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Centrifugal Compressor Impeller for a High

Pressure Ratio Turbocharger

DOI: 10.1115/GTINDIA2012-9690

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Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Gas Turbine India Conference

GTINDIA2012

December 1, 2012, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

GTINDIA2012-9690

COMPRESSOR IMPELLER FOR A HIGH PRESSURE RATIO TURBOCHARGER

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 100084

zhengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn

SinoTurbo Co., Ltd FuYuan Turbochargers Co., Ltd

Beijing, China 100084 Weifang, Shandong, China 261205

High pressure ratio turbocharger technology is widely used engine fuel economy is enhanced and CO2 emissions are

to lower fuel consumption, reduce emissions and improve reduced [1,2]. Additionally, in order to reduce the

power density of internal combustion engines. The centrifugal NOx emissions and meet increasingly stringent emission

compressor is the key component of turbochargers. The

regulation requirements, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are

reliability of compressor impeller becomes critical with

used much more widely and the high pressure ratio turbocharger

increasing pressure ratio. For extending its maximum rotational

technology is required, too [3-5].

speed limits, it is important to improve the impeller’s disk

The centrifugal load of high pressure ratio centrifugal

geometry to decease stress. In order to investigate the effects of

compressor disks is increasing significantly as a consequence of

disk geometric parameters on the strength of a centrifugal

the increased impeller tip speed and pressure ratio. Adequate

compressor impeller, a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) with

reliability and durability will have to be ensured through

various disk geometric parameters was performed in this paper.

geometry design. Hence the study of centrifugal compressor

Subsequently, the impeller’s disk geometry was improved to

structure reliability is attracting considerable attention.

decrease the maximum stress. The results show that the

In order to keep the balance between performance and

maximum von Mises equivalent stress in the core of the disk of

reliability, within the continuously shortening duration of the

the improved impeller could be decreased by 19%. Further, the

product development phase, numerical analyses should be

maximum stress of another improved impeller without shaft

carried out during designing a centrifugal compressor impeller

bore decreases by 50%. That means, the improved impeller can

[6,7]. Finite element analysis (FEA) is the main method for

bear higher pressure ratios or use cheaper material with lower

studying the stresses in a centrifugal impeller numerically [8].

ultimate tensile strength.

In recent years, several authors [9,10] have reported

optimization methods to obtain best performance or lowest

1 INTRODUCTION

stress. Bonaiuti [9] developed a strategy for the parametric

The world’s increasing energy consumption, accompanied

analysis and optimization of transonic centrifugal impellers,

by various environmental problems, has become a focus of

using a technique of experiment design coupled with a three

public attention. As the main power devices of most

dimensional fluid-dynamic solver. Valakos [10] used a

transportation vehicles and engineering machinery in

differential evolution algorithm to optimize the back-face

industrialized societies, internal combustion engines are

geometry of a centrifugal impeller, with respect to the

responsible for roughly 25% of the global energy consumption

calculated maximum stress, and extend its speed limits. In these

and CO2 emissions. While maintaining engine performance,

studies, optimization results are presented directly, without

high pressure ratio turbocharger technology can reduce engine showing the effect of each geometry parameters on the stress. It

is thus difficult for designers to obtain the optimized designs for where u , v and w are the deformations along the

their individual, application-specific parametric requirements. If directions x , y and z , respectively.

general relationships between geometric parameters of an The primary aim of static stress analysis is to obtain the

impeller and its strength can be established, it will be helpful to distribution of stresses and deformations under the stated loads

improve the geometry to decrease the strength. and boundary conditions. The effects and sensitivities of the

In this paper, a detailed investigation of the effects of five principal geometric parameters on the strength of the impeller

impeller disk geometric parameters on maximum stress and were investigated by means of a linear elastic FEA, which

stiffness was performed by using 3-D FEA. Subsequently, provides a good understanding into the internal responses of the

geometric parameters of an original impeller were improved on structure.

the basis of this analysis to decrease the maximum stress.

2.2 FEA Model and Boundary Condition

2 NUMERICAL METHODS In this paper, the effects of the geometric parameters of

impeller disk were investigated by means of a linear elastic

2.1 Structural Analysis Theory FEA, excluding the effect of non-linear material properties. The

The FEA is an efficient numerical technique to research the studied impeller has 7 main blades and 7 splitter blades. Instead

detailed response of structure to all types of loads, including of dealing with the whole structure, 1/7 of the cyclic symmetric

stress, strain, deformation, and so on. The equilibrium equations structure was analyzed to reduce the numerical solution time.

for linear structural static analysis are: The mechanical model of the impeller is shown in Fig. 1. The

∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz corresponding finite element mesh, shown in Fig. 2, was built

+ + + Fbx = 0 (1)

∂x ∂y ∂z using 3D 20-nodes solid elements in global cylindrical

coordinate system and consists of 36,736 elements. For better

∂τ yx ∂σ y ∂τ yz

+ + + Fby = 0 (2) comparability, uniform FEA mesh size was used for all the

∂x ∂y ∂z impellers with varies geometric parameters throughout the

∂τ zx ∂τ zy ∂σ z analysis.

+ + + Fbz = 0 (3)

It is suggested that the influence of aerodynamic forces is

∂x ∂y ∂z

negligible comparing to the centrifugal loads. The following

where Fbx , Fby and Fbz are the body forces per unit volume boundary conditions and loads were applied for the structural

acting along the directions x , y , and z , respectively. σ analysis: 1) Centrifugal loads at design rotational speed with

and τ are the normal and shear stress components. Subscripts pressure ratio of 4.2:1. 2) The nodes attached to both the front

are used to describe their directions. and reverse ends of the impeller (as shown in Fig. 2) are fixed

In the case of linear elastic isotropic 3D solid, the stress- and the deformations along circumferential and axial directions

strain relations are given as: are set to zero. 3) The constraint equations that tie together the

low and high edges of the model (cyclic symmetric faces) are

τ

εx =

1

E

[ ]

σ x − µ (σ y + σ z ) , γ xy = xy

G

(4) generated automatically with a cyclic symmetry analysis.

τ yz

1

E

[ ]

ε y = σ y − µ (σ z + σ x ) , γ yz =

G

(5)

1

E

[ ] τ

ε z = σ z − µ (σ x + σ y ) , γ zx = zx

G

(6)

is Poisson’s ratio of the material. ε and γ are normal strain

and shear strain components, respectively. Subscripts are used

to describe their directions.

The strains induced in the body can be expressed in terms

of the deformations, as shown below：

∂u ∂u ∂v

ε x = , γ xy = + (7)

∂x ∂y ∂x Fig. 1 Mechanical model of the impeller

∂v ∂v ∂w

ε y = , γ yz = + (8)

∂y ∂z ∂y

∂w , ∂w ∂u

εz = γ zx = + (9)

∂z ∂x ∂z

simulation results, the impeller structure was improved to

decrease the stress.

The geometric parameters of the original impeller disk are

listed in Tab. 1. Figure 4 shows the von Mises stress distribution

of the original impeller.

Tab. 1 Geometric parameters of the original impeller disk

Parameters Value

h1 0.040

Fig. 2 FEA model of the impeller h2 0.080

h3 0.107

The centrifugal compressor impeller is made from

aluminum alloy LD7. The Young’s modulus is 74.4 GPa. The r1 0.160

3

Poisson’s ratio is 0.3 and density is 2760 kg / m , ultimate r2 0.120

tensile strength is 412MPa.

The stress of centrifugal compressor impellers caused by

centrifugal force is relative to the rotating speed, disk geometry,

and blade geometry. The rotating speed and blade geometry are

decisive for the aerodynamic performance and not considered in

this paper. The parameters of disk geometry considered in this

paper are tip thickness h1 ( h1 / R0 ), rear-disk thickness

h2 ( h2 / R0 ), rear-disk height h3 ( h3 / R0 ), fillet radius

r1 ( r1 / R0 ), and bore radius r2 ( r2 / R0 ). R0 is the radius of the

impeller. The definition of the parameters is shown in Fig. 3.

load occurs at the core of the disk and the second-maximum

stress occurs at the fillet region (marked by A and B in Fig. 4).

The maximum stress at the core of the disk (region A) is found

to be 360 MPa and the maximum stress at the fillet (region B) is

found to be 292 MPa. The impeller has a safety factor of 1.14

(the ratio of the ultimate tensile strength of material 412 Mpa to

the maximum stress 360 MPa), which is very small for

commercial application. This highlights the requirement of

improvement of disk structure.

Fig. 3 Definition of the geometric parameters of impeller

disk Impeller Disk

Firstly, Structural analysis was made on the original 3.2.1 Effects of Tip Thickness. Stresses and deformations of

impeller, which has being used in market for many years. Then 11 impellers with different h1 were calculated and compared

the effect of the five disk geometric parameters on the stress

was analyzed. Each one of these geometric parameters is with the original impeller. Figure 5 shows the effects of h1 on

modified keeping other parameters unchanged. Based on the the relative maximum von Mises stress in regions A and B. The

relative maximum stress is the ratio of the maximum stress to Reducing the impeller tip thickness h1 has two

the original impeller’s maximum stress in region A (360 MPa).

advantages. Firstly, it is easier to meet the safety requirements

Figure 6 shows the effects of h1 on the maximum relative due to a lower level of von Mises stress. In addition, it can

deformations along the radial, circumferential and axial prevent blades to scrape the shroud casing, which is caused by

directions of the impeller. The relative maximum deformation is deformations of the impeller. Reducing h1 is a feasible and

the ratio of the maximum deformation to the radius R0 of the

effective approach to improve strength of impellers. However,

original impeller. The results for the original impeller are the impeller should keep a certain tip thickness to meet the

marked by hollow squares in Figs. 5 and 6. requirements of the dynamic balance to remove material. Based

1.2

on comprehensive considerations of the strength, dynamic

relative maximum stress

1.0 the improved impeller is set to 0.013, which is marked by

0.9 hollow triangles in Figs. 5 and 6.

0.8

0.7 region A

3.2.2 Effects of Rear-Disk Thickness. Stresses and

0.6 deformations of 13 impellers with various h2 were calculated

region B

0.5 and compared with the original impeller. Figure 7 shows the

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

effects ofh2 on the relative maximum von Mises stresses in

tip thickness

regions A and B. Figure 8 shows the effects of h2 on the

Fig. 5 Effects of h1 on the relative maximum stresses of relative maximum deformations along radial, circumferential

impeller and axial directions. The results for the original impeller are

marked by hollow squares in Figs. 7 and 8.

3.0E-03

1.5

radial

relative maximum

1.4

2.5E-03 circumferential region A

deformation

1.3

axial region B

1.2

2.0E-03

1.1

1.0

1.5E-03

0.9

0.8

1.0E-03

0.7

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

tip thickness

rear-disk thickness

Fig. 6 Effects of h1 on relative deformation of impeller Fig. 7 Effects of h2 on relative maximum stresses of

impeller

Across the 11 simulated cases, the tip thickness h1 ranges

from 0.001 to 0.067. Due to the effect of the centrifugal load

3.0E-03

relative maximum deformation

stress values in region A and region B severely increase with 2.5E-03 circumferential

increasing h1 . Variations of the maximum stresses at these two axial

2.0E-03

regions are quite similar over the entire range of h1 . The von

Mises equivalent stress in region A is between 0.78 and 1.12 1.5E-03

times that of the original impeller. Variations of h1 also lead to

1.0E-03

large changes in deformations along the radial, circumferential 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16

and axial directions. It can be seen that the maximum rear-disk thickness

circumferential deformation decreases but the axial deformation

increases with increasing h1 . The effect of h1 on radial Fig. 8 Effects of h2 on relative deformations of impeller

deformation is comparably small.

The parameter range for the rear-disk thickness h2 is 0 - 3.0E-03

0.160. Due to the centrifugal load being shared by the rear-disk,

the maximum stress in region A decreases severely with radial

2.5E-03

circumferential

increasing h2 when h2 ≤ 0.080 . However, h2 has little axial

2.0E-03

influence on maximum stress when h2 ≥ 0.080 . The von Mises

equivalent stress in region A is between 1.44 to 0.94 times that 1.5E-03

of the original impeller. In region B, h2 has a negligible

1.0E-03

influence on the maximum stress over the entire range of h2 . 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

rear-disk height

Variations of h2 also lead to some changes in deformations

along the radial, circumferential and axial directions. It can be Fig. 10 Effects of h3 on relative deformations of impeller

seen that the maximum circumferential deformation increases,

while the axial deformation decreases with increasing h2 . The

Across the 16 cases, the rear-disk height h3 ranges from

effect ofh2 on radial deformation is relatively not significant. 0.027 to 0.33. It can be observed that the maximum stress in

Mass and inertia increase with increasing h2 , while the region B decreases with increasing h3 . It should be noted that

maximum stress decreases. Based on comprehensive

the maximum stress in region A decreases with increasing h3

considerations of strength and mass, the rear-disk thickness h2

is set to 0.080 for the improved impeller, which is same as that

when h3 is small, increases slightly when h3 ≥ 0.160 , and

of the original impeller. then increases strongly when h3 ≥ 0.267 due to the additional

centrifugal load caused by additional material. The von Mises

3.2.3 Effects of Rear-Disk Height. Stresses and equivalent stress in region A is between 0.98 and 1.12 times that

deformations for 16 impeller designs with varying h3 were of the original impeller. However, the minimum stress was

calculated and compared with the original impeller. Figure 9 obtained when h3 = 0.160 .Variations in h3 also lead to some

shows the effects of h3 on the relative maximum von Mises changes in deformations along the radial, circumferential and

axial directions. It can be seen that the maximum

stress in regions A and B. Figure 10 shows the effects of h3 on circumferential deformation increases while the axial

the relative maximum deformations along the radial,

deformation decreases with increasing h3 . The effect of h3 on

circumferential and axial directions. The results for the original

impeller are marked by hollow squares in Figs. 9 and 10. radial deformation is comparably small.

Considering the effect of increasing h3 on the maximum

1.2

relative maximum stress

region A

1.1 region B stress in region A, the rear-disk height h3 of the improved

1.0 impeller is selected to be 0.160, which is marked by hollow

0.9 triangles in Figs. 9 and 10.

0.8

0.7 3.2.4 Effects of Fillet Radius. Stresses and deformations for

0.6 9 values of r1 were calculated and compared with the original

0.5 impeller. Figure 11 shows the effects of r1 on the relative

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

maximum von Mises stresses in regions A and B. Figure 12

rear-disk height

shows the effects of r1 on the relative maximum deformations

Fig. 9 Effects of h3 on relative maximum stresses of along the radial, circumferential and axial directions. The

impeller results for the original impeller are marked by hollow squares in

Figs. 11 and 12.

the relative maximum von Mises stresses in regions A and B.

1.2 Figure 14 shows the effects of r2 on the relative maximum

relative maximum stress

1.0 directions. The results for the original impeller are marked by

0.9 hollow squares in Figs. 13 and 14.

0.8

0.7 1.1

region A

0.6 region B 1.0

0.5

0.9

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

fillet radius 0.8

0.7

Fig. 11 Effects of r1 on relative maximum stresses of region A

0.6 region B

impeller

0.5

0 0.05 0.1 0.15

3.0E-03 bore radius

relative maximum deformation

radial

Fig. 13 Effects of r2 on relative maximum stresses of

2.5E-03 circumferential

axial impeller

2.0E-03

3.0E-03

relative maximum deformation

1.5E-03

radial

2.5E-03 circumferential

1.0E-03

axial

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

fillet radius 2.0E-03

The fillet radius r1 ranges from 0.07 to 0.53. Due to the 1.0E-03

0 0.05 0.1 0.15

effect of a larger fillet radius, the maximum stress in region B

bore radius

decreases significantly with increasing r1 . On the other hand,

variations in the maximum stress in region A are quite slight Fig. 14 Effects of r2 on relative deformations of impeller

over the entire range of r1 / R0 .The minimum stress can be

obtained when r1 = 0.267 . Variations in r1 also lead to little

The bore radius r2 is varied from 0 to 0.150. It can be

changes in deformations along the radial, circumferential and noted that r2 decreases with decreasing r2 . However, the

axial directions. It can be seen that the maximum maximum stress in region A decreases significantly with

circumferential deformation increases with increasing r1 while decreasing r2 when r2 ≤ 0.040 . The von Mises equivalent

the axial deformation decreases. The effect of r1 on radial stress in region A is 0.53 to 1.03 times that of the original

impeller. That is, the von Mises equivalent stress in region A is

deformation is relatively insignificant.

Generally speaking, the maximum stress in region A is found to be 0.53 times the original impeller when r2 = 0 (with

higher than that in region B, so the increase of r1 is no bore). The maximum stress in region A is smaller than that in

insignificant for the overall strength of impellers. The fillet region B for r2 ≤ 0.030 . It should also be noted that r2 has

radius of the improved impeller is selected to be r1 = 0.267 , little influence upon the maximum stress in region B over the

which is marked by hollow triangles in Figs. 11 and 12. entire range of r2 . Variations of r2 also lead to some changes in

deformations along the radial, circumferential and axial

3.2.5 Effects of Bore Radius. The stresses and deformations directions. It can be seen that the axial deformation decreases

of 12 impellers with varying r2 were calculated and compared obviously with increasing r2 . The effect of r2 on radial and

with the original impeller. Figure 13 shows the effects of r2 on circumferential deformation is not significant.

Although the maximum stress in region A decreases with

decreasing r2 , a small r2 means a slim shaft. Furthermore, it is

difficult to redesign a new shaft system to adapt to the changes

of the bore radius. The bore radius r2 of the improved

impeller is selected to be 0.120, which is same as the original

impeller that has been used for many years.

After finishing the above analysis of effects of geometric

parameters of impeller disk, the improved impeller (impeller I)

is designed using the improved parameters to reduce the stress.

The geometric parameters of the impeller I are summarized in

Tab. 2.

As discussed earlier, due to the fact that the maximum

Fig. 16 Stress distribution of improved impeller II

stress in region A is reduced by the factor 0.53 compared to the

original impeller, a solid impeller is a further promising method

Figure 15 shows that the stress distribution in the improved

to reduce stress. Therefore, a second improved impeller

impeller I is similar to that of the original impeller, with the

(impeller II) is designed on the basis of impeller I. Impeller II

same stress concentration regions, but the maximum stress level

features the same geometric parameters as impeller I except for

is reduced significantly. The calculations show encouraging

r2 . The geometric parameters of the impeller II are listed in results: the maximum von Mises equivalent stress in region A is

Tab. 2. Figures.15 and 16 show the stress distributions of the 293MPa, a decrease of 19% compared to the original impeller.

improved impellers under the same centrifugal load and the The von Mises equivalent stress in region B is 215MPa, a

same boundary conditions with the original impeller. decrease of 26%.

Tab. 2 Geometric parameters of the improved impellers Figure 16 shows that the maximum von Mises equivalent

stress in region A in the improved impeller II is 180MPa, a

decrease of 50% compared to the original impeller. The von

parameters impeller I impeller II Mises equivalent stress in region B in the improved impeller II

is higher than that in region A, with a value of 231MPa. This

0.013 0.013 represents a decrease by 21% compared to the original impeller.

h1

That is, the solid impeller greatly reduces the maximum stress.

h2 0.080 0.080 However, a new shaft system needs to be developed to match

0.160 0.160 the solid impeller.

h3 When the stress level of the impeller is in the elastic region,

r1 0.267 0.267 speed scaling of elastic results is straight forward. The

0.120 0 relationship is that the stress increases with the square of the

r2 speed. Thus, the results of the improved designs can be used to

extend the maximum speed and then obtain a higher pressure

ratio for a specific impeller. On the other hand, it can be used to

decrease the cost of an impeller by replacing titanium with

aluminum. Titanium has a higher ultimate tensile strength, but it

is much more expensive than aluminum. This matters for

designers because the cost of the turbocharger is a key factor for

commercial market.

In this paper, finite element analysis has been used to

model the effects of disk geometric parameters on the strength

and deformation of a high pressure ratio centrifugal

compressor’s impeller. For the high pressure ratio centrifugal

compressors, high stress will restrict its design and application.

The geometric parameters of the impeller disk are important for

Fig. 15 Stress distribution of improved impeller I its stress and deformation. As the results of the investigation the

following findings could be established.

The Tip thickness h1 , the rear-disk thickness h 2 and the [3] Clenci A C, Descombes G, Podevin P, et al. Some aspects

concerning the combination of downsizing with

bore radius r2 are important parameters for both stress and turbocharging, variable compression ratio, and variable

deformation of the impeller. Relatively, the rear-disk height h3 intake valve lift. Proc. IMechE Part D: Journal of

and fillet radius r1 are not important. After finishing the above Automobile Engineering, 2007, 221 (10), pp. 1287-1294.

[4] Maiboom A, Tauzia X, Héteta J F. Experimental study of

analysis of effects of geometric parameters of impeller disk, the various effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on

improved impeller is designed using the improved parameters to combustion and emissions of an automotive direct

reduce the stress. injection diesel engine. Energy, 2008, 33 (1), pp. 22-34.

The stress distribution in the improved impellers and that [5] Zheng X Q, Zhang Y J, Yang M Y, et al. Stability

of the original impeller are similar with the same stress improvement of high-pressure-ratio turbocharger

concentration regions, but the maximum stress for the improved centrifugal compressor by asymmetric flow control——

impellers could be reduced significantly. Comparing to the part II: non-axisymmetric self recirculation casing

original impeller, the maximum von Mises equivalent stress of treatment. ASME Paper No. GT2010-22582, 2010.

the improved impeller I in region A could be decreased by 19% [6] Raya G S, Sinhaa B K. Computation of centrifugal

and the maximum von Mises equivalent stress of the improved stresses in a radial-flow impeller. Comput. Struct., 1991,

impeller II in region A could be decreased by 50%. The 40, pp. 731-740.

improved impeller can bear higher pressure ratios or use [7] Subramani D A, Ramamurti V, Sridhara K, .Numerical

cheaper material with lower ultimate tensile strength. analysis and experimental verification of the radial growth

of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor impeller. J.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 1997, 32, pp. 119-128.

This research was supported by the National Natural [8] Bhope D V, Padole M P. Experimental and theoretical

Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51176087). analysis of stresses, noise and flow in centrifugal fan

impeller. Mech. Mach. Theory. 2004, 39, pp. 1257-1271.

REFERENCES [9] Bonaiuti D, Arnone A, Ermini M, Baldassarre L L.

[1] Zheng X Q, Huenteler J, Yang M Y, et al. Influence of the Analysis and optimization of transonic centrifugal

volute on the flow in a centrifugal compressor of a high- compressor impellers using the design of experiments

pressure ratio turbocharger. Proc. IMechE Part A: Journal technique. J. Turbomach., 2006, 128, pp. 786-797.

of Power and Energy, 2011, 224, pp. 1157-1169. [10] Valakos I M, Ntipteni M S, Nikolos I. K. Structural

[2] Ricardo M B, Apostolos P, Yang M Y. Overview of optimization of a centrifugal impeller using differential

boosting options for future downsized engine. Sci China evolution in CATIA environment. Operational Research,

Tech Sci, 2011, 54 (2), pp. 318-331. 2007, 7, pp. 185-211.

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