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# 1.

0 OBJECTIVE

## 1.1 Part 1: To plot Shear force influence line.

1.2 Part 2: To verify the use of a shear force influence on a simply supported
beam.

## 2.1 The application the engineering knowledge in practical application.

2.2 To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through
laboratory application.
2.3 To communicate effectively in group.
2.4 To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through
laboratory application.

3.0 INTRODUCTION

An influence line for a given function, such as a reaction, axial force, shear
force, or bending moment, is a graph that shows the variation of that function at
any given point on a structure due to the application of a unit load at any point on
the structure.

## An influence line for a function differs from a shear, axial, or bending

moment diagram. Influence lines can be generated by independently applying a unit
load at several points on a structure and determining the value of the function due
to this load, i.e. shear, axial, and moment at the desired location. The calculated
values for each function are then plotted where the load was applied and then
connected together to generate the influence line for the function.

Moving loads on beams are common features of design. Many road bridges
are constructed from beam, and as such have to be designed to carry a knife edge
load, or a string of wheel loads, or a uniformly distributed load, or perhaps the
worst combination of all three. The method of solving the problem is to use
influence line.

4.0 THEORY

Definition:
Shear influence line is defined as a line representing the changes in shear force at a
section of a beam when a unit load moves on the beam

Part 1:
This Experiment examines how shear force varies at a cut section as a unit load
moves from one end to another (see Figure 1). From the diagram shear force
influence line equation can be written.

## For 0 ≤ x ≤ a a shear line is given by :

Sy = − x / L…………… (1)

## For a ≤ x ≤ b shear line is given by:

Sy = 1− x / L . ……………(2)
Part 2:
If the beam are loaded as shown in Figure 2, the shear force at the ‘cut’ can be
calculated using the influence line. (See diagram 2).

## Shear force at ‘cut’ section = F1 y1 + F2 y2 + F3 y3 … (3)

(y1, y2 and y3 are ordinates derived from the influence line in terms of
X1, x2, x3, a, b and L)
5.0 APPARATUS

Digital Force
Display
StructureTestBeam

6.0 PROCEDURES
Part 1:
1. The Digital Force Meter was checked to read zero with no load.
2. The mass range between 50 g to 150 g was hanged at the first grooved hanger
support at the left support and the Digital Force reading in table1 was recorded.
3. The procedures were repeated to the next grooved hanger until to the last
grooved hanger at the right hand support.
4. The calculation in table 1 was completed.
Part 2:
1. Three load hangers were placed with 100 g, 200g and 300g mass respectively at
any position between the supports. The positions and the Digital Force Display
reading in Table 2 were recorded.
2. The procedures were repeated with three other locations.
3. The calculation in Table 2 was completed.
7.0 RESULT

PART 1:

## Location of load Digital Force Shear Force at Experimental Theoretical

from left hand Display cut section Influence line Influence lines
support (m) Reading ( N ) (N) value value
0.04 0.1 -0.1 -0.051 - 0.091
0.06 0.2 -0.2 -0.102 - 0.136
0.08 0.3 -0.3 -0.153 - 0.182
0.10 0.4 -0.4 -0.204 - 0.227
0.12 0.4 -0.4 -0.204 - 0.273
0.14 0.5 -0.5 -0.255 - 0.318
0.16 0.6 -0.6 -0.306 - 0.364
0.18 0.7 -0.7 -0.357 - 0.409
0.20 0.8 -0.8 -0.408 - 0.455
0.22 0.9 -0.9 -0.459 - 0.500
0.24 0.9 -0.9 -0.459 - 0.545
0.26 1.0 -1.0 -0.510 - 0.591
0.34 - 0.4 0.4 0.204 0.227
0.36 - 0.3 0.3 0.153 0.182
0.38 - 0.2 0.2 0.102 0.136
0.40 - 0.2 0.2 0.102 0.091
Table 1

Notes:
1. Shear force at cut section is the same value given by Digital force reading. Add
–ve sign to the value.
ShearForce( N )
2. Experimental Influence line values =
Load ( N )
3. Calculate the theoretical value using the equation 1 for load position 40 to 260
mm and equation 2 for load position 320mm to 380mm.
PART 2:

## Position of hanger from left hand Shear force Theoretical Shear

Location support ( m ) Digital Reading ( Nm )
(N)
100g 200g 300g
1 0.10 0.18 0.06 1.4 1.425
2 0.22 0.12 0.06 1.2 -0.846
3 0.10 0.20 0.14 2.1 - 1.383
4 0.18 0.04 0.26 2.0 - 0.579

Notes:
Theoretical Shear Force is calculated using Equation (3)

Part 1:

## 𝑆ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 (𝑁)

1. Experimental Influence line values = 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 (𝑁)

Example:
For 0.06 m of location of load from left hand support,
−0.2 𝑁
Experimental Influence line values = ( 0.200 ×9.81 )𝑁
= -0.102
2. Theoretical Influence lines value
For 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.26m a shear line is given by:

Sy = -x/L

= -0.091

## For 0.34 ≤ x ≤ 0.38 m shear line is given by:

Sy = 1 – (x/L)
Example: Theoretical value, Sy = 1 – (0.34/ 0.44)
= 0.227
Part 2:

Location 1

0.318

## 300g 100g 200g

y
1
60mm
y
2
100mm y
3
0.682

180mm

300mm 140mm

Calculation:
1. a/L = 300/440
= 0.682

2. b/L = 140/440
= 0.318

3. y1 = 60 x (0.682 / 300)
= 0.136

= 0.227

= 0.409

## Theoretical Shear = F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3….

= (0.3x9.81) (0.136) + (0.1x9.81) (0.227) + (0.2x9.81) (0.409)
= 1.425 Nm
Location 2

0.318

## 300g 200g 100g

y
1

60mm
y
2
120mm y
3
0.682
220mm

300mm 140mm

1. y1 = 60 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.136

## 2. y2 = 120 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.273
3. y3 = 220 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.500

## Theoretical Shear = F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3….

= (0.3x9.81) (0.136) + (0.2x9.81) (0.273) + (0.1x9.81) (0.500)
= 1.426 Nm
Location 3

0.318

y
1

100mm
y
2
140mm y
3

0.682
200mm

300mm 140mm

= 0.227

## 2. y2 = 140 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.318
3. y3 = 200 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.455

## Theoretical Shear = F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3….

= (0.1x9.81) (0.227) + (0.3x9.81) (0.318) + (0.2x9.81) (0.455)
= 2.051 Nm
Location 4

0.318

## 200g 100g 300g

y
1
40mm
y
2
180mm y
3

0.682
260mm
300mm 140mm

1. y1 = 40 x (0.682 / 300)

= 0.091

= 0.409

= 0.591

## Theoretical Shear = F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3….

= (0.2x9.81) (0.091) + (0.1x9.81) (0.409) + (0.3x9.81) (0.591)
= 2.319 Nm
9.0 DISCUSSIONS
1. Derive equation 1 and 2.

x
L
RA RB

MA = 0
1(x) – RB (L) = 0
RB = x/L

Fy = 0
RA – 1 + RB = 0
x
RA – 1 + = 0
L
x
RA = 1 - L

## At cut, x = a, 0 < x < a,

1
Cut
a
`
RA

Sy+1 = RA
x
Sy+1 = 1 - L
x
Sy = - L
x = a, a < x < b,

Cut
b

RB

Sy + RB = 1
Sy + (x/L) = 1
Sy = 1 – (x/L)

2. On the same graph paper, plot the theoretical and experimental values against
distance from left hand support.
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2 0.24 0.26 0.34 0.36 0.4
-0.1
theoretical
-0.2
experimental
-0.3

-0.4

-0.5

-0.6

-0.7
11.0 REFERNCE
1. Kassimali, Aslam (2005). Structural Analysis. New York: Thomson.

2. Hibbeler, R. C. (2002). Structural Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
International.

12.0 APPENDIX

the apparatus