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Copyright © 2005 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers

ISBN 1-880653-64-8 (Set); ISSN 1098-6189 (Set)

Eva Loukogeorgaki and Demos C. Angelides

Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)

Thessaloniki, Greece

ABSTRACT Isaacson (1993b). Linear two dimensional models that describe the

complete hydrodynamic problem (diffraction and radiation) have been

In the present paper the effect of mooring lines’ stiffness and damping developed by Isaacson and Nwogu (1987), Isaacson (1993a), Isaacson

on the performance of moored floating breakwaters under the action of and Bhat (1996), Williams and Abul-Azm (1997), Bhat and Isaacson

normal incident waves is investigated in frequency domain. A three (1998), Sannasiraj et al. (1998), Williams et al. (2000) and Lee and

dimensional hydrodynamic model is coupled with a static and dynamic Cho (2003). The effect of mooring lines stiffness is modeled with the

model of the mooring lines, using an iterative procedure. An extensive appropriate modification of the hydrodynamic equations (Williams and

parametric study is performed. The initial draft of a “base case” floating Abul-Azm, 1997; Sannasiraj et al., 1998; Williams et al., 2000; Lee and

breakwater is modified through the appropriate modification of the Cho, 2003). Bhat and Isaacson (1998) performed an iterative coupled

mooring lines’ length, affecting directly the mooring lines’ stiffness procedure between a hydrodynamic model and a mooring analysis

and damping. The existence of “optimum” draft, for the frequencies model in terms of convergence of steady drift forces. Isaacson and

examined, in terms of transmission coefficient and mooring lines’ Nwogu (1987) and Bhat (1998) properly modified the two dimensional

forces is clearly demonstrated. hydrodynamic model in order to take into account the effect of finite

floating body length. Isaacson and Garceau (1997) investigated the

KEY WORDS: Coastal engineering; floating breakwater; mooring response of a freely floating breakwater by superposing two-

lines; stiffness; damping; effectiveness; performance. dimensional solutions for the diffracted and radiated waves and

compared this simplified approach with three-dimensional results.

INTRODUCTION Three dimensional analysis of V-shape floating breakwater has been

implemented by Briggs et al. (1999). Finally, Kim et al. (1994)

investigated theoretically and experimentally the effect of the initial

Floating breakwaters present an alternative solution to conventional

constraining forces of a pile restrained floating breakwater and

fixed breakwaters and can be effectively used at coastal regions with

indicated the existence of optimum initial values of these forces in

mild wave environment conditions. Poor foundation or deep water

terms of wave transmission.

conditions as well as environmental requirements, such as phenomena

In the present paper the protection effectiveness and the dynamic

of intense shore erosion, water quality and aesthetic considerations

response of a moored floating breakwater is investigated in frequency

advocate to the application of such structures.

domain under the action of regular waves. A three dimensional model

Floating breakwaters have many advantages compared to the fixed

of the hydrodynamic analysis of the floating body is coupled with a

ones, e.g. flexibility of future extensions, mobility and reallocation

model of the static and dynamic analysis of the mooring lines using an

ability, etc. As a result, many types of floating breakwaters have been

appropriate iterative procedure in terms of the steady drift forces and

developed as described by McCartney (1985). However, the most

the response of the floating breakwater. The floating body analysis is

commonly used are the rectangular pontoon type breakwaters, which

based on three dimensional panel method utilizing Green’s theorem.

are moored to the sea bottom with cables or chains.

The analysis of the mooring lines includes the computation of mooring

A moored floating breakwater should be properly designed in order to

lines’ stiffness and damping imposed on the floating body. An

ensure: (a) effective reduction of the transmitted energy and, therefore,

extensive parametric study is performed in order to investigate the

adequate protection of the area behind the floating system, (b) non

effect of the stiffness and damping of the mooring lines on the dynamic

failure of the mooring lines and (c) non failure of the floaters

response and the effectiveness of the floating breakwater as well as on

themselves and their interconnections. The satisfaction of the above

the loads of the mooring lines. The initial draft of a “base case” floating

three requirements comprises the overall performance of the floating

breakwater is properly modified through the appropriate changes of the

breakwater.

mooring lines’ length; this affects directly mooring lines’ stiffness and

A brief review of the design process for floating breakwaters and of

damping. The existence of optimum draft, for the frequencies

related design criteria, both with respect to wave effects is provided by

621

examined, in terms of transmission coefficient and mooring lines’ gravitational matrix. BijE are the coefficients of the damping matrix

forces is clearly demonstrated. caused by an external source (i.e. drag damping of the mooring lines

and viscous damping) and CijE are the coefficients of the external

NUMERICAL MODELS stiffness matrix caused by the mooring lines.

The coefficients BijE of the external damping matrix include two

In the following subsections the two components of the analysis of a components: the damping coefficients BijE(D), due to the drag damping

moored floating breakwater’s behavior are briefly described. The of the mooring lines, and the damping coefficients BijE(V), due to

geometry of the problem, the coordinate system and the definition of viscous damping attributed to the separation effects at the sharp corners

some basic quantities that are mentioned in the rest of the paper are of the floating body. The calculation of the BijE(D) coefficients is

shown in Fig. 1. The origin of the coordinate system is placed on the described in the next subsection. As far as the BijE(V) coefficients the

still water level. following empirical relationship is used:

ξ3 ξ2 y where ζ is the damping ratio. According to Bhat (1998) a value of ζ

Wave equal to 2.5% is the most representative in the case of a rectangular

ξ6 ξ5 direction floating breakwater.

ξ4 ξ1 The solution of the boundary value problem is based on three

β dimensional panel method utilizing Green’s theorem, imposing the

x appropriate boundary conditions on the free surface, on the sea bottom

and on the floating body and the proper radiated condition for the

Ηf dr

B outgoing waves of the potentials Φj, j=1,..,7 as described by Lee (1995)

d and Newman (1977). Initially, the velocity potential Φ is evaluated.

Lf Then the added mass coefficients Aij, the damping coefficients Bij and

Mooring Line 1 the exciting forces Fi are calculated. The response of the floating body,

Fig. 1: Coordinate system and definition of basic quantities ξj, is determined by using Eq. 3. Finally, the steady mean drift forces Fsj

j=1,2,6 are defined using the momentum conservation. It should be

noted that the coefficients CijE and BijE are imported in the model

Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Floating Body

according to an iterative procedure described below.

The response of the floating body in each degree of freedom is

The hydrodynamic analysis of the floating body subjected to incident

expressed in terms of the Response Amplitude Operator (Eq. 5):

regular waves is conducted in the frequency domain and is based on

three dimensional linear wave diffraction theory. In this linear analysis, ξj

RAO j = j = 1,..., 6 (5)

the floating breakwater is also taken to undergo small oscillations in all A

six degrees of freedom corresponding to surge (ξ1), sway (ξ2), heave The effectiveness of the floating breakwater is expressed in terms of the

(ξ3), roll (ξ4), pitch (ξ5) and yaw (ξ6) as shown in Fig. 1. The fluid is reflection, Kr, and the transmission, Kt, coefficients (Eq. 6) varying

assumed inviscid and incompressible, while the flow is assumed with the location in front and behind the breakwater.

irrotational. Consequently, the fluid motion is described in terms of a

η(x, y) η(x, y)

velocity potential φ(x,y,z;t) = Re[Φ(x,y,z)eiωt], where Re[] denotes the Κr = ( y < 0) Κt = ( y > 0) (6)

real part of a complex quantity. The velocity potential Φ satisfies the A A

Laplace equation everywhere in the fluid region and it consists of three where η(x,y) is the wave elevation at (x,y) due to diffracted and

components: the velocity potential of the incident wave Φο, the radiated waves.

scattered potential Φ7 associated with the diffraction of the incident Finally, the natural frequencies ωnj, j=1,…,6, of the floating breakwater

wave by the breakwater fixed in its mean position and the radiated are determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. The frequency

potential Φr associated with the waves that are generated due to the dependence of the coefficients Aij and CijE results to different natural

forced motions of the breakwater in all six degrees of freedom. Thus, frequencies in each degree of freedom for different excitation

the total velocity potential is given by the following equation: frequencies ω.

Φ = (Φ o + Φ 7 ) + Φ r = Φ D + Φ r (1)

Static and Dynamic Analysis of Mooring Lines

where ΦD is the diffracted potential.

The incident wave potential Φo is defined by Eq. 2:

The static and dynamic analysis of the mooring lines has two

igA cosh[k(z + d)] − ikx cos β −iky sin β objectives. Firstly, it evaluates the coefficients CijE and BijE(D) and,

Φo = • e (2)

ω cosh(kd) consequently, enables the complete and integrated modeling of the

where g is the acceleration of gravity, ω is the wave frequency, A is the dynamic response of the floating breakwater. Secondly, it calculates the

amplitude of the incident wave, k is the wave number, d is the water static and dynamic tension; the maximum tension that is exercised on

depth, and β is the wave angle (Fig. 1). each mooring line determines the failure or not of the mooring lines.

The response of the floating body ξj, j=1,…,6 is given by the solution The geometry of a typical mooring line is shown in Fig. 2.

of the following system of equations (Eq. 3): The static analysis of the mooring lines includes the determination of:

6 (a) the initial static configuration of the mooring lines under the action

∑ −ω ( Μ2

ij ) ( )

+ Αij + iω Βij + ΒijE + (Cij + CijE ) ξ j = Fi

(3)

of the initial pretension and in the absence of any external loads (initial

equilibrium position) as well as the corresponding static tensions, (b)

j=1

the new equilibrium position (steady offset) of the mooring lines under

i = 1,..., 6 the action of steady drift forces due to waves and current (Fig. 3) and

where Mij are the coefficients of the mass matrix of the body, Aij and the corresponding net horizontal forces and net moment around z axis

Bij are the coefficients of the added mass matrix and damping matrix (at the initial equilibrium position these forces and moment are equal to

respectively and Cij are the coefficients of the hydrostatic and zero due to symmetry of mooring lines), (c) the static configuration and

622

the static tensions of the mooring lines at the new equilibrium position the fairlead at the new equilibrium position and (b) the damping

and (d) the coefficients CijE due to the changes of static tensions coefficients BijE(D).

resulting from the displacements due to the external static loads. The dynamic tensions express the effect of waves on the mooring lines.

z The direct action of the waves on the mooring lines is typically small

Tst compared to the energy that is transmitted by the moving floating body

V as mentioned by Triantafyllou (1999). Therefore, the dynamic tensions

x are calculated assuming that a sinusoidal excitation, resulting from the

H motions of the floating body, is imposed on the fairlead of each

Ltot mooring line at the new static equilibrium position. Detailed

L1 d-dr description of the determination of the dynamic tensions can be found

in Triantafyllou (1982) and Triantafyllou et al. (1986). With regard to

L2 φbot the drag damping calculation, the drag damping coefficients are

Xtot obtained by linearizing the hydrodynamic drag force using an

equivalent linearization technique for the case of a harmonic excitation

Xa (Triantafyllou et al., 1986).

Fig. 2: Geometry of mooring line (x-z plane) Generally, the damping coefficient BijE(D) of a mooring line is defined

as the ratio of the reaction force or moment in phase with the velocity

All the above issues related to the static analysis are addressed using ξ i , due to a motion ξj, to the velocity ξ j . In this work the coefficients

the equations of the elastic catenary as described in Triantafyllou

(1982). A basic assumption for the static analysis is that the static BijE(D) with i=j are calculated, while the ones with i≠j are assumed equal

configuration of a mooring line is two-dimensional (x-z plane). to zero. Initially, the complex motion amplitudes xd, zd in x, z

Additionally, as far as the calculation of the stiffness coefficients, CijE, directions (vertical plane), due to the externally imposed sinusoidal

the change in the static tension is assumed to be a function of only the motions (RAOj, j=1,…,6) at the top of each mooring line at the new

horizontal distance Xtot between the anchor position and the fairlead static position, and the resulting dynamic tensions and angles are

position. calculated, assuming small rotations. The terminal impedances of a

mooring line can be defined in the following way:

y

y΄ Sxx Sxz x d Fx

P2(xp,yp) • = (8)

θf x΄ Szx Szz z d Fz

●

where Fx, Fz are the excitation forces in x, z directions. The reaction

θi θο xo, yo, θo: displacements forces Sxx, Sxz, Szx, Szz are next evaluated as functions of the static and

yo ■ and rotation of body’s the dynamic tension and angle at the top of each mooring line

● center of gravity (Triantafyllou et al., 1986). Then, the reaction forces are properly

fy H xo x θi: initial angle of mooring

analyzed in x, y, z directions resulting to reaction forces Si, i=1, 2, 3

lines on x-y plane

Xtot fx θf: new angle of mooring and moments Si, i=4, 5, 6 at and around the corresponding axes. The

lines on x-y plane reaction forces and moments Si that are in phase with the velocity ξ i

xp, yp: coordinates of

Initial equilibrium position displaced fairlead

are used to evaluate the damping coefficients. The procedure described

New equilibrium position above is repeated for each mooring line and the final damping

coefficients BijE(D) that are used in the hydrodynamic model are equal to

Fig. 3: Initial and new static position on x-y plane the sum of all mooring lines’ damping coefficients. Due to space

constraints, the final relations for the calculation of the coefficients

Based on these assumptions, the coefficients CijE are calculated BijE(D) are (Eq. 9):

(S ( ))

according to Eq. 7, while more details can be found at Traintafyllou et m

al. (1986). M i • cos βi m − α j − π / 2

∂ (f x ) m ∂ (f x ) m ∂ (f x ) m ΒijE(D) = ∑ ω•ξj

, i = j = 1,..., 6 (9)

∂x ∂yo ∂θ o

m =1

C11E C12

E

C16

E

o where Si m

is the amplitude of the dynamic reaction force or moment

M ∂ (f y ) m ∂ (f y ) m ∂ (f y ) m

C 21E

E

C 22

E

C 26 =

E

∑

m =1 ∂x o ∂yo ∂θ o

(7) of mooring line m, βi m is the phase of Si m and αj is the phase of

C61 C62

E

C66

E motion ξj.

∂ (M ) ∂ (M z ) m ∂ (M z ) m

z m

∂x o ∂yo ∂θ o Iterative Coupling Procedure

where m=1,…,M is the number of mooring lines, (fx)m=Hm•cos(θf), The two numerical models that have been described above are coupled

(fy)m=Hm•sin(θf) and (Mz)m=(xp-xo)•(fy)m-(yp-yo)•(fx)m. The rest of the using an iterative procedure shown in Fig. 4.

quantities are defined in Fig. 3. In the first cycle of iterations, the hydrodynamic analysis of the floating

It should be noted that in the present analysis the stiffness coefficients body is conducted assuming that CijE and BijE are equal to zero. The

in the vertical direction (CijE, i, j=3,4,5) are neglected. It is assumed that steady drift forces Fsj1 and the RAOj1 are calculated and then imported

the corresponding stiffness coefficients due to hydrostatic and in the static and dynamic analysis model of the mooring lines. Next, the

gravitational forces are much larger. The insignificant influence of coefficients CijE1 and BijE(D)1 are evaluated in the mooring lines’ model

mooring lines’ stiffness on these degrees of freedom is also mentioned and are then imported in the hydrodynamic model of the floating body,

by Bhat (1998). starting the second cycle of iterations. The coefficients BijE(V) are also

The frequency domain dynamic analysis of the mooring lines includes imported in the hydrodynamic model at this stage of the iteration

the determination of: (a) the dynamic tensions of the mooring lines at

623

cycles. Eq. 3 is modified and new RAOj2 and consequently new steady breakwater’s motions only in three degrees of freedom, i.e. sway, heave

drift forces Fsj2 are calculated. The procedure is repeated until and roll. Fifteen wave frequencies were totally examined, so that the

convergence is achieved in terms of the following convergence criteria beam to wave length ratio (B/L) varies in intervals of 0.1 from 0.1 to

(Eq. 10~11): 1.5.

FsjN − FsjN −1 ≤ 10−4 (10) Modification of mooring lines’ stiffness is achieved through the

reduction of the initial mooring lines total length Ltot, which leads to an

RAO jN − RAO jN −1 ≤ 10−4 (11) increase of the initial draft of the “base case” and therefore to the

increase of the initial buoyancy exercised on the floating breakwater.

where N is the number of iteration cycles. This additional buoyancy is picked up by the mooring lines, resulting to

The final values of FsjN and RAOjN are imported once more in the larger initial pretension of the mooring lines compared to the “base

mooring lines’ static and dynamic model to calculate the final steady case”. Consequently, mooring lines undergo modifications in their

offset of the mooring lines and the final static and dynamic tensions of initial static configuration as well as stretching which leads to larger

the mooring lines. Additionally, the final values of the reflection and initial stiffness of the mooring lines.

the transmission coefficients are calculated with the hydrodynamic Based on the above procedure, six drafts were examined as shown in

model. Table 1. This Table contains, also, the values of the quantities that have

been properly modified to achieve the respective drafts, as well as the

Hydrodynamic Analysis Mooring Lines Static and values of the quantities that are affected by the changes of the initial

Dynamic Analysis draft.

Floating breakwater

dimensions Mooring lines Table 1: Characteristics of cases examined

Incident wave (INPUT) characteristics (INPUT)

Case No

dri(m) Ltot(m) L1(m) L2(m) ∆L(m)*

(i)

ΦD Φr calculation -

Calculation of

1 (base

0.77 30 20 10 0

hydrodynamic quantities case)

2 0.778 29.07 28.41 0.66 0.93

Solution of Eq. 3 – RAOj 3 0.78 28.98 28.98 0 1.02

E

calculation (Cij and Bij

E 4 0.80 28.66 28.66 0 1.34

Calculation of mooring 5 0.85 28.59 28.59 0 1.41

equal to 0 in the 1st lines’ steady offset, static

E(V

iteration cycle. Bij ) is E 6 0.90 28.57 28.57 0 1.43

tensions, stiffness Cij and

also included from the E

damping Bij coefficients

Additional Additional

2nd iteration cycle.) Case No H(KN)

Buoyancy (KN) V(KN)

1 0 0 3.27

Fsj calculation NO 2 6.43 1.61 7.49

3 8.04 2.01 8.74

Calculation of mooring 4 24.12 6.03 20.83

lines’ final steady offset,

5 64.33 16.08 50.77

-4 static and dynamic

FsjN- FsjN-1<10 6 104.54 26.13 80.98

-4 tensions

RAOjN- RAOjN-1<10 *∆L=Ltot(base case)-Ltot(of each draft)

YES YES Maximum mooring lines For Cases 1 and 2 the mooring lines’ angle at the sea bottom φbot=0 and

tensions L2≠0 (slack condition); for Cases 4-6 φbot≠0 and L2=0 (taut condition).

Kt and Kr calculation

Case 3 represents the limiting case where φbot as well as L2 are equal to

zero. For Cases 4-6 large angles occur at the top of each mooring line.

Fig. 4: Iterative coupling procedure Therefore, a significant increase of the initial (under pretension

conditions) horizontal force H is observed, which leads to larger values

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION of mooring lines’ stiffness.

The numerical models described above are applied to perform an Stiffness and Damping of Mooring Lines

extensive parametric study, for investigating the effect of the stiffness

and damping of the mooring lines on the performance of the floating Fig. 5 shows the variation of the stiffness coefficient C22E as function of

breakwater. A floating breakwater with representative characteristics beam to wave length ratios (B/L) for all cases studied. The values of

(Lf=20m, B=4m, Hf=1.5m and dr1=0.77m) is used as the “base case” C22E are increased as drafts increase for each B/L. Drafts dr2 and dr3 do

for this study. The floating breakwater is anchored to the seabed not differ so much compared to the draft of the “base case”.

through a symmetric mooring system, which consists of four identical Consequently, the corresponding values C22E are larger but quite close

mooring lines as shown in Fig. 1. Their submerged weight is equal to to those of dr1. On the contrary, dr4, dr5 and dr6 differ compared to the

191.25 N/m, their breaking tension Tbreak is equal to 400 KN, while the “base case”; their C22E values show remarkable increase compared to

product of elasticity modulus E with the effective area A is equal to the ones of the “base case”. It should be noted that these three Cases

342x103 KN. The initial angle of each mooring line on the x-y plane, correspond to L2=0 (taut condition). The variation of C22E with B/L for

with respect to the x axis, is 45o. The moored floating system is placed a specific draft is attributed to the variation of the steady drift forces.

in a depth equal to d=10m. Larger steady drift forces result to larger steady offset and therefore to

As far as the incident wave characteristics, the wave angle β is taken larger stiffness coefficient. Space constraints do not allow further

equal to 90o. This normal wave direction results to floating elaboration of this issue.

624

values. Thus, larger values of B33E(D) at higher B/L are observed,

although Tdyn have lower values.

damping depends upon the response of the floating body. Therefore, Fig. 7: B33E(D) as a function of B/L for the drafts examined

the explanation of the damping variations has to be based on the

variation of response quantities presented in the next subsection. The With regard to B44E(D) (Fig. 8), for B/L≥1.3, for dr1, dr2 and dr3, B44E(D)

reaction forces, which are used to calculate the damping coefficients, shows larger values compared to the ones at smaller B/L values; this is

depend on both the Tst and the Tdyn.. The variation of damping attributed to the decrease of the roll velocity (denominator of B44E(D)).

coefficients is similar to the variation of the dynamic tensions (see Fig. For these drafts, the peak values at B/L=0.1 is due to sway resonance

12). The larger Tdyn are observed in the range of B/L from 0.1 to 0.4 (see Fig. 9), while for dr4, dr5 and dr6 is due to the peak value of RAO3

(low excitation frequency range), while from B/L=0.5 to 1.5 a gradual (see Fig. 10). Peak values at B/L=0.3 are not observed for all drafts,

decrease of Tdyn is observed. Furthermore, as the draft increases, the although roll resonance occurs (see Fig. 11). This is caused by the

damping coefficients increase, which is expected, as the floating system increase of the velocities, which is more significant than the increase of

becomes stiffer and the mooring lines have larger Tst, resulting to larger Sim. As far as the larger values of B44E(D) for dr6 at B/L=0.4, 0.6 and

reaction forces Sxx, Sxz, Szx, Szz. 0.9, they are attributed to the decrease of the corresponding roll

velocities compared to the ones at the nearest values of B/L.

Fig. 8: B44E(D) as a function of B/L for the drafts examined

The roll resonance (see Fig. 11) at B/L=0.3 leads to the increase of

B22E(D) (Fig. 6) for dr2 and dr3. This is not observed for the rest of the Response of the Floating Breakwater

drafts. For dr1 and dr4 the phase difference (βim-αj-π/2) tends to π/2 at

B/L=0.3 and, therefore, the values of the numerator of B22E(D) are The effect of mooring lines stiffness and damping on the response of

small. In the case of dr5, Sxx and Sxz are close in phase at B/L=0.2 the floating breakwater in each degree of freedom is discussed in Fig.

leading to larger value of B22E(D) compared to the one at B/L=0.3. 9~11 for the drafts examined. These Figures contain also the variation

Finally, for dr6 the gradual decrease of B22E(D) between B/L=0.2 and of the corresponding natural frequencies as functions of B/L.

0.3 is attributed to the phase differences of Sxx and Sxz. The dependence of the natural frequencies on the excitation (wave)

As far as the variation of B33E(D) (Fig. 7) the roll resonance at B/L=0.3 frequency results to resonance occurrence at frequencies where the

(see Fig. 11) leads to a small increase of B33E(D) for dr2 and dr3, while it difference between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency

results to the peak values for dr5 and dr6. The peak value at B/L=0.2 (ω-ωnj) tends to zero.

for dr4 is attributed to sway resonance at this B/L (see Fig. 9) The In the case of sway response (Fig. 9) the increase of mooring lines

phase difference (βim-αj-π/2) tends to π/2 for dr1, dr2 and dr3 at stiffness (see Fig. 5) obviously leads to lower values as the draft

B/L=0.4 and 1.0, which results to low values of B33E(D) at these values increases with the exception of dr4 which is explained below.

of B/L, because the numerator of B33E(D) becomes small. The opposite Additionally, the natural frequencies of the various drafts for a given

holds for B/L values larger than 1.0, for dr1, dr2, dr3 and dr4, i.e., the B/L exhibit larger values as the floating system becomes stiffer. The

phase difference (βim-αj-π/2) tends to 0 and, therefore, the values of the behavior of dr1, dr2 and dr3 is the same. The small differences of C22E

numerator of B33E(D) are large compared to those at the closest B/L

625

for dr2 and dr3 (see Fig. 5) compared to the “base case” results to small present study). The roll resonance is observed at B/L=0.3, where the

differences of RAO2. difference ω-ωn4 tends to zero and B44E(D) has low values (see Fig. 8).

The variation of RAO4 at B/L=0.3 with increasing draft does not follow

a monotonic behavior. This can be explained as follows. In the case of

the free floating body, RAO4 increases as the draft increases, because

the submerged volume of the floating body increases, exhibiting a peak

value at B/L=0.3 (the results are not included in the present paper due

to space constraints). On the other hand, the damping coefficients

B44E(D) increase monotonically as draft increases for dr1, dr2, dr4 and

dr5. The B44E(D) value for dr3 is lower than the one for dr2 and it is

lower for dr6 than for dr4. The combined effect of these two issues

explains the values for RAO4 shown in Fig. 11 for B/L=0.3.

where the difference ω-ωn2 tends to zero. Therefore, for small values of

B/L, RAO2 obtains large values and as B/L increases RAO2 decreases.

Different trends occur for dr5 and dr6; the natural frequency gets closer

to the excitation frequency and RAO2 increases with increasing B/L.

For the case of dr4 the difference ω-ωn2 becomes zero at about

B/L=0.2, that results to the increase of RAO2 at that B/L value with an

obvious resonance effect. Then the decrease of RAO2 is obvious due to

the increase of ω-ωn2. Fig. 11: Variation of RAO4 (Roll) for the drafts examined

Fig. 10 depicts the variation of heave response, RAO3. It can be seen,

as in the case of sway that for increasing draft RAO3 decreases. This Static and Dynamic Tensions of Mooring Lines

decrease is due to the effect of mooring lines drag damping (the

stiffness coefficient C33E is not included in the present study as The performance of the mooring lines is defined here in terms of the

previously mentioned), which also explains the small differences of ωn3 static and dynamic tensions at the top. The mooring lines that are

for the various drafts. For all six drafts resonance occurs at B/L=0.3, placed in the front part of the floating breakwater represent the most

where the difference ω-ωn3 tends to zero. At this B/L value the drag heavily loaded ones under the action of waves in the normal direction.

damping, B33E(D), shows increased values for dr2, dr3, dr4, dr5 and dr6 Due to symmetry the values of the previously stated quantities are

and especially for the last two ones (see Fig. 7); therefore, at B/L=0.3, consider only for mooring line 1 (see Fig. 1).

RAO3 drops for these drafts. The different pattern of RAO3 for dr4, dr5

and dr6, for B/L values between 0.2 and 0.4, is attributed to large

values of B33E(D) at this range of B/L. Especially, for dr4 the rapid

decrease of RAO3 at B/L=0.2 is caused by the peak value of B33E(D) at

this B/L value.

Fig. 12: Variation of Tst and Tdyn at the top of mooring line 1

Fig. 12 contains the variation of static and dynamic tensions at the top

of mooring line 1. The variation of Tst with B/L for a specific draft is

attributed to the variation of the steady drift forces as is the case of

Fig. 10: Variation of RAO3 (Heave) for the drafts examined C22E. Larger steady drift forces result to larger steady offset and,

therefore, to larger Tst. The dynamic tensions exhibits large values at

The variation of roll response RAO4 is shown in Fig. 11. The decrease the low frequency range (up to B/L=0.4). The increase of the draft

of RAO4 with the increase of draft is due to the effect of mooring lines’ results to increase of Tst, as well as to increase of Tdyn. The letter “s” on

drag damping (the stiffness coefficient C44E is not included in the each of the subplots of Fig. 12 denotes the occurrence of snapping

626

(Tst<Tdyn). In all cases, except for the “base case”, snapping occurs at attributed to the lower values of RAO3 and RAO4 at B/L=0.3 for dr2

the low frequency range, where Tdyn exhibits maximum values. It and dr3 compared to dr1 (see Fig. 10~11). A different pattern is

should be noted that for dr6, in addition to snapping, the total tension observed for dr4; slightly larger values of Kt are observed, compared to

Ttot=Tst+Tdyn depicts values larger than Tbreak at B/L=0.2 and 0.3. the “base case”, close to the breakwater due to the large value of RAO2

at this B/L (see Fig. 9), while Kt values decrease considerably as y

Effectiveness of the Floating Breakwater values increase.

effectiveness of the floating breakwater is investigated in terms of the

coefficients Kr and Kt (Eq. 6). The wave elevation was calculated for

all drafts and for all frequencies considered in the middle of the

floating breakwater (x=0m) at a line perpendicular to it with y varying

between -2.5m ≤ y ≤ -40m in front of the breakwater and 2.5m ≤ y ≤

40m behind of it according to the coordinate system shown in Fig. 1. It

is considered that wave elevation at this area is representative for the

estimation of the breakwater’s effectiveness. For each frequency and

each draft, the wave elevation due to diffraction only and due to both

diffraction and radiation (complete problem) was calculated.

Fig. 13 contains the variation of Kt due to diffracted and radiated waves

for the “base case” for various B/L corresponding to the wave

frequency range considered. The increase of B/L leads to more intense

variation of Kt along y; however its values become lower, resulting to

the increase of the floating breakwater’s effectiveness in the range Fig. 14: Variation of Kt with y (x=0m) for B/L=0.3

0.5≤B/L≤1.5. The quite intense variation is related to the intense

variation of the diffracted waves, which occurs as B/L increases. Lower Also, the pattern of Kt for this draft differs significantly compared to

values of Kt appear due to: (a) the decrease of the floating body’s dr5 and dr6. The different (negative) phase differences of the radiated

response (see Fig. 9~11) that leads to lower values of the radiated waves with respect to the incident wave explain this different pattern.

waves and (b) the decrease of the amplitude of the diffracted waves as As far as dr5 and dr6, Kt depicts low values compared to the other

B/L increases. The same behavior holds for the rest of the drafts. drafts and close to the ones of Ktd. This is expected, as dr5 and dr6

correspond to the stiffest cases leading to low values of the radiated

waves with insignificant effect on Kt. Therefore, dr5 and dr6 could be

considered as the most effective cases at B/L=0.3, over a wider range

of positions along the portion of the y axis considered.

Furthermore, one should also consider the values of Tst and Tdyn

exercised at the top of the mooring lines. Based on the description

above, snapping is observed (Fig. 12) for all drafts, except for the “base

case”. Additionally, the total tension Ttot is larger than Tbreak for dr6.

Consequently, the drafts examined could not be considered as better

solutions compared to the “base case” (although their effectiveness at

the low frequency range is increased). Therefore, dr1 corresponds to the

optimum draft for this frequency range in terms of both the floating

breakwater effectiveness and the loads of the mooring lines.

Fig. 13: Variation of Kt with y (x=0m) for dr1 and various B/L

The effect of draft’s change and thus the effect of mooring lines

stiffness and damping on Kt coefficient is investigated next for several

frequencies. Results are presented for three representative frequencies

of the low (B/L≤0.4), middle (0.5≤B/L≤0.9) and high (1.0≤B/L≤1.5)

wave frequency range, corresponding to values B/L=0.3, 0.6 and 1.1.

Fig. 14~17 show the Kt and Kr coefficients for B/L=0.3 and for

B/L=0.6. Fig. 18 shows the Kt coefficient for B/L=1.1. From these

Figures it is obvious that the reflection and transmission coefficients

resulting form diffracted waves (Krd, Ktd) are almost the same for all

drafts. Therefore, it is easily concluded that the variations of Kt and Kr

among the various drafts are attributed to the effect of mooring lines’

stiffness and damping. Fig. 15: Variation of Kr with y (x=0m) for B/L=0.3

The case B/L=0.3 (Fig. 14~15) corresponds to the frequency where roll

resonance occurs for all drafts (see Fig. 11). Considering firstly the As far as the reflection coefficient Kr (Fig. 15), larger values are

variation of Kt (Fig. 14), the first three drafts have very similar observed as the draft increases. This is in absolute accordance with Kt

patterns. The drafts dr2 and dr3 show lower values for Kt and, in terms of energy conservation. The pattern of Kr for all drafts is the

therefore, are more effective compared to the “base case”. This is

627

same and only phase differences are observed. This can be explained as dr5 and preferably dr6 are on the overall the most effective drafts for

follows. The pattern of Krd is quite intense, whereas the pattern of the these two B/L values. Furthermore, one should take into account the

reflection coefficient due to radiated waves is smoother and of lower values of Vbot. It is obvious that the increase of the draft leads to the

values compared to Krd. Therefore, the radiated waves can only increase of Vbot, because the initial φbot increases in this investigation

contribute to the values and not the pattern of Kr. with the increase of the drafts. Draft dr5 is considered most preferable,

as it has lower value of Vbot.

The reflection coefficient Kr for B/L=0.6 is shown in Fig. 17. The

intense variation of Krd due to diffracted waves, results to values of Kr

close to Krd for all drafts examined. Smaller values are observed for

dr4, which is connected with the occurrence of larger values of Kt in

the area behind the breakwater.

The increase of the draft leads to: decrease of the floating breakwater’s

response (except for RAO2 for the case of dr4, see Fig. 9) and reduction

of the effect of the radiated waves. Consequently, this results to

increase of the Kr values, which approach the values of Krd. The larger

values of Kr close to the breakwater for the case of dr4 compared to Fig. 18: Variation of Kt with y (x=0m) for B/L=1.1

dr1, dr2 and dr3 are attributed to phase difference of the radiated waves

with respect to the incident waves.

Fig. 17: Variation of Kr with y (x=0m) for B/L=0.6

Fig. 16~17 show the results for Kt and Kr for B/L=0.6. With regard to

the Kt coefficient (Fig. 16), it shows lower values as the draft increases,

with the exception of dr4. Cases dr1, dr2 and dr3 depict no significant

difference in Kt, as their corresponding RAOs are almost the same. In

the case of dr4, the response in sway is larger compared to the other

drafts resulting to larger values of Kt. As far as dr5 and dr6, very low

values of Kt close to the values of Ktd are observed. The Kt pattern for

dr1, dr2, dr3 and dr4 is the same and it follows the pattern of Ktd. The

cases of dr5 and dr6 have their own pattern which can be considered to

show “phase difference” of π with regard to the pattern of Ktd. The

same conclusions hold for Kt for the case of B/L=1.1 (Fig. 18). The

only difference in case B/L=1.1 is that for a specific draft Kt has a more

intense pattern and lower values compared to the case of B/L=0.6.

The absence of snapping phenomena at B/L=0.6 and B/L=1.1, as well

as the fact that the Ttot are smaller than Tbreak, lead to the conclusion that Fig. 20: Kt and Kr contour for dr5 (B/L=1.1)

628

Finally, Fig. 19~20 contain contours of Kt and Kr in a large area in 590.

front and behind the floating breakwater for B/L=1.1. Fig. 19 Briggs, M, Ye, W, Demirbilek, Z, and Zhang, J (1999). “Comparison of

corresponds to the “base case”, whereas Fig. 20 to dr5. The larger Hydrodynamic Parameters for a Floating Breakwater,” Proc 1st

effectiveness of dr5 in a wide area behind the breakwater, as well as a π International Symp “Monitoring of breakwaters’’, ASCE, Madison,

“phase difference” can be easily observed, while Kr in the front area WI, pp. 37-51.

shows a more intense variation. Isaacson, M (1993a). “Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Floating

Breakwaters,” Proc 11th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference,

CONCLUSIONS Fredericton, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 485-494.

Isaacson, M (1993b). “Wave Effects on Floating Breakwaters,” Proc

The effect of stiffness and damping of the mooring lines on the Canadian Coastal Conference, Vancouver, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 53-

protective effectiveness and on the dynamic response of a floating 66.

breakwater is investigated theoretically under the action of normal Isaacson, M and Garceau, N (1997). “Wave Propagation past Long

regular waves. A three dimensional model of the hydrodynamic Floating Breakwaters,” Proc 13th Canadian Hydrotechnical

analysis of the floating body is coupled with a model of the static and Conference, Sherbrooke, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 3-10.

the dynamic analysis of the mooring lines using an appropriate iterative Isaacson, M, and Bhat, S (1996). “Analysis of Moored Floating

procedure in terms of the steady drift forces and the response of the Breakwaters,” Proc Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for

floating breakwater. An extensive parametric study was presented. The Civil Engineering, Edmonton, Canada, Vol. 1, pp. 610-619.

draft of the “base case” is altered through modification of mooring Isaacson, M, and Nwogu. O (1987). “Wave Loads and Motions of Long

lines’ length that modifies the stiffness and the damping imposed by the Structures in Directional Seas,” J of Offshore Mech and Arctic Eng,

mooring lines. The main conclusions form this study are as follows: ASME, Vol.109, No 2, pp. 126-132.

1. Mooring lines stiffness and damping both affect directly the Kim, H, Sawaragi, T and Aoki, S (1994). “Wave Control by Pile-

effectiveness of the breakwater as well as the loads on the mooring Supported Floating Breakwaters,” Proc 4th International Conference

lines, especially in the case of taut mooring lines. of Offshore and Polar Eng, ISOPE, Osaka, Japan, Vol. 4, pp. 545-

2. The transition from the slack to the taut conditions results to a great 549.

difference of the floating breakwater response behavior in sway and Lee, C-H (1995). “WAMIT Theory Manual,” MIT Report 95-2, Dept

heave. of Ocean Eng, MIT.

3. The increase of the draft of the “base case” through reduction of the Lee, J, and Cho, W (2003). “Hydrodynamic Analysis of Wave

total mooring lines’ length leads to increase of mooring lines stiffness, Interactions with a Moored Floating Breakwater using the Element-

which results to increase of the floating breakwater’s effectiveness, Free Galerkin Method”, Can J Civ Eng, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp.720-733.

even in the low frequency range in almost all the cases that were McCartney, M, and Bruce, L (1985). “Floating Breakwater Design,” J

examined. Drafts, corresponding to taut mooring lines, show lower Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Eng, Vol. 111, No 2, pp. 304-

transmission coefficient values and close to transmission coefficients 317.

resulting from the diffracted waves. Additionally, the pattern of the Newman, JN (1977). “Marine Hydrodynamics,” M.I.T. Press,

transmission coefficients of these draft cases show a π “phase Cambridge, MA.

difference” compared to the ones of the drafts with slack mooring lines. Sannasiraj, SA, Sundar, V, and Sundaravadivelu, R (1998). “Mooring

4. Larger values of mooring lines stiffness result to larger values of Forces and Motion Responses of Pontoon-Type Floating

static and dynamic tensions imposed at the mooring lines and to the Breakwaters,” Ocean Engineering, Vol. 25, No 1, pp 27-48.

occurrence of snapping in the low frequency range, where resonance of Triantafyllou, MS (1982). “Preliminary Design of Mooring Systems,” J

the floating body occurs. of Ship Research, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 25-35.

5. Existence of optimum draft and, consequently, optimum mooring Triantafyllou, MS (1999). “Cable Dynamics for Offshore

lines length is demonstrated for the wave frequencies range considered Applications”, Developments in Offshore Eng: Wave Phenomena

that ensures: (a) effective reduction of the transmitted energy behind and Offshore Topics, editor J.B. Herbich, Gulf Publishing Company,

the breakwater and (b) non failure of the mooring lines. Houston, Texas, pp. 256-294.

Further investigation is required for using mooring lines with different Triantafyllou, MS, Bliek, A, and Shin, H (1986). “Static and Fatigue

characteristics in order to avoid snapping phenomena in the low Analysis of Mutli-leg Mooring Systems,” Technical Report, M.I.T.

frequency range while maintaining the protective effectiveness of the Press.

floating breakwater. The possible effect of the mooring lines’ stiffness Williams, AN, and Abul-Azm, AG (1997). “Dual Pontoon Floating

in the vertical direction should be also investigated. Finally, the results Breakwater,” Ocean Engineering, Vol. 24, No 5, pp. 465-478.

of the present work could form the basis for development of a control Williams, AN, Lee, HS, and Huang Z (2000). “Floating Pontoon

system addressing performance targets of floating breakwaters. Breakwaters,” Ocean Engineering, Vol. 27, No 3, pp. 221-240.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

and Dr. C-H Lee, president of WAMIT, Inc. for valuable discussions.

REFERENCES

PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of British

Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Bhat, S, and Isaacson, M (1998). “Performance of Twin-Pontoon

Floating Breakwater”, Proc 8th International Conference of

Offshore and Polar Eng, ISOPE, Montreal, Canada, Vol. 3, pp. 584-

629

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