApp-'lances-:-'Single
Appliance Type: Category I
Appliance Vent Connection: Single-Wall Metal Connector
--
Single-Wail Metal Connector Diameter - D (in.)
To be used with chimney areas within the size limits at bottom
8 9 10 12
Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour
Height lateral FAN NAT FAN NAT
H L
(tt) (tt) Min Max
6 2 NA
5 NA
2 382 725
5 NA NA 673
8 NA NA 747
10 2 271 654 373 808
5 334 635 459 789
10 NA NA 547 758
15 2 264 776 362 965
5 325 444 942
10 392 531 907
15 NA 452 692 606 873 841
20 2 206 258 252 1079 508
5 255 317 433 1055 623 1518
10 312 382 806 517 1016 733 1475
15 NA 442 773 591 979 823 1434
20 NA NA NA 663 944 911 1394
30 2 200 759 249 982 340 1237 489 1789
5 245 306 958 417 1210 600 1760
10 300 370 920 500 1168 708 1713
15 NA 428 572 1128 798 1668
20 NA NA 643 1089 883 1624
30 NA NA NA NA 1055 1539
50 2 191 238 323 1408 463 2076
5 NA 293 398 1381 571 2044
10 NA 355 447 1337 674 1994
15 NA 546 1294 761 1945
20 NA 616 1251 1898
30 NA NA NA 1805
Minimum
internal
area of 63 95 132
chimney
(in. 2 )
Maximum
internal
area of Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
chimney
(in. 2)

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm 2.

120
CHIMNEYS AND VENTS Table 8-9

Table 8-9
Single-Wall Metal Pipe or Type B Asbestos Cement Vent [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(e)]
--<--------~--.-- ... ~ -- -~~-.---.--~~ --
Number of Appliances: Single
-~~~~~.-----~--- --.~~---.------"----- --
Appliance Type: . Draft Hood-Equipped
----~--- - - - - .. ---~- - --_.. _------"-_.
Appliance Vent Connection: Connected Directly to Pipe or Vent
Diameter - 0 (in.)
To be used with chimney areas within the size limits at bottom
-----~--

3 4 5 7 8 10 12
Height Lateral i _0 _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - " _.

H L Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour


c---- ~---------.- ---------
(ft) (ft) Maximum Appliance Input Rating in Thousands of Btu per Hour
-.~----~---.--

6 0 39 70 116 170 312 500 750


2 31 55 94 141 260 415 620
5 28 51 88 128 242 390 600
8 0 42 76 126 185 340 542 815
2 32 61 102 154 284 451 680
5 29 56 95 141 194 264 430 648
10 24 49 86 131 180 250 406 625
10 0 45 84 138 202 279 372 606 912
2 35 67 111 168 233 311 505 760
5 32 61 104 153 215 289 480 724
10 27 54 94 143 200 274 455 700
15 NA 46 84 130 186 258 432 666
15 0 49 91 151 223 312 420 684 1040
2 39 72 122 186 260 350 570 865
5 35 67 110 170 240 325 540 825
10 30 58 103 158 223 308 514 795
15 NA 50 93 144 207 291 488 760
20 NA NA 82
--~--~--.--
132 195 273 466 726
20 0 53 101 163 252 342 470 770 1190
2 42 80 136 210 286 392 641 990
5 38 74 123 192 264 364 610 945
10 32 65 115 178 246 345 571 910
15 NA 55 104 163 228 326 550 870
20 NA NA 91 149 214 306 525 832
30 0 56 108 183 384 529 878 1370
2 44 84 148 230 320 441 730 1140
5 NA 78 137 210 296 410 694 1080
10 NA 68 125 196 274 388 656 1050
15 NA NA 113 177 258 366 625 1000
20 NA NA 99 163 240 344 596 960
30 NA NA NA NA 192 295 540 890
50 0 NA 120 210 310 443 590 980 1550
2 NA 95 171 260 370 492 820 1290
5 NA NA 159 234 342 474 780 1230
10 NA NA 146 221 318 456 730 1190
15 NA NA NA 200 292 407 705 1130
20 NA NA NA 185 276 384 670 1080
30 NA NA NA NA 222 330 605 1010
--~-------- -

For 5I units, 1 in_ = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in. 2 = 645 mm 2.

121
Table 8-10 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Table 8-10
Exterior Masonry Chimney [NFPA 54: Table 13.1(1)]

--~.= l--===:-=:::b::;t:~~:ii~~,e_wall Connector


I_~ -~~-=_~~~_~~~~D-ii~==.~jnim~~.··auC)w~~,~ JrlpU~.·~al1rtg •.ois~~H#tin9A~tian¢;.ih.T~.~~arid$·o~!~-O~~-~~~;--c--.~_.
Vent ~eight II Inte~~1 Are_a_ of chimney On. 2)
(tt) 12 19 28 38 50 63 78 113
I Local 997c) winter design temperatllre: 37°F or greater
-~~------

6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
15 NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 NA NA 123 190 249 184 0 0
30 NA NA NA NA NA 393 334 0
50 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 579
--.~--------

Local 99% winter design temperature: 27°F to 36°F


--~-~-----~--,-- ----_._----
6 0 0 68 116 156 180 212 266
8 0 0 82 127 167 187 214 263
10 0 51 97 141 183 201 225 265
15 NA NA NA NA 233 253 274 305
20 NA NA NA NA NA 307 330 362
30 NA NA NA NA NA 419 445 485
50 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 763
~---.-.--------

Local 99% winter design temperature: 17°P to 26°P


-------.--~--- ~ - -~ -~~~~~"-,-,-.-.---~-- .... - ....
6 NA NA NA NA NA 215 259 349
8 NA NA NA NA 197 226 264 352
10 NA NA NA NA 214 245 278 358
15 NA NA NA NA NA 296 331 398
20 NA NA NA NA NA 352 387 457
30 NA NA NA NA NA NA 507 581
50 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
--~---------

Loca