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English has a status of associate language, but in fact it is the most important language of India.

After Hindi it is the


most commonly spoken language in India and probably the most read and written language in India. English in
India is used not only for communicating with the outside world, but also for inter-state and intrastate
communication. Because of the great ethnic and linguistic diversity found within our nation, English acts as an
indispensable ‘link’ language. English symbolizes in Indians’ minds, better education, better culture and higher
intellect. Indians who know English often mingle it with Indian languages in their conversation. It is also usual
among Indians to abruptly move to speak fluent English in the middle of their conversations. English also serves as
the communicator among Indians who speak different languages. English is very important in some systems – legal,
financial, educational and business in India.
In order to enhance the overall status of education in India, the Kothari Commission suggested development in
primary education, vocationalisation of secondary education, and introduction of work experience as a part of
general education. At the tertiary level, the commission suggested consolidation of advanced study and research
centres with an aim to attain international standards in the teaching and in research areas. Above all, it stressed on
the quality of teachers and increase in the strength of teaching staff at all levels. To achieve these, the commission
undertook the responsibility of making relevant suggestions for improving important sectors of education such as
school education, medical education, scientific education and research. Thus, English was adopted as the medium of
instruction for natural sciences and mathematics, which resulted in the rapid growth of secondary and university
education, particularly in urban areas. In the post-independence era, the need for English was strongly felt in the
field of higher education. In this regard, the Kothari Commission referred to the study of English in India- a report
of study group appointed by the ministry of education, Government of India in 1964. The study group has supported
the structural approach to the teaching of English, which is now extensively practiced in different parts of India. The
study group also came up with a detailed syllabus for the study of the English language from class V to XII.
In a move to introduce English early in the stream of education, the Kothari Commission recommended that the
teaching of English be introduced in class V, but realized that it was not possible because the study of English would
not commence before class VIII for pupils in the rural areas. The Commission advocated adequate command of
mother tongue before the learning of English as a foreign language. The Commission also recommended that the
study of English as a second language should be introduced only after class V. Effective learning takes place only
when the learner is able to communicate fluently both in writing and speaking and is able to use English for library
purposes. In this context, Mahajiteswar Das holds a different view saying that teaching English as a ‘library
language’ was not beneficial in terms of providing job opportunities because the students who learn to use English
only as a ‘library language’ are less competent than the students who acquire competence in all the four skills of
English language. Therefore, according to Mahajiteswar Das, it is necessary to develop all the language skills in
order to improve communication skills (Indira, M.2003:4). Besides, it is worthwhile to note that effective written
and oral communication of a general nature in English might be relevant to general learners but a specialized kind
of learning would be of relevance only to a few. This observation made by Mahajiteswar Das gains special
significance in the context of vocational and professional courses. Thus, there is a need for a study of the learners’
needs, so that the tailored use of English will result in satisfying the
immediate needs of learners undertaking the specialized courses of study.A new pattern of education (10+2+3), as
mentioned in the Kothari Commission and the National Policy of 1968, saw its beginning in the year 1976. Its most
important objective was to vocationalise education. It meant proper training for students in selected fields so that
they can take up certain vocations without going in for aimless higher education. The institutions, which helped in
strengthening the National system of education, are University Grants Commission (UGC), All India Council for
Technical education (AICTE), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), and Medical Council of India
(MCI) and Dental Council of India (DCI).

Teaching of English in Multilingual Indian Classrooms of Higher Education

Introduction :

Every human being has three basic needs as food, cloth and shelter. 'Education' is the 4th and very much important
need of human being. Education means to know really about things. Education helps man to live a comfortable life;
it also helps him in every sector of human life. Human being is an animal but he is different from other animals
because he has 'a brain' which is situated in his skull; it differentiates human being from another animal. With the
help of brain, human being thinks about all the things, makes his decisions and solves the problem. Brain is
developed by education; man gets new knowledge and applys it in his life.

Human being learns new things earlier from his birth to the end of his death. To learn means to know about
something. Learning is the process in education which have another side known as teaching. In India multi
languages are taught in classroom and also in higher education. Education in India is divided into three form;
according to Kothari Commission (1966) the formula of education is as:- 10+2+3 and this 3rd section is considered
as the higher education. Higher education acts as the third eye of knowledge for human being. In higher education
'English' is taught as second and compulsory language to all faculties for example B.A., B.Com., B.Sc., B.C.A.,
B.C.S. and other also. English is an international language, so its place is higher than any other regional languages
in our country; it taught in higher education to give the precious treasure of knowledge and to link students with the
world.

Objectives :
1) To study the concept of language.
2) To know the importance of English language.
3) To study the importance of teaching English in Higher Education.
4) To know the role of English language in higher educatin.
Research Medhodology :
Data is collected from the secondary method of collection from reference books, daily newspaper, articles and
internet.
Hypothesis :
1) English is an international language.
2) English is a link language.
3) English is a library language.
4) English language is a language of Science and Technology.

Concept :
Language : Language is the basis of human progress. It is vitally related to human culture. Without language, our
civilization would have been impossible. It is the means of social control. It enables us to co-operate with another
through meaningful nosies, i.e. spoken words. Language is unique and dynamic; it is under the process of change.
The history of any language shows the change that language has undergone in the course of time.

Language is human; is behaviour. Language has been defined in many ways. Language is the system of arbitrary
vocal symbols used for human communication. A satisfying definition of language is very difficult. Yet it is a kind
of means of communication. Language is an instrument of thinking and a source of delight. Language is species
specific. It is species information. Some Antrologists try to define language within the form of concept as follow:

Definitions of Language :
1) Otta Jesperson : "Language is the primary and most highly elaborated form of human symbolic activity."
2) Encyclopaedia Britanica : "Language is a system of conventional, spoken or written symbols by means of which
human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate."
3) C. L. Well : "Language is the expression of human personality in words whether written or spoken."

Language has been defined in many ways. Language is the system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human
communication among human beings. A Satisfying definition of language is very difficult. We express our feelings,
attitudes, thoughts by using the particular language.

Anthrologists regard language as a form of cultural behaviour, sociologists as an interaction between members of a
social group. Students of literature regard language as an artistic medium and philosophers as means of interpreting
human experiences. Chomsky, a linguist in one of his books, "Reflections on Language" attempts to determine the
limits of what is "Knowable in thought." As a result, the reflections on language became transformed virtually into a
phylosophy of science.

Importance of English Language in India :


English is a foreign language to Indians. English came in India with the establishment of East India Company in the
16th century for business purposes and its later imperialistic and expansive polices, Indian estates were reduced to a
single sovergin, political integrity under the British control but the ruler cannot carry on the affaires without an
active participation of the ruled and for that matter in 1717 Danish missionaries opened to charity school in Madras,
then in 1818 the Bishop of Calcutta founded a college to produce young preachers and to impart acknowledge of the
English language to Hindu and Muslims. In 1823 Mounth Stuart Elfinsten in his minutes urged for opening of
schools for teaching English by this time the recommandations of Lord like Macauly had been in circulation. Under
the British rule English become a 'Ligua Franka' of the educated class. 'Lingua Franka' means the language used by
different people for communication though their mother tongues are different.

After independence with the 1960 English became an official language. Then with the pass of 'Kothari Commission
(1964-66)', English became a medium of instruction in all major universities of India and in present day it is
becoming a second language of India.
It is a fact that the conditions under which English is being taught in our Indian Schools are not form satisfactory.
Prof. V. K. Gokak- has remembered, "Pupils are taught English for about six periods a week for six years. But it has
been estimated that they hardly know 1500 words by the time they join University. It means they have hardly been
able to learn English words at the rate of one word per period. They donot know to use the commonest structures"
This is a very sad statement made on the teaching and learning of English in our Indian Schools.

Role of English Language in Higher Education :


English though is a foreign language to Indian; but is taught as compulsory or second language. Higher education
means the education which is given in Degree colleges and universities. In India after independence with the 1963,
English became an official language, then with the passing of Kothari Commission also recommended, "no student
should consider qualified for university degree unless he or she has acquired a reasonable proficiency in English."

Now in India there are 43 Central Universities, 266 State Universities and other Universities; more than 480
Universities and 22,000 colleges and 600 lakh students are taking higher education. The importance is given of
course to English language in these total universities because English is playing an important role in higher
education by its following main characterstic qualities;

1) English as International Language : The importance of English as an international language can be judged from
the fact that there is no country in the world where a speaker of English can not be understood. English is spoken by
350 million people in the world. English is the widespread language all over the world. English is the language of
international politics. It is one of the six official language of U.N.O. It is the language of commonwealth countries.
English is the language of international trade and industries. Commerical correspondence among various nations of
the world is educated in English.

English is the language of cultural give and take. Gandhiji Said, "English is a language of diplomacy and it contains
many a rich treasure, it gives us an introduction to Western thought and culture." It is English that has made possible
the exchange of teachers and students in different parts of the world. It is English again that has opened world wide
opportunities for employment.

2) English as the Library Language : With the passing of Kothari Commission English became a library language, in
India. In brief we can say that library language is the language for reading and study of printed material. This helps
to get more and better knowledge in the world. The Radhakrishnan Commission also recommends the importance of
English as a library language. According to this commission, English must continue to be studies because in all over
the world a great quantity of knowledge is in English language and unless we gain, fluency in English we are unable
to acquire that knowledge. English is a rich store house of knowledge. There is hardly anything important in the
world that has not been translated into English. Now a days the speaker and learner of English language are in India.
English as an important library language would play a vital role in higher education. No student should be
considered as qualified for a degree, in particular, a master's degree unless he has been acquired a reasonable
proficiency in English.

3) English as a Link Language : English Language plays a significant role as a link language in India. In India every
state have their own mothertongue; it is only English that serves as a link between one state to another. English is
the language of trade and industry in India not only that the official correspondence between the union Government
and non-Hindi speaking states is conducted in English. English is used increasingly for interstate purposes. English
has served as a unifying factor in the country. Speaking of the role of English as a link language, Jawaharlal Nehru
once said, "If you push out English, does Hindi, fully take its place? I hope it will. I am sure it will. But I wish to
avoid the danger of one unifying factor being pushed out without another unifying factor fully taking its place. In
that event there will be a gap, a hiatus. The creation of any such hiatus or gap must be avoided at all costs. It is very
vital to do in the interest of the unity of the country. It is this that leads me to the conclusion that English is likely to
have an important place in the forseable future." The statement helps to gain the importance of English as a link
language.

4) English as Window to the World : Jawaharlal Nehru said, "English is our major window on the world." This
means English gives us glimpses on the various developments taking place in the world. English provides us
distelled essence of modern knowledge in all fields of human activity." F. G. French syas, "A traveler who can speak
English will find somebody who can understand him wherever he may go; anyone who can read English can keep in
touch with the whole world without leaving his own house." English is the pipeline for the stream of knowledge.
The observations of the Radhakrshnan University Education Commission in this regard are 'Pertinent'. It is a
language which is rich in literature, humanistic, scientific and technical. If under sentimental urges we would give
up English, we would cut ourselves off from the living stream of ever growing knowledge; our standards of
scholarship would fast deteriorate and our participation in the world. English is the only means of preventing our
isolation from is the world and we will act universly if we allow ourselves to be enveloped in folds of a dark curtain
of ignorance.

Rightly did Jawaharlal Nehru remarks, "All regional languages must be developed and prompted; but that did not
mean that English should be discarded to do that will amount for closing a window on the world of technology.
Foreign languages served as window on it and to suppose that translations could take their place was a mistake. It
was no use getting into an intellectual prison after achieving political independence."

Conclusion :
English language though as a foreign language; keeping in view the role of English as an international language, as
a window on the outworld, as library and a link language both in India and abroad, we mst say that we cannot
dispense with the study of English; it will be suicidal to do without English language in higher education

Canale and Swain's Model of Communicative Competence


In "Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing" (Applied
Linguistics, 1980), Michael Canale and Merrill Swain identified these four components of communicative
competence:

(i) Grammatical competence includes knowledge of phonology, orthography,vocabulary, word formation


and sentence formation.
(ii) Sociolinguistic competence includes knowledge of sociocultural rules of use. It is concerned with the
learners' ability to handle for example settings, topics and communicative functions in different sociolinguistic
contexts. In addition, it deals with the use of appropriate grammatical forms for different communicative
functions in different sociolinguistic contexts.
(iii) Discourse competence is related to the learners' mastery of understanding and producing texts in the
modes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. It deals withcohesion and coherence in different types of
texts.
(iv) Strategic competence refers to compensatory strategies in case of grammatical or sociolinguistic or
discourse difficulties, such as the use of reference sources, grammatical and lexical paraphrase, requests for
repetition, clarification, slower speech, or problems in addressing strangers when unsure of their social status or
in finding the right cohesion devices. It is also concerned with such performance factors as coping with the
nuisance of background noise or using gap fillers.

Linguistic competence constitutes knowledge of language, but that knowledge is tacit, implicit. This means
that people do not have conscious access to the principles and rules that govern the combination of sounds,
words, and sentences; however, they do recognize when those rules and principles have been violated. . . . For
example, when a person judges that the sentence John said that Jane helped himself is ungrammatical, it is
because the person has tacit knowledge of the grammatical principle that reflexive pronouns must refer to
an NP in the same clause."
LinguisticCompetenceandLinguisticPerformance
"In [Noam] Chomsky's theory, our linguistic competence is our unconscious knowledge oflanguages and is
similar in some ways to [Ferdinand de] Saussure's concept of langue, the organizing principles of a language.
What we actually produce as utterances is similar to Saussure's parole, and is called linguistic performance. The
difference between linguistic competence and linguistic performance can be illustrated by slips of the tongue,
such as 'noble tons of soil' for 'noble sons of toil.' Uttering such a slip doesn't mean that we don't
know English but rather that we've simply made a mistake because we were tired, distracted, or whatever. Such
'errors' also aren't evidence that you are (assuming you are a native speaker) a poor English speaker or that
you don't know English as well as someone else does. It means that linguistic performance is different from
linguistic competence. When we say that someone is a better speaker than someone else (Martin Luther King,
Jr., for example, was a terrific orator, much better than you might be), these judgements tell us about
performance, not competence. Native speakers of a language, whether they are famous public speakers or not,
don't know the language any better than any other speaker in terms of linguistic competence."
Two language users may have the same 'program' for carrying out specific tasks of production and recognition,
but differ in their ability to apply it because of exogenous differences (such as short-term memory capacity).
The two are accordingly equally language-competent but not necessarily equally adept at making use of their
competence.

"The linguistic competence of a human being should accordingly be identified with that individual's
internalized 'program' for production and recognition. While many linguists would identify the study of this
program with the study of performance rather than competence, it should be clear that this identification is
mistaken since we have deliberately abstracted away from any consideration of what happens when a language
user actually attempts to put the program to use. A major goal of the psychology of language is to construct a
viable hypothesis as to the structure of this program . . .."
(Michael B. Kac, Grammars and Grammaticality. John Benjamins, 1992)
Comprehensible Input
Language is not “soaked up.” The learner must understand the message that is
conveyed. Comprehensible input is a hypothesis first proposed by Stephen Krashen. (Krashen, 1981)
He purports that ELLs acquire language by hearing and understanding messages that are slightly
above their current English language level. (Comprehensible Input +1)

An English language learner may understand the message "Put the paper in your desk." By slightly
changing the message to “Put the paper in the garbage." the speaker scaffolds new information that
increases the learner’s language comprehension. In order to do this, the teacher must provide new
material that builds off the learner’s prior knowledge.

When newcomers are assigned to a mainstream classroom and spend most of their day in this
environment it is especially critical for them to receive comprehensible input from their teachers and
classmates. If that teacher lectures in the front of a classroom, the English language learner will not
be receiving this input. Imagine that you and your family were sent to Japan for a year. Would you
be able to learn Japanese by simply sitting in a Japanese classroom? You wouldn't unless the teacher
made an effort to make the Japanese you were hearing comprehensible.

Comprehensible Output
According to research, learners need opportunities to practice language at their level of English
language competency. This practice with English-speaking peers is called Comprehensible
Output. Many researchers feel that comprehensible output is nearly as important as input.
Cooperative learning groups are one way for new learners of English to receive plenty of
understandable input and output. Here are some reasons why.

o A small group setting allows for more comprehensible input because the teacher or
classmates modify or adapt the message to the listener’s needs.

o Speakers can more easily check on the understanding of the listener.

o There is more opportunity for oral practice and for repetition of content information as
peers help new learners of English negotiate meaning.

o Student talk in this small group is centered on what is actually happening at the moment
as the task is completed.

o Feedback and correction are non-judgmental and immediate.

FOLLOWING are recommended grade-level goals and competencies for grades 1-3 in the English Program.
Each goal and set of competencies is explained and correlated in terms of behavorial objectives, concepts and
understandings, values and attitudes, skills, activities, and assessment instruments.
The grade-level demarcations are broad enough here to take into account individual differences in prior
knowledge and aptitudes in particular classrooms. Teachers should work gradually and carefully with
students for whom acquisition of English skills and concepts within the grade-level spectrum is relatively
difficult. On the hand, teach-ers of highly capable children should not hesitate to move them from
competencies for grade 1-3 to those for grades 4-6, or even further.
Teachers should feel free, too, to select from the suggested Activities those that will best suit the in-terests and
needs of their pupils. Creative teachers may also wish to devise additional Activities that meet these needs
and interests.

The English Program: Basic Competencies


Level 1
Grades 1-3
LANGUAGE
AREA OF COMPETENCY CONCEPTS ATTITUDES
FUNCTIONS
I. AUDITORY * auditory *discriminate the sounds of * awareness of the
Comprehension precedes
oral language English existence of a language
COMPREHENSION production different from our own

Comprehend the mail idea of a * Comprehensible input * react to verbal instructions * develop a positive
message heard is a requisite for auditory attitude toward English
comprehension * react to commands
* enjoyment in listening to
* Comprehensible input * react to phrases, sentences, English
has to be meaningful, for
and questions
retention to occur

*oral language is a tool * talk about * develop a positive


II. ORAL COMMINICATION attitude toward the
for communication
English language by using
Produce messages orally to * identify
it to communicate
*oral language facilitates
Communicate ideas
social interaction * think alouds * awareness of the
existence of a language
*language is used to * describe different from our own
establish differences and
similarities
* retell * develop a willingness to
take risks to acquire the
* role play second language

* ask and answer questions


about:
- daily routines
- clothing
- color
- people and what they do
- friends
- food
- animals
- money
- personal information
III. READING *Comprehension is the *retell stories *recognize through the
COMPREHENSION/ very heart of the reading readings that there are
act: to read is to universal values across
LITERARY APPRECIATION *identify and recall details
comprehend cultures
To use reading as a process to obtain *identify events and their
information. Information becomes * the reading process is *positive attitude toward
meaningful when readers react by viewed as continuous and sequence reading
interrelated with readers'
thinking, appreciating or applying. *identify the main idea of a
experience *positive attitude toward
story read using English to express
* reading is a critical ideas about reading
thinking process *predict outcomes material

* words can convey *infer from picture details *a willingness to risk


different meanings using English to
depending on the communicate personal
context values and attitudes
* language expresses *write words, phrases, and *positive attitude towards
IV. WRITTEN the importance and
thought sentences
COMMUNICATION usefulness of writing
English
* words convey meaning *use of writing mechanics
Transmit messages through writing
*satisfaction and pride in
* writing is a thinking *write cooperative stories presenting neat, written
process which helps us
work
organize our thoughts *dictation: words, phrases,
and sentences *desire to share personal
experiences with others
using English as the
medium of
communication

*to derive enjoyment and


satisfaction in learning to
express ideas in writing
*there are similarities
respect for and
V. CUITURAL AWARENESS and differences between *recognize different
appreciation of individual
human beings within the relationships
family and cultural
Describe people from his/her same culture diversity within the same
culture. *describe orally differences
and similarities between culture
*there are different
family groups and human beings of the same
housing types culture

*socializing and taking turns


when speaking

LANGUAGE LABORATORY

Introduction

Good communication skills are indispensable for the success of any professional. If one wants to reach out to
people, he or she has to speak their language. The English language, in particular, has become essential in the lives
of young people who aspire to advance their careers anywhere in the world. English language learning has
therefore become a must for any Indian student today.

Language learning is not the same as learning any other subject. It is not confined to writing an examination and
getting a degree or award. The four skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking have to be practiced. Being
able to communicate well is the most important factor when seeking a placement in a company or institution.
Communication involves one’s ability to listen carefully so as to grasp the meaning and to respond in turn with apt
words and clarity of pronunciation.

The language laboratory plays an important role in the language learning process. This article discusses the various
features of the language laboratory. As it is a technological aid for learning, it has a number of advanced facilities
that can help a student to learn a language with proficiency to communicate. It has become inevitable in today’s
context but, at the same time, it poses certain challenges. This article attempts to highlight the significance of the
language laboratory and its challenges imposed on the learner and the teacher.

The Need for a Language Laboratory

It is required of any learner to have a good command of the language for communication purposes, with clarity and
accuracy being vital for effective and efficient communication. What helps one to acquire such proficiency in a
language is the process and the method of learning that language.

The curriculum of the present educational system in India does not have a laboratory session for arts subjects. Only
those who study science subjects have practical work, which is undertaken in a laboratory. Hence, a laboratory for
language learning is something new to Indian students, whereas it is very common in Western countries to train
children in the laboratory to enrich their language learning experiences.

Scientific advancements have produced a number of innovative products to assist the learning process. Innovative
products such as digital multimedia control, wireless headsets and microphones, the interactive response pad, etc.
are very useful for students learning languages for communication. These interactive tools are designed to enhance
not only language teaching but also class room grading and distance learning.

The language laboratory is very useful for assessing students' speech. It provides students with the technical tools
to get the best samples of pronunciation of the language. The electronic devices used in the laboratory will stimulate
the eyes and ears of the learner to acquire the language quickly and easily. The laboratory’s collection is designed
to assist learners in the acquisition and maintenance of aural comprehension, oral and written proficiency, and
cultural awareness. The language laboratory offers broadcasting, television programmes, web-assisted materials
and videotaped off-air recordings in the target language. In short, a learner can get the experience of having
interaction with native speakers through the laboratory. Hence, the language laboratory has become the need of the
hour in any language learning process for communication.

Kinds of Language Laboratory

The language laboratory assists educators in delivering foreign language instruction, and has been through many
developmental stages over the years.

Four kinds of laboratories are being focused on here:

Conventional Laboratory

This is the primitive form of the language laboratory. The conventional lab has a tape recorder and a few
audiocassettes of the target language to teach the learners. The teacher plays the tape and the learners listen to it and
learn the pronunciation. As it is used in a normal classroom setup, it is prone to distractions and this type of
laboratory is no longer common.

Lingua Phone Laboratory


This is again a conventional type of lab, with a little modernization. Learners are given a headset to listen to the
audiocassettes being played. Here distractions are minimized and a certain amount of clarity in listening is
possible.

There is also a modernized lingua phone laboratory available today, which uses an electronic device that has two
functions. It works as a cassette player with all the features of a normal cassette player on the left side, and as a
repeater on the right side that helps one to record one’s voice and play it back for comparison.

Computer Assisted Language Laboratory (CALL)

CALL uses the computer to teach language. The language course materials are already fed into the computer and
are displayed according to the features available in the system. Nowadays, there are also laboratories with
computers with a connection to the Internet. These are called Web Assisted Language
Laboratories(WALL). The development of CALL has been gradual, and this development has been categorized
into three distinct phases: Behavioristic CALL, Communicative CALL and Integrative CALL (Barson & Debski,
1996). Though the development of CALL has been gradual, its acceptance has come slowly and unevenly.

The Significance and Relevance of the Language Laboratory

The significance of the language laboratory has been much felt in the domain of communication. We live in a
multilingual and multicultural world, which is being shrunk to the size of a village by the advancement of science
and technology. The language laboratory exists to help one to use technology effectively to communicate. It is not
merely for learning a single language, but can be used for teaching a number of languages efficiently. To acquire a
sensibility for the sounds and rhythm of a language, one has to hear the best samples of a spoken language
(Richards, 2001). This is precisely the function of the language laboratory. Some highlights of the language
laboratory are given below:

1. It is a tool designed for teaching any language.

2. It helps one to learn pronunciation, accent, stress and all other aspects of the phonetics of a language.

3. Effective communicative training programmes for the general public, private and corporate sectors,
junior and senior level officers can be given through the lab.

4. Web-content creation, the setting up of in-house news magazines, corporate publicity and identity, and
teaching materials can be generated through the language laboratory.

5. General documentation, software documentation and all forms of technical documentation can be
done.

6. Experts can utilize the laboratory for creating and editing scientific and technical materials for
teaching language.
7. The language laboratory enables one to conduct courses for various groups of people like students,
faculties, businesspeople, etc.

8. Short-term and long-term coaching classes for international examinations like IELTS, TOEFL and
other competitive examinations can be organized.

9. Online courses and paperless examinations can be conducted through the language laboratory.

As the ability to communicate effectively has become the prerequisite for anyone who ventures into a new
profession, the need for developing such a skill is a much-felt phenomenon today. Both governmental and private
institutions focus their attention on students developing their communicative skills. As technology has entered into
every aspect of human life, it has extended its advanced products into the field of communication. So everyone
strives to get the best on the market.

It is a fact that most students who do not find a placement after completion of their technical studies are very much
dependent on their ability to express themselves and their knowledge efficiently. While emphasizing the importance
of employment-oriented education, Dr. Thiruvasagam, the Vice-Chancellor of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore,
explained that “personality development and communication skills are equally important for students in finding
respectable jobs in addition to their academic records” (The Hindu, 25/09/06). He also urged all the principals of
affiliated colleges to have a language laboratory on the campus and to motivate management to appoint a trained
instructor specifically for the laboratories.

The Anna University in Chennai has circulated a note to all its affiliated colleges to set up language laboratories on
their premises to enable students to develop their communicative skills. The vice-chancellor of Bharathiar
University has requested the board of studies for English to reduce the conventional teaching of English prose and
poetry, and has allocated 50% of the teaching time for communicative English (The Hindu, 11/09/06). Almost all
technical colleges in the Coimbatore region have already opened language laboratories. Though the cost of the
installation of a language laboratory is very high, institutions have invested in them for their students’ benefit.

Conclusion

The language laboratory is a very helpful tool for practicing and assessing one’s speech in any language. It provides
a facility which allows the student to listen to model pronunciation, repeat and record the same, listen to their
performance and compare with the model, and do self-assessment. Since the language laboratory gives every
learner of any language freedom to learn at their own pace, it is flexible and does not necessarily require a teacher
all the time. At the same time, it is possible for teachers to provide assistance individually and collectively. The
language laboratory allows every participant his or her privacy to speak and listen.

Accuracy & Appropriacy


(A) Introduction :-
There are two terms “accuracy” and “appropriacy” which I understood. In the language learning, there are four skills
to learn a language. (1) Listening (2) Speaking (3) Reading and (4) Writing. Both terms are the most useful in
grammar. If we are learning English, we must have the grammar knowledge. We should learn ‘tenses’ and ‘sentence
patterns’ of grammar. Holliday’s writing are concerned with exploring a functional approach to the study of language.
A functional approach to language means, first of all investigating how language is used trying to find out what are
the purposes the language fulfill for us and how we are able to achieve purpose through (L.S.R.W). A knowledge of
systemic grammar is essential for the students of English whose L1 is not English. This is because it helps in
understanding and L.S.R.W. (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing) makes English better. That is why, the students
of English languages must understood the way the skills of English are systematically used with in the structure of
English. On the basis of this sort of need, I have written this topic ‘accuracy’ and ‘appropriacy’.
(B) Terms ‘accuracy’ and ‘appropriacy’ in the context of language learning.
Meaning of ‘Accuracy’
Accuracy means correctness of the language. In accuracy, the speaker had full command of he language. Accuracy
is an important skill in language communication with the people. Accuracy also means mastery of the language.
Accuracy is an exactions of word. When we building a group of words, only exactness work will give us accuracy.
Accuracy is the most important part of the language learning. Accuracy makes us speedy in reading. Learning.
Language is the most important part of the human nature. Communication requires to do accuracy of languages.
We might many things to discursive things like express our preferences in study, discursive things like express our
views about a political situation, and so on. When we learn any language we have to maintain accuracy. If our
accuracy will standard and correct, it makes us master speaker in the languages. In English language there are four
ways to getting accuracy. First is Listening, second is Speaking, third is reading and fourth is writing. These four
skills are most important in the language learning. The quality of the language is become of ‘accuracy’, it affords
many opportunities too train use to say thing correctly and to understood the underlying grammar which will enable
use to do this.
Meaning of ‘Appropriacy’
Appropriacy means suitable words of the languages. Appropriacy can help us in spoken and written languages. If all
words are suitable as a grammar system and use the correct sentences in a appropriate languages, it makes us
proper use of languages. In spoken and, appropriacy is must. In English languages, written long.
There are many words which should have appropriate manner. If we will write or speak in the English language, its
arise many different meanings of different words. Sometimes once words have also two or three meanings, like the
words – right, rite, write, wright – spellings, four pronunciations, and six meanings. If we will use appropriate words
in the sentences, it shows our mastery in a language. We have to keep also the mastery in the functional English.
When we use grammatical words in English, we have to keep in our mind about tenses and sentences structures.

Important of Accurcy
Accuracy helps the learners to get correctness and speed in languages. Accuracy is an important from its side. The
essential thing is to achieve get accuracy in language, even if we make mistakes. Someone will understand you if
your, say “I have been here since four o’clock this morning”. Bur they won’t understand you if you say. “I was been
here to four o’clock today”. The fact is, however that self-conscious learners don’t like making mistakes and that is
why they have to strike a careful balance between accuracy & fluency. The main purpose of language learning is to
do communicate with people. If you have not accuracy on proper way. If you want to become accurate in a
language, you have to do more and more practice on speaking and writing. When you will use accurate language.
Its better to understand others. There are so many tips to get accuracy in languages. Many points carefully
explained so that you are fully aware, e.g. different uses of ‘some’ and ‘any’, so you do not say things like “I want any
milk”. If you will do more practice, you will get 100% accuracy. That mean you are not allowed to make mistakes
when doing accuracy exercise, you are allowed to make mistakes when doing fluency exercises.
Important of Appropriacy
In appropriacy the words & phrases are important suitable learning. The words should have suitable for sentences
for sentences. When we speak, the words should put at the right place. If you have good command on grammar, it
will be helpful in language learning. Basically appropriacy depends upon when you say and how you say it. In other
words its depend upon your choice of words and the way you show those words, which in spoken language is
largely dependent on pronunciation and body language. What you say and how you say it will in turn be controlled
by the situation and who you are talking to. By Gate used the term “reciprocity condition” to describe how these
features affect language production. An example might be the use of the exclamation “shut up !” Most of us might a
friend to “shutup !” in friendly informal way. We could mean “I don’t believe you” and use high pitched falling
intonation. We were not smiling and used rising intonaction the message would be very different and inappropriate.
We would be less likely to use the same words in a friendly way to the same person at a formal dinner because the
other people present might misinterpret our meaning. We would not tell a stranger or someone we are not on very
familiar terms with to “shutup !” under any normal circumstance.
When I speak, I think “appropriacy” is more important than “”accuracy” in the context of language learning. Actually
appropriate words make accurate language because when we speak if we have not appropriate words, we can not
speak accurately. If you will use appropriate words, you will get accuracy automatically. I do not mean that only
appropriate is the most important. Accuracy and appropriacy are like the two side of coin. Both are important on
situation. If we have writing something, we do not need that accuracy. If the teacher teaches students, he has need
accuracy because without accuracy, the student can not understand the meaning. It depends on the situation what
is important in language learning. Brown and Vale suggested that much language use aims at interaction by which
they mean using language to create and develop social relationship. If the speaker is not appropriate this aim will
not be achieved. If the speaker has appropriacy and accuracy, he or she can give better speech. When we talk with
people we do not need accuracy but when the teacher teaches the students, they should have both terms ‘accuracy’
and ‘appropriacy’.
Fluency is regarded as an important skill in English learning and speaking, but the understanding of it
seems to be vague in our mind. This part tries to describe what is ‘fluency’ in terms of native
speakers and non-native speakers.

Fluency is regarded as an important skill in English learning and speaking, but the understanding of it
seems to be vague in our mind. This part tries to describe what is ‘fluency’ in terms of native
speakers and non-native speakers.

  With respect to native speaker’s fluency, Schmidt (1992) summarizes Fillmore’s ideas and points
out four items for us to identify different levels of fluency.
    1. time-filling: Being fluent in speaking means a speaker can easily fills time with talk;
    2. quality of speech: A fluent speaker’s talk should be coherent, complex and dense;
    3. appropriacy of speech: A speaker can be seen as especially fluent if he/she knows ‘the
appropriate thing to say in a wide variety of contexts’ (Schmidt 1992: 358);    
    4. aesthetic capability: This level means speakers can exceptionally control the aesthetic
functions of language such as joking, punning and using metaphors and etc.

    We also refer to the above four items when talking about fluency of non-native speakers.
However, the level of non-native speakers’ fluency is not so advanced as that of native speakers, but
attitudes towards non-native speakers’ fluency differ at different stages of language development. At
the beginning or post beginning stage, a non-native speaker is regarded very fluent if he or she can
fill in the time with his or her talk in the communication. As the learning stages go on, we do not tend
to be so generous to non-native speakers in comparing them with native-speakers. There is an
assumption that a non-native can never be as good as a native speaker. The best fluent non-native
speaker is usually described as near native. Hence, we need to look at fluency in terms of second or
foreign language environment. From this point fluency means a level of proficiency in communication,
which includes the following points as four kinds of abilities (Richards et al. 1992:142-143):
    1. the ability to produce spoken language with ease;
    2. the ability to speak with a good but not necessarily perfect command of intonation,
vocabulary, and grammar;
    3. the ability to communicate ideas effectively;
    4. the ability to produce continuous speech with causing comprehensible difficulties or a
breakdown in communication.

    From the definitions above for both native speakers and non-native speaker, fluency includes
accuracy, fluency, appropriacy and aesthetics. So fluency is a general terms for good speaking
ability.

  In second or foreign language learning and teaching, speaking fluency is contrasted with accuracy.
For different level accuracy means different things which goes from grammar correctness to pragmatic
appropriateness. A great deal has been done in studying the relation between fluency and accuracy. It
seems focusing too much on fluency, accuracy will be sacrificed; and focusing too much on accuracy,
fluency is slow to be achieved. The reasonable relation between the two is required and has aroused a
lot of attention in the academic world. There is one point to be sure, that is, fluency does not
neglect accuracy at all.