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confines prescribed by German rule, but it eventually evolved into a coercive

authoritarian regime. Accordingly, Chapter 4 deals with the ethos of collaborationism, or
“direct” collaboration, which involved the close replication of Nazi ideological postulates.
Chapter 5 examines the emergence, composition, and activities of the two resistance
movements—the Chetniks and Partisans—and the complexity of their relationship. The
Chetniks considered themselves part of the Yugoslav Royal Army and saw their primary
objective in preserving the old political and social order. Equally determined, the Partisans
wanted to destroy the old order and build a new one modeled after the Soviet regime in
Russia. After a short period of cooperation, this divergence of interests prompted the Chetniks
and Partisans to embark on a course of mutual destruction.
Chapter 6 examines German terror policies, which initially were directed against political
opponents and Jews but eventually engulfed Serbian civilians. The murder of Jews was a key
component of these policies, partially fulfilling reprisal quotas and simultaneously serving to
implement the Final Solution in Serbia. Chapter 7 describes “quiet Serbia” in 1942–44, when
the multilayered civil war further polarized Serbian society and to some extent overshadowed
the war of liberation against the Germans. Due to determined leadership and internal cohesion,
Partisans were able to recover after the defeat of 1941 and were prepared to seize power at
the opportune moment. In contrast, the Chetniks’ attempts to maintain a precarious balance
between resistance and collaboration ultimately proved disastrous.
Chapter 8 centers on native collaboration in the Holocaust and popular attitudes toward the
persecution of the Jews. While Germany's crusade against Judeo-Bolshevism coalesced with
the ideological aspirations of the right-wing Zbor movement, the collaborationist
administration utilized Nazi persecution of Jews for its own political and ideological reasons.
Finally, Chapter 9 attempts to explore the life of the “silent majority”—the population at large
—which on a daily basis endured economic shortages, requisitions, and the constant threat of

A number of individuals provided me with invaluable help. Milan Koljanin, Milan Ristović,
Emil Kerenji, Alexander Korb, Jovan Byford, and Mirjam Rajner illuminated many complex
issues in the history of the war and occupation in the Balkans. Slobodan Mandić, Irena Kolaj,
Dragana Mitrašinović, and Snežana Lazić of the Belgrade Historical Archive patiently
tolerated my limited Serbian and helped me find the most pertinent sources. Headed by
Jonathan Zimmerman, the staff of the John Skin Library of New Mexico Tech obtained for me
all secondary sources. Inevitably, I owe gratitude to my longtime friend and research
companion, Vadim Altskan, without whose help this book would have been impossible. Also, I
thank two anonymous readers of the manuscript for their helpful comments and suggestions.