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Lecture Notes Trigonometric Identities 1 page 1

Sample Problems

Prove each of the following identities.

tan2 x 1
1. tan x sin x + cos x = sec x 8. 1 2 cos2 x =
tan2 x + 1
1 1 cos x
2. + tan x = 9. sec x + tan x =
tan x sin x cos x 1 sin x
3. sin x sin x cos2 x = sin3 x 10. sin4 x cos4 x = 1 2 cos2 x
cos 1 + sin 2
4. + = 11. (sin x cos x)2 + (sin x + cos x)2 = 2
1 + sin cos cos
cos x cos x sin2 x + 4 sin x + 3 3 + sin x
5. = 2 tan x 12. 2
=
1 sin x 1 + sin x cos x 1 sin x
sin4 x cos4 x cos x
6. =1 13. tan x = sec x
sin2 x cos2 x 1 sin x
1 sin x cos x 1 + sin x
7. = 14. tan2 x + 1 + tan x sec x =
cos x 1 + sin x cos2 x

Practice Problems

Prove each of the following identities.


cos x 1 cot x 1 1 tan x
1. tan x + = 7. =
1 + sin x cos x cot x + 1 1 + tan x
1 1 sin3 x + cos3 x
2. = 2 tan x sec x 8. =1 sin x cos x
1 sin x 1 + sin x sin x + cos x
1 + tan2 x 1 1 + sin x 1 sin x
3. = 9. = 4 tan x sec x
1 tan2 x cos2 x sin2 x 1 sin x 1 + sin x
tan x + tan y
4. tan2 x sin2 x = tan2 x sin2 x 10. = tan x tan y
cot x + cot y
1 cos x sin x
5. + = 2 csc x 11. (sin x tan x) (cos x cot x) = (sin x 1) (cos x 1)
sin x 1 cos x
sec x 1 1 cos x 1 + tan x cos x + sin x
6. = 12. =
sec x + 1 1 + cos x 1 tan x cos x sin x

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: March 16, 2011


Lecture Notes Trigonometric Identities 1 page 2

Sample Problems - Solutions

Prove each of the following identities.

1. tan x sin x + cos x = sec x


Solution: We will only use the fact that sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 for all values of x.

sin x sin2 x
LHS = tan x sin x + cos x = sin x + cos x = + cos x
cos x cos x
sin2 x cos2 x sin2 x + cos2 x 1
= + = = = RHS
cos x cos x cos x cos x

1 1
2. + tan x =
tan x sin x cos x
Solution: We will only use the fact that sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 for all values of x.

1 cos x sin x cos2 x + sin2 x 1


LHS = + tan x = + = = = RHS
tan x sin x cos x sin x cos x sin x cos x

3. sin x sin x cos2 x = sin3 x


Solution: We will only use the fact that sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 for all values of x.

LHS = sin x sin x cos2 x = sin x 1 cos2 x = sin x sin2 x = RHS

cos 1 + sin 2
4. + =
1 + sin cos cos
Solution: We will only use the fact that sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 for all values of x.

cos 1 + sin cos2 (1 + sin )2


LHS = + = +
1 + sin cos (1 + sin ) cos (1 + sin ) cos
2
2
cos + (1 + sin ) cos + 1 + 2 sin + sin2
2
cos2 + sin2 + 1 + 2 sin
= = =
(1 + sin ) cos (1 + sin ) cos (1 + sin ) cos
2 + 2 sin 2 (1 + sin ) 2
= = =
(1 + sin ) cos (1 + sin ) cos cos

cos x cos x
5. = 2 tan x
1 sin x 1 + sin x
Solution: We will start with the left-hand side. First we bring the fractions to the common
denominator. Recall that sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 for all values of x.
cos x cos x cos x (1 + sin x) cos x (1 sin x)
LHS = =
1 sin x 1 + sin x (1 sin x) (1 + sin x) (1 sin x) (1 + sin x)
cos x (1 + sin x) cos x (1 sin x) cos x + cos x sin x cos x + cos x sin x
= =
(1 sin x) (1 + sin x) 1 sin2 x
2 sin x cos x 2 sin x
= 2
= = 2 tan x = RHS
cos x cos x

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: March 16, 2011


Lecture Notes Trigonometric Identities 1 page 3

sin4 x cos4 x
6. =1
sin2 x cos2 x
Solution: We can factor the numerator via the di¤erence of squares theorem.
2 2
sin4 x cos4 x sin2 x (cos2 x) sin2 x + cos2 x sin2 x cos2 x
LHS = = =
sin2 x cos2 x sin2 x cos2 x sin2 x cos2 x
2 2
= sin x + cos x = 1 = RHS

1 sin x cos x
7. =
cos x 1 + sin x
Solution:
1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x 1 + sin x (1 sin x) (1 + sin x)
LHS = = 1= =
cos x cos x cos x 1 + sin x cos x (1 + sin x)
2 2
1 sin x cos x cos x
= = = = RHS
cos x (1 + sin x) cos x (1 + sin x) 1 + sin x

tan2 x 1
8. 1 2 cos2 x =
tan2 x + 1
Solution:
sin2 x sin2 x cos2 x sin2 x cos2 x
tan x 1 2
2
1 2 2
RHS = = cos2 x = cos2 x cos2 x = cos2 x
2 2
tan x + 1 sin x sin x cos x sin x + cos2 x
+ 1 +
cos2 x cos2 x cos2 x cos2 x
2 2
sin x cos x 2 2
cos x sin x cos x 2
sin2 x cos2 x
= = =
cos2 x sin2 x + cos2 x sin2 x + cos2 x 1
2 2 2 2 2
= sin x cos x = 1 cos x cos x = 1 2 cos x = LHS
cos x
9. sec x + tan x =
1 sin x
Solution:
cos x cos x cos x 1 + sin x cos x (1 + sin x)
RHS = = 1= =
1 sin x 1 sin x 1 sin x 1 + sin x (1 sin x) (1 + sin x)
cos x (1 + sin x) cos x (1 + sin x) 1 + sin x 1 sin x
= 2 = = = + = LHS
1 sin x cos2 x cos x cos x cos x

10. sin4 x cos4 x = 1 2 cos2 x


Solution:
2 2
LHS = sin4 x cos4 x = sin2 x cos2 x = sin2 x + cos2 x sin2 x cos2 x
= 1 sin2 x cos2 x = 1 cos2 x cos2 x = 1 2 cos2 x = RHS

11. (sin x cos x)2 + (sin x + cos x)2 = 2


Solution:
LHS = (sin x cos x)2 + (sin x + cos x)2
= sin2 x + cos2 x 2 sin x cos x + sin2 x + cos2 x + 2 sin x cos x
= 2 sin2 x + 2 cos2 x = 2 sin2 x + cos2 x = 2 1 = 2 = RHS

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: March 16, 2011


Lecture Notes Trigonometric Identities 1 page 4

sin2 x + 4 sin x + 3 3 + sin x


12. 2
=
cos x 1 sin x
Solution:
sin2 x + 4 sin x + 3 (sin x + 1) (sin x + 3) (sin x + 1) (sin x + 3)
LHS = = 2 = =
cos2 x 1 sin x (1 + sin x) (1 sin x)
sin x + 3
= = RHS
1 sin x

cos x
13. tan x = sec x
1 sin x
Solution:
cos x cos x sin x cos2 x sin x (1 sin x) cos2 x sin x + sin2 x
LHS = tan x = = =
1 sin x 1 sin x cos x cos x (1 sin x) cos x (1 sin x)
2 2
cos x + sin x sin x 1 sin x 1
= = = = RHS
cos x (1 sin x) cos x (1 sin x) cos x

1 + sin x
14. tan2 x + 1 + tan x sec x =
cos2 x
Solution:

2 sin2 x sin x 1 sin2 x cos2 x sin x


LHS = tan x + 1 + tan x sec x = 2
+1+ = + +
cos x cos x cos x cos x cos x cos2 x
2 2
2 2
sin x + cos x + sin x 1 + sin x
= 2
= = RHS
cos x cos2 x

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: March 16, 2011