Anda di halaman 1dari 4

# FE-H.T.

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

## Heat Transfer is the science of predicting thermal energy(Heat) transfer rate

taking place between two bodies as a result of temperature difference.

2- Convection.

## When a temperature gradient exists in a body, heat is transferred from high

temperature to low temperature by conduction.

K
dT
q x = − kA
dx

Watts (J/s) m2 m

## 2. CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

1
FE-H.T. Introduction

When fluid is flowing over a hot surface, heat is convected (carried by the
fluid) away from the surface; e.g. cooling your soup by blowing your breath.

## Very close to wall, heat is transferred by conduction, but the temperature

gradient is determined by the rate at which fluid carries away the heat; the
higher the velocity (u∞) the higher the temperature gradient.

## Newton’s Law of Cooling

q = hA ( T w − T ∞ ) ,

## Types: 1- Forced Convection, e.g. Fan blowing air.

2- Free convection (natural convection), e.g. thermal plume.

## Radiation Heat Transfer is through thermal radiation which is a type of

electromagnetic radiation. Heat is propagated as a result of temperature
difference, but it does not require a material medium.

An ideal thermal radiator( black body) will emit thermal energy qemitted,b at a
rate:
q emitted ,b = σ AT 4

## where σ is the Stefan- Boltzman constant, σ=5.669x10-8 W/m2.K4.

Real bodies radiate at a fraction of the black body radiation, the ratio being
called the emissivity, ε.

with each other do so within a certain view angle, the rest of the radiation
escaping to the surroundings.

2
FE-H.T. Introduction

## In general, the net radiation exchange between two bodies at temperature

T1 and T2 is :

q = Fe .FG .σ . A.(T1 − T2 )
4 4

## where Fe is an emissivity function, and FG is a geometric “view factor”

function.

EXAMPLES
Ex.1. A face of a copper plate 3 cms thick is maintained at 400oC and the
other face is maintained at 100oC. How much heat is transferred through the
plate?
kCu = 370 W/moK at 250oC.

q dT (100 − 400 )
= −k = − 370 = 3 .7 MW / m 2
A dx 0 .03

Ex.2. Air at 20oC blows over a hot plate 50cm x 75 cms, maintained at
250oC. The convection heat transfer coefficient is 25 W/m2 K. Calculate the
rate of heat transfer.

q = h A (Tw - T∞)
= 25 x 0.5 x 0.75 x (250-20)
= 2.156 kW

Ex.3. Assume previous plate is made of Carbon Steel 2 cms thick and that
300W is lost from the plate surface by radiation. Calculate the inside plate
surface temperature. kC.S.= 43 W/m K.

## -k A (ΔT/Δx) = 300 + 2156 = 2456 W

− 2456 x0.02
→ ΔT = = − 3.05 K
43 x0.5 x0.75

## Hence inside plate temperature = 250 +3.05 = 253.05 oC.

3
FE-H.T. Introduction

## Ex.4. An electric current is passed through a wire 1 m.m. diameter and 10

cms long. The wire is submerged in liquid water at atmospheric pressure and
the current is increased until the water boils. For this situation h =5000
W/m2 oK and the water temperature will be 100oC. How much electric
power must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114oC ?

q = h A ∆T
= 5000 (0.1 x π x 0.001) (114-100)
= 21.99 W

## Ex 5. A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cms is maintained at a

temperature of 50oC in a large room of air temperature 20oC. Take εst=0.8
and h = 6.5 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss per unit length.

## qrad / ℓ = ε π d σ (T14 – T24)

= 0.8 x π x 0.05 x 5.669x10-8 ( 3234 – 2934) = 25.04 W/m

Total heat loss/ unit length = qconv/ ℓ + qrad / ℓ = 30.63 + 25.04 = 55.67 W/m