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ABSTRACT

LABORATORY TEST OF SCOUR DEPTH ON PILLAR DESIGN OF PASAR BARU


BRIDGE

Ahmad Sharif Sukri1,Muriadin2, Isra Rosliana3


3
Civil Engineering Students, 2Supervisor II and Lecturer, 3 Supervisor I and Lecturer in Civil
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Halu Oleo
e-mail: Isra95Rosliana@yahoo.com

This study using advanced hydrological system in the submerged tool Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering, University of Halu Oleo. The purpose of this study is to describe the
depth of scour at the bridge pillar scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari and how much depth of
scour and pressure that occur around the pillars of the bridge scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari.
The data used is the measurement results directly on the river bridge wanggu then Pasar
Baru scale modeling to explore the research in the laboratory, field measurements of flow
rate using current measuring devices or so-called Current Meter with three-point method, the
depth of 0.2 d, 0,6d and 0,8d from the surface of the water at the location.
The result of the measurement in the field obtained the water depth of the prototype (hp)
= 2,453 m, prototype flow velocity (vp)= 0,474 (m/s), and prototype discharge (Qp) = 40,259
m3/s while the water depth in the model (hm) = 6 cm, flow velocity in the model (vm)= 0,075
m/d and discharge in the model (Qm) = 0,00318 m3/d and result of research about crumbling
depth inspection laboratory test at pillar scaffold of Pasar Baru bridge indicate that maximum
scour depth happened at four and five side scaffolding pillars side side left and right side of
pillar 4,5,6 and 7 yamg reach maximal depth 0,8 cm . Calculation of scour depth using
empirical formula SCU (2001) Ds = 0.8 cm and Froehlich (1991) ys = 0.75 cm.

Keywords: scour depth, Froehlich equation, the equation SCU, the scale model
in the River Wanggu in JL. MT. Haryono
Pasar Baru Kendari by using the pillar as a
1. INTRODUCTION scaffold to support the bridge structure that
One of the basic infrastructure is placed in the middle of construction that
components is a road transportation could affect the river flow patterns that
network of roads and bridges. The bridge result in changes in local scour around the
is required if the path crosses the river pillar.
channel. The structure of growth is usually The process is characterized by the
recorded bridge consists of two important migration of sediment scouring Yang
parts of the building structure above and menutupi bridge piers and river erosion
below the building structures such as will follow the flow pattern. The process
pillars and bridge abutment. The rapid continues and explore the hole will grow,
development of the current government growing reaches a maximum depth. The
transport or Prov. Sultra conducted influence of the flow rate will be more
Wanggu construction replacement River dominant (U / Uc) the cause of elementary
bridge at JL. MT. Haryono, Pasar Baru particles enter and exit into the scour hole,
Kendari. Construction of roads and bridges
but the depth is fixed or constant. In the 𝑣0,2 +𝑣0,6
𝑣=
equilibrium state the maximum depth will 2
be greater than the average depth of scour. 3. Three methods TitikMetode three
The purpose of this research is to points by calculating the average
analyze the depth of scour in scaffolding speed based on the speed in 0.2, 0.6
bridge piers of New Market Kendari and to and 0.8 deep.
know How much the depth of scour and
pressure that occur around bridge pillars 𝑣0,2 +𝑣0,6 +𝑣0,8
scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari City. 𝑣= or
3
𝑣 +𝑣
2. LITERATURE [( 0,2 0,6 )+𝑣0,6 ]
2
2.1 Counting Speed River Flow 𝑣=
2
In calculating the speed of the average
river in each withappliancevertikal flow 4. Methods Five Point
meter can be determined by one of the Five-point method, calculated by the
following methods. following equation:
1. One Point Method 𝑣𝑠 +3𝑣0,2 +2𝑣0,6 +3𝑣0,8 +𝑣𝑏
This method is used for shallow wells 𝑣=
10
to measure the depth of 0.6 hours. The With
speed can be calculated with the following
vs = velocity surface offlowdi
formula:
vb = Is the flow velocity at the base.
v = v0.6
2.2 Scour
with: v = flow velocity (m / s) 2.2.1 Understanding the Scours
The matetr river deposition grounds
consist of a river is the result of erosion
and deposition processes generated by
changes in flow patterns on river. Alluvial
flow pattern changes can occur due to
obstruction / obstacle in the river, in the
form of the pillars of the bridge, a river
bed, spurdike, bridge abutments, and so
on. Build this sort looks to change the
Figure 2.1 Method 1 point (Triatmdjo,
geometry of the flow and the flow pattern,
B.2010) followed by cases of scours near the
2. Method Two Point building (Legono 1990) in Prasetyo (2006)
Different types of scour given by
Raudkivi and Ettema (1982) in Prasetyo
(2006), are as follows: scours general
(general Scour) in the flow of the river,
has nothing to do with whether or not there
is a building of the river. It scours caused
Figure 2.2 Method 2 point (Triatmdjo, B. by the energy of the flow in the
2010) localization aliran.Gerusan, occur because
of narrowing of the river flow so that the
Measurement carried out at a depth of flow becomes more concentrated. Local
0.2 hours and 0.8 hours. The average speed scouring around the building occurred
can be calculated with the following because the local flow pattern around
formula: buildings river.
The three types of scours can occur pressure will decrease and lead to
at the same time but in different places. downward flow (down flow) that flows
Rub types 2 and 3 and then divided into from high speed to low speed.strength
scours without sediment tanspor. (clear- Under current will reach a maximum
water scour) and scour sediment (live-bed when it is right at the base of the channel.
scour). Clear-water scour occurs when (Graf and Yulistiyanto, 1997 and 1998) in
materials riverbed upstream side of the Ikhsan and Hidayat (2006).
building in a state of rest or no material is Vertical flow components caused
transported. In matamatis basic shear immediately after scouring. Due to the
stress, to <tcriticaltegangan sliding kr of stagnation pressure in front of the pillar,
living-sleeping, scouring occurs the water level rises and forms
accompanied by sediment transport from arcwave.Then a horseshoe vortex
the base material. develops as a result of flow separation
According to according to Ettema downstream scour hole circle eroded by
and Raudkivi (1982) in Ikhsan and aliranbawah. Horseshoe vortex scours is a
Hidayat (2006), the difference scours can consequence, not a cause, even a
be divided into: horseshoe vortex is very effective in the
a. general scours (general scour).Scours removal of material out of the scour hole.
caused by a natural process and nothing Horseshoe vortex extends toward scour
to do with whether there is a building of hole downstream, past the side pillars. The
the river. flow separates at the side of the pillar and
b. Exploring in localization formedsystem. wake vortexturbulence
(constrictionscour) .Scours caused by intensity increases, scrub and
narrowing of the river flow so that the angkutansedimen consequently increased.
flow to be concentrated. Mechanism According to scour
c. Scour (scours).is a direct result of the around bridge pier Hanwar (1999) in
structure of the flow of the river. Nenny and Imran (2014) is when the pillar
The depth and explore the area covering sediment particles begin to move,
affected by the bridge and all parts of the then the rubbing process began to take
following factors: shape. Eroded particles will follow the
a. Tilt, normal straight line (natural pattern of the current and carried away
harmony) and change the channel. from the pillar to the bottom of the river.
b. The type and amount of the base In addition, if the particles of sediment is
material being transported. eroded, then the form will explore reaches
c. The flow rate (Q) a maximum depth of scour. Then the flow
d. Limitations or changes in the flow rate further development of the U> Uc will
through the bridge and canal. affect the process of entry and exit from
e. Pillar geometry and the normal straight the sediments of the scour hole.
line.
f. Changes in natural or manmade
changes in flow or sedimentary
structures.
g. Accidents, such as the collapse of the
structure.

2.2.2 Abrasive mechanism


scouring that occurs around the pillar
is the result of a vortex system (Vortex Figure 2.1 Sketch of flow around a vertical
system) arising from pillar flow is blocked. height deficit submerged cylinder height h
Pillar approach flow and stagnation and diameter D. (Zhao et al, 2010)
scouring water depth (obviously velocity average depth / depth average
scouring the water)and water bersedimen critical approach speed (Vc). Critical
(live bed scours) is a function of shear rate, average depth approach speed is the speed
as shown in The following image. of an average depth of minimum flow of
sediment movement will occur. The shape
of the flow intensity (V / Vc) requires
vertical speed data that are known or
assumed (usually logarithmic) to calculate
the critical depth of the average velocity
(Vc) of Figure 3. The sediments there.

Figure 2.2 Relationship scour


depth(clearwater dantidurgerusanhidup)
with time. (Miller, 2003)

The depth of scour at the pillars, and


its intensity depends on the flow, Figure 2.4 Diagram Shields (Miller, 2003)
sediment, and geometric interference
bridge pillar. Navigating around the pillars Melville (1975) in Miller (2003) in
began to occur at the time of the base Prasetyo (2006) describes the stages of
material begins to move. Eroding particles scouring that occurs as follows:
follow the direction of the flow from 1. The increase in the flow that occurred
upstream to downstream pillars. The basic during the change of flow lines around
ingredients will continue to erode, and if the pillar
the increase in the flow rate, the size and 2. Vortex flow separation and an increase
depth of scour increases. Dipilar scour of more intensive horseshoe, causing
pattern can be seen in the following figure. enlargement of the scour hole.
3. Landslide or decrease the material
around the hole when the scour hole big
enough after exposure to the horseshoe
vortex.

2.2.3 The pattern of flow


in open channel flow conditions
based on the position of the free surfaces
tend to change according to time and
space. In addition, there is a dependency
Figure 2.3 Mechanism scours because the relationship between the depth of flow,
pattern of water flow around the pillars water flow, slope, basic channels and free
(Miller, 2003) surface. The flow pattern around the pillars
which are very complex and difficult to
Second, the more common form of assess hidrodinamiknya behavior,
the intensity of the flow using average especially at the front end of the pillars of
speeds depth /the average depth of the the flow pattern. The complexity of this
approach speed (V) and the critical flow pattern will evolve in line with the
development of the scour hole itself. The 1. Distortion Not Model
results of the study (Shen: 1971 and Model that have a scale length and the
Roudkivi: 1991) in Prasetyo (2006) same vertical model called no distortion.
showed that the complex components in ➢ Wide scale and volume
the flow pattern, generating a shape like a 𝐵𝑒𝑠𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑖 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑝
circle milling. 𝑛=
𝐵𝑒𝑠𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑖 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙
The flow patterns on the pillars
according to Graf (1998) Prasetyo (2006),
which flowsoccursdirection vertically
2. Model Distortion
downwardthatmembentuk vortek,and
Model that have horizontal and
actively causing scour. Total pillar
vertical scale of different so-called model
menentukanbesarnya, vortekwhich affects
of distortion. This model is used when the
the amount of scour. But the influence of
dimensions of the prototype are very large,
the magnitude of the pillar also makes the
like a river, beach da forth.
display channel narrowing (constriction).
When the horizontal scale is nL and
Thefield flowaround pillar is
the vertical scale nh then:
generally characterized in that the 𝐿𝑝 hp
acceleration of upstream pillar, then 𝑛𝐿 = 𝐿 atau nh = h
𝑚 m
weakened by a pillar, or slowing the flow,
the flow ofseparated by vorteksystem.Ata 3. METHODS
considerable distance from the pillar, 3.1 Sampling Location
uniform flow will be formed again. Locationof this study are in JL. MT.
Haryono river bridge Wanggu Pasar Baru.
2.3 Scour depth empiricalequation Coordinates bridge upstream speed of data
2.3.1 equationCSU (2001) In Paserang retrieval in 3˚59'45.82 '' S and
(2010: 23) 122˚30'50,88''T and coordinate bridge
Analysis kedalama exploring for downstream speed of data retrieval with
Clear-Water Scour and living-sleeping 0.22% elevation meters above sea level.
Exploring with variations in width and
length of the pillars and pilarterhadap
position directional flow provides the
following equation:
𝑎, 0,65
Ds = 2,0. 𝐾1 𝐾2 𝐾3 𝐾4 ( 𝑦 ) 𝐹𝑟 0,43 𝑦

2.3.2 Equation Froehlich


Froehlich, using dimensional
analysis and multiple regression analysis
of 164 trialsexploringclear-water the
flume in the lab, to get the following
equation
0.62.
ys = 0.32. φ. y00.47. Fr0.22. D50-0.09 + a

Figure 3.1 Location of research case


studies (Google Earth, 2017)
3.1.1 The 1. Pilar Model
instrument will be used in this study
was Advance hydrological System

System Hydrology shown in (Gunt 3.2 Prosedur Operasi


Manual, 2005)

Caption:
1. TankExperiment
Tank Inlet2.
3. Tilt Adjusting Land (Behind the Control
....Panel)
4. Control Panel
5. Regulatory Debit
6. Pump
7. Regulatory Rainfall
Supply tangki
8. Water Container
9. Water and Sediment
10.Water Soil Pipe System Figure 3.8 Flow Research Stages
11.tank filler
12.front manometer panel for High
.....Groundwater Wells
13.Sprinkler 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
14.Rainhole 4.1 DAS Speed
15. screenSediment Measurement
16. Pump Switch
17. Main Switch
18. Water flowsscreenmeasurement of
19. Timing Rain
20. Switchesmeasurements Rain
Figure 4.2 Sketch measurements (Data
21.switch Emergency button
Analysis, 2017)
Table 4.1 Results of measurement of the 4.1.1.3 Skala Model Stacked
flow rate
Table 4.3 scale models Directions
Vertical

(Source: Data Analysis, 2017) Source: Data Analysis 2017

Table 4.4 Scale Model Directions


4.1.1 Analysis models Scale Horizontal
4.1.1.1 Scale River model of
Table 4.2 models Scale and prototype

Source: 2017 Data Analysis

For scalediameter pillar


prototypesDiameter 40 cm
Source: 2017 Data Analysis 𝐿𝑝 40
𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 100 = 0,4 cm
𝑚
4.1.1.2 Scale models of Bridges
Bridges width on the model: So the diameter of the pillars in the model
𝐿𝑝 23,4
𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = = 0,234 m is 0.4 cm
𝐿 100

wide bridge on the model madalah0,234~ 4.2 Depth Comparative Analysisscour


23.4 cm Results
panjangdari bridge on the model: 4.6 Comparison tableresults of laboratory
𝐿𝑝 74,2
𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 90 = 0,824 m studies with analysis using the
𝐿
empirical formula
long bridge on the model is 0.824 m ~
82.4 cm
long entrance scaffolding poles in the
water on the model:
𝐿𝑝 41,3
𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 90 = 0,459 m
𝐿
wide bridge on the model is 0459 m ~ (Source: data analysis, 2017)
45,9cm
4.3 scours Depth (Ds) time terahadap
(minutes)

Figure 4.9 The position of the vertical


Figure 4.4 Model scaffolding pole (data direction on the model of
analysis, 2017)

Figure 4.10 graphs the front of the depth


exploring Ds (cm) with a vertical distance
Figure 4.5 points pillar observation (cm ) Review the left side and the right
scaffold 1 up (data analysis, 2017 ) sidescaffold
shows gerusn grafikdioccurs in the
4.3.1 scour depth (cm) to the distance
pillar scaffolding depth overall in terms of
Directions Vertical Mast scaffold
the vertical direction to the left and right
(cm)
side of the scaffold. In order to explore the
by The scale model of analysis
depth readings (Ds) on scaffolding look
results in a vertical pillar scaffolding
presentable then use this type of chart Line
bridge river Wanggu New Markets as
(Stacked Line With Markers), but because
listed in Table 4.3 Scale models of vertical
the data entry much so that there skalatis
and an average depth of scour at each
explore in-depth reading. For the depth of
scaffold song pillars. Exploring the depth
scour (Ds)of each scaffold songs pillar
(DS)vertical distance in the flow direction
reviewed at a vertical distance of more
in terms of scaffolding pole from the left
details can be seen in the chart below:
side and the right side of the scaffold.
Results of laboratory research as in Annex
2, it can be seen the depth of the
relationship scour against data analysis
vertical direction of the reviews left and
right sides, as shown below:
Figure 4.11 graphs the front of the depth of
scour Ds (cm) to Line Scaffolding 1
vertical distance (cm)
scour the maximum occurs the vertical
distance observation left and right sides,
poles scaffold lines 1 maximum scour
occurs at the pole-4 -0.44 with minimal
scour occurs over the poles 7 of 0.01.
4.10.2 scour depth (cm) To Distance
Directions Horizontal Pole
Scaffolding (cm) Figure 4.23 Graph relation explore the
depths Ds (cm) to the scaffold line 1
By the results of the analysis in the horizontal distance (cm)
horizontal direction Wanggu scale model
of the river bridge pillar scaffolding New maximum scour occurs at a horizontal
Markets as listed in Table 4.4 Scale Model distance observations of front and rear
vertical direction and the average depth of pillars scaffolding poles 1 occurred on line
scour at each scaffold song pillars. 4 of -0.39 cm with minimal -0.14 cm
Exploring the depth (DS)of horizontal scouring occurred on scaffolding lane 2,
distance on a scaffolding pole scaffolding
things flow toward the front and rear. from the graph it can be seen that the
Results of laboratory research as in Annex position of the middle pillar duct scaffold
2, it can be seen the depth of relationships to increasingly explore more in that case.
explored towards data analysis horizontal This could be due to the position of the
reviews of the front and rear, as shown scaffold bridge piers are in a straight flow
below: direction in accordance with the laws of
physics friction-free area of the hoist is the
heaviest flow so mempengruhi different
patterns of exploring left and right
channels with center channel.
In general, the pattern that occurs at
any point of observation is relatively polar
exploring the same scaffold. Starting from
the stream originating from upstream
obstructed by pillars, can cause a vortex
caused by the flow rate that hit the front
pillar be a compressive force on the
surface of the pillar. Whirlpool which is
reduced from the front pillar and then
Figure 4.21 The position of the vertical grind the side and the rear pillar and causes
direction on the model of scours(localscour)on the pillar.
Factors that affect the state of scour
and deposition can be caused by changes
in flow velocity at the time of unobstructed
flow peranah their pillars, pillars dihulu
steady pace but further downstream
stabilize the back. Exploring the pattern
around the pillars parallel to the direction
Figure 4.22 Graph deep connection to of flow is greater than the pillars that form
explore Ds (cm) with a horizontal distance an angle to the direction of flow.
(term cm ) front and rear scaffolding
5. CONCLUSIONS AND 2. Studiharus performed using software
RECOMMENDATIONS HEC-race for a clearer pattern appear
5.1 Conclusions there to explore the basic channels.
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