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BUDGET ALLOCATION OF GRADE 12 GAS MALE AND FEMALE

STUDENTS OF UM PENAPLATA STUDENTS

Presented to

The Faculty of Senior High School Department

UM Peñaplata College

Island Garden City of Samal

In the Partial Fulfillment

Of the requirements of the

Subject Research

Proponents:

Bongo, Meiz Craux Klee

Daylabo, Elysa

Geraldino, Geraldine

OCTOBER 2018
CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………….i

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………...ii

List of Tables………………………………………………………………….iii

List of Figures……………………………………………………………...…iv

CHAPTER

I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING……………..…….……..1-8

Background of the Study……………………………………1-2

Statement of the Problem……………….…………………..3

Review of Related Literature………………….…..…………3-6

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework………….....……..6-7

Significance of the Study…………………………………….7-8

Definition of Terms…………………………………………….8

II METHODOLOGY……………………………………………….9-14

Research Design…………………….…………………………9

Research Participant……………………………………........10

Research Instruments…………………………………………10-12

Research Procedure…………………………………..….…..13-14

Statistical Treatment……………………………..……………14

REFERENCES…………………………………………………15-16
I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to express their sincerest gratitude and

appreciations to the following persons who have assisted and extended their

support in making this study a reality.

First to our Almighty God, who is the source of the strength and the

wisdom for whose blessing made this work possible.

Prof. Jane Marfa, their adviser, for his encouragement, inspiration and

guidance which made the researchers a strong determination and confidence

to make this work possible.

To the Panel Prof. Geoffrey Marfa for their advice, criticism, patience,

and enduring support in the development of making this study feasible.

To our Friends and Classmates, who had shared their thoughts to us

in regard to our chosen topic, and for allowing us to use their laptops in time

we needed it the most and also who motivate us to make this study and also

gave inspiration, encouragement and gratification in making the research

successful.

Finally, to the Parents of the researchers who extended their support,

financially, and morally but also their never-ending love and care all

throughout life.

Meiz Craux Klee, Geraldine, Elyssa


II

DEDICATION

We, the researchers, would like to dedicate this piece of work to the following:

ALMIGHTY GOD who given the researcher a wisdom, knowledge, good

health, courage, wisdom, and financial blessings. The researchers can’t do

anything without him.

To our beloved Parents for their precious time, undying love and moral

support especially in terms in financial aspects.

To their Friends and Classmates for the willingness to help and share their

thoughts and Good ideas to make their work on reality and successful

Meiz Craux Klee, Geraldine, Elyssa


III

Table 1………………………………………….……………………………..10
IV

Figure 1…………………………………………….………………………..…7
1

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

This chapter discusses the background of the study, statement of the

problem, Review of Related Literature, theoretical and conceptual framework,

significance of the study, and the definition of terms.

Background of the Study

Savings are usually put into the safest places, or products, that allow

us to access our money at any time. The recent economic slowdown has

changed our economic environment, and the way people think about financial

issues. Students face many hard financial decisions. Error· in money

management can impact them long after graduation. Many students end up

making some costly money mistakes, thus these mistakes can actually cause

damage that lingers for decades Xiao et aI., (2007). As a young adult they

need to figure out how to pay for college, earn some spending money, and

still get a good education.

Croy et aI., (2010) said many students experience financial hard times

when they finished their studies, finding a job and when they get older

because they never got the facts on saving. They think that saving is

something that they do not need to consider right now. These contribute to the

increased in loan default cases of the National Higher Education Fund

Corporation or known as PTPTN. By the year 2005, PTPTN has reported a

deficit of RM7 billion (US$2.2 billion) due to low rate of loan repayment. In
2

2011, it was reported that 132,801 borrowers of PTPTN have been

blackHsted due to failure of loan repayment (The Star, 2011).

According to Wildavsky et al. (2014) their study focus on every

Resources allocation of the government in Philippines just like Social Services

that have P841.8 billion or 37.2% of the total national budget. Conditional

Cash Transfer program P62.6 billion; the construction and repair of public

school classrooms -P44.6 billion, National Health Insurance Program- P35.3

billion Economic Services P593.1 billion or 26.2 % of 2014 budget. (P94.3-

billion allocation for paving national roads, P10.7 billion for technical support

services that will benefit the country’s farmers, and P5.5 billion for tourism

promotion) Debt Burden 16.7 percent (P377.6 billion) and General Public

Services corner 16 percent (P362.6 billion). Defense services -P89.5 billion.

Disaster preparedness and post-disaster rehabilitation -P13 billion set aside

for the Calamity Fund Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Program- P20 billion

Reconstruction projects under the non-programmed Fund- P80 billion.

In budgeting and allocating, it is very helpful especially to those people

who are interested in spending money in good way not only for students but to

all people that have money to spend and also have lots of expenses in life.

Students must know how much money that they need to spend and this also

knows the expected income that they will earn. This budgeting process will

able to provide an accurate performance to achieve goals. It enables to know

what you can afford and where your money is going. Budgeting is a reference

for organizing your bills and receipts.


3

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine or find out the effects of being

male or female student of Grade 12 GAS in allocating their weekly

allowances.

Specifically,

1. What is the Budget Allocation of Grade 12 GAS Male

Students

2. Budget Allocation of Grade 12 GAS and Female

Students.

3. Is there a significance difference between male and

female student?

Related Review Literature (RRL)

This portion discusses the relevant literature and studies to the current

undertaking. It also indicates the summation of all review related literature

according to our topic. Researchers have done deep readings of reliable

materials from scholarly internet which has a great significance to the problem

during the course of study.

According to Green (2007), the resource allocation and budgeting

allocation process is one of the most powerful stages of planning. Budgeting

Implies the more detailed determination of the precisely how these funds are

to be used.
The presented approach is even more efficient than the one given by

Chen et al. (2000). This is accomplished by replacing the objective function

with a better approximation that can be solved analytically. Further, Chernoff’s

bounds are not used in the derivation and fewer assumptions are imposed.

The higher efficiency of this new allocation approach is also shown in the

numerical testing. In addition to presenting a new and more efficient approach

to determine the simulation budget allocation, in this paper, we will i) compare

several different budget Allocation.

This study anchored on Commission on Higher Education’s Normative

Financing Model Padua (2003) referring to “the application of a set of

prescribed objective criteria and norms designed to promote and reward

quality instruction, research and extension services, as well as financial

prudence and responsibility.” Another theory applied is the Fractal Theory

Padua, et al., (2013) which utilized fractal statistical analysis. These theories

suggested phenomena stating smaller values are more pervasive than bigger

values (money). Hence, many SUCs will be observed with smaller budget

allocated for research activities.

Frederickson and Smith (2003). The planning function of budgeting

relies heavily on economic decision making grounded in decision theory and

rational choice theory.

According Cohen and Eimicke (2008). Budgeting for collaboration has

significant impact upon the accountability aspect of budgeting. A fundamental


consideration for collaboration is that a third-party service provider adds

another link to the democratic accountability chain, further distancing citizens

from street-level decision making.

According Sabri and MacDonald (2010). They demonstrate that

students who had higher financial knowledge were more likely to report

savings behaviour and also reported fewer financial problems. While many

worries of the importance of financial education,

Brennan and Ritters (2004) indicated that, financial allocation plays a

key role in financial empowerment. Many researchers have suggested that a

lack of financial knowledge and skills results in students' experiencing

financial problems.

This phenomenon has concerned consumers of the adequacy of their

savings, which could cause their saving rate declined over time. One study

conducted by The Pew Research Center found that almost 80% of adolecents

always try to save; however, 63% responded they do not save enough. While,

Hurd and Zissimopolous (2000) reported that about 70% of respondents

saved too little within the past 20 to 30 years. Low-income people (household)

tend to have low saving rate which could lead to health problems. According

to them, students with financial knowledge promote better financial

management whether or not they can afford to indulge themselves during the

college years.
According to Norvilitis, et al., (2006), it is because women are more

likely to report having a budget than men. Women are have a lot of needs to

be specific hygiene than men but women more frequently accumulate higher

amount credit card debt and total debt Micomonaco (2003).

Work by Arum and Roska (2011) indicates that college students are

remarkably optimistic about their financial futures. Norvilitis and colleagues

(2006) also document that college students are unrealistic in their financial

future orientation; many think they will have higher salaries than their peers

and will pay off their loans more quickly. While a positive outlook on life is

beneficial, unrealistic financial optimism is associated with greater debt

accumulation.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

This study is best supported to Ameriks et al. (2003), reported that

many of students that set up regular budgets regard this activity as

contributing to a reduction in their spending. These results support a theory in

which the channel connecting wealth accumulation and the propensity to plan

operates through a form of effortful self-control.” Antonides et al. (2011) find a

positive correlation between budgeting and having savings goals. While many

worries of the importance of financial education Brennan and Ritters (2004)

indicated that, financial education plays a key role in financial empowerment.

Many researchers have suggested that a lack of financial knowledge and

skills results in students' experiencing financial problems. In addition,


budgeting allowances is a precise plan. It enables to know the amount of

money that they need to spend. They will also know the expected income that

they will earn. Budgeting promotes the economy and efficiency because it

controls the expenses. It makes you aware of what is going on with your

money.

The figure below (Figure 1) shows the conceptual framework that will

be used in the study. The focus of the study is to determine the Budget

Allocation of the Grade 12 GAS students, this serve as a guide of the

researcher in solving the problem.

Independent Variables

Budget Allocation

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

Significance of the Study

As this study was an attempt to address to The Budget Allocation of Male

and Female students of Grade 12 GAS. The study is expected to be a

contribution to the field of research and education.


Students this study is beneficial for Grade 12 GAS students to appraise their

practice of spending money. Students will know and understand what they

must do (the ways to save) and what purpose of their savings.

Parents would benefit from this research as this will help to improve their

thinking that it is very important for them to plan and to save for their children

education.

To the future Researchers this study also beneficial to the researcher by

knowing the insights and information about the study they conducted. This

study can give or help to the researcher a deeper understanding on how to

respond with this concern.

Definition of Terms:

The following terms is defined conceptually for the better

understanding of the study.

Budget Allocation - Is the amount of funding designated to each expenditure

line
9

Chapter 2

METHOD

This chapter discusses the research design, research respondents,

size sampling, sampling design, sampling technique, research instruments,

data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of the data used in the

study.

Research Design

The researchers used the descriptive method of research to determine

variables and to know their effects and influences. In descriptive research it

includes the case studies surveys, developmental study and flow up study.

In order to gather necessary data, the researcher used descriptive

method. It includes the techniques that are used to summarize and describe

numerical data from the purpose of easier interpretation Kazmier (2004). A

survey is administered to 44 students from grade 12 GAS of UMPC.

In descriptive surveys, it necessarily to determine the psychological

and social aspects of research by way of application or implementation of

evidence to recognize between facts and influence the data from a descriptive

survey when used as basis for influences that may aid in solving practical

problems, is of value to the researchers rather than that principle and laws

applied in conducting an experiment in the laboratory.


10

Research Participants

The participants of the study are the Grade 12 GAS Section 1 Students

who has 41 total populations. In determining the category they fall under, the

aid of the survey questionnaires are most importantly needed. Below is the

specification of the number of respondents in each category.

Respondents No. of Respondents

Male 25

Female 16

TOTAL 41

Table1. Frequency Distribution of Respondents

Research Instrument

The questionnaire that researcher used will be extracted from the internet

website. It consists two parts. Part 1 will gather the profile of the respondents

such as name, age, sex, civil status and course and Part 2 deals on the

budget allocation of Grade 12 Gas of Section 1 students.

The researcher designed a questionnaire survey instrument to assess the

money management practices of the Grade 12 GAS. According to Kenyon

(2000), there are distinct advantages in using survey questionnaire compared

to other methods. Questionnaire yield a broader range of information. It is

usually faster and cheaper than interviews0 and direct observations. It is also

important to note that questionnaire provide reliable data that are simpler to
11

Administer, analyze, quote, and interrelate. The researcher, therefore, chose

to use this kind of instrument considering the desire to obtain first hand data

from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and

recommendations for the study.

The group has provided a series of question corresponding to the

research and to determine each individual’s lifestyle according to the

expenditures.

Name (Optional): ____________________________

Gender: ____Male ____Female

Age: ____

1. How much is your weekly allowance?

___Php50.00-Php100.00 ___Php100.00-Php200.00

___Php200.00-Php300.00 ___Php300.00 above

2. Do you live in Apartment?

___Yes ___No

If no, how much money do you spend for your transportation every day?

___Php6.00-10.00 ___Php10.00-20.00

___Php20.00-50.00 ___Php50.00 above

3. How much money do you spend for your food every day?

___ Php6.00-10.00 ___ Php10.00-20.00

___ Php20.00-50.00 ___ Php50.00 above


12

4. Do you bring packed Lunch in School?

___Yes ___No

If yes, how much money can you usually save?

___ Php10.00-20.00 ___ Php20.00-50.00

___ Php50.00 above

5. How much money do you usually spend on your projects?

___ Php10.00-20.00 ___ Php20.00-50.00

___ Php50.00 above

6. What do you usually do on long hours of break time?

___computer ___hang outs

___Sports ___Food Trip

___go home/ dorm

7. How much money do you spend for your Leisure Time?

___None ___ Php10.00-20.00

___ Php20.00-50.00 ___ Php50.00 above

8. Where do you think does most of your allowance go to?

___Food

___Printing (for research papers, etc.)

___Transportation

___Entertainment/ Recreation (computer shops, cell phone load, Gala,

etc.)
13

Research Procedure

Asking Permission to Conduct the Study. The researchers wrote a

letter asking permission from the Senior High School principal, Dr.

Cornello R. Monteroso Jr., Office of student’s affair – alumni Mrs.

Maricel L. Cinco, and the school director Sir Alberto M. Condez MAED.

Review of Related Literature. The researchers made a research on

different literature that helps to support the study.

Questionnaire Construction. The researchers made a survey

questionnaire which was answered by the respondents in order to

gather essential information which was used in this study.

Validation of Questionnaire. After the formulation of survey

questionnaire, the researcher immediately proceeded to the research

professor, Mr. Marfa

Distribution of the Questionnaire. The researchers administered

personally the questionnaires to the respondents after the

questionnaires have been approved by the research professor. This

was done during the convenient time of the respondents.

Retrieval of the Questionnaire. Questionnaires were retrieved

immediately by the researchers after having been answered by the

respondents.
14

Collation and Tabulation of Data. After reviewing all the

questionnaires, it was tailed, collated and recorded accordingly. The

results were statically computed, analyze, evaluated and interpreted to

answer the statement of the problem of the study.

Statistical Treatment of the Study

The results will analyze and interpret in the light of the purpose of this

study. The following statistical tools will employ:

Mean

The mean is considered the most reliable or accurate measure of the

central location because it ordinarily fluctuates less widely than the mode and

the median.

The test was used to determine the level of significant of Budget Allocation of

Grade 12 GAS of UMPC,


CHAPTER 3

RESULT AND FINDINGS

SOP 1: What is the Budget Allocation of Grade 12 GAS Male Students?

MALE BUDGET ALLOCATION

MEAN

Q1 4

Q2 8

Q2.1 3.25

Q3 4

Q4 8

Q.4 4.333333333

Q5 5.333333333

Q6 3.2

Q7 4

Q8 4

TABLE 2: Show the Budget Allocation of Male Students

This

SOP2: Budget Allocation of Grade 12 GAS and Female Students.

FEMALE BUDGET ALLOCATION

MEAN

Q1 6.25

Q2 12.5
Q2.1 5.75

Q3 6.25

Q4 12.5

Q.4 8.333333333

Q5 8.333333333

Q6 5.4

Q7 6.25

Q8 7

1. Is there a significance difference between male and

female student?

15
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