POWER Plant

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POWER Plant

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Sec 7 & 8

Chapters

1. Steam Power Plant (12 hours)

2. Gas Turbines (8 hours)

3. Reciprocating Compressor (8 hours)

4. Refrigeration Systems (12 hours)

5. Mixtures (8 hours)

6. Internal Combustion Engine (8 hours)

1

Test 1

22 March 2017

F2 ATAS

RABU 8.00 PM – 9.30 PM

Test 2

3 May 2017

F2 ATAS

RABU 8.00 PM – 9.30 PM

RPP

PROJECT TASK

3

STEAM POWER

PLANT

by :

NORASIKIN MAT ISA

Room : C16-101-05

Off no : 07- 4537721

sikin@uthm.edu.my

nora_matisa@Hotmail.co.uk

STEAM POWER PLANT

The Principle of Heat Engine and the Second

Law of Thermodynamics

Carnot Cylce

Rankine Cycle

Perfomance Criteria of a Steam Power Plant

Rankine Cycle with Superheated Steam

Rankine Cycle with Reheating and

Regeneration

5

Objectives

1. Analyse vapor power cycles in which the working fluid is

alternately vaporized and condensed.

2. Investigate ways to modify the basic Rankine vapor

power cycle to increase the cycle thermal efficiency.

3. Analyse the reheat and regenerative vapor power

cycles.

4. Review power cycles that consist of two separate cycles,

known as combined cycles.

6

Today’s Lesson

2.Carnot Cycle and example

7

Thermal Power Plant

8

Sub-Systems in a Steam Power Plant

Our focus will be on sub-system A.

9

SUB-SYSTEM A

10

GENERATOR PRINCIPLE

What component produces electricity

in Power Plant..?

• A generator produces electricity. In a

generator, whenever something initiate

the shaft or armature to spin, electricity

is generated.

BUILDING A POWER PLANT

consists of..?

- Generator..? Of course What

Moves the

generator..??

Yup.. One of

them is steam

turbine….

Introduction

Steam (Water Vapor)

Steam is the most common working fluid used in vapor power cycles

because of its many desirable characteristics, such as: (a) low cost, (b)

availability, and (c) high enthalpy of vaporization#.

Steam power plants are commonly referred to as: (a) coal plants, (b)

nuclear plants, or (c) natural gas plants, depending on the type of fuel

used to supply heat to the steam.

The steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them. Therefore,

all can be analyzed in the same manner.

given temperature or pressure, hfg. 13

BASIC STEAM POWER PLANT

14

Carnot Vapor Cycle

Carnot cycle is the most efficient power cycle operating between two specified

temperature limits (Figure).

We can adopt the Carnot cycle first as a prospective ideal cycle for vapor power

plants.

Sequence of Processes:

1-2 Reversible and isothermal heating (in

a boiler);

2-3 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine);

3-4 Reversible and isothermal

condensation (in a condenser); and

4-1 Isentropic compression (in a

compressor).

15

Problem – Carnot Cycle

Consider A steady-flow Carnot cycle uses water as the

working fluid. Water changes from saturated liquid to

saturated vapor as heat is transferred to it from a source at

250°C. Heat rejection takes place at a pressure of 20 kPa.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram relative to the saturation

lines, and determine

(a)the thermal efficiency,

(b)the amount of heat rejected, in kJ/kg, and

(c)the net work output.

Is Carnot Cycle

Practical?

17

Is Carnot Cycle Practical?

The Carnot cycle is NOT a suitable model for

actual power cycles because of several

impracticalities associated with it:

Process 1-2

Limiting the heat transfer processes to two-

phase systems severely limits the maximum

temperature that can be used in the cycle

(374°C for water).

Process 2-3

The turbine cannot handle steam with a high

moisture content because of the impingement

of liquid droplets on the turbine blades causing

erosion and wear.

Process 4-1

It is not practical to design a compressor that

handles two phases. 18

The Rankine Cycle

Many of the impracticalities associated

with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated

by:

(a) superheating the steam in the

boiler,

(b) condensing the steam

completely in the condenser.

Rankine cycle, which is the ideal and

practical cycle for vapor power plants

(Figure).

This ideal cycle does not involve any

internal irreversibilities. 19

Sequence of Processes

of four processes:

1-2 Isentropic compression in a

water pump;

2-3 Constant pressure heat

addition in a boiler;

3-4 Isentropic expansion in a

turbine;

4-1 Constant pressure heat

rejection in a condenser.

20

Energy Analysis of Ideal Rankine Cycle

The pump, boiler, turbine, and condenser are steady-flow devices. Thus all four

processes that make up the ideal Rankine cycle can be analyzed as steady-flow

processes.

The kinetic and potential energy changes of the steam are usually small. Thus the

Steady-flow Energy Equation per unit mass of steam reduces to:

Energy Interactions

The boiler and condenser do not involve any

work but both involve with heat interactions.

The pump and the turbine are assumed to be

21

isentropic and both involve work interactions.

Energy Interactions in Each Device

Pump: The work needed to operate the water pump,

where,

the steam boiler,

the turbine,

to cooling medium in the

condenser,

22

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Thermal Efficiency

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is

determined from,

be interpreted as the ratio of the area

enclosed by the cycle on a T-s diagram to

the area under the heat-addition process.

Performance of Ideal Rankine Cycle

Back Work Ratio (BWR)

The back work ratio (bwr) of the Rankine cycle is

determined from,

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

10–15

A steam power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine

cycle between the pressure limits of 3 MPa and 50 kPa.

The temperature of the steam at the turbine inlet is

300°C, and the mass flow rate of steam through the cycle

is 35 kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to

saturation lines, and determine

(a)the thermal efficiency of the cycle and

(b)the net power output of the power plant

(c)The back work ratio (bwr)

25

Answers: (a) 27.1%, (b) 25.2MW

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

10–16

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a

simple ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10

MPa and 500°C and is cooled in the condenser at a

pressure of 10 kPa. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with

respect to saturation lines, and determine:

(a)the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,

(b)the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c)the mass flow rate of the steam.

Answers: (a) 0.793, (b) 40.2 percent, (c) 165 kg/s

26

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

Consider a coal-fired steam power plant that produces 300 MW of

electric power. The power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine

cycle with turbine inlet conditions of 5 MPa and 450°C and a

condenser pressure of 25 kPa. The coal has a heating value (energy

released when the fuel is burned) of 29,300 kJ/kg. Assuming that 75

per cent of this energy is transferred to the steam in the boiler and

that the electric generator has an efficiency of 96 per cent, determine

(a)the overall plant efficiency (the ratio of net electric power output to

the energy input as fuel) and

(b)the required rate of coal supply.

Actual Vapor Power Cycles

The actual vapor power cycle differs from the ideal Rankine cycle as a result of

irreversibilities in various components. Two common sources of irreversibilities are:

(a) fluid friction, and

(b) (b) heat loss to the surroundings.

Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the

boiler, condenser, and the piping between

various components. Water must be

pumped to a higher pressure - requires a

larger pump and larger work input.

the steam in the boiler to compensate

for the undesired heat losses from the

steam to the surroundings.

As a result, the cycle thermal efficiency

decreases.

Isentropic Efficiencies

A pump requires a greater work input, and a turbine produces a smaller work output

as a result of irreversibilities.

The deviation of actual pumps and turbines from the isentropic ones can be

accounted for by utilizing isentropic efficiencies, defined as,

Pump:

Turbine:

cooled to prevent the onset of cavitation, which

may damage the water pump. Additional losses

occur at the bearings between the moving parts

as a result of friction. Two other factors are the

steam that leaks out during the cycle and air that 29

leaks into the condenser.

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

10–16

Consider a 210-MW steam power plant that operates on a

simple Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 10 MPa

and 500°C and is cooled in the condenser at a pressure of

10 kPa. Assuming an isentropic efficiency of 85 percent for

both the turbine and the pump.Show the cycle on a T-s

diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine:

(a)the quality of the steam at the turbine exit,

(b)the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c)the mass flow rate of the steam.

Answers: (a) 0.874, (b) 34.1 percent, (c) 194 kg/s

30

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal

Rankine cycle and has a net power output of 45 MW. Steam

enters the turbine at 7 MPa and 500°C and is cooled in the

condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa by running cooling water from

a lake through the tubes of the condenser at a rate of 2000 kg/s.

Assuming an isentropic efficiency of 87 per cent for both the

turbine and the pump. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with

respect to saturation lines, and determine

(b)the mass flow rate of the steam, and

(c)the temperature rise of the cooling water.

Answers: (a) 33.8 per cent, (b) 41.4 kg/s, (c) 10.5°C

Increasing Efficiency of Rankine Cycle

Thermal efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle can be increased by:

(a) Increasing the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working

fluid in the boiler, or

(b) decreasing the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working

fluid in the condenser.

The condensers of steam power plants usually

operate well below the atmospheric pressure.

There is a lower limit to this pressure

depending on the temperature of the cooling

medium.

Side effect: Lowering the condenser pressure

increases the moisture content of the steam at

the final stages of the turbine – can cause blade

damage, decreasing isentropic efficiency.

32

Increasing Efficiency of Rankine Cycle

Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures

Superheating the steam increases both the net

work output and heat input to the cycle. The

overall effect is an increase in thermal efficiency of

the cycle.

Superheating to higher temperatures will decrease

the moisture content of the steam at the turbine

exit, which is desirable – avoid erosion of turbine

blades.

The superheating temperature is limited by

metallurgical considerations. Presently the highest

steam temperature allowed at the turbine inlet is

about 620°C.

33

Increasing Efficiency of Rankine Cycle

Increasing the Boiler Pressure

average temperature at which heat is

transferred to the steam. This, in turns

increases the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Note:

For a fixed turbine inlet temperature, the

cycle shifts to the left and the moisture

content of steam at the turbine exit increases.

This side effect can be corrected by reheating

the steam.

34

Problem – Increase the efficiency of the Rankine Cycle

Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 4 MPa and 350°C

and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa.

Determine

(b)the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to 650°C

instead of 350°C, and

(c)the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is raised to 15

MPa while the turbine inlet temperature is 600°C.

35

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

Reheating is a practical solution to the excessive moisture problem in turbines, and it

is commonly used in modern steam power plants. This is done by expanding the

steam in two-stage turbine, and reheat the steam in between the stages.

Note: Incorporation of the single reheat in a modern power plant improves the cycle efficiency

36

by 4 ~ 5 percent.

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

With a single reheating process, the total heat input and the

total turbine work output for the ideal cycle become,

37

The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on the ideal reheat

Rankine cycle. Steam enters the high pressure

turbine at 8 MPa and 500°C and leaves at 3 MPa.

Steam is then reheated at constant pressure to

500°C before it expands to 20 kPa in the low-

pressure turbine. Determine;

i. the turbine work output, in kJ/kg, and

ii. the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

saturation lines. 38

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat Rankine

cycle between the pressure limits of 15 MPa and 10 kPa. The

mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 12 kg/s. Steam

enters both stages of the turbine at 500°C. If the moisture

content of the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine

is not to exceed 10 per cent, show the cycle on a T-s diagram

with respect to saturation lines. Determine,

(b)the total rate of heat input in the boiler, and

(c)the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Problem - The Simple Rankine Cycle

Consider a steam power plant that operates on a reheat Rankine cycle

and has a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters the high-pressure

turbine at 10 MPa and 500°C and the low-pressure turbine at 1 MPa

and 500°C. Steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid at a

pressure of 10 kPa. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 80 per

cent, and that of the pump is 95 per cent. Show the cycle on a T-s

diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine

turbine exit,

(b)the thermal efficiency of the cycle, and

(c)the mass flow rate of the steam.

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Heat is transferred to the working fluid during process 2-2’ at a

relatively low temperature (Figure). This lowers the average heat-

addition temperature and thus the cycle efficiency.

Regeneration Process

Steam is extracted from the turbine at

various points, and is used to heat the

feedwater, before it enters the boiler. The

device where the feedwater is heated

using the steam is called a regenerator, or

a feedwater heater (FWH).

A feedwater heater is a heat exchanger

where heat is transferred from the

extracted steam to the feedwater either

by: (a) mixing the two fluid streams (open

FWH) or (b) without mixing them (closed

FWH) – heat transfer from steam to

feedwater. 41

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Open Feedwater Heaters

An open FWH is a mixing chamber, where the steam extracted from the

turbine (state 6) mixes with the feedwater exiting the pump (state 2). Ideally,

the mixture leaves the heater as a saturated liquid (state 3) at the FWH’s

pressure.

42

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Energy Analyses

The heat and work interactions in a regenerative Rankine cycle with one feedwater

heater can be expressed (per unit mass of steam flowing through the boiler), as

follows:

Mass of Steam Extracted

For each 1 kg of steam leaving

the boiler, y kg expands partially

in the turbine and is extracted at

Mass fraction of steam extracted from state 6.

the turbine, The remaining (1-y) kg of the

steam expands to the condenser

pressure.

Pump work input,

Therefore, the mass flow rates

of the steam will be different in

different components.

43

Note: The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters is increased.

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

44

Problem-The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative

Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450°C

and is condensed in the condenser at 20 kPa. Steam is

extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater

in an open feedwater heater. Water leaves the feedwater

heater as a saturated liquid. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram,

and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through

the boiler, and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Answers: (a) 1017 kJ/kg, (b) 37.8 percent 45

The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Closed Feedwater Heater

In a closed feedwater heater, heat is transferred from the extracted steam (state 7) to

the feedwater leaving the pump (state 2) without mixing. The two streams can be at

different pressures (P7 ≠ P2). The condensate (state 3) is pumped into a mixing

chamber to mixed with the heated feedwater (state 9).

Ideally, T9 T3

46

Problem-The Regenerative Rankine Cycle

A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle.

Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450°C and is condensed in the

condenser at 20 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa

to heat the feedwater in closed feedwater heater. Assume that the

feedwater leaves the heater at the condensation temperature of the

extracted steam and that the extracted steam leaves the heater as a

saturated liquid and is pumped to the line carrying the feedwater.

Show the cycle on a T-s diagram, and determine:

(a) the net work output per kg of steam flowing through the

boiler, and

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle.

47

Open & Closed FWH Combined

Most steam power plants use a combination of open and closed feedwater heaters.

48

Open vs. Closed Feedwater Heater

Open FWHs

Open feedwater heaters are simple and inexpensive. They have good

heat transfer characteristics.

For each feedwater heater used, additional feedwater pump is

required.

Closed FWHs

The closed feedwater heaters are more complex because of the

internal tubing network. Thus they are more expensive.

Heat transfer in closed feedwater heaters is less effective since the

two streams are not allowed to be in direct contact.

The closed feedwater heaters do not require a separate pump for

each FWH since the extracted steam and the feedwater can be at

different pressures. 49

Problem-The Reheat-Regenerative Rankine Cycle

Rankine cycle and has a net power output of 80 MW. Steam enters

the high-pressure turbine at 10 MPa and 550°C and leaves at 0.8

MPa. Some steam is extracted at this pressure to heat the feedwater

in an open feedwater heater. The rest of the steam is reheated to

500°C and is expanded in the low-pressure turbine to the condenser

pressure of 10 kPa.

(a) the mass flow rate of steam through the boiler, and

(b) thermal efficiency of the cycle.

Answers: (a) 54.5 kg/s, (b) 44.4 percent

50

Q1 (a)Describe why the Carnot cycle not considered suitable for

practical purposes.

(3 marks)

(b)An ideal reheat–regenerative steam power plant with two

open feedwater heater generates 150000 kW energy from the electric

generator directly couple to steam turbine. The boiler pressure is 10

MPa and 600°C and leaves the low pressure turbine as saturated

vopour at 7.5 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 1.8 MPa and

0.3 MPa, and reheated to 550°C at a pressure of 1 MPa. Water leaves

both feedwater as saturated liquid. By neglecting all the pumps

works, determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle and the mass

flow rate of steam through the boiler.

(17 marks)

51

Another combination of open and closed feedwater heaters.

52

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