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# FE-H.T.

conduction

## 1- The Plane Wall

dT
Fourier's law : q = − kA
dx

If k is uniform, then :
dT ΔT (T2 − T1 )
= , and q = − kA
dx Δx Δx

## If 3 walls side by side(in series) :

T2 − T1 T −T T −T
q = −k A . A. = −k B . A. 3 2 = −kC . A. 4 3
Δx A ΔxB ΔxC

## ∴ (T4 − T1 ) = (T4 − T3 ) + (T3 − T2 ) + (T2 − T1 )

− q ⎡ ΔxC Δx B Δx A ⎤
= ⎢ + + ⎥
A ⎣ kC kB kA ⎦

(T1 − T4 )
∴q =
Δx Δx B ΔxC
( A + + )
k A . A k B . A kC A

rate of
heat flow thermal resistance, Rth thermal potential difference.

T1 − T2 T2 − T3 T3 − T4
Also : q = = =
RA RB RC

## It is analogous to following electric circuit with RA=ΔxA/(kA.A),

RB=ΔxB/(kB.A) and RC=ΔxC/(kC.A):

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FE-H.T. conduction

Systems

## Assume L >> r0 to justify

1-D analysis:

dT dT
q r = − kAr = −2πrlk
dr dr

B.C.: T=Ti at r = ri

T=To at r = ro

## Rearranging and integrating yields:

2πlk
qr = (Ti − To )
ro → Rth = ln(ro/ri)/(2πℓk)
ln( )
r1
Employing thermal resistances to a
multi-layer cylindrical wall:

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FE-H.T. conduction

2πl (T1 − T4 )
qr =
ln( r2 / r1 ) ln( r3 / r2 ) ln( r4 / r3 )
+ +
kA kB kC

Multi-Layer Conduction
Ex1. An exterior wall of a house may be approximated by a
100 m.m. layer of common brick (k=0.7 W/m K) followed
by a 40 m.m. layer of gypsum plaster(k=0.48 W/m K). What
thickness of loosely packed rock-wool insulation(k=0.065 W
/m K) should be added to reduce the heat loss(or gain)
through the wall by 80% ?

## Rb=Δxb/(kb A) = 0.1/(0.7 A),

Rp= Δxp/(kp A) = 0.04/(0.48A)

## Thermal resistance/A without insulation = 0.143 +0.083=0.226 m2 K/W

q with insulation
= 0.2 =
ΔT
.
∑ Rth,without = 0.226
q without insulation ∑ Rth,insulation ΔT ∑ Rth,insulation
hence Rth,insulation =1.13 m2oK/W= 0.226 + Rth,R.W.
→ Rth,R.W.= 0.904 = ΔxR.W. / kR.W. = ΔxR.W./0.065 → ΔxR.W. = 0.0588 m

Ex2. A thick walled tube made of stainless steel(k=19 W/moK) with 2 cm inner
diameter and 4 cms O.D. is covered with 3 cms asbestos insulation (k = 0.2 W/m K).
If T1= 600oC and T2=100oC, calculate q /m length.

q 2π (T1 − T2 )
=
l ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 )
+
ks ka
2π (600 − 100)
=
ln 2 ln(5 / 2)
+
19 0 .2
= 680W / m

Convective Resistance

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FE-H.T. conduction

Tw − T∞
qconv = hA(Tw − T∞ ) =
1 /(hA)

convective resistance

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

q = h1 A (TA-T1)= kA(T1-T2)/Δx=h2A(T2-TB)

## Since (TA-TB)= (TA-T1)+(T1-T2)+(T2-TB), it

can be shown that :
(T A − T B )
q=
1 Δx 1 ≡ U . A. ∆Tover-all
( )+( )+( )
h1 A kA h2 A

1 1 Δx 1
∴ = + +
U h1 k h2

1
hence : U =
1 Δx 1
+ +
h1 k h2
U is called the “Over-all Heat Transfer Coeff.”

## For a hollow Cylinder:

Ao = π doℓ, Ai=π diℓ
TA − TB
q=
1 ln(ro / ri ) 1
+ +
hi Ai 2πkl ho Ao

i) based on Ai :
1
Ui =
1 Ai ln(ro / ri ) A
+ + i
hi 2πkl Ao ho

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FE-H.T. conduction

ii) based on Ao :
1
Uo =
Ao A ln(ro / ri ) 1
+ o +
Ai hi 2πkl ho

## Critical Thickness of Insulation

2π L (Ti − T∞ )
q=
ln( ro / ri ) 1
+
k ro h
for maximum q :
1 1
− 2π L (T i − T ∞ )( − )
dq kr o hr o2
= =0
dr o ln( ro / ri ) 1 2
[ + ]
k ro h

→ ro = k/h
This gives the critical radius of insulation.
If ro < (k/h) then the heat transfer rate will be increased by adding more
insulation; because if h is sufficiently small, q may increase with r since area
for convection increases.
If ro > (k/h), increase of ro will decrease q.

## Ex.1 Calculate critical radius of insulation for asbestos (k=0.17 W/m K)

surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 20oC with h= 3W/m2 K.
Calculate the heat loss from a 200oC, 5.0 cm diameter pipe when covered with
critical insulation and without insulation.
ro = k/h = 0.17/3 = 0.0567 m
without insulation: q/L= 2π roh(Ti-To)= 2 π x 0.025x 3 (200-20)= 84.8 W/m

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FE-H.T. conduction

## q 2π (Ti − T∞ ) 2π (200 − 20)

with insulation: = = = 105.7 W/m
L ln(ro / ri ) 1 ln(5.67 / 2.5) 1
+ +
k ro h 0.17 0.0567 x3

## Heat Source Systems

Example electric conductors, nuclear reactors, chemically reacting systems.

## Plane Wall with Heat Sources

d 2T q&
D.E. : + =0
dx 2 k
B.C. : T= Tw at x = L
dT/dx = 0 at x = 0 (from symmetry)
Integrating D.E. for above B.C.s yields:
dT q&
= − x + c1 , c1=0 from symmetry
dx k
q& 2
T =− x + c2
2k
q& 2
at x = L, T = Tw, → c2 = Tw + L
2k
q& 2
hence: (T − Tw ) = − ( x − L2 )
2k
2
(T − Tw ) ⎛x⎞
from which : = 1− ⎜ ⎟ ( eqn. of Parabola)
(To − Tw ) ⎝ L⎠
dT 2x dT (To − Tw )
d.w.r.t. x : = (To − Tw )(− 2 ) , ∴ = −2
dx L dx x= L L

dT 2k
hence : q x= L = −k = (To − Tw )
dx x= L L

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FE-H.T. conduction

2 k q& 2
∴q x=L
= L = q& L
L 2k
rate of heat loss through rate of heat generated in one half
one face/ unit area per unit area
For case where left side wall and right side wall display different temperatures
Ts1 and Ts2, respectively, solution is :

qL2 x 2 ⎛ T − T ⎞⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ T + T ⎞
T ( x) = (1 − 2 ) + ⎜⎜ s , 2 s ,1 ⎟⎟⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ s1 s 2 ⎟ {the one in H/B corrected,
2k L ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠

## together with long circular cylinder}

CONDUCTION–CONVECTION SYSTEMS:FINS
Fins are used in heat exchangers to increase convective heat transfer. Also on
motorcycle and compressor cylinders to increase cooling; they feature a
conduction-convection sequence.
Heat entering left face (qx) =
heat leaving right face (qx+dx)
+ heat lost by convection (dqc)
dT dT d 2T
q x = −kA , q x+dx = −kA( + .dx)
dx dx x dx 2

dqc= h.P.dx(T − T∞ )
dT dT d 2T
∴ − kA = −kA( + .dx) + h.P.dx(T − T∞ )
dx x dx x dx 2

## Canceling equal terms on R.H.S. and L.H.S.:

d 2T hP
− (T − T∞ ) = 0
dx 2 kA
Defining: m2 ≡ hP/(kA), the solution for a fin of finite length but with an

## insulated tip yields : q = hPkA (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mL

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FE-H.T. conduction

For real applications fin tips are not insulated. The same solution is applicable

## i.e. real fin surface area is extended by

an area equal to tip area

Lc=L+t/2

πd 2 / 4 d
Lc = L + =L+
πd 4

## SOME COMMON FIN TYPES

Ex1. An Aluminum fin (k=200 W/m K) 3.0 m.m. thick and 7.5 cm long
protrudes from a wall. The base is maintained at 300oC and the ambient
temperature is 50oC and h=10 W/m2 K. Calculate the heat loss from the fin
per unit depth of material.
Lc= L + t/2=7.5 + 0.15 = 7.65 cm

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FE-H.T. conduction

hP h ( 2 z + 2t ) 2h
m= = ≈
kA kzt kt
2 x10
= = 5.774
200 x3 x10 −3
from eqns for Case III(insulated pipe):

## q = hPkAθ o . tanh mLc

for a 1m depth, A=1x3x10-3 = 3 x 10-3 m2, z = 1m, P ≈ 2z = 2m

## II. UNSTEADY HEAT CONDUCTION

Lumped Heat Capacity System

## Systems which may be considered to possess a uniform temperature, may be

treated by “lumped heat capacity” method of analysis. It assumes that the
internal resistance of the body is negligible compared to external resistance.
T∞
q = h A (T-T∞) = - c ρ V dT/dt Q = h A (T-T∞)

## surface area for convection volume

Ttt
Initial condition: T=To at t=0

− hA
T t
dT hA
∫T T − T ∞ = ∫−
0
ρ cV
.dt =
ρ cV
.t
o T
T − T∞
[ln(T − T∞ )]TTo = − hA .t → = e − ( hA / ρ cV ) t
ρcV To − T∞
τ= (ρcV/hA) is called the time constant of the system. Lumped heat capacity
analysis is justified only if : Biot number (Bi) = h(V/A)/k << 1

## Total heat transferred up to time t is Q = ρ V cp (Ti-T)

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FE-H.T. conduction

## β [(T∞ ,max − T∞ ,min ) / 2] ω

T= cos[ωt − tan −1 ( )] + T∞ ,mean , where β=1/τ
ω +β
2 2 β

Ex1. A steel ball [c=0.46 kJ/kg oK, k =35 W/moK] 5.0 cm in diameter and
initially at a uniform temperature of 450oC is suddenly placed in a controlled
environment in which the temperature is maintained at 100oC. The convection
heat transfer coefficient is 10 W/m2 oK. Calculate the time required for the
ball to attain a temperature of 150oC.

Solution.
Bi= h(V/A)/k = 10[(4/3) π 0.0253)/(4 π 0.0252)]/35= 0.0023 < 0.1

hA/ρcV = 10×4 π 0.0252 /( 7800 × 460 × 4 π/3 × 0.0253) = 3.344 × 10-4 s-1
T − T∞
= e − ( hA / ρ cV ) t → (150-100)/(450-100)= e-0.0003344 t
To − T∞
→ t=5819s

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