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Heat Transfer is the science of predicting thermal energy(Heat) transfer rate

taking place between two bodies as a result of temperature difference.

Modes of H.T. : 1- Conduction.

2- Convection.
3- Radiation.


When a temperature gradient exists in a body, heat is transferred from high

temperature to low temperature by conduction.

Fourier’s Law of heat conduction:

q x = − kA

Watts (J/s) m2 m

k is called the thermal conductivity (W/m K)


FE-H.T. Introduction

When fluid is flowing over a hot surface, heat is convected (carried by the
fluid) away from the surface; e.g. cooling your soup by blowing your breath.

Very close to wall, heat is transferred by conduction, but the temperature

gradient is determined by the rate at which fluid carries away the heat; the
higher the velocity (u∞) the higher the temperature gradient.

Newton’s Law of Cooling

q = hA ( T w − T ∞ ) ,

h = convection H.T. coeff. (W/m2. K)

h is generally a function of ( u∞, k, c, ρ, μ).

Types: 1- Forced Convection, e.g. Fan blowing air.

2- Free convection (natural convection), e.g. thermal plume.


Radiation Heat Transfer is through thermal radiation which is a type of

electromagnetic radiation. Heat is propagated as a result of temperature
difference, but it does not require a material medium.

An ideal thermal radiator( black body) will emit thermal energy qemitted,b at a
q emitted ,b = σ AT 4

where σ is the Stefan- Boltzman constant, σ=5.669x10-8 W/m2.K4.

Real bodies radiate at a fraction of the black body radiation, the ratio being
called the emissivity, ε.

Since radiation travels in straight lines, two bodies exchanging radiant heat
with each other do so within a certain view angle, the rest of the radiation
escaping to the surroundings.

FE-H.T. Introduction

In general, the net radiation exchange between two bodies at temperature

T1 and T2 is :

q = Fe .FG .σ . A.(T1 − T2 )
4 4

where Fe is an emissivity function, and FG is a geometric “view factor”


Ex.1. A face of a copper plate 3 cms thick is maintained at 400oC and the
other face is maintained at 100oC. How much heat is transferred through the
kCu = 370 W/moK at 250oC.

q dT (100 − 400 )
= −k = − 370 = 3 .7 MW / m 2
A dx 0 .03

Ex.2. Air at 20oC blows over a hot plate 50cm x 75 cms, maintained at
250oC. The convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2 K. Calculate the
rate of heat transfer.

q = h A (Tw - T∞)
= 25 x 0.5 x 0.75 x (250-20)
= 2.156 kW

Ex.3. Assume previous plate is made of Carbon Steel 2 cms thick and that
300W is lost from the plate surface by radiation. Calculate the inside plate
surface temperature. kC.S.= 43 W/m K.

qc = qrad + qconv

-k A (ΔT/Δx) = 300 + 2156 = 2456 W

− 2456 x0.02
→ ΔT = = − 3.05 K
43 x0.5 x0.75

Hence inside plate temperature = 250 +3.05 = 253.05 oC.

FE-H.T. Introduction

Ex.4. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 m.m. diameter and 10

cms long. The wire is submerged in liquid water at atmospheric pressure and
the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h =5000
W/m2 oK and the water temperature will be 100oC. How much electric
power must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114oC ?

q = h A ∆T
= 5000 (0.1 x π x 0.001) (114-100)
= 21.99 W

Ex 5. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cms is maintained at a

temperature of 50oC in a large room of air temperature 20oC. Take εst=0.8
and h = 6.5 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss per unit length.

qconv/ ℓ = h (π d) (Tw - T∞) = 6.5 x π x 0.05 (50-20)=30.63 W/m

qrad / ℓ = ε π d σ (T14 – T24)

= 0.8 x π x 0.05 x 5.669x10-8 ( 3234 – 2934) = 25.04 W/m

Total heat loss/ unit length = qconv/ ℓ + qrad / ℓ = 30.63 + 25.04 = 55.67 W/m