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Wahid Foundation Publication, 2017.

Report Summary Editing Team

Alamsyah M Dja’far
Libasut Taqwa
Siti Kholishoh

CSIS Report Research and Editing Team

Noory Okthariza
Alif Satria
Mayolisia Ekayanti
Ilmi Dwiastuti
Nicky Fahrizal
Pricilia Putri Nirmala Sari
Rebekha Adriana

Total pages: 17 pages

Wahid Foundation
Taman Amir Hamzah Street No. 8 Jakarta - 10320
Phone: +62 21-392 8233
+62 21-3145671
Fax: +62 21-392 8250

Acronym List

BASOLIA Badan Sosial Lintas Agama (Inter-religion Social Agency)

BNPT Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (National Agency for Combating
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
DI/TII Darul Islam/Tentara Islam Indonesia (Indonesian Muslim Army)
DPRD Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (Regional People’s Representative Council)
FKUB Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama (Religious Harmony Forum)
FORKAMI Forum Komunikasi Muslim Indonesia (Indonesian Muslim Communication Forum)
FPI Front Pembela Islam (Islamic Defender Front)
GP Anshor Gerakan Pemuda Anshor (Youth of Anshor Movement)
HAM Hak Asasi Manusia (Human Rights)
HTI Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia
JAD Jema’ah Ansharud Daulah
JAI Jema’ah Ahmadiyah Indonesia (Indonesian Ahmadiyah Congregation)
JAT Jema’ah Ansharut Tauhid
JI Jema’ah Islamiyah
KCD Koperasi Cinta Damai (Peace Loving Cooperative)
KOPRAS Komunitas Perempuan Ekonomi Kreatif Solo (Women Community for Creative
Economy of Solo)
LUIS Laskar Umat Islam Solo (Solo Muslim Soldiers)
MHTI Muslimah Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia
MMI Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia
MUI Majelis Ulama Indonesia (Indonesian Ulama Council)
NA Nasyiatul Aisyiyah
Napiter Narapidana Teroris (Terrorism Inmate)
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NII Negara Islam Indonesia (Islamic State of Indonesia)
PB Peraturan Bersama (Joint Regulation)
Perda Peraturan Daerah (Regional Regulation)
Perppu Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-undang (Government Regulation in Lieu
of Law
TKI Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (Indonesian Migrant Worker)
TKW Tenaga Kerja Wanita (Indonesian Female Migrant Worker)
UUD Undang-undang Dasar (Constitution of Indonesia)


This paper is a summary on the result of “In-depth Research on the Potential of Intolerance and Radicalism
amongst Women in Five Regions”, conducted by Wahid Foundation (WF) in collaboration with Centre for
Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), supported by UN Women.

This research, held from September until November 2017, tried to answer four major questions: To what
extent do the policies at national and local level support or not support women’s role in preventing
extremism? What is the general map of network of actors and groups of intolerant and radical women in
each research area? What are the key elements that encourage women’s involvement in extremism, as well
as the prevention against it? What is the initiatives and attempts of prevention made by local actors and
communities, including economic activities, as well as the impact? This research result is expected to enrich
results of research and studies on issues of women, intolerance and radicalism in Indonesia.

The regions selected for the research were Depok City, Bogor City and Bogor Regency for West Java
Province; Solo City, Klaten Regency and Sukoharjo Regency (also known as Greater Solo) for Central Java
Province; and Malang City, Malang Regency, Batu City and Sumenep Regency for East Java Province.

Apart from the escalating number of intolerance and radicalism cases, this research selects the said regions
since they serve as target areas of WISE (Women Participation for Inclusive Society) Program, one of the
Wahid Foundation’s programs with objective on preventing intolerance and radicalism amongst women and
susceptible groups (Wahid Foundation - CSIS, 2018:25).

This research was conducted using the following methods: literature review, in-depth review, and focus
group discussion. The number of respondents were 358 persons, consisting of former terrorism inmates,
government officials, community organization activists, and women communities in five research areas. Of the
358 respondents, 186 amongst them were women.

Path into Being Exposed by Radicalism

This research explores the definition of radicalism as defined by Omar Ashour (2009:4-6). According to the
senior lecturer of Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies, Exeter University of England, the difference between
radical movement and moderate movement lies on the support for values and principles of democracy
such as legitimating pluralism, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, general election system, et cetera.
Whilst moderate groups support those values and principles, the radicals tend to refuse them.

Ashour then divides radicalism movement into two typologies: ideological radicals and behavioral radicals.
The former ones are those who ideologically refuse the values and principles of democracy, nevertheless do
not agree to use violent manners. Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) can be categorized into this group. Whilst
the latter one, in addition to refusing the values and principles of democracy, also support or participate in
violent actions to replace democracy. Jema’ah Islamiyah is one of these categories (Wahid Foundation-CSIS,

Radicalism in this research shall be interpreted as attitude and movement that wish the transformation of
socio-political order fundamentally through revolutionary, extreme ways, based on the comprehension of
the teachings of certain religion. Meanwhile, intolerance shall be defined as attitude, actions or belief that
cannot admit the teachings or behaviors of other groups that are not in line with their own group (Wahid
Foundation-CSIS, 2018:13-16).

According to Ashour’s study, radicalization process was generally initiated from phase of intolerance,
radicalization of ideology, followed by radicalization of behavior (Ashour, 2009:5). We shall keep in mind
that radicalism itself is not a typical symptom spread only in Islam, but also in other religions and beliefs, for
various objectives, ranging from political to economic motives. An example of this is radicalism spread in a
number of Myanmar Buddhist groups on Rohingya issue.

However, radicalization process is not always linear; on the other hand, it tends to be complicated. Peter
Neumann believes that radical violent action is actually being taught, thus not natural. It means that, radicalism
relies on many factors and does not automatically exist. He draws such conclusion after researching radical
movement and the attempts of prevention in 15 countries. According to him, these five phases are potential
in bringing an individual down into radicalism:

Diagram 2. Radicalization Process Developed from Peter Neumann’s Concept

Grievance Emotional Encounter Influential Normalization

Needs with the Figure of Violence
ideology of
and radicalism

Background Exposure Doctrine Doctrine

Condition Boiling Point Process Naration Naration

Neumann takes example of ISIS followers. Generally, they come from “ordinary” background in the society.
They are not religious individuals, not being able to be seen as successful, and less social. They possess
emotional needs for the sense of belonging or being involved in certain matter bigger than themselves
(Wahid Foundation-CSIS, 2018:19). At this phase, they finally reach their boiling point, which is, a situation
where an individual does not feel his emotional needs for the sense of belonging and being embraced by the
society have been fulfilled.

However, mere boiling point cannot be considered as an automatic lead for an individual to commit radical
actions. Injustice can be felt by anyone. Further crucial process lies on other factors such as influential
individuals who amplify certain ideological doctrine narration, for example, religious figures.Another influence
might also come from individuals who are considered to bear same fate, who can serve as role models, so
that violent activities and actions will be deemed normal, complemented by a touch of religious scriptures to

answer their needs. Radical ideology subsequently being “able” to clarify the injustice they endure by accusing
“the erroneous system” as scapegoat. Further violent actions are potential to be committed by them since
they have been affected by the “normalization of violence”; a process to make violence become normal and
is not incorrect to be done.

In psychology, this boiling point is closer with burnout situation or fatigue syndrome. Burnout that is
frequently used and being researched at working environment is a multidimensional issue.When an individual
experiences burnout, the individual will tend to suffer exhaustion; physically, emotionally, and mentally, due
to his involvement in heavy emotional situations. Another expert explains that burnout will cause a person to
possess tendency of dehumanization, making him refrain from the environment (called cynicism), and making
him feel that what he does (tasks, activities) becomes difficult and ineffective (called ineffectiveness). (Maslach,

Women: Agent of Peace and the Challenge of Radicalism

There are numerous evidences to build argument that women are a crucial group in developing tolerance
and peace.Women have become an involved party in the attempts of conflict reconciliations in the early ages
of this republic. Women from religious organizations even actively take part along with men to fight for the
freedom of the Republic of Indonesia (Jamhari, 2003:84).

Compared to Middle Eastern countries, Indonesian women are much better in obtaining their rights fairly.
Religious women organizations contribute to build more open and autonomous religious comprehension.
Currently, Indonesia has also adopted many policies that attempt to urge gender mainstreaming as well as
protect women from violence. Examples of this are the ratification of Convention on the Political Rights of
Women via Law No. 68 of 1958; ratification of Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women via Law No. 7 of 1984; issuance of Presidential Instruction No. 9/2000 on Gender Mainstreaming
in National Development during President Abdurrahman Wahid’s tenure and being followed-up by Regulation
of Minister of Home Affairs No. 67 of 2011 on General Guidelines for Gender Mainstreaming Implementation;
as well as the 30 percent quota for women as member of legislatives.

However, Indonesia is not free from the cases where women take part in the acts of intolerance, radicalism,
even terrorism. In 2016 terrorism cases, at least six women have been arrested on charges of being involved
in terrorism act. This number, whilst might look minor, actually have escalated from previous years’ number.
Several names of the said women were Dian Yulia Novi, Arinda Putri Maharani and Anggi alias Khanza, former
TKW (IPAC, 2017:1).

This trend change is caused by, among others, ISIS’ strategy change since 2013, following their disadvantageous
position in Syria and Iraq, forcing them to alter their battle tactic by intensifying amaliyah activities that
are committed using every manner wherever possible. This strategy change has also provided more open
opportunity for women to actively take part as actors, from spreading information on cyber world to inviting
sympathizers, planning the act of terror, assembling explosives, to field execution.

A number of studies highlight women’s position in radicalism, although not always equal to men’s. For
example, serving as mothers who play crucial role to educate children and build a brand-new terrorist
generation; as protectors (who play the role of hiding, saving, as well as providing safe houses for terrorist);
and as combatants, who actively contribute in committing radical acts of violence, to serving as fundraisers,
transaction facilitators, and even as bomber (Cunningham, 2008:87-95). In patriarchy culture, women also
tend to develop intolerant attitude should their interaction with outer world is being limited, or in other
words, they only live in household level (Tessler, 2008:348-349).


This research found six major findings:

First, Indonesia has legislations that embrace tolerant life, guarantee the freedom of religion, prohibits hate
speech, and possessed law for counter terrorism as well. However, there are still legislations considered to
be contributing to the escalation of intolerance, violation of freedom of religion, as well as supporting the
acts of terrorism, for example, PNPS 1965 on Desecration of Religion, or Joint Regulation of Two Ministers
on Worship Place Establishment. These two regulations are frequently referred by groups of intolerant and
radicals during their acts of refusing apostasy, refusing other worship place establishment, even committing
violence acts against minorities.

In several regions where this research was conducted, apart from policies that support the attempt of
tolerance and peace reinforcement, there are also regulations and policies feared to feed intolerance and
radicalism. The examples are: the banning of Ahmadiyah in Depok City that is based on Mayor of Depok
Regulation No. 9 of 2011 on Ban of Ahmadiyah, derived from West Java Governor Regulation No. 12 of 2011
on Ban of Ahmadiyah Activities as well as Joint Decree of Three Ministers concerning Ahmadiyah.

Second, the Government and DPR currently are revising Law on Anti-terrorism. There is a requirement
to draft articles targeting significant issues in terrorism evolution, such as preventing individuals who travel
abroad to join terrorist groups and serve as combatants. Unfortunately, this bill does not pay sufficient
attention to the attempts to prevent women and children involvement in the acts of terrorism or acts that
will lead to terrorism, whereas, the latest cases of women and children tendency to get involved in terrorism
shows the need for further concerns. Involvements of women like Dian Yulia Novi or Ika Puspitasari as well
as childlike Brekele in act of terrorism within the past 2 years are the inevitable facts.

Third, Indonesia has also ratified firm regulations to urge gender mainstreaming and women empowerment at
national and local level. However, in practice, there are still various discriminative social barriers encumbering
women. For example, even though the 30% quota requirement for women in legislatives has been enacted, until
now, due to the competency bias and domestic obstacles against women, the rate of women representation in
the parliament only reaches 17.32% (Indonesian Women Coalition, 2017). This research still has not obtained
more valid data to determine the correlation and impact of discriminative regulations against women with
the escalation of intolerance and radicalism.

Fourth, in several research areas, we found that there are a number of women actors affiliated to organizations
that can be categorized radicals, either supporting or not supporting the violence. Some of the examples are
the Muslimah HTI in Bogor, and Mujahidah FPI as well as Mujahidah MMI in Solo. In Bogor, Solo and Malang,
this research found women who are connected to ISIS and are pro-Jema’ah Islamiyah (JI) as well as with
their ideological network. An example of this is the DC case in Depok, and BE case in Bogor, who did not
even realize that their husbands took active parts in terrorist group. In several regions, there are groups that
always promote issues of Islamic law enforcement, such as LUIS in Solo or FPI in Klaten. Deported women
and group of wives of terrorists who are pro-Abu Jandal of ISIS were also been found in Malang, whilst
women groups affiliated to radical group Jema’ah Islamiyah and pro-al-Qaeda were found in Depok, Bogor,
Solo and Malang.

This research found that there is a networking process of recruitment targeting female students at state
universities in Depok, Bogor and Malang. Recruitment is conducted to new female students, particularly who
come from other regions and are seeking for Islamic friendship or community. The strategy is launched via
mentoring programs, talk shows and religious gatherings that initially discuss daily topics such as tutorial
for wearing hijab, which then eventually discuss contemporary issues such as desecration of religion and
Rohingya Muslim condition.

Fifth, “boiling point” is a driving factor of radicalism that is generally found during the research, particularly
amongst the radicals. Boiling point rose when they feel that they fail to understand their life and thus take
a turning point by learning religious teachings. An individual is not automatically being labeled as radical for
having intention to learn religious teachings, but radicalism happens when he absorbs intolerant and radical
interpretation during his process of searching the truth. At this phase, the boiling point that has already
led into radicalism is supported by normalization of violence delivered by influential figures within radical

It is shown in SA case in Solo, DA in Depok and BB in Bogor. The boiling point process was experienced
by SA when she worked as TKW in Malaysia and decided to learn religious teachings afterwards. DA also
started to get bored with her life and at one point, started to question why her life has not changed, which
subsequently moved her to learn religious teachings at religious gathering frequented by her friend. As for
BB, she felt bored with her work and career as manager in an insurance company. Although she possessed
sufficient wealth to raise her six children even to takes them on vacation overseas, BB decided to go to Syria
where she deemed was under the promising Islamic law.

Beside the driving factors, there are several attracting factors. One of the strongest is the factor of socio-
personal relation through family or friendship relation that leads women to support intolerant and radical

The most common personal relation is by marriage relation. Women have become susceptible to be
influenced by their spouses, particularly since the belief of their group put husband as the leader and women
are put as subordinates who are always obliged to obey everything the husband commands. However, we
shall keep in mind that not every case of radicalism caused by obeying the husband. Examples where the wife
was already a radical without husband’s influence was in BB case or BC case in Bogor and SA case in Solo.

Another relation is by building friendship, as indicated by women group in pro-ISIS network in Solo. They
actively discuss via Whatsapp and Facebook to provide fund should one of their members needs money.

Another attractive factor is ideology, that is able to attract the attention of an individual at his boiling
point and is seeking for the truth. The narrative spread by radical groups is frequently easy to comprehend,
answering daily problems in a highly detailed manner, and promoting the “true” Islam according to them.
Such information is also easily accessible either online or offline, including the ease to meet with the religious
teachers who live around their domicile. This factor of ideological influence is mostly found in urban areas
such as Depok and Bogor, compared to rural area like Sumenep.

The third attracting factor is offers related to economic motive. Lure that khilafah of Islam will improve
economic condition successfully attracts women from economically weak group.

Intolerant and radical groups also actively recruit those who are dealing with the difficulty of being accepted
by the society, for example, mothers could not get their children to state schools due to economic or
administrative issue. They approach this group of mothers to have their children sent to school under their
ideology. In research areas, religious teachers from intolerant and radical groups are highly active in teaching
religious matters; they even do not charge any payment for the lessons they deliver, which is a contrast to the
moderate figures in general. Intolerant and radical groups also offer venture capital for women who intend
to start their business.

DA is wife of a terrorist inmate whose initial is KD. KD himself trained in Aceh training camp in 2010 which
was eventually raided by Densus 88. After graduating her high school, DA worked for three years in a
cellular phone factory in Cikarang, Bekasi, West Java. She has not worn hijab yet, at that time. Her religious
knowledge, as admitted by herself, was very minimal. She started to get interested in learning religious
teachings after meeting with her friend in elementary school several times. It is her friend who invited her to
attend the religious gatherings. She subsequently decided to wear hijab. DA frequently attend those religious
gatherings during 2002-2009, which constructed her religious perspective.

Through the religious gatherings, she met KD who, at that time, worked at an office of a political party.
KD has initially attended religious gatherings held by various Islamic communities such as Jema’ah Tabligh,
Salafy, and Majelis Mujahidin. After working as security for a while, he decided to resign, particularly since he

considered the political party was not in line with his religious ideas, which emphasize the totality in jihad
(striving). After resigned, KD became more intense in JI network led by Umar Patek, from which he was one
of the arrested members in the raid of Aceh training camp in 2010.

Source: Interview with DA, 16 September 2017, Depok.

BB is a 45-year-old woman, one of the border crossers who were deported by Turkish government when
she, her husband and their children attempted to cross into Syria. There is no sufficient data on her process
of radicalization, although she admitted that she learned religious teachings from several ulamas that she
recognizes, one of them is Arifin Ilham.

She and her husband agreed to go to Syria. This couple took their six children with them. They sold their
house, car, and other possessions to go to Syria via Turkey. They believed that their decision was in line with
hadith that says, “when living in a nation where the Islamic law is not enacted, then the Muslims are obliged
to hijrah (migrate).”

Until this day, BB still preserves negative view against Western world. She believes that all the cruelty ISIS
commits as she witnesses through media is a Zionist manipulation to conquer the world. She also believes
that should non-Muslims rule, they will oppress the Muslims just like those endured by the Rohingya or Poso
Muslims. BB is also not fond of the Chinese people since she perceives them a gamblers, anti-Muslim and are
gathering power to oppress the Muslims. She is not satisfied with President Jokowi’s leadership which she
considers as not different from the previous presidents. The government has not been successful to provide
affordable basic needs for the people, as exemplified by the expensive electricity rate.

Source: Interview with BB, 19 September 2017, Depok.

SA is the third wife of OS, former terrorism inmate who was charged for hiding a terrorist fugitive. SA
is from Dieng, Central Java. Her parent does not have any Islamic organization background. Process of
radicalization of SA did not happen because she met her husband, but independently occurred before she
married OS. Her path of being exposed by radicalism initiated in 2003.

At that time, SA worked as TKW in Malaysia. Since she was close with a man and eventually known by shari’a
police that she had stayed overnight in the man’s house, they finally were forced to get married. Several
months later, SA was pregnant, but lost her baby not long afterwards. Since her condition was getting worse,
SA was sent back home to Indonesia. After spending several months in Indonesia, her condition was getting
better, and it was at that time she was known to still pregnant.

Being told the information, her husband blamed her for cheating and thus divorced her. During nine months
of pregnancy, SA suffered depression, that, after giving birth to her child, grew into bipolar disorder. To
overcome her disorder, SA frequently browsed the internet to obtain information on depression and bipolar.
After browsing the internet for a while, she eventually came across religious information spread by Salafy-
Wahaby network in Central Java.

This continued until 2009. She later on joined anti-Christianization movement and even joined Saving Islam
Team; which brought her to various countries including Philippines, to spread Islamic teachings. Besides that,
she intensely attended religious gatherings through social media, held by figures who were affiliated to HTI.
Through such activities, she subsequently met OS. According to SA, act of terrorism is an act that actually
shall be justified, since that act is a mere defense mechanism launched by oppressed people, who are not
being protected by the authorities or responsible parties (for example, the State). She explained that whilst
being a majority, Muslims are always being oppressed, yet, should the khilafah state has established and
Muslims rule, other religions will not be oppressed.

Source: Interview with SA, 11 October 2017 in Surakarta.

Sixth, there are initiatives and efforts made by “tolerant” groups in response to intolerance and radicalism
amongst women, either directly or indirectly conducted, found in all of the research regions. They generally
come from moderate religious organizations such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, including their
women organizations such as Fatayat Nahdlatul Ulama or Aisyiyah Muhammadiyah. In addition, other efforts
are also been made by civil organizations based on inter-faith harmony. In Depok, Fatayat NU, Basolia, and
GP Anshor of Depok run various activities including social service, public health service, and inter-religion
art exhibition to embrace homeless children. In Bogor, Aisyiyah and Fatayat NU along with local religious
figures also develop the attempt to counter radicalism by intensifying da’wah (missionary preaching) and
social service. In Greater Solo, Nasyiatul Aisyiyah (NA) and Fatayat NU of Solo City actively initiate the
attempt of prevention. NA members has developed parenting program for women who are victims of various
form of violence, such as sexual harassment, domestic violence, and terrorism as well. Besides Fatayat NU
and Nasyiatul Aisyiyah, there is Batu City School for Women, and Commission for Inter-Religion and Belief
System of Malang Diocese in Malang. School for Women provides the teachings on economy, socio-culture,
politics, and law; as well as provides debriefings to recognize issues concerning radicalism. At the same time,
Commission for Inter-Religion and Belief System of Malang Diocese actively holds activities to maintain good
relation between religions and belief systems as well as increase inter-religious people tolerance.

In Sumenep, the attempt of prevention is still in form of verbal rejection. There have not been any particular
program available developed by regional government or civil organizations to counter the emergence of
intolerant or radical groups in Sumenep.

WISE (Women Participation for Inclusive Society) Program initiated by Wahid Foundation and supported by
UN Women, and launched in five research regions, could be perceived as a promising program.This program
emphasizes economic approach to reinforce tolerance and peace, for example, through savings and loan,
financial trainings, as well as strengthen the values of tolerance. As a program run for less than one year, this
program is probably still developing foundation for future use.

In general, we can consider that the moderate communities and organizations in the five regions have not
yet sufficiently targeted susceptible groups, particularly those who possess tendency for being radical or
have actually been involved in radical acts, for example, the families of former terrorists, or female students
of state universities. They generally only targets their own members or members of the groups identified
as moderate.

From empowerment level perspective, the effectiveness of initiation as well as the ongoing attempts still
varies. This difference seems to be affected by several things, for example, the strength of civil organizations
network in each region, including between civil organizations with the government.


Based on the six major findings, this research proposes seven recommendations:

First, urge the Central Government and Regional Government to improve the fulfillment of citizens’ civil
rights and political rights as guaranteed in legislations, including the fulfillment of rights of suspects and
convicts, including their families, and perpetrators of intolerant and radical acts. This effort is expected to
be able to reduce dissatisfactions that are potential to drive the act of intolerance and radicalism. Regional
Leader in the five research regions must revoke or revise discriminative policies.

Second, urge People’s Representative Council and Regional People’s Representative Council of the Republic
of Indonesia to revoke or revise discriminative legislations at national and local level, such as PNPS Law of
1965 on Desecration of Religion or regional regulations that limit women’s right.

Third, urge the Central Government represented by BNPT, to include articles in the revision of Law on Anti-
terrorism concerning the prevention and handling of women and children involvement in act of terrorism.

Fourth, urge KPP PA to develop gender mainstreaming by collaborating with religious organizations and
female religious figures.

Fifth, urge the research and development institutions in governmental environment such as LIPI (Lembaga
Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia; Indonesian Institute of Sciences), Centre for Research and Development of
Ministry of Religious Affairs, Ministry of Social Affairs and KPP PA to enhance study and research to provide
data and analysis on women involvement in the act of intolerance and radicalism, including the impact of
discriminative policies and regulations against women, with the escalation of intolerance and radicalism.

Sixth, urge women organizations under moderate religious organizations such as Fatayat, Aisyiyah and
other civil organizations at national or local level to develop activities which aim to overcome driving
and attractive factors of radicalism amongst women, by conducting counseling, religious gatherings with
moderate materials, pre-wedding education, family reinforcement and economic supports for women.

Seventh, urge the collaboration between the Central Government and the civil organizations to develop
program that directly targets susceptible groups and susceptible areas by involving religious figure and local
figures, including economic empowerment for the families of former terrorism inmates


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