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Diunggah oleh Fikhy Titisan Prihadi

ABSTRACK SKRIPSI

- append_a.pdf
- 7359.pdf
- Ccm Calculator 2011
- Breuning Madsen 2017
- adjectives
- Crucial Role of Physical Modeling in Developing Intake Configuration
- Pro Prac the Project
- What Are Intake Structures
- Computation of Afflux With Particular Reference to Widening of Bridges on a Roadway
- Turputallu 5m Span Design
- Similarity of Distorted River Models With Movable Bed
- River Landforms
- Culvert Technologies List
- IMPACT OF RIVER CONFLUENCE AND FLOOD LOSS IN BAMBULI AND ANAV VILLAGES OF SINDHUDURG DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA- by Sapkale,J.B. _ Vidya A. Chougule
- GIPE-017952 (1)
- Land and Water Management
- Sustainable Low-Cost Housing in Ethiopia
- Hughes v. United States, 230 U.S. 24 (1913)
- Lesley
- Dam Breaching Experiment

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BRIDGE

3

Civil Engineering Students, 2Supervisor II and Lecturer, 3 Supervisor I and Lecturer in Civil

Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Halu Oleo

e-mail: Isra95Rosliana@yahoo.com

This study using advanced hydrological system in the submerged tool Laboratory,

Faculty of Engineering, University of Halu Oleo. The purpose of this study is to describe the

depth of scour at the bridge pillar scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari and how much depth of

scour and pressure that occur around the pillars of the bridge scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari.

The data used is the measurement results directly on the river bridge wanggu then Pasar

Baru scale modeling to explore the research in the laboratory, field measurements of flow

rate using current measuring devices or so-called Current Meter with three-point method, the

depth of 0.2 d, 0,6d and 0,8d from the surface of the water at the location.

The result of the measurement in the field obtained the water depth of the prototype (hp)

= 2,453 m, prototype flow velocity (vp)= 0,474 (m/s), and prototype discharge (Qp) = 40,259

m3/s while the water depth in the model (hm) = 6 cm, flow velocity in the model (vm)= 0,075

m/d and discharge in the model (Qm) = 0,00318 m3/d and result of research about crumbling

depth inspection laboratory test at pillar scaffold of Pasar Baru bridge indicate that maximum

scour depth happened at four and five side scaffolding pillars side side left and right side of

pillar 4,5,6 and 7 yamg reach maximal depth 0,8 cm . Calculation of scour depth using

empirical formula SCU (2001) Ds = 0.8 cm and Froehlich (1991) ys = 0.75 cm.

Keywords: scour depth, Froehlich equation, the equation SCU, the scale model

in the River Wanggu in JL. MT. Haryono

Pasar Baru Kendari by using the pillar as a

1. INTRODUCTION scaffold to support the bridge structure that

One of the basic infrastructure is placed in the middle of construction that

components is a road transportation could affect the river flow patterns that

network of roads and bridges. The bridge result in changes in local scour around the

is required if the path crosses the river pillar.

channel. The structure of growth is usually The process is characterized by the

recorded bridge consists of two important migration of sediment scouring Yang

parts of the building structure above and menutupi bridge piers and river erosion

below the building structures such as will follow the flow pattern. The process

pillars and bridge abutment. The rapid continues and explore the hole will grow,

development of the current government growing reaches a maximum depth. The

transport or Prov. Sultra conducted influence of the flow rate will be more

Wanggu construction replacement River dominant (U / Uc) the cause of elementary

bridge at JL. MT. Haryono, Pasar Baru particles enter and exit into the scour hole,

Kendari. Construction of roads and bridges

but the depth is fixed or constant. In the 𝑣0,2 +𝑣0,6

𝑣=

equilibrium state the maximum depth will 2

be greater than the average depth of scour. 3. Three methods TitikMetode three

The purpose of this research is to points by calculating the average

analyze the depth of scour in scaffolding speed based on the speed in 0.2, 0.6

bridge piers of New Market Kendari and to and 0.8 deep.

know How much the depth of scour and

pressure that occur around bridge pillars 𝑣0,2 +𝑣0,6 +𝑣0,8

scaffolding Pasar Baru Kendari City. 𝑣= or

3

𝑣 +𝑣

2. LITERATURE [( 0,2 0,6 )+𝑣0,6 ]

2

2.1 Counting Speed River Flow 𝑣=

2

In calculating the speed of the average

river in each withappliancevertikal flow 4. Methods Five Point

meter can be determined by one of the Five-point method, calculated by the

following methods. following equation:

1. One Point Method 𝑣𝑠 +3𝑣0,2 +2𝑣0,6 +3𝑣0,8 +𝑣𝑏

This method is used for shallow wells 𝑣=

10

to measure the depth of 0.6 hours. The With

speed can be calculated with the following

vs = velocity surface offlowdi

formula:

vb = Is the flow velocity at the base.

v = v0.6

2.2 Scour

with: v = flow velocity (m / s) 2.2.1 Understanding the Scours

The matetr river deposition grounds

consist of a river is the result of erosion

and deposition processes generated by

changes in flow patterns on river. Alluvial

flow pattern changes can occur due to

obstruction / obstacle in the river, in the

form of the pillars of the bridge, a river

bed, spurdike, bridge abutments, and so

on. Build this sort looks to change the

Figure 2.1 Method 1 point (Triatmdjo,

geometry of the flow and the flow pattern,

B.2010) followed by cases of scours near the

2. Method Two Point building (Legono 1990) in Prasetyo (2006)

Different types of scour given by

Raudkivi and Ettema (1982) in Prasetyo

(2006), are as follows: scours general

(general Scour) in the flow of the river,

has nothing to do with whether or not there

is a building of the river. It scours caused

Figure 2.2 Method 2 point (Triatmdjo, B. by the energy of the flow in the

2010) localization aliran.Gerusan, occur because

of narrowing of the river flow so that the

Measurement carried out at a depth of flow becomes more concentrated. Local

0.2 hours and 0.8 hours. The average speed scouring around the building occurred

can be calculated with the following because the local flow pattern around

formula: buildings river.

The three types of scours can occur pressure will decrease and lead to

at the same time but in different places. downward flow (down flow) that flows

Rub types 2 and 3 and then divided into from high speed to low speed.strength

scours without sediment tanspor. (clear- Under current will reach a maximum

water scour) and scour sediment (live-bed when it is right at the base of the channel.

scour). Clear-water scour occurs when (Graf and Yulistiyanto, 1997 and 1998) in

materials riverbed upstream side of the Ikhsan and Hidayat (2006).

building in a state of rest or no material is Vertical flow components caused

transported. In matamatis basic shear immediately after scouring. Due to the

stress, to <tcriticaltegangan sliding kr of stagnation pressure in front of the pillar,

living-sleeping, scouring occurs the water level rises and forms

accompanied by sediment transport from arcwave.Then a horseshoe vortex

the base material. develops as a result of flow separation

According to according to Ettema downstream scour hole circle eroded by

and Raudkivi (1982) in Ikhsan and aliranbawah. Horseshoe vortex scours is a

Hidayat (2006), the difference scours can consequence, not a cause, even a

be divided into: horseshoe vortex is very effective in the

a. general scours (general scour).Scours removal of material out of the scour hole.

caused by a natural process and nothing Horseshoe vortex extends toward scour

to do with whether there is a building of hole downstream, past the side pillars. The

the river. flow separates at the side of the pillar and

b. Exploring in localization formedsystem. wake vortexturbulence

(constrictionscour) .Scours caused by intensity increases, scrub and

narrowing of the river flow so that the angkutansedimen consequently increased.

flow to be concentrated. Mechanism According to scour

c. Scour (scours).is a direct result of the around bridge pier Hanwar (1999) in

structure of the flow of the river. Nenny and Imran (2014) is when the pillar

The depth and explore the area covering sediment particles begin to move,

affected by the bridge and all parts of the then the rubbing process began to take

following factors: shape. Eroded particles will follow the

a. Tilt, normal straight line (natural pattern of the current and carried away

harmony) and change the channel. from the pillar to the bottom of the river.

b. The type and amount of the base In addition, if the particles of sediment is

material being transported. eroded, then the form will explore reaches

c. The flow rate (Q) a maximum depth of scour. Then the flow

d. Limitations or changes in the flow rate further development of the U> Uc will

through the bridge and canal. affect the process of entry and exit from

e. Pillar geometry and the normal straight the sediments of the scour hole.

line.

f. Changes in natural or manmade

changes in flow or sedimentary

structures.

g. Accidents, such as the collapse of the

structure.

scouring that occurs around the pillar

is the result of a vortex system (Vortex Figure 2.1 Sketch of flow around a vertical

system) arising from pillar flow is blocked. height deficit submerged cylinder height h

Pillar approach flow and stagnation and diameter D. (Zhao et al, 2010)

scouring water depth (obviously velocity average depth / depth average

scouring the water)and water bersedimen critical approach speed (Vc). Critical

(live bed scours) is a function of shear rate, average depth approach speed is the speed

as shown in The following image. of an average depth of minimum flow of

sediment movement will occur. The shape

of the flow intensity (V / Vc) requires

vertical speed data that are known or

assumed (usually logarithmic) to calculate

the critical depth of the average velocity

(Vc) of Figure 3. The sediments there.

depth(clearwater dantidurgerusanhidup)

with time. (Miller, 2003)

its intensity depends on the flow, Figure 2.4 Diagram Shields (Miller, 2003)

sediment, and geometric interference

bridge pillar. Navigating around the pillars Melville (1975) in Miller (2003) in

began to occur at the time of the base Prasetyo (2006) describes the stages of

material begins to move. Eroding particles scouring that occurs as follows:

follow the direction of the flow from 1. The increase in the flow that occurred

upstream to downstream pillars. The basic during the change of flow lines around

ingredients will continue to erode, and if the pillar

the increase in the flow rate, the size and 2. Vortex flow separation and an increase

depth of scour increases. Dipilar scour of more intensive horseshoe, causing

pattern can be seen in the following figure. enlargement of the scour hole.

3. Landslide or decrease the material

around the hole when the scour hole big

enough after exposure to the horseshoe

vortex.

in open channel flow conditions

based on the position of the free surfaces

tend to change according to time and

space. In addition, there is a dependency

Figure 2.3 Mechanism scours because the relationship between the depth of flow,

pattern of water flow around the pillars water flow, slope, basic channels and free

(Miller, 2003) surface. The flow pattern around the pillars

which are very complex and difficult to

Second, the more common form of assess hidrodinamiknya behavior,

the intensity of the flow using average especially at the front end of the pillars of

speeds depth /the average depth of the the flow pattern. The complexity of this

approach speed (V) and the critical flow pattern will evolve in line with the

development of the scour hole itself. The 1. Distortion Not Model

results of the study (Shen: 1971 and Model that have a scale length and the

Roudkivi: 1991) in Prasetyo (2006) same vertical model called no distortion.

showed that the complex components in ➢ Wide scale and volume

the flow pattern, generating a shape like a 𝐵𝑒𝑠𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑖 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑖𝑝

circle milling. 𝑛=

𝐵𝑒𝑠𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑛 𝑑𝑖 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑒𝑙

The flow patterns on the pillars

according to Graf (1998) Prasetyo (2006),

which flowsoccursdirection vertically

2. Model Distortion

downwardthatmembentuk vortek,and

Model that have horizontal and

actively causing scour. Total pillar

vertical scale of different so-called model

menentukanbesarnya, vortekwhich affects

of distortion. This model is used when the

the amount of scour. But the influence of

dimensions of the prototype are very large,

the magnitude of the pillar also makes the

like a river, beach da forth.

display channel narrowing (constriction).

When the horizontal scale is nL and

Thefield flowaround pillar is

the vertical scale nh then:

generally characterized in that the 𝐿𝑝 hp

acceleration of upstream pillar, then 𝑛𝐿 = 𝐿 atau nh = h

𝑚 m

weakened by a pillar, or slowing the flow,

the flow ofseparated by vorteksystem.Ata 3. METHODS

considerable distance from the pillar, 3.1 Sampling Location

uniform flow will be formed again. Locationof this study are in JL. MT.

Haryono river bridge Wanggu Pasar Baru.

2.3 Scour depth empiricalequation Coordinates bridge upstream speed of data

2.3.1 equationCSU (2001) In Paserang retrieval in 3˚59'45.82 '' S and

(2010: 23) 122˚30'50,88''T and coordinate bridge

Analysis kedalama exploring for downstream speed of data retrieval with

Clear-Water Scour and living-sleeping 0.22% elevation meters above sea level.

Exploring with variations in width and

length of the pillars and pilarterhadap

position directional flow provides the

following equation:

𝑎, 0,65

Ds = 2,0. 𝐾1 𝐾2 𝐾3 𝐾4 ( 𝑦 ) 𝐹𝑟 0,43 𝑦

Froehlich, using dimensional

analysis and multiple regression analysis

of 164 trialsexploringclear-water the

flume in the lab, to get the following

equation

0.62.

ys = 0.32. φ. y00.47. Fr0.22. D50-0.09 + a

studies (Google Earth, 2017)

3.1.1 The 1. Pilar Model

instrument will be used in this study

was Advance hydrological System

Manual, 2005)

Caption:

1. TankExperiment

Tank Inlet2.

3. Tilt Adjusting Land (Behind the Control

....Panel)

4. Control Panel

5. Regulatory Debit

6. Pump

7. Regulatory Rainfall

Supply tangki

8. Water Container

9. Water and Sediment

10.Water Soil Pipe System Figure 3.8 Flow Research Stages

11.tank filler

12.front manometer panel for High

.....Groundwater Wells

13.Sprinkler 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

14.Rainhole 4.1 DAS Speed

15. screenSediment Measurement

16. Pump Switch

17. Main Switch

18. Water flowsscreenmeasurement of

19. Timing Rain

20. Switchesmeasurements Rain

Figure 4.2 Sketch measurements (Data

21.switch Emergency button

Analysis, 2017)

Table 4.1 Results of measurement of the 4.1.1.3 Skala Model Stacked

flow rate

Table 4.3 scale models Directions

Vertical

4.1.1 Analysis models Scale Horizontal

4.1.1.1 Scale River model of

Table 4.2 models Scale and prototype

prototypesDiameter 40 cm

Source: 2017 Data Analysis 𝐿𝑝 40

𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 100 = 0,4 cm

𝑚

4.1.1.2 Scale models of Bridges

Bridges width on the model: So the diameter of the pillars in the model

𝐿𝑝 23,4

𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = = 0,234 m is 0.4 cm

𝐿 100

23.4 cm Results

panjangdari bridge on the model: 4.6 Comparison tableresults of laboratory

𝐿𝑝 74,2

𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 90 = 0,824 m studies with analysis using the

𝐿

empirical formula

long bridge on the model is 0.824 m ~

82.4 cm

long entrance scaffolding poles in the

water on the model:

𝐿𝑝 41,3

𝐿𝑚 = 𝑛 = 90 = 0,459 m

𝐿

wide bridge on the model is 0459 m ~ (Source: data analysis, 2017)

45,9cm

4.3 scours Depth (Ds) time terahadap

(minutes)

Figure 4.4 Model scaffolding pole (data direction on the model of

analysis, 2017)

exploring Ds (cm) with a vertical distance

Figure 4.5 points pillar observation (cm ) Review the left side and the right

scaffold 1 up (data analysis, 2017 ) sidescaffold

shows gerusn grafikdioccurs in the

4.3.1 scour depth (cm) to the distance

pillar scaffolding depth overall in terms of

Directions Vertical Mast scaffold

the vertical direction to the left and right

(cm)

side of the scaffold. In order to explore the

by The scale model of analysis

depth readings (Ds) on scaffolding look

results in a vertical pillar scaffolding

presentable then use this type of chart Line

bridge river Wanggu New Markets as

(Stacked Line With Markers), but because

listed in Table 4.3 Scale models of vertical

the data entry much so that there skalatis

and an average depth of scour at each

explore in-depth reading. For the depth of

scaffold song pillars. Exploring the depth

scour (Ds)of each scaffold songs pillar

(DS)vertical distance in the flow direction

reviewed at a vertical distance of more

in terms of scaffolding pole from the left

details can be seen in the chart below:

side and the right side of the scaffold.

Results of laboratory research as in Annex

2, it can be seen the depth of the

relationship scour against data analysis

vertical direction of the reviews left and

right sides, as shown below:

Figure 4.11 graphs the front of the depth of

scour Ds (cm) to Line Scaffolding 1

vertical distance (cm)

scour the maximum occurs the vertical

distance observation left and right sides,

poles scaffold lines 1 maximum scour

occurs at the pole-4 -0.44 with minimal

scour occurs over the poles 7 of 0.01.

4.10.2 scour depth (cm) To Distance

Directions Horizontal Pole

Scaffolding (cm) Figure 4.23 Graph relation explore the

depths Ds (cm) to the scaffold line 1

By the results of the analysis in the horizontal distance (cm)

horizontal direction Wanggu scale model

of the river bridge pillar scaffolding New maximum scour occurs at a horizontal

Markets as listed in Table 4.4 Scale Model distance observations of front and rear

vertical direction and the average depth of pillars scaffolding poles 1 occurred on line

scour at each scaffold song pillars. 4 of -0.39 cm with minimal -0.14 cm

Exploring the depth (DS)of horizontal scouring occurred on scaffolding lane 2,

distance on a scaffolding pole scaffolding

things flow toward the front and rear. from the graph it can be seen that the

Results of laboratory research as in Annex position of the middle pillar duct scaffold

2, it can be seen the depth of relationships to increasingly explore more in that case.

explored towards data analysis horizontal This could be due to the position of the

reviews of the front and rear, as shown scaffold bridge piers are in a straight flow

below: direction in accordance with the laws of

physics friction-free area of the hoist is the

heaviest flow so mempengruhi different

patterns of exploring left and right

channels with center channel.

In general, the pattern that occurs at

any point of observation is relatively polar

exploring the same scaffold. Starting from

the stream originating from upstream

obstructed by pillars, can cause a vortex

caused by the flow rate that hit the front

pillar be a compressive force on the

surface of the pillar. Whirlpool which is

reduced from the front pillar and then

Figure 4.21 The position of the vertical grind the side and the rear pillar and causes

direction on the model of scours(localscour)on the pillar.

Factors that affect the state of scour

and deposition can be caused by changes

in flow velocity at the time of unobstructed

flow peranah their pillars, pillars dihulu

steady pace but further downstream

stabilize the back. Exploring the pattern

around the pillars parallel to the direction

Figure 4.22 Graph deep connection to of flow is greater than the pillars that form

explore Ds (cm) with a horizontal distance an angle to the direction of flow.

(term cm ) front and rear scaffolding

5. CONCLUSIONS AND 2. Studiharus performed using software

RECOMMENDATIONS HEC-race for a clearer pattern appear

5.1 Conclusions there to explore the basic channels.

Based on these results, then put REFERENCES

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