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National Art Education Association

Postmodern Principles: In Search of a 21st Century Art Education

Author(s): Olivia Gude
Source: Art Education, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp. 6-14
Published by: National Art Education Association
Stable URL: .
Accessed: 09/01/2011 11:34

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An infinite amount of time

is wasted in misdirected
effort because tradition The elements and prinies?
T he 100th Anniversary issue of School
has a strong hold... Arts magazineexplainedthe roots Theelementsandprinciplpsof artare
-Arthur WesleyDow, 1920 of today'selementsandprinciplesof enshrinedin most arted(ition
designin the workof the early20th- textbookstoday(CrystalProductions,
centuryarteducator,ArthurWesleyDow 2000;Hobbs&Salome,1995;Ragans,
(Walkup,2001).ThearticledescribedDow's 2000;Wachowiakand Clements,2000).
commitmentto teachingstudentsto apply Note the shift fromelementsof design to
formalprinciplesto all aspects of the "fine elementsof art.'Theseelementsand
arts"as well as the objectsandenvironments principlesareprofferedas universaland
of everydaylife.Thearticletrumpeted foundational.2 Thedefinitearticlethe
Dow'sinfluenceon greatAmerican suggeststhatthese lists proposeto be
modernistssuch as GeorgiaO'Keeffeand morethanattemptsto presenta descrip-
AlfredStieglitz.A headlinefora companion tive vocabularyof observedform.They
articleon the teachingof elementsand arenot presentedas somevocabulary
principlesin today'sschools proudly wordsor concepts thathavebeen
announced,"Accordingto a recentNAEA identifiedas usefulfor constructingart
survey,teachingunderstandingof the or interpretingthe workof others.The
elementsandprinciplesof designis the elementsandprinciplesarepresentedas
majorcurriculumgoal [emphasisadded] the essence of artmaking.If not literally
for artteachersat the beginningof the 21st engravedin stone, the big seven
century"(SclIoolArts, 2001). (elements)+ seven (principles)are
WhenvisitingK-12school artprograms, reifiedin print,achievingtheoretical
I rarelysee meaningfulconnectionsbeing unity,not throughpersuasiveargument,
madebetweenthese formaldescriptorsand butthroughseeminglyendlessrepetition
in formallyorientedtextbooksor,during
understandingworksof artor analyzingthe
the last decade,as government-
qualityof everydaydesign.I ponderthe
piles of exercises on line,shape,or color
harmoniesleft behindby hundredsand
hundredsof studentseachyear.I wonder
why whatis still consideredby manyto be
the appropriateorganizingcontentfor the
foundationsof 21st centuryartcurriculumis
but a shadowof whatwas moder, fresh,
In Search of


Studentsrecycled catalog
imagesto create
characters who
comment onconsumer
McDuffy created
at SpiralWorkshop 2001.
Universityof Illinois

If one consultsa numberof classic chic, the studentexamplesin these works ophyof elementsandprinciplesprivileges
modernisttexts aboutteachingartand differgreatlyfromthe listless lines and formalistWesternconceptionsover other
design,such as ArthurWesleyDow's uninterestingcolor schemes resulting ways to valueandunderstandart.For
Composition:A Series of Exercisesin fromcontemporarytextbookart example,in the introductionto his classic
ArtStructureforthe Useof Studentsand exercises. workComposition,Dow (1920/1997)
Teachers(1920),JohannesItten'sDesign makesslightingremarksaboutartthatis
Manyof these modernisttexts also
and Form:theBasic Courseat the differsharplyfromtheirderacinated "onlystorytelling"(p. 64). The well-
Bauhaus (1964),or Mauricede
contemporarycousinsin thatthey meaningteacherwho uses artfrom
Sausmarez'sBasic Design: TheDynamics contain diverseculturesto illustrate7 + 7
of VisualForm (1971),the now familiar ences, such as Dow'spromotionof notan concepts sincerelyattemptsto infuse
7 + 7 arenot found.Thereis no single, multiculturalism into a mono-cultural
(a Japaneseworddenotingthe balance
agreed-uponset of termsor constituent betweenflatplanesof lightanddark)or curriculumstructure.Unfortunately, this
elementsof the visualin these books. Itten'sreferencesto the philosophyof only succeeds in modeling for students
Instead,variousstructuresof organiza- traditionalChinesepainting(Dow,1920; thatthe artof otherculturescanbe
tion areproposedwith different Green&Poesch, 1999;Itten,1964).In ahistoricallyappropriatedfor current
emphases,principles,andsuggested uses of Western,ostensiblyneutral,
areasfor investigation. educationalandaestheticsystems.
textbooks,the artof "others"is often
Thereis some degreeof overlap utilizedto illustratevariouselementsand TheOxfordEnglishDictionary (1971)
amongthese lists as they all attemptto principles.Theartworksareviewed and definesprinciple as "fundamental truth,
systematicallyrecordvisualconcepts understoodusingthe streamlined7 + 7 law,or motiveforce."Fromthe perspec-
usefulto artists,teachers,andcritics Euro-American systemof describing tive of 21st centuryaesthetictheory,the
when drawingattentionto andanalyzing form,thereforestudentsoften do not notionof ascribingfundamentaltruth
variousformalfeaturesof a workof art learnthe aestheticcontext of makingand to anyvisualformseems naiveand
or design.Eachauthorpresentshis own valuinginherentto the artistsandcommu- uninformed(Wallis,1984).Early20th-
vision of contemporaryartteachingand nities who actuallycreatedthe works. centuryartcriticallanguagedescribed
the visualexamplesaccompanyingthese Thisungroundedandhighlyproblem- authenticmeaningas arisingfromthe
texts are often quitebeautifulandunique. atic use of the artof "others"is almost purelyformalaspects of artmaking
Whetherembodyingthe gracefuldignity inevitablein classroomsthatuse 7 + 7 (Harrison&Wood,1992).Today
of an Artsand Craftssensibility,idiosyn- discussionsof the meaningof art,
concepts as a foundationalcurriculum
craticearlymodernism,or hip sixties structurebecausethe modernistphilos- includingmoder andcontemporary

a 21st CenturyArt
abstractart,aremorelikelyto centeron Founding Principles In 2000,I was appointeda GreatCities
the contextwithinwhichthe artwas In 1995,I plannedthe firstSpiral FacultyScholarat the Universityof
madeandseen andthe culturalcodes the Illinoisat Chicago.TheGreatCities
Workshop,the Universityof Illinoisat
artistchooses to referenceandmanipu- Institute'smissionis to improvethe
Chicago'sSaturdayartclasses for teens.
late (Riemschneider&Grosenick,1999). I lookedfor ways to articulateto the qualityof life in metropolitanChicagoand
Thenotionof hermeticartistic otherurbanareas.I was pleasedthatmy
preserviceteacherswho wouldbecome
experiencesin whichmeaningis created the workshopfaculty,some guiding colleaguesfromurbanplanningandthe
in directformalcommunicationbetween social sciences sharedmyvision of the
principlesfor developingourcurriculum.
artistandaudienceis no longerconsid- I didnot considerusingthe elementsand importanceof arteducationto a
ereda credibleexplanationof how democraticsociety.Myprojectfor the
principlesof designbecauseI wantedthe
meaningin visualartis generatedand youngteachersto experiencethe thrillof yearwas the ContemporaryCommunity
communicated. Curriculum Initiative(CCCI).TheCCCI
teachingyouthin a way thatwould
Form-basedteaching,originatingwith inspireimpassionedartmaking.I knew introducedinserviceteachersto the
traditionssuch as the GermanBauhaus thata curriculumbased on the blandand SpiralWorkshopphilosophyandcreated
andmodernistAmericanarteducators formal7 + 7 wouldnot engenderin teen workingpartnershipsbetweenart
such as Dow,was not originallyconceived artiststhe commitmentto get out of bed teachersandcontemporaryartists.The
of as preliminaryto in-depthartisticinves- on chillySaturdaymornings.I wantedan projectsdevelopedby these groupswere
tigations.WhenPaulKleeaskedstudents artcurriculumthatcouldsurvivewithout taughtin areaschools andthe resulting
to do a line exercise,it was not becausehe a compulsoryattendancepolicyto back curriculumwas showcasedat a student
felt they shouldlearnmarkmakingbefore it up. artandcurriculumshow at the university
doingmoremeaningfulart.Rather,it was gallery.4
Inspiredby the spiritthoughnot the
because Kleewas excited aboutthe contentof modem arteducation,I wanted Recently,as I prepareda lecture
meaningof line.Inthe spiritof those the SpiralWorkshopcurriculumto give summarizingmy GreatCitiesresearch,
times,studentswere askedto makethe studentsa sense of participatingin the I surveyed5 yearsof SpiralWorkshop
radicalmoveto eschew whatwas then curriculumas well as the 25 projects
unfoldingof contemporaryculture.3
seen as extra-visualelementssuch as Studentsin a qualityarteducation createdby the CCCIparticipantteachers.
narrativeandinsteadexplorethe deep I hadoriginallystructuredmytalkto
programgainthe capacityto reflecton
spiritualandsocial energyreleasedby culturalissues relatedto self andsociety. focus on the social themesthatemerged
abstractart. in the youths'artworkwhen I noticed
Dow advocateda new systemof art studentsbecome attunedto nuanceand othercommonalitieslinkingthe projects.
educationhe believedwouldbringto the complexity.Theylearnto recognizethe A commonvocabularycouldbe used to
student"anincreaseof creativepower" culturalchoices thatunderlieeventhe describevariousvisualandconceptual
(1920/1997,p. 65). But 75 yearshave most mundanemomentsandactionsof strategiesin the students'artworksandin
passed since he wrotethose words.We everydaylife andconsiderwhetherthese the contemporaryprofessionalartworks
owe it to ourfield andourstudentsto arethe choices they themselveswish to on whichtheywere modeled.I also
studythe artof ourtimes andto begin,as make. noticedthatthe traditional7 + 7 elements
Dow did,withprobingquestionsandfar- andprinciplesvocabularycouldnot
SpiralWorkshopevolvedthreecriteria adequatelydescribethese artworks.
reachinggoals.Whatdo ourstudents for ourcurriculum:
need to knowto understandthe artof * curriculum based on generative Originally,I identified15categoriesor
manycultures,fromthe past andthe 21st themes thatrelateto the lives of principles that describedthe students'
century?Today,what knowledgedo studentsandtheircommunities; artworkandrelatedcontemporaryart
studentsneed to stimulateandincrease practices.Noticingthe criss-crossingand
* studio art projects based on diverse
theircreativepowers? overlappingsimilaritiesof some of the
practices of contemporaryartmaking
andrelatedtraditionalarts; categories,I havesince editedand consol-
idatedthe list to highlighteightimportant
* art as investigation-understanding
I knew tht a curriculum postmodernartmakingpractices.These
the artof othersandseeingtheirown
based on the bland and artmaking,not as exercises,but as ples are oftenthe fusionof a visualform
researchthatproducesnew visualand anda conceptualartmakingstrategy.
formal 7 + 7 would not conceptualinsights. Theyarehybridsof the visualandthe
conceptual.Thishybridizationis itself a
engender in teen artiststhe hallmarkof manypostmoderncultural
commitmentto get out of bed productions,eschewingthe boundaries
imposedby outmodeddiscipline-based
on chillySaturdaymornings. structures.


I Il

Appropriation generatedby bringingtogetherradically

Oneof the most strikingthingsabout disparateelements,an artisticstrategy
manyof the curriculumprojectswas the utilizedsince Dadaphotomontageand
routineuse of appropriatedmaterials. Surrealistobjectssuch as Meret
Whethercreatedin the spiritof Romare Oppenheim'sfur-coveredteacup
Bearden'shistoriesof the African- (Burckhardt&Curiger,1996).Theterm
Americanexperiencecomposedof juxtaposition is usefulin helping
fragmentsof foundphotos (Bearden& studentsdiscuss the fanmiliarshocks of
Henderson,1993)or KennyScharf's contemporarylife in whichimagesand
Junkie,in whichpaintedpurplevines objectsfromvariousrealmsandsensibili-
entwineon a yellow fieldof retro ties come togetheras intentionalclashes
insecticideads (TonyShafraziGallery, or randomhappenings.
1998),the studentartworkoftenused Recontextualization
printmaterialsas the stuff out of which
theirartwas composed.Forthe students, Often,positioninga familiarimagein
recyclingimageryfelt comfortableand relationshipto pictures,symbols,or texts
withwhichit is not usuallyassociated
commonplace.If one lives in a forest,
wood will likelybecome one'smedium generatesmeaningin an artwork.Hannah
for creativeplay.If one growsup in a Hoch,an earlyDadaproponentof the
worldfilledwith cheap,disposable new mediumof photomontage,created
images,they easilybecome the stuffof provocativeworksby recombiningfound
imagery.InDie Braut of 1927,winged ?.4
one'sown creativeexpression.
objectsswirlaroundthe centralimageof
Juxtaposition a traditionalbrideandgroom.The
RobertRauschenbergrevolutionized woman'sheadis replacedby an oversized
expressivepaintingwhen he substituted imageof a youngchild'sface (Makela&
the seeminglyrandomjuxtaposition of Boswell, 1996).Thissimplevisualmove
foundimagesforpersonallygenerated changesanypotentialromanticfantasy
abstractmarks(Forge,1972).The readingsof the bridalcouple,shiftingthe
modernistprincipleof contrastis not focus to society'sdegradinglegal,
adequateto describethe energy religious,andculturalconventions
regardingthe status of women.

7-' -C IJ l-


L- -

choiceof materials
of non-art

teenartistcreateda psychological
11t Marshmallows
portrait, andFire,atthe
SpiralWorkshop 1996.


of a fashionable
takeson newmeaning whenrecontextual-
A D\3TANT COuS^ OF ?)9LL <QVr izedwiththereality
of poorMexican women
I- seekingto cometo theUnitedStatesto find
) Tf T
,T OS' H- P OV.AXDL employment. BorderBarbiebypreservice
, Oo-%5.Eo IA5 2002.
^ ^ *MNWON.
Photoscourtesyof University at
of Illinois
,-yA^f/Miflt -L r v- :: Chicago.

(Emerson,1999,p. 127).Thetext does not
describethe work,nordoes the image
illustratethe text. The interplaybetween
the two elementsgeneratesrichand
who makeandvalueartin the 21st
centurymustlearnnot to demanda literal
matchof verbalandvisualsignifiers,but
ratherto exploredisjuncturebetween
these modes as a source of meaningand

ratevariousmediainto theirpieces, using
whateveris requiredto fullyinvestigate
the subject.Contemporary artists
utilizingnew mediasuch as large-scale
projectionsof video,soundpieces, digital
Indeed,multi-mediaworksof artarenow
encounteredin contemporarymuseums
traditionalsculptedor paintedobjects.
Theconceptof hybridityalso
describesthe culturalblendingevidentin
LAYERING: Students exploredtheirfears manyworks.New YorkandTokyo-based
andhopesafterthetragedy of September Layering Mariko Moridrawson costuming,make-
11 bymutingandlayering As images become cheap andplentiful, up, popular culture,andtraditional
imagesandtext areno longertreatedas precious,but Buddhistbeliefs to createcomplexphoto-
ontotheheadline newspaperpages of those they
terrible insteadareoften literallypiledon top of graphicandvideo installations.Herwork
schoolstudentKristy Purituncreatedat each other.Layeredimageryevokingthe exploresboundariesbetweenspirituality
SpiralWorkshop 2001.Photocourtesyof complexityof the unconsciousmindis a andcyberculture,betweenthe humanand
of Illinois
University at Chicago. familiarstrategyin Surrealistartandof the re-creationof the humanthrough
earlyexperimentalapproachesto photog- technology(Fineberg,2000).
raphy.Inpostmoder worksby artists
such as DavidSalle,SigmarPolke,and Gazing
AdrianPiper,the strategyevokes the In BetyeSaar's77e Liber'ationofAunt
layeredcomplexityof contemporary Jemima, the traditionalmeaningof the
Thoughdeconstructionhas a more culturallife (Fox, 1987;Grosenick,2001). saccharineimageis challengedwhenit is
specific meaningin the theoryof Jacques Multiplelayersof varyingtransparency presentedwith an even morestereotyp-
Derrida(Glusberg,1991),in everydayart will increasinglybe a readilyavailable ical depictionof a wide-eyed,red-lipped
worldparlance,recontextualizationand strategyto studentsbecause it is a African-American womanholdinga
deconstructioncan often function commonfeatureof most digitalimaging broomin one handanda riflein the other,
synonymously.The magazineAdbuste's programssuch as AdobePhotoshop? juxtposedwith a life-sizeBlackPower
has manyexamplesof deconstructing (Freeman,2001). clenchedfist (Broude&Garrard,1994).
contemporaryadvertisementsby pairing By shiftingthe context withinwhicha
the originalads with fragmentsof other Interaction of Text & Image fanmiliaradvertisingimageis seen,
imagesandtexts thatcontextualizethe Ina 1990montage,artistBarbara studentsspontaneouslyquestionwho
consumerfantasieswithinenvironmental Krugerpaireda photographof a woman, createsandcontrolsimageryandhow this
andglobaljustice discourses.' peeringthrougha magnifyingglass, witha imageryaffects ourunderstandingsof
greatlyenlargedeye, with the text "It'sa reality-an importantactivityof visual
smallworldbut not if you haveto clean it" culturearteducation.


7 ~
.. 1r
-Jf~~ it :

i HYBRIDITY: ArtteacherMathiasSchergen
led studentsof JennerElementary School
in makingthe 2000 multi-media installation,
"MemoryMuseum,"as a tributeto the
closingof the old school andthe changein
the communityas gentrificationdisplaced
writingas wellas videointerviewsof school
the Contemporary Community Curriculum

GAZING: Inspiredby the riskyandsometimescontroversialworkof contemporary artists,the SpiralWorkshopteens andteachersin the Chiaroscuro
groupmadethe installation,"WhenI Lookat YouI See"in 1998. Thetextaccompanyingeach portraitdescribedthe messages thatthese urbanteens
saw reflectedin the gaze of adultswho lookat themand makestereotypicaljudgmentsaboutthem.Photocourtesyof Universityof Illinoisat Chicago.

The term g(zc(,is frequently used in For examl)le, consider the stantlar(l alt Wojnarowicz groundedlhis art in his
(ontemporary discourses to recognize historical (liscussion of Gaughin's experiences as a young, gay man in New
that when talking about the act of looking, lelict ion of Tahitian women in which his Yorkduring the emerging AIDS crisis
it is important to consider who is being (rientalist theories and Iprojectionsof (Scholder, 1999). Tracey Emin makes
looked at and who is (loing the looking sl)irituality, timelessness, and sensuous- fuiky mixed media paintings and objects
(Olin, 1996). Gazing, asso(iated with ness (letermine outrplercel)tion of the that investigate all aspects of her life,
issues of knowledge and I)leasure, is woImen(Janson, 1968). including crummy jobs, alcohol abuse,
also a form of power and of cont rolling and sexuality (Riemschneider &
lerceptions of what is "real"and Representin' Grosenick, 1999). Shirin Neshat creates
"natural."Much critical theory in alt lU.S.urban street slang for proclaiming video installations andlphoto text works
histloy and film studlies makes use of the one's ildentity and( affiliations, )represeti)lli/' that explore the psychological conditions
term to investigate how our notions of (lescribes the strategy of locating one's of womenl in Islamic societies (Grosenick,
"others" are con'structted(through prol)ri- artistic voice within one's own lpersonal 2001). It is important that alt classes
etary acts of looking and representing. history and(culture of origin. David p)rovidest udenltswith opportunities for



Makingautobiographical comics meaningful self-expression in which they artists are far more likely to be cited as
createscomfortable opportunities become 7representin',self-creating beings. influential to today's artworld.
for studentsto represent These opportunities should allow The list of postmoder principles
themselvessituatedwithintheir students to see examples of contempo- described in this article is not meant to be
familiesandcommunities.Ina rary artists using artmakingto explore the exhaustive. The principles were empiri
MixedMediaclass at Whitney potentials and problems inherent in their cally derived from curriculumprojects
YoungHighSchoolin Chicago, own cultural and political settings (Gude, based on contemporary art, developed by
HaibinhHguyencreateda haunting 2003). a nexus of Chicago area teachers and
story abouthow
immigration v *.a nexus of Chicago areateachers and
Photo A Principled Position on the artists. Further curriculum research
courtesyof artteacher,LisaWax. Future of Art Education wil no doubt identy other imporant
postmodern concepts and practices that
The elements and principles of design
ought to be considered for inclusion in
were never the universal and timeless
contemporary art education curricula.
descriptors they were claimed to be.
... artexamplesandprojectsin Indeed, they are not even sufficient to
In true postmoder fashion, these
introduce students to most moder art principles are not a set of discrete
shouldnot because modernism has always been a entities, but are rhizomatic. Because
tradition with two sharply different these principles overlap and crisscross,
bereductiverepresentations manifestations, the "coolly formal"and
the illustrations of professional art and
the often "enragedengaged." student work provided above often
oftheoretical but
principles, Much art education has been associ-
exemplify more than one principle. That's
okay; art examples and projects in school
shouldreflectthecomplexity ated with what critic Clement Greenberg
referred to as "cold modernism" (1971),
art curricula should not be reductive
representations of theoretical principles,
ofactualart. focused on artists such as Manet, Seurat, but should reflect the complexity of
Cezanne, Matisse, and Picasso. "Hot actual art.
modernism,"characterized by artists such
as Duchamp and the Dadaists, has not It can be frustratingand disconcerting
been adequately represented in K-12art to lose the certainty of an earlier time,
discourses despite the fact that such but I do not think that it is wise to


prematurely sniooth away these amnbigui- contempioraryart andlthus to postmodern I)ow, A.W.(1920/1).997).Composition: A series
ties and create a 21st century orthodoxy. principles-strategies for understanding of(.cl(rcises ill (1t.Istrlucturiclfr t/i( use of'
I do not hope to see a generation of art an( miakingart today-students will gain situdl(ctIs a(d lt('(l
ac/('rs. Berkeley:
I niversity of('alifornia Press.
education texts that merely add a few the skills to participate in and shape
Emerson, S. (1999))).Ba(rba(
r KiJrugeri.
postmodern principles suchsasjli.l'frt)osi- contemporary cultural conversations. Angeles: Museum of ('ontlemporaly
tioe and (l)ppropr)i(tlioil to their lists of Art/IMITPress.
modcernistelements and principles and Olivia Gilde is Associalte P'rofi,ssor (ltd( Fineberg, ,J. (2000). Art siiice 194: .St cegi(es
thenlproceed to use them to structure and oflbeil.. Upper Sa(ddleRiver, NJ: Prentice
Coordlinl(torof 'Art (Educattliol tt1ihe Iall.
justify a curriculum..
UJiiil,esityl o['Illinlois (it CI icagqo. Forge, A. (19)72).R( uiscl(llib(rc(.New York:
A basic tenet of all postmodern theory
E-Ilat il: (Jltde('ltic'.cdll Ilarry N. Abrams, Inc.
is a suspicion of totalizing (liscourses andl Freeman, M. (2001). 771(c(olmph)le.(giiide to
grand narratives-the belief that there is New York:Iark
dligit(l lphoto.(/r(tph/ll.
one right way to organize an(dundlerstand REFERENCES Books.
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,r. New York: Ta'sclhn.
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(deSausmarez, 1M.( 1964/171). Basic desiti(: ('heck (Eds.), i'Fromour' lioices:Art
different in (lifferent places deplendingon the dtl/lla i1 ics of' riisuillfoi'iR. New York: duct((tors (nd1( (tists sp)('(akot (ItboIt
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projects to introduce students to relevant Kendall/I hIlt IPublishing ('ompany.


Studentsrespondedto insipidinspirational
postersthatliterallymatchtextand images
withplayfulnon-literalpairingsof images
Grounded createdin 2000 by JenniferBean
and KellyCarlsonin responseto a project
by teacherDenaCavazosforthe
Contemporary Community Curriculum
Initiative.Photocourtesyof Universityof
Illinoisat Chicago.


Harrison, C., & Wood, P. (1992). Art in theory School Arts. (2001, September). Voices from and principles, pairing these with a variety of
1900-1990: An anthology of changing the past: Enduring priorities. interesting approaches to studying the social
ideas. Oxford, UK:Blackwell Publishers. Tony Shafrazi Gallery. (1998). Kenny Scharf. and cultural implications of artworks, some
Hobbes, J., & Salome, R. (1995). The visual New York:Author. educators have inferred that this common
experience: Teacher's edition. Worcester, Wachowiak, F., & Clements, R.D. (2000). denominator among texts-the lists of
MA:Davis Publications, Inc. Emphasis art: a qualitative art program elements and principles-represents founda-
Itten, J. (1963/1964). Design andform: the for elementary and middle schools. New tional and universal ideas that are thus more
basic course at the Bauhaus. New York: York:Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. intellectually credible as a basis for curriculum
Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Walkup,N. (2001, September). Arthur Wesley structure than the more subtle and diverse
Dow: The father of foundations. School aesthetic or social themes also included in
Janson, H.W.(1968). History of art. New York:
Arts, 23. these textbooks.
Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
Makela, M., & Boswell, P. (1996). The Wallis, B. (1984). Art after modernism: 3For information on Spiral theme-based
photomontages of Hannah Hoch. Rethinking representation. New York: curriculum, visit the Spiral Art Education
Minneapolis, MN: WalkerArt Center. The New Museum of Contemporary Art. website:
Olin, M. (1996). "Gaze."In R. Nelson & R. Shiff 4For information on the structure and
(Eds.), Critical termsfor art history. NOTES programming of the Contemporary
(pp.207-219). Chicago: University of Community Curriculum Initiative, visit the
Chicago Press. 1The nomenclature in the 2002 textbookArt: A Spiral Art Education website:
Oxford English Dictionary (1971). Oxford, Personal Journey by Eldon Katter and Marilyn
UK:Oxford University Press. (p 2303) G. Stewart is a welcome reversal of this trend.
5Back issues of Adbuster are available at bulk
Ragans, R. (2000). Arttalk: Teacher's In this book, the elements and principles of
rates for educators. Their many theme-based
wraparound edition. Woodland Hills, CA: design are the basis of a single chapter and the issues are a good start for creating visual
Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw dominant organizing strategy for a curriculum
culture curriculum units.
Hill Publishing. is clearly presented in a series of chapters
Riemschneider, B. & Grosenick, U. (1999). exploring the various roles of artists.
Art at the turn of the millennium. New
2Many authors of art education textbooks
York:Taschen. have deep and complex understandings of the
Stewart, M., & Katter, E. (2002). Art: A visual arts that extend far beyond a limited
personaljourney: Teacher's edition. formalist emphasis on the elements and princi-
Worcester, MA:Davis Publications, Inc. ples of design. Unfortunately, because many
Scholder, A. (1999). Fever: The art of David texts reiterate nearly identical lists of elements
Wojnarowicz. New York:Rizzoli
International Publications.

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