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The Effect of the Nature of Substrate

on the Rate of Cellular Respiration in Yeast (Scientific name here)

Ma Vic Radzini M. Pasigon

Group 4 Section Y-2L

September 25, 2013

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A scientific paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in General Biology I under
Prof. Evangeline D. Pascual, 1st sem., 2008-2009.
ABSTRACT

Using the Smith fermentation tube, the effect of nature of substates to the rate of cellular
respiration was observed. Each tube was filled with 15 mL of 10% solution of a susbstrate, 15 mL
distilled water, and 15 mL of 10% yeast solution. The substrates used were glucose and fructose as the
monosaccharides, sucrose and lactose as the disaccharides, starch as the polysaccharide and distilled
water the control. Gas evolution was observed only in the glucose, fructose and the sucrose set-ups. The
rates of respiration of yeast for each substrate were determined by calculating for the valume of CO2
evolved and dividing it by time (30 minutes). Fructose showed the highest rate of respiration with 0.449
cm3/min. Next to this was sucrose that showed a rate of respiration of 0.389 cm3/min. Lastly glucose
showed a rate of respiration of 0.308 cm3/min. Although sucrose (a disaccharide) showed a faster rate
of diffusion than glucose (a monosaccharide), it was still observed that the simpler the substrate, the
faster rate of respiration. This is because starch, a polysaccharide and the most complex substate used,
did not show any sign of respiration compared to glucose and fructose, which are monosaccharides and
are simpler.

INTRODUCTION

The process in which organisms break down organic molcules, such as sugar, into simpler

substances and produces energy in the form of ATP is referred to as cellular respiration. There are two

types of cellular respiration - aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration refers to

the breaking down of molucules with the use of oxygen to produce energy while anaerobic respiration

does not require oxygen. This experiment focuses on anaerobic respiration (Campbell, 2008).

The pathway for anaerobic respiration is described as fermentation. There are two types of

fermentation. The first type is the lactate fementation where glucose is broken down into piruvic acid

then converted into lactic acid. The second type, which was used in this experiment, is the alcoholic

fermentation where glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid then converted to ethanol (Starr, 2009).

Yeasts are once celled fungus that can either respire aerobically or anaerobically. In the absence

of oxygen, it shirfts from aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration. Because of this charactesistic,

yeast is ideal in obseving the effect of nature of substrate to the rate of respiration (Duka etal., 2009).
The presence of cofactors or enzymes and the nature of subsrate are the two factors that affect

the rate of anaerobic respiration. Enzymes are types of proteins that speeds up or hastens the rate of

reactions, therefore in the presence of enzymes the rate of anaeriboc respiration increases. This can be

futher proven by the experiment using the Durham tube method. In the other hand, substrates are the

substances that are broken down in the process of respiration. Examples of substrates are

carbohydrates such as monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the

simplest form of carbohydrates. Examples of these are glucose, galactose and fructose. Disaccharides

such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose are composed of two monosaccharides while polysaccharides ,like

starch, are composed of three or more monosaccharides (Campbell, 2006).

In respiration, the substates use are broken down into simpler substances first before it be used

by the organism. For example, polysaccharides should be broken down before it can be used by the cell

for respiration while monosaccharides are readily used by the cell for respiration because it is already in

the simplest form. From here, it is derived that the simpler the substrate that is available, the faster the

rate of anaerobic respiration.

If the nature of substrate affect th rate of respiration, then the simpler the substrate, the fater

the rate of respiration.

This study aimed to determine the effect of the nature of substrate to the rate of cellular

respiration. The specific objectives were

1. to determine the relationship between nature of substrate to the rate of

cellular respiration

2. To determine which substrate is most conducive for cellular respiration

This study was conducted last September 16, 2013 at Room C-117 at Institute of Biological

Sciences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

To determine the effect of the nature of substrate on the rate of cellular respiration of yeast,

the Smith fermentation tube method was used. The substrates used were glucose and fructose as the

monosaccharides, sucrose and lactose as the disaccharides, starch as the polysaccharide and distilled

water as the control. Six fermentation tubes were used and each tubes were filled with 15 mL of 10%

solution of a susbstrate, 15 mL distilled water, and 15 mL of 10% yeast solution. The openning of the

tubes were covered by the cotton balls. After adding the yeast solution, the tubes were shaken for the

yeast to be evenly distributed thoughout the solution. The set -ups were set aside to allow the CO2 gas

to evolve. It is not advisable for the tubes to be held during the experiment because the temperature

might affect the results. The height of the area occupied by the CO2 evolved for each set-ups were

measured at regular five minute intervals for 30 minutes. The gathering of measurements started when

the level of the solution is at the level after the curved part of the tube. All measurements were

tabulated and plotted.

The final volumes occupied by the CO2 for each setup was calculated using the formula, VCO2 =

pir^2h. The given radius for the Smith fermentation tube is 0.8cm.

Using the values of the volumes, the rate of respiration was calculated using the formula: rate =

V/t where V is the final volume of the CO2 evolved and t is equal to the time, in this case t=30 minutes.