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Kinematics, Dynamics and

Vibrations
Dr. Mustafa Arafa
Mechanical Engineering Department
American University in Cairo
mharafa@aucegypt.edu
Kinematics, dynamics and vibration
•Kinematics: study of motion (displacement,
velocity, acceleration, time) without reference to
the cause of motion (i.e. regardless of forces).
•Dynamics: study of forces acting on a body, and
resulting motion.
•Vibration: Oscillatory motion of bodies &
associated forces.
Outline
A. Kinematics of mechanisms
B. Dynamics of mechanisms
C. Rigid body dynamics
D. Natural frequency and resonance
E. Balancing of rotating &reciprocating
equipment
Kinematics of mechanisms
Four-bar mechanism

Single Degree of Freedom


Slider-crank mechanism

Single Degree of Freedom


Position analysis
Given: a,b,c,d, the ground position, q2.
Find: q3 and q4
b
B
c

b
A q3
c

q2 q4
d
O2 O4
Graphical solution
b
• Draw an arc of radius b, c
centered at A
• Draw an arc of radius c, B1
centered at O4
b
• The intersections are the A q3
two possible positions for c

the linkage, open and a


crossed q2 d q4

O2 O4

B2
Analytical solution
Obtain coordinates of point A:
Ax  a cosq 2
Ay  a sin q 2
Obtain coordinates of point B:
b 2  Bx  Ax   B y  Ay 
2 2

c 2  B x  d   B y
2 2

These are 2 equations in 2 unknowns: Bx and By


Rigid body dynamics
Types of motion

Rectilinear Curvilinear
Basic equations
Projectile
Projectile
y
v

a g

v
x
a
a v
Natural frequency and resonance
Model of a vibrating system
Spring and mass
Spring, mass and damper
Forced vibration
Balancing of machinery
Static unbalance
Couple unbalance
Dynamic unbalance