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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I

Atty. Butch Jamon


Syllabus

Part I
Introduction

A. The Constitution as a social contract

B. How to read the Constitution


- Francisco v. House of Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003

C. A framework for constitutional litigation


- Francisco v. House of Rep., supra

Part II
Amendment of the Constitution

A. Amendments vs. Revision

B. Proposal

1. By Congress as a constituent assembly

2. By Constitutional Convention
- Gonzales v. Comelec, 21 SCRA 774 (1968)

3. By the people thru initiative (See R.A. 6735 August 4, 1989)


- Santiago v. Comelec, G.R. 127325, March 19, 1997

C. Submission
- Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702 (1971)

D. Ratification

Part III
Judicial Review
A. Separation of Powers
- In Re: Laureta and Maravilla, 148 SCRA 382 (1987)
- Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)

B. Theory and Justification of Judicial Review


- Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936)

C. Justiciable and Political Questions


- Miranda v. Aguirre, G.R. No. 133064, September 16, 1999
- Francisco v. House of Rep., supra
- La Bugal-B’Laan v. Ramos, G.R. No. 127882, December 1, 2004
D. Requisites of Judicial Review

1. Actual Case or Controversy

Prematurity:
- PACU v. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 (1955)
- Mariano v. Comelec, G.R. No. 119’694, March 7, 1995
- Montesclaros v. Comelec, G.R. No. 152295, July 9, 2002

Mootness:
- Atlas Fertilizer v. Sec, DAR, G.R. No. 93100, June 19, 1997
- Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001

Exceptions to Mootness:
- Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 159085, February 3, 2004
- Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. No. 164978, October 13, 2005

2. Proper Party

- Joya v. PCGG, G.R. No. 96541, August 24, 1993


- Agan v. PIATCO, G.R. No. 155001, May 5, 2003
- CHR Employees Assoc. v. CHR, G.R. No. 155336, November 25, 2004
- Automotive Industry Workers Alliance v. Romulo, G.R. 157509,
January 18, 2005

Citizen Standing:
- Tañada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
- Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. No. 133250, July 9, 2002

Associational Standing:
- KMU Labor Center v. Garcia, G.R. No. 115381, December 23, 1994
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
- Executive Secretary v. CA, 429 SCRA 781, May 25, 2004
- Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110 (1994)

Taxpayer’s Standing:
- ITF v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 13, 2004

Voter’s Standing:
- Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 21, 2004

Legislative Standing:
- Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141 (1998)

Governmental Standing:
- People v. Vera, 65 Phil 56, November 16, 1937

Facial Challenge:
- Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, November 19, 2001

3. Earliest Opportunity
- Umali v. Guingona, 305 SCRA 533 (1999)

4. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions


- Arceta v. Mangrobang, G.R. No. 152895, June 15, 2004
Part IV
The Three Branches of Government

A. Congress

1. Composition, Qualification and Term of Office

a. Senate

b. House of Representatives

- Macias v. Comelec, 3 SCRA 1 (1961)


- Tan v. Comelec, 142 SCRA 727 (1986)
- Veterans Fed. Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 136781, October 6, 2000
- Bagong Bayani v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001
- Aquino v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 400 (1995)
- Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300 (1995)
- Torayno v. Comelec, G.R. No. 137329, August 9, 2000

2. Election

a. Regular Election
b. Special Election

3. Organizations and Sessions

a. Election Officers
- Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No. 134577, November 18, 1998

b. Quorum
- Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 (1949)

c. Rules of Proceeding
- Pacete v. Comm. on Appointments, 40 SCRA 58 (1971)
- Arroyo v. De Venecia, G.R. No. 127255, August 14, 1997

d. Discipline of Members
- Alejandrino v. Quezon, 46 Phil. 83 (1924)
- Osmeña v. Pendatun, 109 Phil. 863 (1960)
- Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 126055, April 19, 2001
- De Venecia v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 130240, February 5, 2002

e. Journal and Record

1. The Enrolled Bill Theory


- Casco Chemical Co. v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 (1963)

2. Probative Value of the Journal


- United States v. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 (1916)

3. Matters to be entered in the Journal

4. Journal Entry Rule v. Enrolled Bill Theory

5. Congressional Record
f. Session

1. Regular Sessions
2. Special Sessions
3. Joint Sessions

4. Salaries, Privileges and Disqualifications

a. Salaries
- Philconsa v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966)
- Ligot v. Mathay, 56 SCRA 823 (1974)
b. Freedom from Arrest
- People v. Jalosjos, G.R. No. 132875, February 3, 2000

c. Speech and Debate Clause


- Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876 (1966)

d. Disqualifications
- Adaza v. Pacana Jr., 135 SCRA 431 (1985)
- Puyat v. De Guzman, 113 SCRA 31 (1982)

e. Duty to Disclose

5. Electoral Tribunals
- Abbas v. SET, 166 SCRA 651 (1988)
- Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 (1991)
- Codilla v. De Vinecia, G.R. No. 150605, December 10, 2002
- Pimentel v. HRET, G.R. No. 141489, November 29, 2002

6. Commission on Appointments
- Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989)
- Coseteng v. Mitra Jr., 187 SCRA 377 (1990)
- Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 (1992)

7. Powers of Congress

a. General Plenary Powers

b. Limitations on the Legislative power

1. Substative limitations
2. Procedural limitations

8. Legislative Process

a. Requirements as to bills

1. As to titles of bills

- Tio v. Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208


- Lidasan v. Comelec, 21 SCRA 479 (1967)
- Cruz v. Paras, 123 SCRA 106 (1994)
- Tobias v. Abalos, 239 SCRA 106 (1994)
2. Requirements as to certain laws

a. Appropriation laws
- Demetria v. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 (1987)
- Guingona v. Caraque, 196 SCRA 221 (1991)
- Philconsa v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 113105, August 19, 1994

b. Tax laws
- Tolentino v. Sec. of Finance, G.R. No. 115455, August 25, 1994
- Lung Center v. Q.C., G.R. No. 144104, June 29, 2004
- Tan v. Del Rosario, 237 SCRA 324 (2004)
- Garcia v. Executive Secretary, 211 SCRA 219 (1992)
- John Hay PAC v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, October 24, 2003

c. Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court


- Fabian v. Desierto, G.R. No. 129742, September 16, 1998

b. Procedure for the passage of bills


- Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, supra
- Philconsa v. Enriquez, supra
- Gonzales v. Macaraig, G.R. No. 87636, November 19, 1990
- Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992)
- Miller v. Mardo, 2 SCRA 898 (1961)

c. Effectivity of Laws
- Tañada v. Tuvera, 136 SCRA 27 (1985)
- Executive Order No. 200, June 18, 1987

d. Question Hour

e. Legislative investigation
- Armault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29, (1950)
- Armault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358 (1955)
- Bengzon v. Sen. Blue Ribbon Comm., 203 SCRA 767 (1991)
- Senate v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169777, April 20, 2006
- Sabio v. Gordon, G.R. No. 174340, October 17, 2006
- Neri v. Senate, G.R. No. 180643, March 25, 2008

9. Other powers:

a. Act as board of canvassers for presidential election


- Pimentel v. Joint Com., G.R. No. 163783, June 22, 2004

b. Call a special election for Presidency


c. Decide on disability of the President
d. Legislative veto or extension for habeas corpus or declaration of martial
law
e. Presidential Amnesties
f. Concur in treaties
g. Declaration of existence of war
h. Delegation of emergency powers
i. Utilization of natural resources
j. Amendments of constitution
k. Power of Impeachment

B. Executive Department

1. The President

a. Qualifications, election, term and oath

b. Privileges and salary


- Republic v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003

c. Succession

1. In case of vacancy at the beginning of the term


2. In case of vacancy during term
3. In case of temporary disability
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001

d. Removal

e. Prohibitions

f. Exceptions to prohibition from holding another office:

1. Vice-president as member of the cabinet


2. Sec. of Justice as member of Judicial and Bar Council
- CLU v. Exec. Secretary, 194 SCRA 317 (1991)
- Cruz v. COA, G.R. No. 138489, November 29, 2001
- NAC v. COA, G.R. No. 156982, September 8, 2004

2. Powers and Functions of the President

a. Executive Power
- Marcos v. Manglapus, 178 SCRA 760 (1989)
- DENR v. DENR Region 12 Employees, G.R. No. 149725, August 19,
2003

b. Control of executive departments


- Blaquera v. Alcala, G.R. No. 109406, September 11, 1998
- Hutchison Ports v. SBMA, G.R. No. 131367, August 31, 2000
- NEA v. COA, 377 SCRA 233 (2002)

c. General supervision over local governments/autonomous regions


- Pimentel v. Aguirre, G.R. No. 132988, July 19, 2000

d. Power of Appointment
- Bermudez v. Torres, G.R. No. 131429, August 4, 1999
- Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 (1987)
- Concepcion-Bautista v. Salonga, 172 SCRA 160 (1989)
- Calderon v. Carale, G.R. No. 91636, April 23, 1992
- Manalo v. Sistoza, G.R. No. 107369, August 11, 1999
- Soriano v. Lista, G.R. No. 153881, March 24, 2003
- Pimental v. Ermita, G.R. No. 164978, October 13, 2005
- In Re: Valenzuela, A.M. No. 98-5-01-SC, November 9, 1998
- De Rama v. CA, G.R. No. 131136, February 28, 2001
- Matibag v. Benipayo, G.R. No. 149036, April 2, 2002
- Larin v. Exec. Secretary, G.R. No. 112745, October 16, 1997
e. Executive Clemency
- Barrioquinto v. Fernandez, G.R. No. L-1278, January 21, 1949
- Vera v. People, 7 SCRA 152 (1963)
- Cristobal v. Labarador, 71 Phil. 34 (1941)
- Pelobello v. Palatino, 72 Phil. 441 (1941)
- In Re: Lontok, 43 Phil. 293 (1923)
- Torres v. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 273 (1987)

f. Commander-in-Chief
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
- Sanlakas v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 159085, February 2, 2004
- Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183 (1974)
- Olaquer v. MC No. 4, 150 SCRA 144 (1987)
- Navales v. Abaya, G.R. No. 162318, October 25, 2004
- Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971)
- In Re: De Villa, G.R. No. 158802, November 17, 2004
- David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 3, 2006

g. Emergency Powers

h. Contracting and guaranteeing foreign loans


- Constantino v. Cuisia, G.R. No. 106064, October 13, 2005

i. Foreign Affairs
- People’s Movement for Press Freedom, et al. v. Hon. Raul Manglapus,
G.R. No. 84642, En Banc Resolution dated April 13, 1988
- Comm. of Customs v. Eastern Sea Trading, 3 SCRA 351 (1961)
- Go Tek v. Deportation Board, 79 SCRA 17 (1977)

j. Legislation

1. Address Congress
2. Preparation and submission of the budget
3. Veto-power
4. Emergency Powers

k. Immunity from suit


- Beltran v. Macasiar, G.R. No. 82585, November 14, 1988
- Gloria v. CA, G.R. No. 119903, August 15, 2000

3. Vice-President

a. Qualifications, election, term and oath


b. Privileges and Salary
c. Prohibitions
d. Succession

C. The Judicial Department

1. The Judicial Power

2. The Supreme Court

a. Composition

b. Mode of Sitting
- MMDA v. Jancom, G.R. No. 147465, April 10, 2002
- People v. Gacott, G.R. No. 116049, July 13, 1995

c. Appointments and qualifications

d. No non-judicial work for judges


- Meralco v. Pasay Trans. Co., 57 Phil. 600 (1932)
- Garcia v. Macaraig, 3-SCRA 106 (1971)
e. Salary
- Nitafan v. Comm. of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284 (1987)

f. Tenure

g. Removal
- In Re: Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 (1988)

h. Fiscal autonomy

i. Jurisdiction
- Santiago v. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 (1970)
- Felipe v. Leuterio, 91 Phil. 482 (1952)

j. Deliberations
- Prudential Bank v. Castro, 158 SCRA 646 (1988)
- Consing v. Court of Appeals, 177 SCRA 14 (1989)

k. Voting
- Cruz v. DENR, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000

l. Requirements as to decisions
- Valladolid v. Inciong, 121 SCRA 205 (1992)
- Nunal v. COA, 169 SCRA 356 (1989)
- People v. Bugarin, 273 SCRA 384 (1996)
- Hernandez v. Court of Appeals, 228 SCRA 429 (1993)
- Yao v. CA, G.R. No. 132428, October 24, 2000
- Dizon v. Judge Lopez, A.M. 96-1338, September 5, 1997
- Asiavest v. CA, G.R. No. 110263, July 20, 2001

m. Petition for Review with Motion for Reconsideration


- Tichangco v. Enriquez, G.R. No. 150629, June 30, 2004
- Fr. Martinez v. CA, G.R. No. 123547, May 21, 2001

n. Periods for deciding cases


- Re: Delays in the Sandiganbayan, A.M. No. 00-8-05-SC, November 28,
2001

o. Presidential Electoral Tribunal

p. Administrative powers

1. Supervision of lower courts


- In Re: Demetria, A.M. No. 00-7-09-CA, March 27, 2001
2. Temporarily assign judges to other stations in public interest

3. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid miscarriage of


justice
- People v. Pilotin, 65 SCRA 635 (1975)
- Mondiguing v. Abad, SCRA 14 (1975)
- People v. Sola, 103 SCRA 393 (1981)

4. Appointment of officials and employees of entire judiciary

5. Promulgate rules concerning the enforcement and protection of


constitutional rights

6. Promulgate rules concerning pleading, practice and procedure

7. Admission to the Practice of Law


- Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 166 SCRA 316 (1988)
- In Re: Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534 (1954)
- Aguirre v. Rana, Bar Matter No. 1036, June 10, 2003

8. Integration of the Bar


- In Re: Edillon, 84 SCRA 554 (1978)
- In Re: IBP Elections Bar Matter No. 491 (October 6, 1989)

9. Legal assistance to the underprivileged

q. Report on the Judiciary

3. Lower Courts

a. Qualifications and appointment


b. Tenure
- De La Llana v. Alba, 122 SCRA 291 (1983)

4. The Judicial and Bar Council

5. Automatic Release of appropriations for the judiciary