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# Objective :

To determine the concentration of coloured solution such as FeCl3 by using dilution and colour
differentiating (colometric) techniques .

Concept :

## 1.To understand molarity,normality and mole concept

2.To learn dilution technique.
3.To learn the way to use M1V1=M2V2 equation in dilute liquid calculation.

Introduction :

Dilution is the process of decreasing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by
mixing with more solvent. To dilute a solution means to add more solvent without the addition of
more solute. The resulting solution is thoroughly mixed so as to ensure that all parts of the
solution are identical.

The same direct relationship applies to gases and vapors diluted in air for example. Although,
thorough mixing of gases and vapors may not be as easily accomplished.

## Molarity (M) = Mole / Volume ( 1 liter )

Result

M1V1=M2V2

a. V1=M2V2/M1

= (5.0x10-2M)(100ML) / (0.10M)
= 50 mL

b. V1=M2V2/M1
= (1.0x10-2M)(100ML) / (5.0x10-2M)
= 20 mL

c. V1=M2V2/M1
= (5.0x10-3M)(100ML) / (0.10M)
= 50 mL

d. V1=M2V2/M1
= (1.0x10-3M)(100ML) / (5.0x10-3M)
= 20 mL

B solution
● B solution has same colour with test tube C
● So concentration of B solution is 5.0x10-3 M
Disscussion :

Dilution also defines as the process where the concentration is the measure of how much of a
given substance there is mixed with another substance. This can apply to any sort of chemical
mixture, but most frequently the concept is limited to homogeneous solutions, where it refers to
the amount of solute in a substance.To concentrate a solution, one must add more solute, or
reduce the amount of solvent(for instance, by selective vaporation). By contrast, to dilute a
solution, one must add more solvent, or reduce the amount of solute.Unless two substances are
fully miscible there exists a concentration at which no further solute will dissolve in a solution.
At this point, the solution is said to be saturated.If additional solute is added to a saturated
solution, it will not dissolve (except in certain circumstances, when super saturation may occur).
Instead, phase separation will occur,leading to either coexisting phases or asuspension. The point
of saturation depends on many variables such as ambient temperature and the precise chemical
nature of the solvent and solute. In this process there are several precaution to take over.For
example, we need to prevent the parallel error due to using pipette and volumetric flask.

Conclusion :

From this experiment , we can know the understanding of molarity , normality and mole concept
. We also learn the properly dilution technique . we also learn how to use the exactly formula

M1V1 = M2V2 . In this experiment also , we know the intensity of colour changes in all test tubes
. The cocentrations of B solution is same with the concentration of C which is (5.0 x 10-3 M ).

Refferences :

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566538/

2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2118040/

Apparatus :

1.Burette
2.Pipette
3.Test Tube

Material :

## 1. 0.1 M FeCl3 solution

2. 0.1 M KCNS solution
3. FeCl3 solution (B)

Method :

1. The following solution from standard solution of 0.10M FeCl3 are calculated and prepared by
using pipette.
a.10mL FeCl3 solution
b. 10mL FeCl3 solution (1.0 x 10-2 M)
c. 10mL FeCl3 solution (5.0 x 10-3 M)
d. 10mL FeCl3 solution (1.0 x 10-3 M)
e. 10mL FeCl3 solution (5.0 x 10-4 M)

## The volume of solution are recorded.

2. 5 mL of prepared solution are transfered into each test tube and 2 drops of KCNS is added to
each test tube.Shake it until homogen and wait for any colour changes.

3. 5mL of B solution are transferred into another test tube and 2 drops of KCNS solution is
added.Shake and compare the colour of solution with the series of solution that have prepared
previously.