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History Paper of World and Indonesian Nursing Development






TA. 2017/2018


Praise the presence of Allah Almighty who has bestowed His mercy and grace. so we
can finish the history paper of nursing development of World and Indonesia well and just in
time. In the preparation of the paper there may be a few obstacles. However, thanks to the
support of friends and guidance from supervisors. So we can finish this paper well.
With this paper, it is expected to help the learning process and can increase
knowledge for the readers. The author also does not forget to say thank you to all parties, for
his help, support and prayer.
Hopefully this paper can be useful for all parties who read this paper and can know
about the history of nursing development of the world and Indonesial. This paper may be less
than perfect, for which we expect criticism and suggestions for the perfection of this paper.


A. Background.
Nursing is a form of healthcare professional that is an integral part of health
services based on the science and ethics of nursing. Nursing as an integral part of health
services, also determine determine the quality of health services. The total nursing force
dominates existing health personnel, where nursing provides a unique contribution to the
form of health services as a relatively, sustainable, coordinative and advocative unit. Nursing
as a profession emphasizes the form of professional services in accordance with the standard
by taking into account the rules of ethics and morals so that the services provided can be
accepted by the community well.
Nurses are those who have the ability and authority to perform nursing actions
based on the knowledge they have acquired through nursing education (Health Act No. 23,
1992). According Effendy (1995), care is an essential service provided by nurses to
individuals, families and communities. The service provided is the effort to achieve the health
degree as much as possible in accordance with the potential possessed in carrying out
activities in the field of promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative by using nursing
process. Caring has a central position. Caring is an activity within a broad scope that can
concern ourselves, concerning something else and concerning the environment. If we take
care of something, we want the results achieved will be satisfactory. So we will always strive
to achieve a balance between our desires and the results to be gained
Nursing as an integral part of health services, also determine the quality of health
services. The total nursing force dominates the existing health workforce, where nursing
contributes uniquely to the form of health care as a relative, sustainable, coordinative, and
advocative unit. Nursing as a profession, emphasizes the form of professional service that
conforms to the standard with regard to ethical and moral rules. So that the services provided
can be accepted by the community well According to Hood L.J and Leddy S.K
(2006), "Professional nurses will use a holistic approach to finding health needs for their full
clients, according to a policy statement submitted by the American Nurses Association
(1995) Nursing as an integral part of health services is a form of professional service based
on nursing science. In the development of nursing science always follow the development of
other science, given the science of nursing is an applied science that always changes with the
times. Likewise, the nursing service in Indonesia, in the future is expected to be able to
provide services to the public in a professional manner in accordance with the demands of
society and technology are constantly evolving field of health. The implementation of nursing
care in most Indonesian hospitals has generally adopted a scientific approach through the
nursing process.
Professions derived from the word profession which means a work that requires a
collection of knowledge as the basis for systematic theorizing of the development meghadapi
many new challenges, and therefore require education and training long enough, have a code
of ethics orientation is the servant (alturisme).
A profession is a work intended for the benefit of society and not for the benefit of a
particular group or group. Profession is very concerned with the welfare of others, in the
context of this discussion as a recipient of professional nursing services. According to
Webster, the profession is a job that requires a long education and performance.
Kelly and Joel (1995) explain, "Professional as a character, spirit or professional method that
includes education and activities in various occupational groups whose members are willing
to become professionals." Professional is a dynamic process to meet or change the
characteristics towards a profession.
Since nineteenth century nursing has undergone drastic changes, besides also
following the legislation and appreciation as a full profession. Hugnes E.C (1963) says,
"Professions are an expert, they know more about something than others, and better about
their clients about what happens to clients." In the concept of the profession there are three
things that need to be understood:
1. A deep and systematic knowledge. 2. technical perceptions and tips built through long
practice.3. Care services to those who need the knowledge, technical and ordinary moral
philosophy (professional ethics).
Nursing is one of the professions in the world of health. As a profession, of course,
the services must be professional, so nurses must have competence and meet the standards of
nursing practice, as well as pay attention to the code of ethics and moral profession so that
people receive quality nursing services and care. But if we look at the reality that exists, the
world of nursing in Indonesia is very apprehensive. The phenomenon of "gray area" in
various types and levels of existing nursing as well as with other health professions is still
difficult to avoid.

B. Formulation of the problem

1. What is history and nursing?
2. What is the history of nursing in the world?
3. How is nursing developing in the UK?
4. What is the history of nursing in Indonesia? \

C. Objectives.
1. Knowing the nursing practice model and the purpose of the theory and model of
2. Knowing the characteristics of the theory of nursing and the factors that influence
the theory of nursing.
3. Knowing the views of some experts on the concept model and the theory of

A. International Nursing History

Nursing as a work has been around since humans existed on this earth, although nursing
provision is often referred to as physician's assistant, but that assumption is not always true as
nursing continues to develop in accordance with the advancement of technological and
cultural civilization. The concept of nursing from century to century continues to grow.

1. Since the Age of Man

Basically human beings are created to have instinct to care for themselves as reflected
in a mother. Nurses should have a mother instinct (mother instinct). But in ancient times
people still believe in something about the existence of a mystical power that can affect
human life, their belief is known as the name of animism, in which a sick person can be
caused by the forces of nature or the influence of supernatural powers so that the belief that
an evil soul will be able to cause pain and a healthy soul can cause health or well-being. At
that time the role of nurses can be equated with the shamans because they cast out spirits so
that the disease difference diaconess and philantrop which is a group of elderly women and
widows who help the pastor in caring for the sick and affection groups whose members
distanced themselves from the crowds of the world (alienation) and his life is directed to care
for the sick so that eventually developed care homes and finally started the early development
of nursing science.

2. Since the Age of Religion

At this time all sickness is deemed to come from the sins of the sufferer for his deeds
so that he gets angry. Treatment centers of this era are places of worship, so at that time
religious leaders can be called as healers who treat patients because there is a presumption
that is able to cure is a religious leader while at that time nurses regarded as slaves who only
help and work on the orders of religious leaders .

3. Since the time of Christ

In the Christian era, Nursing began at the time of the development of Christianity,
where at that time many formed deaconesses, and the women were assigned to care for the
sick while the alaki men were tasked with burying the corpses if they died, so at that time the
House stood Sick in Rome like Monastic Hospital.
4. Since the Age of the 21st Century
At the beginning of this century the development of nursing changed, no longer
associated with religious factors or doctrines of dynamism or animism but changed to the
power factor, since it was a time of war and natural exploration so that the rapid development
of knowledge. At that time the place of worship that used to treat illness is no longer used

5. Since World War II

During this time of war there arose pressure for the world of knowledge in the
application of technology due to the long suffering so it needs to improve themselves in the
nurse's action considering the diverse diseases and victims of war.
6. Since the post-World War II
This period is still affecting the community as long suffering caused by the second
world war, and the demands of nurses to improve the prosperous society more rapidly. For
example in America, the development of nursing at that time began the public awareness of
the importance of health.

7. Since the 1950 Period

At that time nursing has begun to show progress, especially the arrangement of the
education system. It is proven in the United States has begun a level of master and doctoral
education. after that the implementation of nursing process has begun to be developed by
giving understanding that treatment is a process, starting from assessment, nursing diagnosis,
planning, execution and evaluation.

B. History of Nursing Indonesia

1. The Pre-Independence Period
The nurse from Indonesia verpleger in assisting zieken oppaser (the guard of the sick)
worked first at RS binnenHospital Jakarta (1799) with the duty of maintaining health, staff
and the Dutch army, so that formed the army health service and the public health service
Raffles (British colonization) the health of the people with the motto of health is human
property. in 1819 began to establish a hospital in Jakarta Stadsverband now known as RSCM.
In 1942 - 1945 the defeat of the allies and the arrival of Japanese and World troops, nursing
melunda decline.
2. After Independence Period
In 1949, many hospitals and medical centers were established, in 1952 a nursing
school was established, in 1962 a nursing education was established equivalent to diploma, in
1985 was opened undergraduate nursing education that is S1 UI nursing and several years
later followed by bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, etc.
a. Nursing Trends in IndonesiaWith the advancing world of nursing accompanied by
technological developments, nurses are expected to further improve higher education
b. The Impact of History on Nurse Profiles in Indonesia..
The paradigm that is then formed because of this condition is the view that the
nurse is part of the doctor. Thus, the physician has the right to "control" the nurse's
activities against the client. The nurse becomes an extension of the doctor's hand and
is in a submissive position. Conditions like these are often encountered in health
services in hospitals. One of the causes is the non-functioning of collaboration system
between doctor and nurse properly. The nursing care provided was well-fed
throughout the healthy-sore range. Thus, the nurse is the party most aware of the
overall development of the client's health condition and is responsible for the client. It
should be appropriate if another health profession asks "permission" first to the nurse
before interacting with the client. The same is true for the decision to repatriate the
client. The new client may return home after the nurse declares his condition possible.
c. Development of Nursing in England
Florence returned to England after the Crmean war. In 1840 England
underwent a major change in which nursing schools began to emerge. Florence
established the basic structure of nurse education, among others, setting up a nursing
school to set nurse education goals, and establishing the knowledge that nurses should
have. Florens in pioneering the nursing profession was led by helping the victims of
the cream war (1854-1856) between Rome and Turkey, who were hospitalized
(scutori) who eventually established a hospital under the name of Thomas's hospital in
London and also founded a school a treatment named Nightingale Nursing School.
This concept of Florence education influences nursing education in the world.

Florence's contribution to nursing development includes:

- Nutrition is the most important part of nursing care.

- Occupational and recreation is a therapy for the sick.
- Hospital Management.
- Develop nursing education.
- Stand-alone treatment is different from the medical profession.
- Continuing education for nurses.

Florence Nightingale also organizes several activities in order to develop nursing:

Make a nurse's notebook that contains the fundamentals of nursing for education.

a. Writing various about nursing science.

b. Conducting P3K exercises and red cross for soldiers.
c. Improve nursing practice in some hospitals in the UK.
d. Organizing activities related to public health and community health nurses.

Established the set of the British Nurses Association in 1987, which is the first
gathering of nurses in the world. Established a set of head nurses throughout England called
the Matron Council Of Nursing in 1894. This association grew stronger so that the British
government established as a Freedom Professional which was then legislated in 1919.

C. Nursing in the Future

Nursing is an open and dynamic system, meaning that nursing will always adjust to
the changes that occur either in the field of science and technology. The following is the
opinion of some experts on the development of nursing in the future.
1) Virginia Henderson
a. It has a legal foundation that will govern nursing services universally
b. The nurse will perform most of its functions in primary care. Doctors and
other health workers are more involved as consultants. Health services
combine modern medicine with traditional medicine.
c. The nursing model will take precedence over the treatment model.
d. The emphasis of nursing care is health education with the aim of helping
clients to be self-reliant and better utilize health services.
e. The services provided will be more emphasis on disease prevention efforts.
f. Available funds will be allocated more for the health care provider at home.
g. The hospital will only serve patients with acute pain and patients who require
major surgery.
h. The field of nursing will be more in demand, especially by minorities.
i. To obtain a practice license, the nurse must earn a bachelor's degree.
j. The nurse's salary will be larger than the more professional and quality
nursing service.
k. More nurses who understand health practices

2) Fuerst Wolf And Wetzil

a. Work towards interdependence based on partnership with other professional
groups in providing comprehensive health care to the community.
b. Seek to determine his own role in practice and determine responsible
responsibilities and actions.
c. Improved knowledge and skills facilitated through nursing research.
d. The development of nursing along with developments in other fields.
e. Seeking rewards that are commensurate with status and role in nursing.

3) Prof. Ma'rifin Husin

a. In the field of nursing care from assistance based on skills and procedures
merely turns into assistance with the foundation of science and scientific
methods, nursing care standards, and nursing professional ethics.
b. The original service was changed into self-service.
c. Procedural skills transform into a science-based skill and nursing process with a
sense of responsibility for the implementation of nursing care, and professional
attitudes and behavior.
d. Nursing education that was originally vocational changed into higher education
both D III and SI.
e. Research.
f. From almost nothing at all turns into existing and established, because the
undergraduate (SI, S2) has enough.
g. In professional organizations, the focus is on organizational consolidation
programs,and welfare transformed into a broad and active professional
knowledge development.
h. Nursing as a profession is accepted as an independent profession.
i. In addition to the opinions of the experts above, developments in the field of
treatment can be predicted based on the facts that occur in society. These facts
j. With the increasing population of elderly then gerontik nursing needs to be
k. Increased degenerative diseases, AIDS, mental illness, and increasing maternal
and infant mortality require specific services related to these problems.
l. Seeing the culture that clients prefer to be treated in the middle of the family and
the rising cost of care in the hospital then in the future will nurse home health
organizers will get an important position. Therefore, the specialization of family
health nursing needs to be developed.


A. Conclusion

Nursing is a science and profession that provide health services in order to improve
health for the community. Nursing has been around since humans exist and until now nursing
professions are growing rapidly.

B. Suggestions

Thus the paper that we make, if there are errors either in writing or discussion and
explanation less clear, we apologize. Because we are just human beings who did not escape
the mistakes. Perfection belongs only to Allah SWT. Hopefully this paper useful for us all.
We thank you for your attention and pasticipation

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