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Materi Bahasa Inggris kelas XII semester 1 (Expression & Text)

A. Accusing/Judging

 It must have been you who did it

(pastilah Kamu yang telah melakukannya)

 I think you're the only person who could have done it

(saya kira hanya kamulah satu-satunya orang yang bisa mekakukannya)
 You must be doing something wrong

 You must be the doer

B. Blaming
 It was your fault
 You are the one to blame
 Serves you right

Someone who accused of blamed usually declines it. The following are the responses used

 It's not true

 It wasn't me

 You are wrong, I didn't do it

 I am not the one to blame

C. AdmitingMistake
When we did something wrong, it's better for us to admit or confess our mistake. We can use the
following expressions.

 I have to admit that ...

 I was the one to blame
 I admit I was wrong
 I have made a mistake
we can also use the expressions of apology, for example, I am sorry, forgive me!. To respond it,
we can use :

 Okay, just don't do it again

 It's alright
Sample in daily conversation:

Khadis : “Sarah, did you break the vase?”

Sarah : “Yes, Dad. I broke it this morning. I’m so sorry. I didn’t mean that.”
Khadis : “It’s OK. Just be careful when you play in the living room.”

Sarah : “Farhan, I do apologize that I couldn’t come to your birthday party yesterday.”
Farhan : “No problem. I know you were so busy in your boarding house.”
Sarah : “Yeah, I got so much paper to finish.”
Farhan : “It’s alright.”

D. Curiousity
a feel that happen when we really want to know about something. Usually “curiosity” happens
when we see something strange or something new. Let’s describe it as follow:
Situation 1
Sarah : “I’m so curious about the new student.”
Farhan : “Yeah, me too. Let’s wait for her. She loves coming to the library during the break.”
Situation 2
Khadis : “You look so happy. I’m interested to know what happen to you.”
Sarah : “Sure, Dad. I got the highest score for math again.”
Khadis : “Really? So, congratulation.”
Situation 3
Sarah : “Why are you staring me like that?”
Farhan : “I wonder why you could be smarter than me.”
Sarah : “Because I’m your sister, hehe..…”
Have you already understood, then?

E. Promise
Asking for a promise :
- Promise me that you will get me all the water that i can drink
- Do you promise to take care of the bird if we get one?
- Make me a promise,won’t you ?
- I want you to promise that you’ll love me forever.
- Is that a promise ?
- Do you give me your word on that ?
- Do you swear that you won’t forget me ?
Offering a promise :
- I promise i’ll do whatever you want.
- I promise you that i’ll try to be on time next time.
- I promise to love you endlessly.
- It’s a promise.
- I give you my word on that.
- You have my word on it.
- I swear that my love is only for you.

A. Narrative
1. Definition of Narrative
Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events
and entertain the readers.
2. Generic Structure of Narrative
A narrative text consists of the following structure:
1.Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place
2.Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with
3.Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse
3. Language Features of Narrative
 Using processes verbs
 Using temporal conjunction
 Using Simple Past Tense

4. Examples and structures of the text

Snow White
Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived
with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead.
Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White
in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t
have enough money to take Snow White.
Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it
would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home
when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the
Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she
went inside and fell asleep.
Resolution 2 Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went
inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke
up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow
White said, “My name is Snow White.”

B. Explanation
Definition of Explanation Text
The explanation text type tells how or why something occurs. It looks at the steps rather than
the things. The purpose of an explanation is to tell each step of the process (the how) and to give
reasons (the why). (Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, 1997:81) Explanation is a text which
tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific, and cultural phenomena.
According to Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1997: 82) says that the explanation text
type is often used to tell how and why thing (phenomena) occur in nature. Some examples of
explanations are: How something occurs, why something happened, why things are a like or
different, how to solve a problem, etc.

Generic structure
According to Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1997: 82) features of an explanation
consists of
a. Constructing a written explanation
The steps for constructing a written explanation are:
· A general statements about the event or thing
· A series of paragraphs that tell the how’s or why’s
· A concluding paragraph
b. Language features in an explanation
The language features usually found in an explanation are:
· Technical language
· Words that show cause and effect
· Use of the timeless present tense
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social,
scientific, and culture phenomena.
Generic structure of explanation:
General statement : stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained
Sequenced explanation: stating the series of steps which explain the phenomena.
2. Example of explanation text:

How does Rain Happen?

Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable
conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop
The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle
involves the sun heating the Earth's surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate.
The water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and
condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as
precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.
However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air.
This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

C. Discussion
1. Definition of Discussion
Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed
from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social
2. Generic Structure of Discussion

 Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed

 List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue
 List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point
 Recommendation; stating the writer’ recommendation of the discourse

3. Language Feature of Discussion

 Introducing category or generic participant

 Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc
 Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc
 Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc
 Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc
4. Examples and structures of the text

Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary.
Statement of I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our
issue and work.
Preview Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have
learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.
Statement of But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have
various homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies.
viewpoints Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my