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ASME B31.

9-1996 Edition
Revision of ASMElANSl B31.!-1988

BUlDlNG SERVICES

ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31


AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

The American Society of


Mechanical Engineers

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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S T D - A S I E B 3 1 - 7 - E N G L 1 7 9 b W 0759b70 0580379 247

The American Society of


Mechanical Engineers

A NA M E R I C A NN A T I O N A LS T A N D A R D

ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PlPlN6, B31


AN AMERICANNATIONALSTANDARD

ASME B31.8-1896 Edition


Revision of ASMUANSI B31.9-1988

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Date of Issuance: April 18, 1997

The 1996 Edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update
service that includes Addenda, Interpretations, and Cases. The next Edition
is scheduled for publication in 1999.
The use of Addenda allows revisions made in response to public review
comments or committee actions to be publisheda regular
on basis; revisions
published in Addenda will become effective 6 months after the Date of
Issuance of the Addenda.
ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of
technical aspects of the Code. The Interpretations are not part of the Code
or the Addenda and are published in a separate supplement.
Periodically certain actions of theASME B31 Committee will be published
as Cases. While these Cases do not constitute formal revisions of theCode,
they maybe usedin specifications, or otherwise, as representing considered
opinions of the Committee. The Cases arenot part of the
Code or theAddenda
and are published in a separate supplement.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for
American National Standards. The Consensus Committee that approved the code or standard
was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an
opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review
and comment which provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device,
or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights assertedi n
connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone
utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent, nor assume
any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the
validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their
own responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to
be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
ASME accepts responsibilityfor onlythose interpretations issued in accordance with governing
ASME procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual
volunteers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Copyright O 1997 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
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FOREWORD

Theneed for a national code for pressurepiping B31.8,GasTransmissionandDistributionPiping


became increasingly evident from1915to1925.The Systems
American Standards Association initiated the B31 Proj- B3 1.9, Building Services Piping
ect in March1926tomeetthat need. TheAmerican B3 l. 11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
Society ofMechanicalEngineersproposedthework In1969,theAmericanStandards Association, re-
andhasserved as sponsorsinceits inception. named the United States of America Standards Institute,
The first edition was published in 1935 as the Ameri- becametheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
can Tentative StandardCode for Pressure Piping. To (ANSI), and the B31 Sectional Committee became the
keeptheCode abreast of developments in design, B31 Standards Committee. In
1978,
TheAmerican
welding,and ofnew standards and specifications, as Society of Mechanical Engineers was granted accredita-
well as of developments in service conditions, new or tionbyANSIto organizetheB31Committee as the
supplementary editions were issued as follows: ASMECode for Pressure Piping, withCodeSections
B31. 1-1942.AmericanStandardCode for Pressure designated as ANSYASMEB31.
Piping Need for a separate Building Services Section of the
B31. I a-1944, Supplement 1 Code for PressurePipingwasrecognized for several
B31. lb- 1947, Supplement 2 years.ThisnewCode Section, ASMEB31.9Building
B31. 1-195I. AmericanStandardCode for Pressure Services Piping, firstissued in 1982,wasdeveloped
Piping to fill that need.
B31.la-1953, Supplement 1 toB31.1-1951 The Code has intentionally been written on a conser-
B3 1 . I - 1955, American Standard Code for Pressure vative basis in order to avoid the necessity for complex
Piping design, fabrication, and inspection criteria. For this
In 1955, a decision was made to develop and publish reason, application ofthisCodeisexpectedtobe
separate Code Sections for various industries. The cur- simpleand straightforward.
rent Sections are: Following approval by the B31 Main Committee and
B31.1,PowerPiping theASMEBoardon Pressure TechnologyCodesand
B3 I .3, Process Piping Standards, and after publicreview,thisCodeSection
B3 1.4, Pipeline TransportationSystems for Liquid wasapproved by theAmericanNationalStandards
HydrocarbonsandOtherLiquids Institute onAugust26,1996.
B3 IS , Refrigeration Piping

...
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ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31
OFFICERS
L. E. Hayden, Jr.. Chair
D. R. Frikken, Vice Chair
J. Yarmush, Secretary

COMMITTEE PERSONNEL
P.A. Bourquin, Pleasantville, New York
J. D. Byers, Mobil Research & Development, Princeton, New Jersey
L. F. Clynch, CONOCO, Ponca City, Oklahoma
D. M. Fischer, Sargent & Lundy, Naperville, Illinois
P. D. Flenner, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan
D. R. Frikken, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri
P. H. Gardner, Wilmington, Delaware
R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California
L. E. Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
R. R. Hoffmann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of
Columbia
B. P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts
G.A. Jolly, Henry Vogt Machine Co., Louisville, Kentucky
K. Kaye. Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
W. B. McGehee, Houston, Texas
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford,
Connecticut
A. P. Povilonis, ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, Connecticut
W. V. Richards, William V. Richards, Inc., Lincolnshire, Illinois
G.W. Spohn, 111, Colejon Spohn Corp., Cleveland, Ohio
L. G.Vetter, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Chicago, Illinois
R. B. West, State of Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa

B31.9 BUILDING SERVICES PIPING SECTION COMMITTEE


P. A. Bourquin, Chair, Pleasantville, New York
F. R. Lyons, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
D. D. Christian, Victaulic Co., Easton, Pennsylvania
A. Cohen, Copper Development Association, Inc., New York, New York
R. D. Gilligan, C. G. Bostwick Co., Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts
H. J. Post, Wayne, Pennsylvania
P. S. Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island
W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
H. E. Wetzell, Jr., Smith & Oby Co., Cleveland, Ohio

B31.3 SUBGROUP ON ACTIVITIES


B. L. Agee, Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, Tennessee
L. J. Balasundararn, Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Cambridge,
Massachusetts
B.C. Bassett, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma
R. K. Broyles, Pathway Bellows, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee
D. D. Christian, Victaulic Co., Easton, Pennsylvania

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S. Costa, Newark, Delaware
J. A. D'Avanzo, E. I. du Pont de Nemours 81 Co.., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware
D. R. Edwards, Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma
O. R. Greulich, NASA Ames Center, Moffett Field, California
R. Grichuk, Fluor Daniel, Houston, Texas
D. 6. Kadakia, T. D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, Oklahoma
C. Nath, E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Delaware
H. E. Svetlik, Phillips Petroleum Co., Richardson, Texas
Q. N. Truong, Houston, Texas
L. J. Weibeler, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, Pennsylvania

B31 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE


L. E. Hayden, Jr., Chair, Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
D. R. Frikken, Vice Chair, Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Missouri
J. Yarmush, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
P. D. Flenner, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan
L. G. Vetter, Sargent & Lundy Engineers, Chicago, Illinois

B31 MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND EXAMINATION TECHNICAL


COMMITTEE
P. D. Flenner, Chair, Consumers Power Co., Covert, Michigan
J. Yarmush, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
J. A. Cox, Colonial Pipeline Co., Atlanta, Georgia
P. C. DuPernell, Lancaster, New York
D. G. Hopkins, E. 1. duPont de Nemours 81Co., Wilmington, Delaware
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia
D. W. Rahoi, CCM 2000, Rockaway, New Jersey
R. 1. Seals, Berkeley, California
R. J. Silvia, Process Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Warwick, Rhode Island
W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina
E.F. Summers, Jr., Babcox & Wilcox Construction, Inc., Copley, Ohio

B31 MECHANICAL DESIGN TECHNICAL COMMllTEE


R. W. Haupt, Chair, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc., Foster City, California
J. Yarmush. Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
C. Becht IV, Becht Engineering Co., Liberty Corner, New Jersey
J. P. k e e n , AEA O'Donnell, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee
J. D. Hart, SSD Engineering Consultants, Walnut Creek, California
6. P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts
W. J. Koves, UOP. Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois
P.L. Lin, Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Kewaunee, Wisconsin
G. Mayers, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, Maryland
T. Q. McCawley, Charlotte, North Carolina
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford,
Connecticut
J. C. Minichiello, Vectra, Naperville, Illinois
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Associates, Inc., Evans, Georgia
A. W. Paulin, Coade Engineering Services, Houston, Texas
P. S.Rampone, Hart Design Group, Greenville, Rhode Island
R. A. Robleto, Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, Texas
E. C. Rodabaugh, Dublin, Ohio
M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates, Inc., Worthington, Ohio
R. A. Schmidt, Ladish Co., Russellville, Arkansas

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Q. N. Truong, M. W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas
E. A. Wais, Wais and Associates, Inc., Norcross, Georgia
G. E. Woods, Raytheon, Houston, Texas

B31 CONFERENCE GROUP


T. A. Bell, Pipeline Safety Engineer, Utilities Engineer, Olympia, Washington
M. L. Brunton, KPO, Topeka, Kansas
G. Bynog, Texas Department of Labor and Standards, Austin, Texas
R. Coomes, Department of Housing/Boiler Section, Frankfort, Kentucky
A. W. Diamond, Department of Labour & Manpower, Saint Johns, Newfoundland,
Canada
M. P. Fitzpatrick. Department of Labour & Human Resources, Fredericton, New
Brunswick, Canada
J. W. Greenawalt, Jr., Oklahoma Department of Labor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
H. D. Hanrath, Ministry ConsumerKomm. Rel., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
C. J. Harvey, Alabama Public Service Commission, Montgomery, Alabama
D. T. Jagger, Boiler Division, State of Ohio, Columbus, Ohio
M. Kotb, Regie du Batiment du Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
K. T. Lau, Alberta Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
R. G. Marini, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, New Hampshire
1. W. Mault, Manitoba Department of Labour, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
A. W. Meiring, Department of Fire Prevention and Building Safety, Indianapolis, Indiana
J. W. Morvant, State of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
R. F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch, Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada
W. A. Owen, North Dakota Public Service Commission, Bismarck, North Dakota
W. M. Picardo, Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, District of
Columbia
P. Sher, Department of Public Utility Control, New Britain, Connecticut
H. E. Shutt, Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, Illinois
M. E. Skarda, Department of Labour, Little Rock, Arkansas
R. L. Smith, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
E. L. Sparrow, Board of Public Utilities, Newark, New Jersey
D. A. Starr, Department of Labor, Lincoln, Nebraska
D. Stursma, Iowa State Department of Commerce, Des Moines, Iowa
R. P. Sullivan, National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, Columbus, Ohio
J. E. Troppman, Division of Labor/Boiler Inspection, Denver, Colorado
R. W. Vindich, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
C. H. Walters, National Board, Cornelius, Oregon
W. A. West, Department of Labour, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
T. F. Wickham, Department of Labor, Providence, Rhode Island

B31 NATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP


American Boiler Manufacturers Association - R. J. Fletcher
American Institute of Chemical Engineers - W. C. Carnell
American Pipe Fitting Association - H. Thielsch
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - H. R.
Kornblum
Chemical Manufacturers Association - D. R. Frikken
Compressed Gas Association - M. F. Melchioris
Copper Development Association- A. Cohen
Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association -T. F. Stroud
Edison Electric Institute - R. L. Williams
International District Heating Association - G. Von Bargen
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry- R. A.
Schmidt

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Mechanical Contractors Association of America -Jack Hansmann
National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors- R. E. White
National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners - D. W. Snyder
National Fire Protection Association - T. C. Lemoff
National Fluid Power Association- H. G. Anderson
Pipe Fabrication Institute - L. Katz
Slurry Transport Association - P. E. Snoek
Society of Ohio Safety Engineers -J. M. Holleran
Valve Manufacturers Association - R. A. Handschumacher

...
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ASME B31.9-1996
Summary of Changes

The following Summary of Changes lists the major revisions to the 1988 Edition. Revisions, other
than those identified as editorial and Errata, become effective6 months after the Date of Issuance of
this Edition.
Page location Change
...
Updated III Foreword

Updated V Personnel

Updated Xi Contents

xvii Introduction (1) Ninth para. revised


(2) Tenth and eleventh paras. added

1 4 900.1 Revised in its entirety

Fig. 900.1.2 B revised


Legend

900.2 (1 brittle failure and definition added


(2) combustible liquid and definition added
(3) flammable liquid and definition added

8 900.3 (1) d6 corrected by Errata to dg


(2) SF and definition added

9 901.2.3 Revised

10 902.3.1 (c) Revised

11 Table 902.4.3 (1 ) First entry deleted


(2) Last entry added

12 904.1 .I(b) Revised

Revised 13 904.2.2 Fig.

14 904.3.3(b) revised
Last sentence

904.4.1 (1) Formula (5) revised


(2) S and definition added

Added14 904.3.3 Table

15 Fig. 904.3.3A Revised in its entirety

16 Fig. 904.3.36 Revised i n its entirety

17 904.5.3 (11 First and last sentences revised


(2)Formula ( 6 ) revised

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STD*ASflE
B33-7-ENGL L77b 0757b70 0 5 8 0 3 8 7 3 1 5

905.2.2 Redesignated as 905.2.4 and new 905.2.2


added

905.2.3 Added

ded 905.2.5

18 906.3 added Last sentence

22, 23 Table 919.3.1 Revised

24 921.1.3 Revised

25 Fig. 921.1.3C Revised in its entirety

26 Fig. 921.1.3D Revised i n its entirety

29 922.3 Added

34 Table 926.1 Revised

38 Table 926.2 Revised

40 927.4.6(c) Revised

41 Fig. 927.4.3C Callout corrected by Errata

927.5.1 Revised

47 936.1 .I Added

49 937.4.1 Revised

50 937.5.1 Revised

52 Table A-1 Revised

57 Table A-2 Revised i n its entirety

61 Appendix C Revised

65 D-1 Last para. added

67 Appendix E Added

69

NOTE:
The Interpretations to ASME B31.9 issued b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 26, 1983, a n d J a n u a r y 1O, '1997, follow
the last page of this Edition. Interpretations Nos. 1 a n d 2 w e r e i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e u p d a t e s e r v i c e to
t h e 1988 E d i t i o n a n d a r e b e i n g r e p r i n t e d h e r e . T h e u p d a t e s e r v i c e to t h e 1996 E d i t i o n begins w i t h
Interpretations No. 3. The Interpretations are not p a r t of ASME 831.9.

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CONTENTS

...
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
ASMEB31.9-1996Summary of Changes .................................................... ix
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Chapter
Scope
I and Definitions
900 General ..................................................................... i
Scope
900.1 ....................................................................... i
900.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
900.3 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Figure
900.1.2B Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping - Drum Type
Boilers .............. ... , 2
Chapter
Design
II
Part I ConditionsandCriteria .................................................... 9
90 1 DesignConditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
901.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
90 1.2 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
901.3 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
90 I .4 AmbientInfluences .......................................................... 9
901.5 Dynamic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
90 1.7 ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads .................................... 9
902 Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
902.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
902.2 Pressure-TemperatureDesign Criteria for PipingComponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO
902.3 Allowable Stresses andOther Stress Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
902.4 Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II
Fart 2 PressureDesign of PipingComponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
903 Criteria for Press’ureDesignof PipingComponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
904 Pressure Design of
Components .............................................. 12
904.1 Straight Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
904.2 CurvedandMiteredSegments of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
904.3 Branch
Connections ......................................................... 13
904.4 Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
904.5 PressureDesign of FlangesandBlanks ....................................... 14
904.6 Reducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
904.7 PressureDesign of Other Pressure ContainingComponents .................... 17
Part 3 Selection
and
Limitation of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
905 Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
General
905.1 ..................................................................... 17
905.2 Specific Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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906 Fitting.
Bends.
and
Intersections .............................................. 18
906.1 Fittings .....................................................................
18
906.2 Bendsand
Miter Joints ....................................................... 18
906.3 Limitations on Fittings ....................................................... 18
907 Valves ......................................................................
18
907.1 General .....................................................................
18
907.2 Marking ....................................................................
18
908 Flanges.
Blanks.
Gaskets.
and
Bolting ........................................ 18
908.1 General .....................................................................
18
908.3 Flange Facings .............................................................. 18
908.4 Gaskets .....................................................................
18
908.5 Bolting ...................................................................... 18

Part 4 Selection and Limitation of Joints .......................................... 18


910 Piping Joints ................................................................ 18
91 1 Welded Joints ............................................................... 19
911.1 MetallicPipe ................................................................ 19
91 1.2 NonmetallicPipe ............................................................ 19
912 Flanged Joints ............................................................... 19
913 Mechanical andProprietaryJoints ............................................ 19
913.1 LimitationsonMechanicalandProprietary Joints .............................. 19
914 Threaded Joints ............................................................. 19
914.1 AcceptableTypes ............................................................ 19
9 14.2 Limitations on Threaded Joints ............................................... 19
915 Flared.Flareless.andCompression Joints ..................................... 19
916 and Spigot Joints .......................................................
Bell 20
916.1 CaulkedorLeaded Joints .................................................... 20
9 16.2 Push-Type Elastomer Gasket ................................................. 20
917 Brazed
andSoldered Joints .................................................. 20
917.1 General ..................................................................... 20
917.2 Brazed Joints ................................................................ 20
917.3 Soldered Joints .............................................................. 20

Part 5 Expansion.Flexibility.andSupport ......................................... 20


919 ExpansionandFlexibility .................................................... 20
919.1 General .....................................................................
20
919.2 Concepts .................................................................... 20
9 19.3 Properties for Analysis ....................................................... 20
9 19.4 Analysis.
Metallic
Piping .................................................... 21
919.8 Movements .................................................................. 21
919.9 Cold Spring ................................................................. 22
919.10 Reactions ...................................................................
22
920 LoadsonPipeSupportingElements .......................................... 23
920.I General .....................................................................
23
920.2 Test Loads .................................................................. 24
92 1 Design of PipeSupportingElements .......................................... 24
921.1 General .....................................................................
24
92 I .2 Fixtures .....................................................................
27
92 I .3 Structural Attachments ....................................................... 27
92 I .4 Supplemental Steel .......................................................... 28
92 I .5 Attachments to Concrete ..................................................... 28
92 I .6 Supporting
Structures ........................................................ 28

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Part 6 Systems .................................................................... 28
922 Design
Requirements Pertaining to Specific Piping
Systems .................... 28
922. I Pressure
Reducing
Systems .................................................. 28
922.2
Steam
Piping
Trap .......................................................... 29
922.3 Piping
Oil
Fuel ............................................................. 29
Figures
904.2.2 Nomenclature for Miter Joints ................................................ 13
904.3.3A 90 deg. Branch Intersections Not Requiting Added Reinforcement - Standard
Wall
Pipe ................................................................ 15
904.3.3B 45 deg. Branch Intersections Not Requiring Added Reinforcement - Standard
Wall
Pipe ................................................................ 16
921.1.3C SupportSpans for StandardWall Steel Pipe .................................. 25
921.1.3D SupportSpans for CopperandThermoplasticPipe ............................ 26
Tables
902.4.3 Joint Factors E .............................................................. 11
904.2.1A PipeThickness for Bends .................................................... 12
904.3.3 HeaderandBranch Materials for StandardWallPipe .......................... 14
917.3 Rated Internal Working Pressures of Joints MadeWithCopperWater
TubeandSolder Joint Fittings.psig ........................................ 21
919.3.1 Moduli ofElasticityandThermalExpansion Coefficients ...................... 22
92 1.2.2A Capacities of ThreadedASTM A 36 Steel Rods .............................. 27

Chapter III Materials

923 Materials . General


Requirements ........................................... 31
923.1 Materials and Specifications .................................................. 31
923.2 LimitationsSpecific
onMetals ............................................... 31
923.3 LimitationsSpecific
on Nonmetals ............................................ 31
923.4 Coatings
Linings
and ......................................................... 32
923.5 Deterioration
Service
in ...................................................... 32

Chapter IV ComponentRequirementsandStandardPractices

Dimensions
926 Ratings
and of Components ...................................... 33
926.1
Standard
Piping
Components ................................................. 33
926.2 Standard Practices ........................................................... 33
926.3 Nonstandard
Piping
Components .............................................. 33
926.4 Abbreviations ............................................................... 33
Tables
926.I Component
Standards
and Specifications ...................................... 34
Standard
926.2 Practices ........................................................... 38

Chapter V Fabrication.Assembly.andErection

Welded
927 Fabrication of Metals ................................................ 39
General
927.1 ..................................................................... 39
927.2 Materials .................................................................... 39
927.3 Preparation .................................................................. 39
927.4
Rules for Welding ........................................................... 39

...
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927.5 Qualification ................................................................
927.6
928
928. I
928.2
929
929.I
930
930.1
93 I
934
934.1
934.2
934.3
935
935.1
935.2 Bolting
Procedure ........................................................... 45
935.3 Bell and Spigot Joints ....................................................... 46
935.4 ThreadedPiping ............................................................. 46
935.5 Flare Joints ................................................................. 46
935.6 FermleBite Joints ........................................................... 46
935.7 Compression Joints .......................................................... 46
935.8 Other MechanicalandProprietary Joints ...................................... 46
935.9 Borosilicate
Glass
Piping .................................................... 46
935.10 EquipmentConnections ...................................................... 46
935.1 1 Cold
Spring ................................................................. 46
935.12 Valve
Installation ............................................................ 46
935.13 Repair of Defective Work ................................................... 46

Figures
927.4.3A Weld Size .............................................................
Fillet 40
927.4.3B Minimum WeldsforDouble-WeldedSlip-onandSocket-WeldingFlanges ...... 41
927.4.3C MinimumWeldingDimensionsforSocket-WeldingComponentsOtherThan
Flanges ................................................................... 41
927.4.5A AcceptableWelds for FlatHeads ............................................. 42
927.4.5B UnacceptableWelds for Flat Heads .......................................... 42
927.4.6A TypicalWeldBranchConnections ............................................ 43
927.4.6B TypicalWeld
Details ........................................................ 43

Chapter VI Inspection.Examination.andTesting

936 Inspection
and
Examination .................................................. 47
936.I General ..................................................................... 47
936.2 Required
Inspection .......................................................... 47
936.3 Responsibility for Examination ............................................... 47
936.4 Methods of Examination ..................................................... 47
936.5 Type andExtent of RequiredExamination .................................... 47
936.6 AcceptanceCriteria .......................................................... 47
937 Leak
Testing ................................................................ 48
937.1 General ..................................................................... 48
937.2 Preparation for Testing ...................................................... 48
937.3 Hydrostatic
Testing .......................................................... 49

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Pneumatic
937.4Testing ........................................................... 49
937.5
Initial
Service
Leak
Test ..................................................... 50
Appendices
Appendix A Table
A-1,
Allowable Stresses ............................................... 52
TableA-2.HydrostaticDesign Stresses (HDS)andRecommended
TemperatureLimits for ThermoplasticPipe ................................. 57
TableA-3.Design Stress ValuesforContactMolded(Hand-Lay-Up)Pipe
Made From ReinforcedThermosettingResins ............................... 58
Table A.4. HydrostaticDesignBasis Stress for Machine-MadeThermosetting
Resin
Pipe ................................................................ 58
Appendix B Table B.1. Allowable Pressures for Nonmetallic.NonplasticPressure
Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Appendix C Reference
Standards ......................................................... 61
Appendix D Preparation of Technical Inquiries ............................................ 65
Appendix E Nonmandatory Quality System Program ....................................... 67

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

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INTRODUCTION

TheASMEB31 Code for PressurePiping consists the latest edition and addenda issued at least 6 months
of a number of individually published Sections, each priortothe original contract date for the firstphase
an American National Standard. Hereafter, in this Intro- of activity covering a pipingsystem or systems shall
duction andin the textof this Code Section B3 1.9, where bethe governing document for alldesign,materials,
the word Code is used without specific identification, it fabrication, erection, examination, andtesting for the
meansthis Code Section. piping until thecompletionofthework and initial
The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed operation.
necessary for safe design and construction of pressure Users of this Code are cautioned against making use
piping. Whilesafety isthe basic consideration, this of revisions without assurance that they are acceptable
factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specifi- totheproper authorities inthe jurisdiction wherethe
cations for any piping system. The designer is cautioned piping is to be installed.
thattheCodeisnot a design handbook; it does not Code users willnotethat clauses in the Code are
do away with the need for the designer or for competent not necessarily numbered consecutively. Such disconti-
engineering judgment. nuities result from following a common outline, insofar
Tothe greatest possible extent, Code requirements as practicable, for all Code Sections. In thisway,
for design are stated in terms of basic design principles corresponding material is correspondingly numbered in
and formulas. These aresupplemented as necessary most Code Sections, thus facilitating reference by those
with specific requirements to assure uniform application who have occasion tousemorethan one Section.
of principles and to guide selection and application of The Code is under the direction of ASME Committee
piping elements. The Code prohibits designs and prac- B31,Code for PressurePiping,whichisorganized
tices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where andoperatesunderASMEproceduresthathavebeen
caution, butnot prohibition, is warranted. accredited by the American NationalStandards Institute.
ThisCodeSection includes: The Committee is a continuing one and keeps all Code
(a) referencesto acceptable materialspecifications Sections current with new developments in materials,
and component standards, includingdimensionalre- construction,andindustrialpractice.Addenda maybe
quirements andpressure-temperatureratings; issued periodically. New editions are published at inter-
(b) requirements for designof components andas- vals of 3 to 5 years.
semblies, includingpipe supports; Itisthe owner’s responsibilityto select the Code
( c ) requirements and data for evaluation and limita- Sectionthatmostnearly applies to a proposedpiping
tion of stresses, reactions,andmovementsassociated installation. Different Code Sections may apply to differ-
withpressure,temperature changes, and other forces; ent parts of an installation. Factors to be considered
(d) guidance and limitationson the selectionand by the owner include: limitations of the Code Section,
application of materials,components, and joining jurisdictional requirements, and the applicability of other
methods; codes and standards. All applicable requirements of the
( e ) requirements for the fabrication, assembly,and selected Code Section shall bemet,andthe owner
erection of piping;and shouldimpose additional requirements supplementing
cf) requirements for examination, inspection,and those of the Code in order to assure safe piping for
testing of piping. the proposed installation.
It is intended that this Edition of Code Section B31.9 Rules for each Code Sectionhavebeen developed
and any subsequent addenda not be retroactive. Unless consideringtheneed for applicationspecificrequire-
agreement is specifically made between contracting mentsforthepressurepipinginvolved. Applications
partiesto use another issue, or the regulatorybody considered for each Code Section include:
having jurisdiction imposes the use of another issue, ( a ) B31.1 Power Piping - pipingtypicallyfound

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in electric power generating stations, industrialand ( e ) NFPA 8503 Standard for Pulverized Fuel Sys-
institutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and tems. Building and Plumbing Codes.
central and district heatingand cooling systems; The Committee has established an orderly procedure
(b) B31.3 Process Piping - piping typically found to consider requests for interpretation andrevision of
in petroleumrefineries; chemical, textile, paper,semi- Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries
conductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing mustbe in writingandmust give full particulars (see
plants and terminals; Appendix D, Preparation of Technical Inquiries). The
(c) B31.4 Liquid Transportation Piping - piping approvedreplytoaninquirywillbesent directly to
for transporting predominantly liquid products between the inquirer. In addition, the question andreplywill
plants and terminals andwithinterminals,and for be published as part ofan Interpretation Supplement
pumping, regulating, andmetering stations; issued to the applicable Code Section.
A Case is the prescribed form of reply to an inquiry
( d ) B31.5 Refrigeration Piping -piping for refriger-
when study indicatesthatthe Code wordingneeds
ants and secondary coolants; clarification or when the reply modifies existing require-
(e) B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Pip- ments of the Code or grants permissiontousenew
ing - piping for transporting predominantly gas prod- materials or alternative constructions. Proposed Cases
ucts between sources and terminals, including compres- are published in Mechanical Engineering for public
sor, regulating, and metering stations; and gas gathering review. In addition, the Case will be published as part
pipelines; of a Case Supplement issued to the applicable Code
(f) B31.9 Building Services Piping - piping for Section.
industrial, institutional, commercial, and public build- A Case is normally issued for,a limited period, after
ings, and multi-unit residences, which does not require which it may be renewed, incorporated in the Code,
the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered or allowed to expire if there is no indication of further
in B31.1; and need for the requirements covered by the Case. How-
(g) B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping - piping ever, theprovisionsof a Case maybeused after its
for transporting aqueous slumes betweenplantsand expiration or withdrawal, provided the Case was effec-
terminals, and within terminals and pumping and regu- tive on the original contract date or was adopted before
lating stations. completion of thework,andthe contracting parties
Certain piping within a facility maybe subject to agree toitsuse.
other codes and standards, including but not limited to: Materials are listed in the Stress Tables only when
sufficient usage in piping within the scope of the Code
( a ) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
has been shown. Materials may be covered by a Case.
III - nuclear power piping;
Requests for listing shallinclude evidence of satisfactory
( b ) ANSI 2223.1 National Fuel GasCode - fuel usageandspecific data to permit establishment of
gas piping from the point of delivery to the connections allowable stresses, maximum and minimum temperature
of each gas utilization device; limits, andotherrestrictions. (To develop usageand
( c ) NFPA Fire Protection Standards - fire protec- gain experience, unlistedmaterialsmay beusedin
tion systems usingwaterand other materialssuch as accordance withpara. 923.1.2.)
carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry chemicals, andwet Requests for interpretation and suggestions for revi-
chemicals; sion should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B31
(d} NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities - medical and Committee, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.
laboratory gas systems; and

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S T D - A S M E 831*7-ENGL 2 7 7 b m 0757b70 0580375 472 m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 900-900.1.2

CHAPTER I
SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

900 GENERAL 900.1.2Servicesand Limits


ThisBuilding Services PipingCodeis a Section of ( a ) Services. ThisCode applies tothefollowing
TheAmericanSociety of MechanicalEngineersCode building services, except as excluded in para. 900.1.3:
for Pressure Piping, B31.This Section, herein called (1) water for heating andcooling
theCode,ispublished asa separate document for ( 2 ) condensingwater
convenience. (3) steam or other condensate
Standards and specificationsincorporated by reference (4) other nontoxic liquids
in thisCode are shown in Table 926.1, Appendix A, (5) steam
andelsewhere.It is notconsideredpractical to refer (6) vacuum
to a dated edition of eachstandard or specification (7) compressed air
where referenced. Instead, the dated edition references (8) other nontoxic, nonflammablegases
are included in Appendix C. (9) combustible liquids including fuel oil
Theuser is cautionedthatthe local building code (b) Boiler External Piping. Thescope ofthisCode
must be observed and adhered to when its requirements includes boiler external pipingwithinthefollowing
are more stringent than those of thisCode. limits:
Components ofpipingsystemsshallconformtothe (I) for steam boilers, 15 psig max.
specifications and standards listed in this Code. Piping ( 2 ) for waterheating units, 160 psig max.and
elements neither specificallyapprovednorspecifically 250°Fmax.
prohibited by this Codemaybeusedprovidedthey Boiler external piping above these pressure or temper-
are qualified for use as set forth in applicable chapters ature limits is within the scope of ASME B3 1.1. Boiler
ofthisCode. external piping is thepipingconnectedto the boiler
Engineering requirements of this Code, while consid- and extending to the points identified in Fig. 900.1.2B.
ered necessary and adequate for safe design, generally ( c ) Material and Size Limits. Piping systems of the
employ a simplifiedapproach. An engineer capable of following materials are withinthescopeofthisCode,
applying a more rigorous aflalysis shall have the latitude through the indicated maximum size (and wall thickness
to do so. He mustbe able todemonstratethevalidity if noted):
ofhisapproach. ( I ) carbon steel: NPS30and 0.500 in. wall
( 2 ) stainless steel: NPS12and 0.500 in. wall
(3) aluminum:NPS12
( 4 ) brass andcopper:NPS12(12.125 in. O.D.
900.1 Scope for copper tubing)
(5) thermoplastics: NPS14
900.1.1 Coverage and Application. This Code Sec- (6) ductile iron: NPS18
tionhas rules for thepiping in industrial, institutional, (7) reinforced thermosetting resin: 14 in.
commercial,and public buildings, and multi-unit resi- Other materials maybeused as noted in Chapter III.
dences, whichdoesnot require therangeof sizes, (d) Pressure Limits. Pipingsystemswithworking
pressures, andtemperaturescovered in B3 I. l . This pressures not in excess ofthefollowing limits are
Code prescribes requirements for the design, materials, withinthescopeofthisCode:
fabrication, installation, inspection, examination,and (1) steamandcondensate: 150 psig
testing of pipingsystems for building services. It in- (2) liquids: 350 psig
cludespipingsystems in the building or withinthe (3) vacuum: 1 atm external pressure
property limits. (4) compressed air and gas: 150 psig

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Fig. 900.1.28 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

Vents and
instrumentation
1
I

:
-TaB F"
Single installation

Multiple installatic
installation
Common header A.

Saturated drain --"-


Contr," A"

" Inlet header

- - Soot blowers
Single installation

1-
fSoot blowers

Two or more

a common source
Water drum
Regulating valve

single and multiple


installations

ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION AND TECHNICAL RESPONSIBILITY

-
Boiler Proper - The ASME Boiler and PressureVesselCode (ASME BPV Code) has total administrative juris-
diction and technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPV Code, Section 1 , Preamble, fourth paragraph.

Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP). See para. 900.1.2(b)for 831.9 Scope.

- - Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP)

FIG. 900.1.2B CODE JURISDICTIONAL LIMITS FOR PIPING - DRUM TYPE BOILERS

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 900.1.2-900.2

( e ) Temperature Limits. Piping systems with working brazing: a joining processthatproducescoalescence


temperatures not in excess of the following limits-are of metals by heating to a suitable temperature and by
within thescope ofthisCode: using a filler metal whose liquidus is above 800°F and
( 1 ) steamandcondensate:366°F belowthe solidus of the basemetals.The filler metal
(2) other gasesandvapors:200°F is distributed by capillary attraction between closely
(3) other nonflammable liquids: 250°F fitted joint surfaces.
Theminimumtemperature for all services is 0°F.
brine: a liquid
used for the transmission of
heat
900.1.3 Exclusions. ThisCodedoesnotapplyto withoutchange of state in cooling systems, which is
economizers, heaters, pumps,tanks,heatexchangers, nonflammable or has a flash point above150°F as
and equipment covered by the ASME Boiler and Pres- determined by the method ofASTM D 93
sure Vessel(BPV)Code.
brittle failure: apipe failure mode that exhibits no
material.deformation visible tothenaked eye, Le.,
900.2 Definitions
stretching, elongation, or necking down, in the area of
adhesivebond: a unionof materials by means ofan thebreak
adhesive
butt joint: a joint betweentwomembers aligned ap-
anchor: a structural attachmentdevice or mechanism proximatelyinthesameplane
that prevents themovementofpipeduetothermal
expansion,expansion joint thrust, and.other loads chilled water: waterused as a brine at supply
a
temperaturebelow 60°F
arc welding: a group of weldingprocessesthatpro-
ducecoalescence ofmetalsby heating themwithan coalescence: the growing together or growth into one
arc, with or withouttheuseof filler metal bodyof materials beingwelded, brazed, or soldered

assembly: the joining together oftwoormorepiping combustible liquid: aliquidhaving a flashpoint at


components or above 100°F
automatic weIding: weldingwithequipmentthatper- consumable insert: backing in the form of filler metal
forms the welding operation without constant observa- whichismeltedintotheroot of theweldandfused
tion and adjustment of controls by a welding operator. with the basemetals
Theequipment may or may notperform the loading
contractor: the entity responsible for fabrication and
andunloading of the work.
installation ofpipingand associated equipment
backing: materialplaced at therootof a weld joint
tosupportmoltenweldmztal crack: a fracture-type imperfection characterized by
a sharp tip andhigh ratio of lengthanddepthto
backing ring: backing in theform of a ring openingdisplacement
ball or swivel joint: a joint that permitspipemotion defect: animperfectionwhich by nature or accumu-
by means of rotation lated effect renders a part of the piping unable to meet
basemetal(material): themetal(material)to be minimum applicable acceptance standards or specifica-
welded, brazed, soldered, or cut tions. A defect is cause for rejection.

boiler external piping (BEP): Seepara. 900.1.2(b). deposited


metal: filler metal. that
hasbeen
added
during a welding operation
branch connection: the attachment oftheendof a
branch pipe to the run of a main pipe, with Òr without design pressure: the pressure, equal to or greater than
the use of a fitting. Figure 927.4.6 shows typical branch thehighestworking pressure, usedtodetermine the
connectionswhich do notusefittings. minimum permissible wall thickness or component rat-
ing.Seepara.901.2.
braze welding: a joining process that produces coales-
cence ofmetalsbyusing a filler metal whose liquidus design temperature: the temperature equal to or higher
is above800°Fandbelow the solidus of thebase than the highest working temperature, used in determin-
metals. Unlike brazing, the filler metal is not distributed ing therequiredwall thickness or component rating.
in the joint by capillary attraction. See para. 901.3.

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900.2 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

design thickness: the sum of the minimum thicknesses shielding. Added shielding may or may not be obtained
required by thedesign conditions and corrosion, me- froman externally supplied gas or gas mixture.
chanical, and other allowances
fulljìlletweld: a filletweldwhose size is equal to
engineer: the engineer as agent of the owner isthe the thickness of the thinner member joined. See size
party responsible for design of piping systems to meet of weld.
operating and safety standards fusion: the melting together of filler and base material,
engineering design: the detailed design for a piping or ofbasematerial only, that results in coalescence
installation, developed from the building systems re- gasmetalarcwelding (GMAW): an arc welding pro-
quirements and conforming to Code requirements, in- cess that employs a continuous solid filler metal (con-
cluding necessary drawings and specifications sumable) electrode. Shielding is obtained entirely from
equipmentconnection: anintegral part of equipment an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. (Some meth-
such as boilers,pressurevessels,heatexchangers, ods of this process have been called MIG or CO;?
pumps, etc., designed for attachment ofpiping welding.)

erection: the complete installation of a piping system, gaspocket: See porosity, the preferredterm.
including field fabrication andassembly gas tungsten arcwelding (GTAW): an arcwelding
examination: any of a number of quality control opera- process that employs a tungsten (nonconsumable) elec-
tions that use visualor other methods to reveal imperfec- trode. Shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture.
tions (indications) andto evaluate their significance Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may
or may not be used. (This process has sometimes been
examiner: a person employed by the pipingmanufac- called TIG welding.)
turer, fabricator, or erector who is competent to perform
examinations gaswelding: See oxyfuel gaswelding.
grooveweld: a weldmadein the groove between
expansionjoint: a component installed in a piping
twomembers
system for the purpose of absorbing dimensional
changes, such as thosecaused by thermal expansion heat affected zone (HAZ): thatportion of the base
or contraction metal which has not been melted, but whose mechanical
properties or microstructure havebeen altered by the
fabrication: bending, forming, cutting, machining,and heat of welding, brazing, soldering, forming, or cutting
joining of pipingcomponents into integral subassemblies
ready for erection. Fabrication may beperformed in header: See main.
the shop or in thefield. heat fusion: a joining process in which melted surfaces
face of weld: the exposed surface of a weld onthe of plastic pipe and fittings are engaged and held together
side from whichtheweldingwas done under moderate pressure until cool

jìllermetal(material): metal (material) to be added impe~ection: an abnormality or indication found dur-


in welding, brazing, brazewelding, or soldering ing examination or inspection which is not necessarily
a cause for rejection. See also defect.
jìlletweld: a weldofapproximately triangular cross
section joining two surfaces approximately at right inert gas: a gas that does not combine with or affect
angles the base material or fillermaterial

flammableliquid: a liquidhaving a closed cup flash inert gas metal arc welding: See gas metal arc weld-
point below 100°F ing, the preferredterm.
inspection: any operation performed to assure the
@x:material used to dissolve, to prevent accumulation
owner that the materials, components, fabrication, and
of, or to facilitate removal of oxides and other undesir-
installation are in accordance withthe engineering
able substances duringwelding,brazing, or soldering
design. Inspection may include review of certifications,
jux-cored arc welding (FCAW): an arc weldingpro- welding procedure andwelder qualifications, records
cess that employs a continuous tubularfillermetal of examinations and testing, and any examination that
(consumable) electrode having a core of flux for may be required by the engineering design.

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S T D - A S M E B I L - S - E N G L L79b m 0757b70 0580397 O37 m

ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 900.2

inspector: the owner, or a person representing the oxyacerylene welding (OAW): a gasweldingprocess
owner (not employed by themanufacturer, fabricator, inwhichcoalescence is produced by heatingwith a
or erector when different from the owner) who performs gasflame or flamesobtainedfromthecombustion of
an inspection acetylene with oxygen, with or without the application
of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal
joinr design: the joint geometry together with the
requireddimensions oxyfuel gas welding (OFW): a group of weldingpro-
cesses in whichcoalescenceisproduced by heating
jointpenetration: theminimumdepth a grooveweld
with a flame or flamesobtainedfromthecombustion
extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of reinforce-
of fuel gas with oxygen, with or without the application
ment. Joint penetration may include root penetration.
of pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal
See root penetration.
liquidus: thelowesttemperatureatwhich a metal or oxygen cutting (OC): a group of cutting processes
alloy is completelyliquid used to sever or remove metals by means of the reaction
of oxygen with the base metal at elevated temperatures.
main: as used in this Code, a section of pipe to which In the case of oxidation-resistant metals the reaction
a branchorbranches are connected is facilitated by use of a chemical flux or metal powder.
manual welding: weldingwhereinthe entire welding pass: a single progressionof a welding or surfacing
operation isperformedand controlled byhand operation along a joint, weld deposit, or substrate. The
result of a pass is a weld bead, layer, or spray deposit.
maximum allowablestress: themaximum stress value
thatmaybeused in thedesignformulas for a given peeltest: a destructive methodofexaminationthat
material and design temperature. Stress values tabulated mechanically separates a lap joint by peeling
in Appendix A are for stress in tension.
peening: the mechanicalworkingofmetalsusingim-
may: As used in thisCode, may denotespermission
pactblows
or indifference; it is neither a requirement nor a recom-
mendation. pipe alignment guide: a restraint in theformof a
mechanical joint: a pipe joint in whichmechanical sleeve or frame that permits the pipeline to move freely
strength isdeveloped by threaded, grooved,rolled, onlyalongthe axis ofthepipe.See restraint.
compressed, flared, or flanged pipe ends, with gasketed,
pipe-supporting elements: These include:
caulked, or machinedandmated surfaces for leak ( a ) fixtures: elementsthattransfertheloadfrom
resistance
the pipe or structural attachment to the support structure
melting range: thetemperaturerangebetween solidus orequipment;and
and liquidus of a metal ( b ) structural attachments: brackets, clips, lugs, or
other elements welded, bolted, or clamped to the pipe.
miter joint: twoormore straight sections ofpipe Support structures such as stanchions, towers, building
joined (in pairs) on a line bisecting the angle of junction frames, and foundations, and equipment such as vessels,
so as to produce a change in direction exchangers, and pumps,are not considered pipe-support-
ing elements.
nominal: a dimension of a product as givenin a
standard or specification, prior to consideration of toler- porosity: cavity-type imperfectionsformed by gas en-
ances; also, a designated size or rating, not necessarily trapmentduringsolidification ofweldmetal
an actual measurement
postheating, also called postweldheattreatment
nominal thickness: the thickness given in theproduct
(PWHT): the application of heat to anassembly after
specification towhichmanufacturingtolerances are
a welding, brazing, soldering, cutting, or forming oper-
applied
ation
NPS: nominal
pipe size
preheating ( P H ) : the application of heat to the base
oxidizing flame: anoxyfuelgasflamehavingan oxi- metalimmediatelybeforewelding,brazing, soldering,
dizing effect duetoexcessoxygen cutting, or forming

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900.2 ASME B31.9-1% Edition

procedure: the detailed elements (with prescribed val- semiautomatic arc welding: arc welding with equip-
ues or rangeof values) of a process or methodused mentthat controls onlythe filler metal feed. The
to produce a specific result advance of theweldingismanually controlled.

procedure qualification: the demonstration thatwelds shall: usedto indicate that a provision or prohibition
or other workproducedby a specified procedure can in this Code is required, ¡.e., mandatory
meetprescribed standards
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW): an arcwelding
purge gas: the replacement of air within a piping process in which coalescence is produced by heating
system withan inert gas; may be required by the with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode
welding procedure specification prior to making a gas and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition
tungsten arc weld of the electrode coveting. Pressure isnotusedand
fillermetalis obtained fromthe electrode.
qual$cation: See preferred terms, procedure qualifi-
cation and welder performancequalification. should: usedto indicate that a provision of this Code
isnotrequired,but represents good practice
recommend: has the same effect as should
single-welded butt joint: a butt joint welded from one
reducingjame: an oxyfuel gas flame having a reduced side only
effect due to excess fuel gas
size of weld
reinforcement: In branch connections, reinforcement (a) grooveweld: the joint penetration (depth of
is materialaround a branch opening that serves to bevel plus rootpenetrationwhenSpecified). The size
strengthen it. The materialis either integral in the of a groove weld and its effective throat are the same.
branch components or added in the form of weld metal, (b)jìlletweld: for an equal legfilletweld, the leg
a pad, a saddle, or a sleeve. In welding, reinforcement length of the largest isosceles right triangle which can
is weldmetalin excess of thespecified weld size. be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For
an unequal leg fillet weld, the leg lengths of the largest
restraint: a structural attachment, device, or mecha- right triangle whichcan be inscribed withinthe fillet
nism that limits movement of the pipe in one or more weld cross section.
directions. See pipe alignment guide.
NOTE: When one membermakesan anglewiththeothermember
reverse polarity: the arrangement of direct current arc greaterthan105 deg., theleglength (size) is of lesssigniticance
weldingleadswiththework as thenegativepoleand than
the effective throat,
which is the controlling
factor in the
the electrode as the positive poleofthewelding arc; strength of the weld.
a synonym for direct current electrode positive slag inclusion: nonmetallic solid materialtrapped in
rootopening: the separation betweenmembersto be the weld metal or between the weld metal and base metal
joined at the root of the joint solder: a fillermetalused in soldering which has a
liquidus not exceeding 800°F
rootpenetration: the depth that a weld extends into
the root of a joint measured on the center line of the soldering: a group of joining processesthatproduces
root cross section coalescence of metals by heatingthemto a suitable
temperature and by using a filler metal having a liquidus
root reinforcement: weld reinforcement atthe side not exceeding 800°F and below the solidus of the base
other thanthat from whichweldingwas done metals
root surface: the Of a on the solidus: thehighest temperature at which a metal or
side other thanthatfromwhichweldingwas done alloyis completely solid
run: See main. solvent cement: a solvent adhesive that dissolves or
softens the surface beingbonded so thattheassembly
seal weld: a fillet weldusedon a pipe joint primarilybecomes essentially a single fused
to obtain fluid tightness as opposed to mechanical
"

strength; usuallyused in conjunction with a threaded solvent cementing: joining plastic parts by useofthe
joint appropriate solvent cement

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 900.2-900.3

spacer strip: a metal strip or bar prepared for a groove undercut: a groove melted into the base metal adjacent
weld,and inserted in therootof ajoint to serve .as to thetoe or root of a weld,andleftunfilled by
a backing and to maintain root opening during welding; weldmetal
it can also bridgean exceptionally widegapdueto
poorfit-up weave bead: a type of weld bead made with transverse
oscillation
spatter: in arc andgaswelding,themetal particles
expelled during welding that
do not form part of the weld welding: a process in which a localizedcoalescence
of metal is produced by heating to a suitable tempera-
straightpolarity: thearrangement of direct current ture, with or without pressure and with or without the
arc welding leads in whichtheworkisthepositive use of filler metal. The filler metal has a melting point
poleandthe electrode is thenegativepole of the approximatelythesame as thebase metals.
welding arc; a synonym for direct current electrode
negative welder: onewho is capable of performing a manual
or semiautomaticwelding operation
stringerbead: a type ofweldbeadmadewithout
appreciable weavingmotion.See also weavebead. weldercert8cation: the actionof determining, veri-
fying, or attesting in writing that a welder is qualified
submerged arc welding (SAW): an arc welding process to produce welds which can meet prescribed standards
thatproducescoalescence ofmetalsbyheatingthem
with an arc or arcs drawn between a bare metal electrode Welder Pe$ormanceQualification: demonstration of
or electrodes andthebase metals. The arc is shielded a welder’s ability toproduceweldsin a manner de-
by a blanket of granular fusible material. Pressure is scribed in a welding procedure specification that meets
not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode prescribed standards
andsometimesfrom a supplementaryweldingrod.
weldingoperator: one who operates a weldingma-
supplementalsteel: structural membersthatframebe- chine or automaticweldingequipment
tween existing building framing steel members and are
significantlysmaller in size thanthe existing steel welding procedure: the detailed methods and practices,
including all joint welding procedures, involved in
tuck weld: a weld madeto
hold
parts in proper making a welded joint
alignment until finalwelds are made
WeldingProcedure Qualz3carion: demonstrationthat
thermoplastic: a plastic that is capable of being repeat- weldsmade in a mannerdescribed in theWelding
edly softened by heating and hardened by cooling, and Procedure Specification will meet prescribed standards.
whosechangeupon heating is substantially physical TheProcedureQualificationRecord(PQR) describes
thermosetting resin: a plastic that,
when
cured
by the materials, methods,andresultsofthe test.
heatorchemicalmeans,changesinto a substantially WeldingProcedure Specification (WPS): thewritten
infusible, insoluble product form of the welding procedure for making a specified
throat of a fzllet weld kind of a welded joint usingspecifiedbaseand filler
( a ) theoretical: theperpendicular distance fromthe metals
beginningoftheroot of the joint tothehypotenuse wetting: the condition inwhich a liquid fillermetal
of the largest right triangle that can be inscribed within or flux forms a zeroangle of contact on a solid base
the fillet weld cross section metal surface
( b ) actual: the shortest distance fromtheroot of
a filletweldtoits face
900.3 Nomenclature
thrust block: a type of anchor consisting of a concrete
block bearing against earth, usually used on an under- Symbolsused in this Code are listedherewith
ground pipeline definitions. Upper and lower case Englishletters precede
Greek letter symbols.
toe of weld: the junction betweenthe face of a weld
a = weld size (attachmentweld,back of slip-on
andthebasemetal
orsocketwelding flange), in.
tungsten electrode: a nonconsumable electrode used A = thickness allowance for corrosion (see para.
in arc welding, consisting of a tungstenwire 902.4.I), for mechanical joint preparation (see

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9003 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

para. 902.4.2), or for mechanical strength intersection of planes of adjacent miter


(seepara. 902.4.4), in. joints, in.
b = weld size (attachment weld, face of slip-on S = basic allowable stress value prior to applying
flange),in. joint factor E, psi
B = intemal area, greatest of pipe or expansion S, = allowablestressrange,psi[seepara.
joint bellows, in.* 902.3.2(c)]
C = head or closure factor, dimensionless S, = basicmaterialallowablestresspriorto
applying joint factor E, at minimum (cold)
d = inside pipe diameter (D - 2T), for usein
normaltemperature,psi
closure and branch connection reinforcement
S, = computed expansion stress range, psi
calculations, in.
SF = maximum allowable stress in material due to
dg = inside diameter of gasket on raised or flat internal pressure considering casting quality
(plain) face flanges; or gasket pitch diameter factor at design temperature
for ring joint and fully retainedgasketed S,, = basicmaterialallowablestresspriorto
flanges, in. applying joint factor E, atmaximum (hot)
D = outside pipe diameter, as measured or per normal temperature, psi
dimensional standard, in. S, = longitudinal compressive stress, psi
D, = diameter equal to nominalpipe size, in. SLp = longitudinal stress due to pressure, psi
e = coefficientofthermal expansion, inAn."F SE = maximum allowable stress in material due to
E = longitudinal or spiral welded joint efficiency internal pressure, considering joint efficiency
factor, dimensionless (Table 902.4.3) factor E at design temperature, psi
E,,, = modulus of elasticity, psi (Table 919.3.1) t, = minimumrequiredthicknessofflathead,
f = stress range reduction factor for cyclic condi- closure, or blank, in.
tions, dimensionless t,,, = minimumrequiredwall thickness, in.(see
para. 904.l . 1)
F = casting quality factor, dimensionless
r, = weldthroat size, in.
h = threaddepth in ASME B 1.20.1, in. T = measured or minimumspecificationwall
h, = gasketmoment a r m , in. thickness, exclusive of corrosion allowance,
I = moment of inertia, in.'' in.
ksi = kips (1000 lb) per sq in. T,, = nominalpipe thickness, in.
L = developed length ofpipe axis betweenan- U = distancebetweenanchors,measured in a
chors, ft straight line, ft
Ls = length of pipe between supports or guides, ft v = Poisson's ratio, dimensionless
N = number of stress or thermal cycles, dimen- W = total bolt load, lb/ft
sionless W, = weight of pipe and insulation less fluid, Ib/ft
P = internaldesign pressure, psig W, = weight of pipe, insulation, andfluid, Ib/ft
Q = force to overcome springrate or friction Y = resultant thermalmovement to be absorbed
of expansion joint and guides, pounds-force by piping system, in.
(lb/ft) Z = sectionmodulus,in. 3
r = radius of gyration, in. (Y= lesser angle between axis of branch and axis
r2 = mean radius of pipe, based on nominal dimen- ofmain,deg.
sions, in. AT = temperature difference, "F
R = anchor or support reaction, Ib/ft 8 = angle of miter cut (one-halfthe change in
R, = effective radiusofmiter joint; the shortest direction at a miter joint), deg.
distance fromthe pipe center line tothe

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 901-902.1

CHAPTER II
RESIGN

PART 1 901.3Temperature
CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA Temperatures referred toin this Code are the tempera-
tures of piping materials expressed in degrees Fahren-
heit, unless otherwise stated. Thepipingshallbede-
signed for a temperature representing the maximum
901DESIGNCONDITIONS condition expected.
The temperature of the piping materials is considered
901.1General tobethesameasthatofthefluid in the piping.
These design conditions define the pressures, tempera- 901.4AmbientInfluences
tures, andother conditions applicable tothedesignof
building services piping. Such systems shall be designed 901.4.1Cooling,EffectsonPressure. Where the
for themostsevere conditions ofcoincident pressure, cooling of a fluid may reduce the pressure in the piping
temperature, andloading anticipated underanycondi- tobelowatmospheric,thepiping shall bedesigned to
tions of normal operation, including startup and shut- withstandthe external pressure, or provision shall be
down.Themostsevere condition shallbethatwhich madetobreakthevacuum.
results in the greatest requiredwall thickness and the
highestcomponent rating. 901.4.2 Fluid Expansion Effects. Where the expan-
sion of a fluidmay increase thepressure,thepiping
system shall bedesignedtowithstandthe increased
901.2Pressure pressure, or provision shallbemadeto relieve the
Pressures referredto in thisCode are expressed in excesspressure.
pounds-force per square inch gage (psig), unless other-
wise stated. 901.5DynamicEffects
Piping shall be designed, arranged, andsupported
901.2.1InternalDesignPressure. The internal de- withdue consideration of vibration, hydraulicshock,
sign pressure, including the effects of static head, shall wind,and earthquake.
not be less than the maximum sustained fluid operating
pressure within the piping system. Consideration should 901.7ThermalExpansion and ContractionLoads
begiven to possible pressure surges. Pumpshutoff
pressures shall be considered. When a piping system is prevented from free thermal
expansionand contraction as a result of anchorsand
901.2.2 ExternalDesignPressure. Piping subject restraints, thrusts andmoments are set up whichmust
to external pressure shall be designed for the maximum be taken into account as set forth in paras. 902 and 919.
differential pressure anticipated in normal operation.
902 DESIGNCRITERIA
901.2.3 Required Containment or Relief. Provision
shall bemadeto safely contain or relieve excessive
902.1General
pressure towhichthepipingmaybe subjected. Piping
not protected by a pressure-relieving device, or that Theprovisionsofpara. 902 pertaintoratings, stress
canbe isolated from a pressure-relieving device, shall values,allowablestress criteria, designallowances,and
bedesigned for atleastthe highest pressurethatcan mínimumdesignvalues,andformulatethepermissible
bedeveloped. variations in these factors when used in design of piping.

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902.2-9023.1 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

902.2 Pressure-TemperatureDesignCriteria for For pipe and tube that contain longitudinal or spiral
PipingComponents joints, Appendix A shows the product of the basic
allowable stress S andthe longitudinal or spiral joint
902.2.1ComponentsHavingSpecificRatings factor E. SE is thenthe allowable stress. For such
( a ) ForListedComponents. Pressure-temperature materials, divide the value shown in thetable bythe
ratings have been established for certain piping compo- joint factor E to obtain the basic allowable stress S
nents and are contained in some of the standards listed for Code computations in which the joint factor need
in Table 926.1. These ratings are accepted for usein not be considered.
accordance withthis Code. Allowable stresses for materials not listed in Appen-
(b) For ComponentsNotListed. If it isnecessary dix A shall be as listed in ASME B3 1.1 or shall be
to use components which do not conform to standards determined using the bases in (b) through (f) below,
listed in Table 926.1, they shall be qualified for pressure as applicable.
design in accordance withthe requirements of para. ( b ) For CastIron. Basic allowable stress valuesat
904. In addition, they shall be used within the ratings temperature for cast iron (except as covered in para.
and other service limitations given by the manufacturer. 904.1.2) shallnot exceed the lower ofthe following:
(1) one-tenth of specified minimum yield strength
902.2.2 Components Not Having Specific Ratings.
atroom temperature;
Components conforming to some of the standards listed (2) one-tenth of tensile strength at temperature.'
in Table 926.1 are specified as havingratings equal
( c ) For Malleable and Ductile Iron. Basic allowable
to those of seamless pipe of corresponding material
stress values at temperature for malleable and ductile
andwall thickness. Forthe purposes of this Code,
ironshallnot exceed the lower of the following:
these components shall beused as follows. ( I ) one-fifth of specified minimum tensile strength
( a ) Butt welding fittings shall be specified to a wall
at room temperature;
thickness at least as great as that of the pipe to which
(2) one-fifth of tensile strength at temperature.'
they are to be connected.
(d) OtherMetals. Basic allowable stress valuesfor
( b ) Forged steel or alloy threaded andbuttwelding
materials other than bolting materials, cast iron, and
fittings shall be specified in the nominal pressure class
malleableiron shall not exceed thelowest of the
at least as great as that listed for thewall thickness
following:
of pipe towhichthey are to be connected.
( 1 ) one-fourth ofspecified m i n i m u m tensile
902.2.3 Ratings, Normal Design Conditions.A pip- strength at room temperature;
ingsystem shall be considered safe for operation if (2) one-fourth of tensile strength at temperature;'
themaximum pressure which may actonany part or (3) two-thirds of specified minimum yield strength
component of the system does not exceed the maximum at room temperature;
pressure allowed by this Code, at the design temperature ( 4 ) two-thirds of yield strength at temperature.'
for that component; or does notexceedtherated ( e ) Thermoplastics. The basic allowable stress for
pressure at design temperature for that component in pressuredesignonly of thermoplastic materialsshall
the applicable standard listed in Table 926.1. be one-halfthe hydrostatic design basis at thedesign
temperature, as determined fromtest data obtained in
902.2.5 Ratings at Transitions. Where piping sys- accordance with ASTM D 1598 or analyzed in accord-
tems operating at different design conditions are con- ance withASTM D 2837.
nected, a division valve shall be provided, which shall be cfl Reinforced Thermoset Resins. The basic allow-
designed for the higher pressure-temperature condition. able stress for pressure designonly of reinforcedthermo-
setting resin materials shall be one-half the hydrostatic
902.3Allowable Stresses andOther Stress Limits design basis at thedesign temperature, as determined
fromtest data obtained in accordance withASTM D
902.3.1Allowable Stress Values 1598, or analyzed in accordance withProcedure B of
(a) General. The allowable stresses to beused for ASTM D 2992. Data obtained by the method of ASTM
design calculations shall conform to those in Appendix
A, unless modified by other requirements of this, Code. ' The remile (or yield) strength at temperature is derived by
For pipe andtubethat do not contain longitudinal multiplying theaverageexpectedtensile (or yield)strength at
temperature by theratio of the specified minimum tensile (or
or spiral joints, Appendix A shows the basic allowabIe yield) strength at room temperature to the average expected tensile
stress S. (or yield) strength at room temperature.

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 902.3.1-902.4.4

D 2143 maybeused if analyzed by ProcedureAof TABLE 902.4.3


ASTM D 2992. JOINT FACTORS E
(g) Shear and Bearing Stresses. Allowable stress Weld Joint
values in shear shall be 0.80 times, and allowable stress Efficiency
values in bearing shall be 1.60 times, the basic allowable Type of Longitudinal or Spiral Joint Factor E
stress value S.
Single butt weld 0.80
(h) PipeSupportElements. Forallowable stresses Double butt weld 0.90
see para. 921.1.1. Single or double butt weld with 100% 1.00
radiography or ultrasonic examination
[Note (1)l
902.3.2Limits of CalculatedStressesdueto weld
Electric resistance 0.85
Furnace butt weld (or continuous
weld) 0.60
SustainedLoadsandThermalExpansion or ASTM A 211 spiral joint 0.75
Contraction
( a ) Internal PressureStresses. The calculated stress NOTE:
due to internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable (1) Acceptance standards are those in ASME 631.1.

stress values SE given in Appendix A except as permit-


ted elsewhere in para.902.3. thelive, dead, andtestloads existing at thetime of
(b) External Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to exter- thetest.
nal pressure shallbeconsidered acceptable whenthe
wall thickness of the piping component and its meansof 902.4Allowances
stiffening meet the requirements of paras. 903 and 904.
( c ) Stresses due to Expansion and Contraction. The 902.4.1CorrosionorErosion. When corrosion or
allowable stress range SA for expansion stresses in erosion is expected, the wall thickness shall be increased
systems stressed primarily in bending and torsion shall over that required by other design requirements, unless
be determined in accordance with ASME B3 1.1, para. other means of corrosion control such as coatings or
102.3.2(C),using basic allowable stresses S from Appen- cathodic protection are relied on. This allowance shall
dix A of this Code. be consistent with the expectedlife ofthe piping, as
( d ) AdditiveStresses. Thesumofthe longitudinal judged by the engineer.
stresses dueto pressure, weight, and other sustained
loadsshallnotexceedtheallowable stress in thehot 902.4.2Threading and Grooving. The calculated
condition s h . Wherethesumofthese stresses is less minimum thickness ofmetallicpipe or tubingwhich
than S,, the difference between S, andthissummay istobethreaded shall be increased byan allowance
be added to the term 0.25 s h in Formula (1) of ASME
equal to thread depth, dimension h in ASME B 1.20.1,
B31 .l, para.102.3.2(C)fordeterminingtheallowable or equivalent. For machined surfaces or grooves if the
stress range S,. tolerance isnot specified, it shall beassumedtobe
( e ) Longitudinal PressureStress. The longitudinal 1/64 in. in addition to thespecifieddepthof cut.
pressure stress ,S , isdetermined by dividing theend For plastic pipe, the recommendations for threading
force duetointernalpressure by the cross-sectional and derating in the applicable standardlisted in Table
area ofthepipewall. 926.1 shall be followed.
902.4.3 Joint EfficiencyFactors. Longitudinal or
902.3.3Limits of CalculatedStressesdueto spiral weld joint efficiency factors are required by this
OccasionalLoads Codeand are included in theallowable stress values
( a ) Operation. The sum of the longitudinal stresses SE in Appendix A. Table902.4.3 states the factor E
produced by pressure, live anddeadloads,andthose for several typesof longitudinal or spiralwelds.
produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earth-
quake, shall not exceed 1.33 times the allowable stress 902.4.4 Mechanical Strength. The wall thickness of
values S in Appendix A. It is not necessary to consider pipe should be increased where necessary for mechanical
windandearthquake as occurring concurrently. strength to preventdamage, collapse, excessive sag or
(b) Test. Stresses duetotest conditions are not buckling of pipe due to superimposed loads from sup-
subject to the limitations ofpara. 902.3. It is not ports or other causes; or, if this is impractical or would
necessarytoconsider other occasionalloads,suchas causeexcessivelocal stresses, thesuperimposedloads
wind and earthquake, as occurring concurrently with shall be reduced or eliminated by other design methods.

II

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90s904.2.2 ASME B31.%19% Edt
ion

PART 2 TABLE 904.2.1A


PRESSUREDESIGN OF PIPING PIPE THICKNESS FOR BENDS
COMPONENTS Radius of Bends, Minimum Thickness
Pipe Diameters, Dn Recommended Prior to
[Note (1)l Bending

6 or greater 1.06tm
903 CRITERIA FOR PRESSUREDESIGN OF 5 1.08tm
PIPINGCOMPONENTS 4 1.14tm
3 1.24tm
Components manufactured in accordance with the
specifications and standards listed in Table 926.1 or NOTE:
in Appendix A shall be considered suitable for use at (1) Interpolation is permissible for a radius other than those listed.
the pressure-temperature ratings or allowable stresses
in accordance with para. 902.2. Components not manu- (2) When computing thedesign pressure for a
factured in accordancewith those specifications and pipe of a definite minimum wall thickness fm the value
standards shall beused only in accordance with para. of pressure obtained by Formula (2) may be rounded
902.2.2. tothenexthigher 10 psi.
The rules in para. 904 usually are for the pressure (b) Ductile Iron Pipe. The thickness of ductile iron
design of componentsnot covered in para. 902.2, but pipe shall be determined from one of the following:
maybeused for a more rigorous or special design of ( 1 ) A N S V A W A C150/A21.50 or C151/ A21.51;
components covered in para. 902.2. The designs shall (2) ANSIA21.14 or A21.52;
be checked for adequacy of mechanical strength under (3) Federal Specification W - P - 4 2 l .
applicable loadingsstated in para. 901. The tabulated thicknesses in these standards include
allowances for foundry tolerances andwater hammer.
(c) Straight Nonmetallic Pipe. The maximum pres-
904 PRESSURE DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
sure ratings for plastic and other nonmetallic pipe shall
904.1 StraightPipe be as given inthe applicable standards listed in Table
926. l .
904.1.1StraightPipeUnderInternalPressure
(u) Steel, Alloy, und Nonferrous Pipe. The minimum
904.1.2StraightMetallicPipe Under External
wall thickness of pipe wall, including allowances, shall Pressure. In determining wall thickness and stiffening
notbe lessthanthat determined by Formula (1). requirements for straight pipe under external pressure,
theprocedures outlined in UG-28 of Section VIII,
PD
Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code shall be followed.
r,,, ="+A
2SE
904.2 CurvedandMiteredSegments of Pipe
Designpressureshallnotexceedthat determined by 904.2.1PipeBends
Formula(2). (u) Thickness of Bends. The minimum wall thickness
t, at any point in a completed pipe bend shall not be
2SE (t,,, - A) less than that required by para. 904. l. l. Table 904.2.1A
P = (2)
D maybeused as a guide in specifying wall thickness
for ordering pipe to be bent.
The engineer may, at his option, use the values of (b) Flattening of Bends. Flattening of a bend, as
r,,, and P determined by the applicable formulas in measured by the difference of maximum and minimum
ASME B31.1. diameters, shall not exceed 8% of the average measured
( I ) If pipe is ordered by its nominal wall thickness, outside diameter of thepipebeforebending.
themanufacturing tolerances onwall thickness must Greater flattening may be permitted or less flattening
be taken into account. After the minimum wallthickness may be required if specified by the engineering design.
r,,, is determined, thisminimum thickness shall be
increasedto provide themanufacturing tolerance al- 904.2.2MiterJoints. Thickness determined in ac-
lowed in the applicable pipe specification. The next cordance with para. 904.l. 1 does not allow for disconti-
heavier commercial wall thickness shall then be selected. nuity stresses at the joint betweenmitered segments

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S T D O A S M E BILaS-ENGL L77b m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0580207 T33 m

ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 904.2.2-904.3.2

904.3BranchConnections

904.3.1General. In para. 904.3,requirements are


presented for design ofbranchconnections in which
the angle between the axes of the branch and main is
45 deg. to90deg., inclusive, andtheaxes intersect.
Branch connections may be made by any of the follow-
ingmethods.
(u) Fittings. Tees, extruded outlets, laterals, crosses,
etc., manufactured in accordance with a standard listed
in Table 926.1.
( b ) Outlet Fittings. Cast or forgedwelding outlet
fittings,nozzles,forged couplings, and similar items,
attached to themainby welding.
( c ) DirectConnection to the Main. Weldingthe
branch pipe directly to the main, with or without added
reinforcement,as shown in details of branch connections
in Figs. 927.4.6Aand B. Full size branchconnections
FIG. 904.2.2 NOMENCLATURE FOR MITER of this type are not recommended.
JOINTS

904.3.2Strength of BranchConnections
ofpipe.These discontinuity stresses are negligible for (u) General. A mainhaving a branchconnection is
miter angles of 3 deg. or less in any service, andmay weakened by thebranchopening.Unlessthewall
be neglected for miters in nonflammable, nontoxic liquid thicknessofthemainandbranch are sufficiently in
service at pressures of 50 psig or less, and for unvalved excess ofthatrequiredto sustain the pressure, it is
vents to atmosphere. See Fig. 904.2.2 for nomenclature. necessary to provide added reinforcement. The amount
( a ) AllowablePressure. For other services and for of added reinforcement shall be determined in accord-
pressures in excess of 50 psig, the maximum allowable ancewith para. 904.3.3 or 904.3.4.
pressure for miter joints where 0 does not exceed 22v2 (6) Branch Connections Not Requiring Added Rein-
deg. shall be the lower positive value calculated by forcement. Itmaybeassumedwithout calculation that
Formulas (3a) and (3b). a branchconnectionhasadequate strength tosustain
the internal and external pressure which will be applied
to it i f
( I ) thebranchconnection utilizes a fitting (tee,
lateral, or cross) in accordancewith para. 903;
( 2 ) thebranchconnection is made by welding a
threaded or socket-weldingcoupling or half coupling
P = SET
-(R
r2
RI
I
-
- O.Sr2
) directly tothemain,when the branch size doesnot
exceed NPS 2 or one-fourththenominaldiameter of
the main. The minimum wall thickness of the coupling
Formulas (3a) and (3b) applyonlywhen R , is at shallbenot less thanthatoftheunthreadedbranch
least as great as the value calculated by Formula (4). pipe. SeeFig.927.4.6B for permissiblewelds.
(3) thebranchconnectionismade by weldingan
integrally reinforced outlet fitting (having a threaded,
I D
RI = - socket, or butt-welding outlet) tothemain,provided
tan O + T
thefittingismadefrom materials listed in Appendix
A, and provided it has been demonstrated by full-scale
internal pressure tests or other means described in para.
( b ) OtherMiters. Miter joints notcoveredabove 904.7thatthebranchfittingandits joint are at least
shallmeettherequirementsof para. 904.7. as strong as themain or branch pipes.

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9043.3-w.5.1 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

TABLE 904.3.3
HEADER AND BRANCH MATERIALS FOR STANDARD WALL PIPE’
~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~

Header Branch

Symbol Material Type sh Eh Material Type Sb Eb

B A538, A1066 SML 15,000 1.00


A53B, A106B SML 15,000 1.00
BN A53B, A135B (Header seamcutnot 15,000
ERW 1.00 A536, A1356 15,000
0.85
ERW
by branch)
A536, A135B (Header seam cut by
0.85 15,000
BC ERW branch) A135B A538,
0.85 15,000 ERW
A53A, A A106A A53A,
SML1.00 12,000 A106A SML 12,000 . 1.00
A53A, A135A (Header seam not cut
A53A, 1.00AN 12,000 ERWby branch) A135A ERW 12,000 0.85
A53A, A135A (Header seam cut by
AC branch) ERW 12,000 0.85 A53A, A135A ERW 12,000 0.85
FB A536, A1356 ERW 15,000 1.00 A53 Type F BW 11,250 0.60
FN A53 Type F BW 11,250 1.00 ’ A53 Type F BW 11,250 0.60
FC A53 Type F BW 11,250 0.60 A53 Type F BW 11,250 0.60

NOTE:
(1) ThisTableis t o beused in conjunction with Figs.904.3.3AandB.Selecttheheaderandbranch materials from theTable.Usingthe
appropriate symbol for the materials and the appropriate sketchfor the pressure and branch intersection angle, determineif the combination
of header and branch size to beused can bemade without reinforcement. The sizes below and t o the left of the tagged line within each
sketch do not need reinforcement.

904.3.3 Reinforcement of
Welded Branch 904.4 Closures
Connections
(a) AddedReinforcement. Added reinforcement is 904.4.1General. Closures shall be made byuse of
required for many branch connections described in para. closure fittings,such as plugs, caps, or blindflanges
904.3.1(c). The criteria for such reinforcement are given in accordance withpara. 903, or byuseofflatplate
in para. 104.3.l(d) of ASMEB31.1, along with rules closures such as thoseshown in Fig.927.4.5A.
for proportioningand attaching suchreinforcement. The minimumrequired thickness tc for flat plate
(b) No Added Reinforcement. Some branch connec- closures is calculated by Formula (5).
tions made in accordance with Fig. 927.4.6 have suffi-
cient excess thickness so thatnoadded reinforcement tc = d e + A (5)
is required within the range of pressures and sizes used
in this Code. where
Figures 904.3.3AandB in conjunction with Table C = OSt,,/T, but not less than 0.3
904.3.3 illustrate branch connections which do not need S = allowable stress of closure material
addedreinforcementwhenusingstandardweight pipe
materials as shown in Figs. 904.3.3A and B and when 904.4.2 ‘Openings in Closures.Openings in closures
fabricated as shown inFigs.927.4.6AandB. maybe made by welding, extruding, or threading.
(c) Multiple Openings. In the case of multiple open- Attachment to the closure shall be in accordance with
ings in the main,therules in para. 904.3.3(b) are the requirements for the corresponding type of branch
applicable only if the distance between their centers is connection in para. 904.3.3, includingtheneedand
at least the sum of their inside diameters d. Otherwise, provision for added reinforcement. If the size ofthe
the requirements in para. 104.3.1(D.2.5)of ASME opening is greater than half the inside diameter of the
B31.1must be met. closure, the opening shall be designed as a reducer in
accordance withpara.904.6.

904.3.4 Extruded Outlet Headers. If integrally rein- 904.5PressureDesignofFlangesandBlanks


forced extruded outlet headers are used, they shall be
reinforced as required by para.104.3.1(G)of ASME 904.5.1General. Flangesmanufactured in accord-
B31.1. ance with a standard listed in Table 926.1 are suitable

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S T D D A S M E B I L = S - E N G L L99b m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0580209 BOb m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Fig. 904.3.3A

32 24

28
20
24

2 16
2 20 z
$ aì
._
16 li)

o r 12
C

12 E
m
8
8

4 4

2
2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 -2 4- 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Header Size, NPS Header Size, NPS

(a) 90 deg., 100 psig (b) 90 deg.. 200 psig

2 4 14
6 12
8 10 16 18 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Header Size, NPS Header Size, NPS

(c) 90 deg., 300 psig (d) 90 deg., 350 p i g

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) See Table 904.3.3 for instructions on theuse of this figure.
(b) A 12.5% mill tolerance and a ’&
in. corrosion allowance have been used in the calculations for this figure.
(c) The pipe size limit for this Code is NPS 30. The sketches end at that size, but allowable unreinforced branches may ex-
tend to larger sizes for some materials and pressures.
( d l A53 Type F, butt weld pipe, is limited to NPS 4 as it is not available above thatsize.
(e) This figure is based on the rules of 631.1.

FIG. 904.3.3A 90 deg. BRANCH INTERSECTIONS NOT REQUIRING ADDED REINFORCEMENT


- STANDARD WALL PIPE

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~~

S T D * A S M E B 3 1 - 7 - E N G L 377b
0757b70
0580230 526 m

Fig. 90433B ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

28
18

24 16

14
L 20
z v)
al Q 12
z
E 16
6
c 10
o

: 12
c
E
E
8
m
8 6

4
4
2 2
2 4 8 12 1624 20 28 32 2 4 6 8 10 12
2220131614 24
Header Size, NPS Header Size. NPS

(a) 45 100 psig


deg., (bl 45 deg.,200 p i g

2 4 6 8 10 16
12 14 4 2 6 8 10 12
Header Size, NPS Header Size, NPS

( c ) 45 deg.. 300 psiy (d) 45 deg., 350 psig

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) See Table 904.3.3 for instructions on theuse of this figure.
(b) A 12.5% mill tolerance and a ’&
in. corrosion allowance have been used in the calculations for this figure.
(c) The pipesize limit for this Code is NPS 30. Tbe sketches end at that size, but allowable unreinforced branches may ex-
tend to largersizes for some materials and pressures.
(d) A53 Type F, butt weld pipe, is limited to NPS 4 as it is not available above thatsize.
(e) This figure is based on the rules of 831.1.

FIG. 904.3.38 45 deg. BRANCH INTERSECTIONS NOT REQUIRING ADDED REINFORCEMENT


-STANDARD WALL PIPE

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 904.5.1-905.2.5

for useinaccordancewith para. 903.Otherflanges (a) engineering calculations;


shallbedesigned in accordancewithAppendix [I, (b) experimental stress analysis such as described in
SectionVIII,Division I oftheASMEBPVCode. Appendix 6 in Section VIU, Division 2 of the ASME
BPV Code;
904.5.2BlindFlanges. Blindflangesmanufactured (c) proof test in accordance with UG-101 in Section
in accordance with a standardlisted in Table926.1 VIII,Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code.
are suitable for use in accordance with para. 903. Other If differences in size and proportion are small, compo-
blind flanges shall be designed in accordance with UG- nents may be designed by interpolation between similar
34 of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code. configurations whichhavebeenprovenbyoneofthe
procedures described above, or that conform to a listed
904.5.3 Blanks. The minimum required thickness of standard.
a permanentblank installed betweentwoflanges shall
be calculated by Formula (6).

t,. = d,,J3P/lss +A (6)

PART 3
S = allowable stress of blank material. Use SF if SELECTION AND LIMITATION OF
material is a casting. COMPONENTS
Blanks used only for testing with an incompressible
fluid shall be calculated in accordancewithFormula
(6), except that P shall be the test pressure and S may
905PIPE
betaken as 0.95timesthespecifiedminimumyield
strength of the blank material.
905.1General
904.6Reducers 905.1.1ListedPipe. Pipemanufactured in accord-
ancewith a specificationor standard listed in Table
904.6.1General. Reducersmanufactured in accord- 926.1 or Appendix A, as qualified by the Notes,may
ancewith a standardlisted in Table 926.1 are suitable
beused in accordancewithits ratings or allowable
forusewithpipeofthesamenominal thickness. stresses, within other limitations in para. 905, and
904.6.2SegmentedReducers. Theminimumwall withinthe limitations on joints inChapter II, Part 4
thickness of segmented (orange peel) reducers fabricated andonmaterials in Chapter III.
with longitudinal weldsshallbedetermined in accord-
ance with para. 904.1.2, using a weld joint efficiency 905.2SpecificLimitations
factor of 0.6. The slope of thereducing section shall
notbeatan angle greater than 30 deg. tothe axis of 905.2.1 Cast Iron Pipe. Cast iron pipe shall not be
thepipe. usedaboveground in oil or other flammable liquid
service, nor in compressedgas service.
904.7PressureDesign of OtherPressure
ContainingComponents 905.2.2SteelPipe. Furnacebuttweld steel pipe
shall not be used for flammable or combustible liquids.
904.7.1ListedComponents. Other pressure con-
taining componentsmanufactured in accordancewith 905.2.3 Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube. Copper pipe
a standardlisted in Table 926.1 are suitable for use and tube shall not be used for flammable or combustible
in accordance with para. 903. liquids except as permitted in para. 922.3.1(c).

904.7.2 UnlistedComponents. Pressurecontaining 905.2.4NonmetallicPipe. Unlistedreinforcedther-


componentsmade of listed materials butnotmade in mosettingresinpipeshallnotbeused.
accordancewith a specificationor standard listed in
Table926.1 or Appendix A shall be substantiated by 905.2.5 Thermoplastics Pipe. See para. 923.3.2 for
at least one of the following: limitations on thermoplastics.

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906-9 10 ASME B31.%1996 Edition

906 FITTINGS,BENDS,ANDINTERSECTIONS 908 FLANGES,BLANKS,GASKETS,AND


BOLTING
906.1 Fittings
908.1General
906.1.1Listed Fittings. Fittingsmanufactured in
accordance with a specification or standard listed in 908.1.1 ListedComponents. Flanges,blanks, gas-
Table 926.1 or Appendix A may be used in accordance kets, and boltingmanufactured in accordance with a
with their ratings or allowable stresses, within other standard listedin Table 926.1 may be used in accordance
limitations in para. 906, andwithinthe limitations with their ratings, withinmanufacturers’recommenda-
on joints in Chapter II, Part 4 andonmaterialsin tions, within other limitations in para. 908, and within
Chapter III. the limitations on joints in Chapter II, Part4andon
materials in Chapter III.
906.2BendsandMiter Joints
908.3FlangeFacings
See para. 904.2.2(a) for service limitations onre-
stricted miter joints. Flange facings shall be in accordance with the stan-
dards listed in Table 926.1, or as provided in MSS
SP-6. When bolting raised-face steel flangestoflat-
906.3 Limitations on Fittings
face cast iron flanges, bolting torque should be limited
Cast ironfittings shall notbeused in flammable to prevent cracking the cast iron flange; otherwise, steel
liquid or gas service. See para.923.3.2 for limitations flangesshouldbe furnished with a flat-faceandfull-
on thermoplastics. face gaskets shall be used.

908.4Gaskets
907VALVES
Material, thickness, andtype of gasket shall be
907.1 General selected to suit thefluidtobehandledandthedesign
pressureand temperature.
907.1.1ListedValves. Valves manufactured in ac-
cordance with a standard listed in Table 926.1may 908.5Bolting
be used in accordance with their ratings, withinother
limitations in para. 907, andwithinthe limitations Bolts, nuts, and washers shall conform to applicable
on joints in Chapter II, Part 4 andonmaterialsin standards listed in Table 926.1.
Chapter III.

907.1.2 UnlistedValves. Valvesnotmanufactured


in accordance with a listed standard shall be used only
within the manufacturer’srecommendationsas to service
and ratings, and withinthe limitations on comparable
listed valves, considering composition, mechanical prop-
erties, dimensions, method of manufacture, and quality PART 4
control. Otherwise, the valvesshall be qualified in SELECTION AND LIMITATION OF
accordance withpara.904.7.2. JOINTS

907.2Marking
Each valve shallbearmarkings in accordance with
910 PIPINGJOINTS
MSSSP-25, including themanufacturer’sname or
trademark, thematerialof construction, andsymbols The type of joint used shall be suitable for the design
to indicate the service conditions for which the manufac- conditions and the fluid handled, and shall be selected
turer rates the valve. Other markings shall be included with consideration of joint tightness andmechanical
if required by the applicable standard. strength.

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S T D * A S M E B 3 1 . 7 - E N G L b77b D 0757b70 0580213 237 m

ASME B31.9-2996 Edition 911-915

911WELDEDJOINTS temperature ratings and other recommendations for in-


stallation anduse.
911.1MetallicPipe
Welded joints shall onlybeused for materials for 913.1Limitations on MechanicalandProprietary
whichwelding procedures, welders,andweldingma- Joints
chine operators havebeenqualified as requiredin Joints dependenton friction characteristics or resil-
ChapterV. iencyofcombustible or lowmeltingpointmaterials
for mechanical continuity or leak tightness shallnot
911.1.1 Butt and Miter Welds. Butt and miter joint
beused for flammable fluids or gases inside buildings.
welds shall bemade in accordance with para. 927.4.2,
andshallbe full penetrationwelds.(Backing rings are
notrecommended.) 914THREADEDJOINTS
911.1.2 Socket Welding. Socket welds shall be made Threaded joints maybeused within the limitations
in accordance with para. 9 11.I .3. In addition, dimensions onfittings in para. 906, limitations on materials in
of socket type joints shall conform to those in standards Chapter III, and other limitations herein.
listed in Table 926.1.
914.1AcceptableTypes
911.1.3FilletWelds. Fillet welds in properlyde-
signedconnections shall bemade in accordance with Threadsonpipeandfittingsshallbetaperedpipe
para. 927.4.3. threads inaccordancewith ASME B 1.20.1 or other
applicable standards listedinTable 926.1, exceptthat
911.1.4SealWelds. Sealwelds are intendedonly threads in wrought steel couplings NPS 2 andsmaller
toprovideleak tightness for threaded joints and are may be straight pipe threads. Threads other than tapered
not consideredtoadd strength tothe joint. pipe threads maybeusedwhere tightness of the joint
dependson a seal weld or seating surface other than
911.2NonmetallicPipe the threads, andwhereexperience or testhasdemon-
strated thatsuch threads are suitable.
911.2.1ThermoplasticWelding. Welds in thermo-
plasticmaterials shall conformtotherequirements in
914.2LimitationsonThreadedJoints
para. 934. I .3.
(u) Threaded joints shall notbeusedwheresevere
911.2.2 Thermoplastic Socket Welding. Dimen- erosion, crevice corrosion, shock, or vibration are ex-
sions of socket-type joints shallconformtothose in pectedto occur.
standards for fittingslisted in Table 926.1. (6) Metallic pipewith a wall thickness lessthan
thatofstandardwall in ASMEB36.10Mshallnotbe
threaded, regardless of service.
912 FLANGEDJOINTS (c) Plasticpipe with wall thickness less than that
Flanged joints shallmeettherequirements in para. of Schedule 80 shallnotbe threaded.
908. (d) Polyethylenepipeandpolybutylenepipe shall
notbe threaded.

913 MECHANICALANDPROPRIETARY
JOINTS 915FLARED,FLARELESS,AND
COMPRESSIONJOINTS
Grooved, extruded, expanded, rolled, O-ring, clamp,
gland-type, and other mechanical or proprietary joints Flared, flareless, and compression type tubing fittings
maybeusedwhere experience or tests in accordance and joints may be used within the limitations of applica-
with para. 904.7havedemonstratedthatthe joint is ble standards listed in Table 926. I , on materials in
safe for the operating conditions andthefluidsbeing Chapter III, and other limitations herein.
transported, andwhereadequateprovision is madeto Fittings and joints shall be compatible with the tubing
prevent separation ofthe joint. All such joints shall be with which they are used, and shall be used within the
used within the manufacturer’s limitations on pressure- manufacturer’spressure-temperature ratings. Vibration

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915-919.3.1 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

and thermal cycling shall be considered in each appli- PART 5


cation. EXPANSION, FLEXIBILITY, AND
SUPPORT

916BELLANDSPIGOTJOINTS
919EXPANSIONANDFLEXIBILITY
916.1Caulked or Leaded Joints
Bell and spigot joints, caulked with lead and packing 919.1General
material, may be used only for water service up to In additiontodesignrequirementsforpressure,
100"F, where adequate provisionismade to prevent weight,and other loadings, piping systems subject to
separation of the joints. See ANSVAWWA C600 for thermal expansion or contraction, or to similar move-
joints in cast iron pressure piping. mentsimposed by other sources shall be designed to
prevent:
(u) failure ofpiping or supports from overstress or
916.2Push-TypeElastomerGasket
fatigue;
Push-type joints with elastomer gaskets may be used (6) leakage of joints;
where experience or tests have demonstrated thatthe ( c ) detrimental stresses or distortion in connected
joint is safe for the operating conditions andthefluid equipment (pumps, turbines, valves, etc.) resulting from
being transported, and where adequate provisionis excessive thrusts andmoments.
made to prevent separation of the joints.
919.2Concepts
919.2.1General. The treatment offlexib' analysis
917BRAZEDANDSOLDEREDJOINTS in this Code covers only the simplest applications. For
piping systems not compatible with this
simplified
917.1 General approach, theuser is directed to Chapter 11, Part 5 of
Brazed and soldered socket-type joints shall be made ASME B3 I . 1. The concepts, methods, and requirements
in accordance withpara. 928 andwithbrazing or therein are acceptable underthis Code.
solderingfillermetalswhich are compatible withthe
919.2.2 Means of Providing Flexibility. Flexibility
basematerialandwiththepressure, temperature, and
maybe increased by one or moreofthefollowing
other service conditions.
means:
(u) adding elbows, bends, or loops where feasible;
917.2Brazed Joints (b) installing expansion joints, properlyguidedand
restrained;
Socket-type brazed joints maybeusedwithinthe (c) installing rotary joints, properlyguided and re-
limitationsonmaterials in Chapter III. strained.

919.2.3 Flexibility in Nonmetallic Piping. Particular


9173 Soldered Joints care mustbetaken in selecting themethodsgiven in
para. 919.2.2 when laying out nonmetallic piping sys-
917.3.1 General. Soldered socket-type joints may be tems, because they are difficult or impossible to analyze,
used within the pressure-temperature limitations in Ta- haveverylimited capacity for overstress, are subject
ble 917.3. Soldered joints other than socket-type shall tobrittle failure, and may havehigh coefficients of
notbeused. thermal expansion and nonlinear stress-strain character-
istics.
917.3.2 Limitations. Soldered joints shall notbe
used for flammable or toxic gases or liquids.They 919.3Properties for Analysis
shall not be used for compressed air or other gases in
tubing over 4.125 in. O.D. unless the maximum pressure 919.3.1Coefficients of ThermalExpansion. Table
is limitedto 20 psig. 919.3.1 contains data on thermal expansion characteris-

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S T D = A S M E B33.7-ENGL 177b m 0 7 5 7 b 7 00 5 8 0 2 3 5 OOT H

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 919.3.1-919.8

TABLE 917.3
RATED INTERNAL WORI<ING PRESSURES OF JOINTS MADE WITH COPPER WATER TUBE AND
SOLDER JOINT FITTINGS, psigl
Types K, L, M Copper Water Tube in Nominal Sizes,in.
Liquids and Gases [Note (213
Service
Temperature,
Alloy
Solder or Brazing 5-8 10-12Steam
and Saturated
Used in Joints “F, Max. 1/4-1 1V4-2 2l/,-4 [Note (2)l [Note (2)l Condensate, All Sizes

50-50 Tin-Lead
ASTM B 32 Gr 50A
200 100 175 150 135 100 ...
150 125 150 1 O0 90 70 ...
200 [Note (1)l 100 90 75 70 50 ...
250 [Note (1)l 85 7 5 45 50 40 15

95-5 Tin-Antimony
ASTM B 32 Gr 95TA
500 100 400 270 300 150 ...
150 400 350 275 250 150 ...
200 CNote (1)l 300 250 200 140 180 ...
250 CNote (1)l 200 175 150 135 110 15

Brazing
Alloys 200 [Note (1)l [Note ( 3 ) l [Note (311 [Note ( 3 ) l [Note (311 [Note (311 ...
250 [Note (1)l 300 210 170 150 150 15
3 5 0 [Note (1)l 270 190 150 150 150 120

NOTES:
(1) See paras. 900.1.2(d) and (e) for pressure and temperature limits under this Code.
(2) See limitations in para. 917.3.2.
( 3 ) Rated pressure for temperatures up to 200°F is that of the tube being joined.

ticsofmanyofthemetallicandnonmetallicmaterials NOTE: There is noassurancethat Formula (9) is alwaysaccurate


used in thisCode. or conservative,especiallyfornearlystraightsawtoothsegments or
forunequallegU-bendswhere UU is morethan 2.5. There is no
assurancethat end reactionswill be. acceptablylow.
919.4Analysis,MetallicPiping
919.4.1Requirements for Analysis
( a ) SimpliJied Analysis. No formal analysis isre-
( 3 ) Thesystemislaidout with a conservative
quired for systemswhichmeetone ofthefollowing
margin of inherent flexibility, or employs joining meth-
criteria.
( I ) The system duplicates a successfully operating ods, expansion devices, or a combination of joining
installation or replaces a system with a satisfactory method and expansion devices in accordance with appli-
service record. cable manufacturers’ instructions.
(2) Thesystemis of ductile material (e.g., there (b) Other Methods of Analysis. Piping systems which
are no cast iron fittings); thesegmentbeinganalyzed do not meet the criteria of (a) above shall be analyzed
hasnomorethantwoanchorsandnointermediate by suitable approximate or conservative methods as
restraints; it has no more than two pipe sizes, differing outlined in ASME B3l. 1, paras. 119.7.1(C) and (D),
by one standard size; the least nominalwall thickness and as directed elsewhere in para. 119 of ASME B31.1.
is
noless
than 75% of the greatest; and thermal
expansion in thesegment satisfies Formula (9):

D,Y/(L - U)* = 0.03 or Less (9) 919.8 Movements

where Movements caused by thermal expansion or contrac-


D, = the nominal size ofthelargerpipe in the tion and other similar loadings shall be determined for
segment consideration of obstructions anddesign of supports.

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919.9-919.10 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

TABLE 919.3.1
MODULI OF ELASTICITY AND THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS
~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~

. LinearThermalExpansion, in./lOO ft,


Modulus of Coefficient [Note (1)l Between 70°F and Indicated Temperature, "F
Elasticity, of Thermal
Expansion,
Material psi x 10" idin., O F X lo4 O 25 ' 50 70 100 125
Carbon steel 27.5 6.33 -0.49 -0.32 -0.14 O 0.23 0.42

Austenitic stainless steel 29.0 9.27 -0.72 -0.46 -0.21 o 0.34 0.62

Aluminum 10.0 12.69 -0.97 -0.63 -0.28 O 0.46 0.85

Gray cast iron 13.0 5.76 -0.49 -0.32 -0.14 O 0.21 0.38

Ductile Iron ... 5.97 -0.46 -0.30 -0.14 O 0.21 0.39

Copper C12200 17.0 9.50 -0.80 -0.51 -0.23 O 0.34 0.63


(99.9Cu)

CopperCA 23000 17.0 10.40 -0.87 -0.56 -0.25 O 0.37 0.69


(red brass) (8501)

ABS 1210 0.25 55.0 ... ... -1.32 O 1.98 ...


1316 0.34 40.0 ... ... -0.96 O 1.44 ...
2112 40.0 ... ... -0.96 O 1.44 ...

CPVC 4120 0.42 35.0 *.. ... -0.84 O 1.26 2.31

PVC 1120 0.42 30.0 ... ... -0.72 O 1.08 ...


1220 0.41 35.0 ... ... -0.84 O 1.26 ...
2110 0.34 50.0 ... ... -1.20 o 1.80 ...
2120 30.0 ... ... -0.72 O 1.08 ...

PB 2110 ... 72.0 ... ... -1.73 O 2.59 4.75

P E 2306 0.09 80.0 ... ... -1.92 O 2.88 ...


3306 0.13 70.0 ... ... -1.68 O 2.52 ...
3406 0.15 60.0 ... ... -1.44 O 2.16 ...
PP 1110 ... 48.0 f . . ... -1.15 O 1.73 ...
1208 43.0 ... ... -1.03 O 1.55 ...
2105 40.0 ... ... -0.96 O 1.44 f . .

RTRP Consult manufacturer

NOTE:
(1)Average of the mean values over the temperature range for which data are shown.

919.9 Cold Spring (c) reduction of maximumendreactions.


No credit for cold spring is permitted in stress range
Cold spring is the intentional displacement of piping
calculations.
during assembly. When applied, it is normally to com-
pensate for one-half of the total
expected pipe movemenb
919.10 Reactions
due to expansion. Possible benefitsof cold spring
include: Terminalreactionsand resulting momentsshall be
(u) reducedlikelihood of overstrain during initial taken into consideration where supporting structure or
operation; connected equipment islikelytobeaffected by such
(b) reduced deviation from as-installed hanger posi- loadings.Determinationoftheseloads may require
tions; and analysis as specified in para.919.4.1(b).

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S T D m A S M E B 3 L * 9 - E N G L L77b H 0757b700580217 782 m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 920-920.1.1

TABLE 919.3.1
MODULI OF ELASTICITY AND THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTS
Linear Thermal Expansion, in./100 ft,
Between 70°F and Indicated Temperature, "F

150 175 200 225 250 275 325 300 350 375 Material

0.61 0.80 0.99 1.21 1.40


2.48 2.26
1.612.04 1.82 Carbon steel

3.50 0.90 2.90 1.18


3.20 2.61 2.32
1.462.03 1.75 Austenitic stainless steel

1.232.00 4.95
1.62 4.52 4.09 3.67
2.413.24 2.83 Aluminum

64 1.45 1.27 0.550.90


1.00 0.73 Gray cast iron

1.13
0.570.94 0.76 1.331.72 1.53 1.932.36 2.13 Ductile iron

0.91 1.20 1.48 2.621.772.34 2.05 2.91 3.19 Copper C12200


(99.9Cu)

3.49 3.18 2.87 2.56


1.00 2.251.311.93 1.62 ... Copper CA 23000
(red brass) (85Cu)

... ... ... ...... ... ... ... ... ... A B S 1210
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1316
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2112

3.36 4.41. . . ... ... ... ... ... ... CPVC 4120

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ,,. PVC 1120
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1220
. . .. . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2110
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2120

6.91 9.07 . . . ... ... ... ... PB 2110

... ... ... ... ....


.. ... ... ... ... P E 2306
*.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3306
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3406

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... P P 1110
... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1208
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2105

RTRP

920 LOADSONPIPESUPPORTING 920.1.1 Loads on Supports. The loads to be consid-


ELEMENTS ered in design of supports are:
(u) deadweightofpipe, fittings, valves, insulation,
920.1 General inline equipment,hangersystem,and other pipelines
Supports, as used in this Code, include rigid hangers (if supportedfromthelineunder consideration);
(that supportthelinefromabovewithout springs), (b) liveweightof contents;
spring hangers, supports that bear the load from below, (c) weight of testfluid (see para. 920.2);
andguidesandanchorsthat limit pipemovement as (d) occasional loads,such as ice,wind,and earth-
well as support loads. quake.

23

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920.1.1-921.1.3 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

Weight of test fluidand occasional loads neednot In addition, supports shall be so locatedandspaced
be considered concurrently. as to protect the supported piping from excessive stress
and distortion.
920.1.2Loads on Restraints
( a ) General. In addition to the loads described in 921.1.1 Materials and Stresses. Except as permitted
para. 920.1.I, anchors, guides, and other restraints shall herein, materials for pipe supporting elements shall be
be designed to bear loads resulting from thermal expan- listed in Appendix A. Allowable stresses for pipe
sion and contraction and from other movements of the supporting elements shall be one-fifth of the minimum
piping,such as those caused by internalpressure. tensile strength shown in Appendix A. For carbon steel
(b) Expansion Joint Loads. Use of expansion joints of unknown specification, the allowable stress shall not
usually increases reactions at anchors. For corrugated exceed 9500 psi.
and slip joints, in the absence of manufacturer's data, . ( a ) ThreadedParts. The maximum safe loadsshall
anchor reactionmay be calculated as the sum of: be calculatedon the rootarea ofthethreadsof
( 1 ) operating pressure times area corresponding to threaded parts.
the maximum inside diameter of the joint corrugations; (b) AllowableOverstress. An increase in allowable
( 2 ) the force required to cause full rated deflection stress ispermittedup to 80% of specifiedminimum
of the joint; and yield strength during hydrostatic testing, not to exceed
(3) frictional forces at guides and supports. 24,000 psi for carbonsteelofunknown specification.
If the expansion joint is at an elbow or bend, the ( c ) Selection of Material. Hanger and support materi-
vector forces due tofluid change in direction must als shall be compatible withthe characteristics of the
also be included. piping materials, so thatneithershall adversely affect
the other.
920.1.3 Other Loads. Loads from other design con-
ditions described in para. 901 shall be considered in 921.1.2 HangerAdjustments. Hangers supporting
design ofboth supports and 'restraints. Loads due to piping NPS 2v2 and larger shall be designed to permit
shockandvibrationshouldpreferably be minimized adjustment after erection while supporting theload.
by theuseof suitable dampeners or properlyplaced Threadedparts for adjustment shall be in accordance
supports and restraints. withASME B1.l.
Turnbuckles and adjusting nuts shall have full thread
920.2 Test Loads engagement. Threaded adjustments shall be provided
with suitable locking devices.
920.2.1 Test Loads on Rigid Supports. Rigid sup-
ports shall be capable of bearingthetotalloadunder 921.1.3 Support Spacing
test conditions aswell as those ofnormal operation, ( a ) PipingStresses. Stresses in thepiping due to
unless additional supports are provided during testing. support spacing shall not exceed thebasic allowable
stress S when computed on the basis of a support span
920.2.2 Test Loads on Spring Hangers. Load condi- twice as great asthe actual span.
tions for calculated operation of spring hangers should (b) Allowable Deflection. The allowable deflection
not take test loads into account. The hanger assembly, of thepipebetween supports shall not exceed the
however, shall be capable of supporting thetestload smaller of 0.25 in. or 15% ofthe outside diameter of
unlessadditional supports are provided during testing. the pipe, based on the weight of the pipe, service fluid
(S.G. I l.O),and insulation.
(c) Spacing, Steel Pipe. Figure 921 .I .3C shows the
921DESIGN OF PIPESUPPORTING
maximumrecommended support spacing for standard
ELEMENTS
weight Grade A, Grade B, and Schedule IO pipe.
( d ) Spacing, Other Materials. The maximum recom-
921.1General
mended support spacing for copper and plastic pipe is
Pipe supporting elements shall be designed to carry shown in Fig. 921.1.3D.
thesum of all concurrently acting loads described in (e)Limitations on Charts. Thespans i n Figs.
para. 920. Unless designed to anchor or restrainline 921.1.3Cand D are basedon limitations in para.
movements by withstandingtheresultant forces and 921.1.3(a) and (b) andarenot applicable wherethere
moments, they shall permit free movement of the piping are concentrated loads, Le., valves, special fittings, etc.
resulting fromthermal expansion or other causes. Spans and deflections are based.onthe simple beam

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60

50

45
45

Licensed by Information Handling Services


40
40
50 psig

35

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


150 psig
50 psig .z
C
250 psig
150 psig 5 30

kg
25 25

20
II I I I I I I IYYl I I I I l/l I I I
2G
( 1 Internal [pressure 1

15 15

10

5 5
0.5 1 2 3 5 a 12 16 20 2430 0.5 1 2 3 5 a 12 1~ 20 24 30

Pipe Size, NPS Pipe Size. NPS

(a1 Basic Allowable Stress = 12,000 psi [b) Basic Allowable Stress = 15,000 psi
Grade A Grade 8

GENERAL NOTES: GENERAL NOTES:


(a) For Grade A pipe threaded to NPS 2 and welded above NPS 2. (a) For Grade B pipe tl~reaclcd to NPS 2 and welded above NPS 2.
ibl Use for grooved pipe. {b) Use 12,000 psi chart for grooved ]oilrts.

FIG. 921.1.3C SUPPORT SPANS FOR STANDARD WALL STEEL PIPE


30 14

25 - 12 -- - f

/
/
20 - IO -- -

Licensed by Information Handling Services


7
c .z

f 15 - cm 8 - -

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


r2 cnc
-- I

10 - 6 -- - -
I’
:
Water of

5 -
4 - + 44
aI P/ ,’ /
0 L ti
/
2 3 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 4 6 8 10 12
Nominal Tube Size Pipe Size, NPS

(a) Drawn Temper-ASTM 888. (b) Thermoplastic Pipe


Type L. Copper Tube

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Based on pipe at 73°F with waler and insulation.
Closer spacing requirc!d at higher temperatures.
(bJ Use sl~~clds on all hangers to avoid point loading of pipe.

FIG. 921.1.3D SUPPORT SPANS FOR COPPER AND THERMOPLASTIC PIPE


S T D - A S M E B33.S-ENGL 37Sb m 0757b70 0580223 303 m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 921.1.3-9213.1

formulaslimitingthecombinedpressureandbending
stress to the basic allowable stress for the material. TABLE 921.2.2A
CAPACITIES OF THREADED ASTM A 36 STEEL
921.1.4 Springs. Springs used in spring hangers shall RODS
be designed and manufactured in accordance with MSS
Nominal Rod Root Area of Maximum Safe
SP-58. Load, lb
Diameter, Coarse Thread,
in. sq in. (S= 11.6 ksi)
921.2Fixtures
94 0.027 310
921.2.1AnchorsandGuides 3/8 0.068 790
5; 0.126 1460
( a ) Requirements. Anchors, guides, pivots, and other '18 0.202 2340
restraints shall bedesignedto secure thepiping at 0.302 3500
their respective locations against movement in specified /'8 0.419 4860
planes or directions, while permitting free movement 1 0.552 6400
1 0.693 8000
elsewhere.They shall be structurally suitable towith-
1 0.889 10,300
stand the thrusts, moments,and other imposed loads.
( b ) Required Guides. Wherebellows or slip-type
expansion joints are used, anchors and guides shall be
provided to direct expansion movement along the axis be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps, hanger flanges,
ofthe joint. clips, bases, swivel rings, andparts of pipe supports.
(c) Pipe Buckling. The column buckling strength of
thepipemustbetaken into consideration when de- 921.2.3VariableSupports
terminingguidespacing for expansion joints. This is ( a ) Requirements. Variable spring supports shall be
especially true for small diameter lines. Maximum designed to exert a supporting force equal totheload,
spacing of guides for anypipematerial or thickness as determined by weight balance calculations, plus the
maybe calculated usingFormula (IO): weightof all hanger parts (such as clamp,rod, etc.)
thatwillbesupported by the spring atthepointof
Ls = 0 . 1 3 1 4 m ) (10) attachmentto the pipe.
( b ) Design. Variable spring supports shallbepro-
Q ispositive for expansion joint compressionand videdwithmeans to limit misalignment, buckling,
negative for expansion joint extension. eccentric loading, and overstressing of the spring. It is
( d ) Rolling or Sliding Supports. These supports shall
recommendedthattheybedesigned for a maximum
permit free movement of the piping, or the piping shall variation in supporting effort of 25% for the total travel
be designedto include theimposedloadsand friction resultingfromthermalmovement.
(c) Indicators. It is recommended that all hangers
forces of the supports. Materials and lubricants used
in sliding supports shall be suitable for the
metal employing springs beprovidedwithmeansto indicate
temperatureatthepoint of contact. at all times the compression of the spring with respect
totheapproximatehotandcold positions of thepipe
921.2.2OtherRigidSupports system,exceptwherethey are used either to cushion
(a) Hanger Rods. Safeloads for hangerrods shall against shock or where the operating temperature of
bebasedontherootareaof threads andallowable thesystemdoesnotexceed250°F.
stress for the material. In nocase shall hangerrods
lessthan "/8 in. in diameterbeusedtosupportpipe 921.3StructuralAttachments
NPS 1 '/2 or larger. See Table 92 1.2.2A for permissible
loads oncarbon steel rods. 921.3.1NonintegralType. Nonintegralattachments
Pipe, straps, or barsofstrengthand effective area includeclamps, slings, cradles, saddles, straps, and
equivalent to hangerrod may also be used. clevises.
( b ) Cast Iron. ASTM A 48 cast iron maybeused When clamps are used to support vertical lines, they
for bases, rollers, anchors, and parts of supports where shallbedesignedtosupportthetotalloaddue to
the loading is primarily in compression. Cast iron parts weight of piping, contained fluid, insulation, and other
shall notbeused in tension. loads such as forces from expansion joints. It is recom-
( c ) Malleable Iron. ASTM A 47 malleable iron may mended that shear lugs or the clamp beweldedto the

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S T D - A S M E B 3 L - S - E N G L L99b m 0757b70 0580222 2 4 T D

921.3.1-922.1.2 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

pipe to prevent slippage, following the requirements 921.5.3ConcreteInserts. Placingof inserts shall
of para.921.3.2. be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommenda-
tions.
921.3.2 Integral Type. Integral attachments include
921.5.4ExplosiveActuatedFasteners. Explosive
ears, shoes, lugs, cylindrical attachments, rings, and
actuated fasteners shall not be usedwhere a group of
skirts fabricated so as to be an integral part of the piping.
fasteners isnecessaryto support the total load.
When welded to the pipe, materials and procedure shall
be compatible withthepipingand strength shall be 921.5.5 Split Pin CompressionAnchors. Split pin
adequate for all expected loadings. If piping and support compression anchors shall be used only for shear loads.
materials differ in allowable stress, thelowershall
govern design. 921.6SupportingStructures
Integral attachments shall beused in conjunction
with restraints or braces where multiaxial loadings are The engineer shall assure himself that the supporting
imposed. Design shall consider all imposed weight and structure has adequate strength to sustain allloads
thermal loadings, and shall minimize localized stresses imposed bythepiping.
induced in thepiping by the attachment.

921.4Supplemental Steel
Where it is required to frame structural members
between existing steel members,suchsupplementary PART 6
steel shall be designed using the allowable stress speci- SYSTEMS
fied in para.921.1.1.

921.5Attachments to Concrete 922 DESIGNREQUIREMENTSPERTAINING


TO SPECIFICPIPINGSYSTEMS
921.5.1MaximumLoads on Attachments. Loads
on anchors, cast-in-place inserts, and other attachments 922.1PressureReducing Systems
to concrete shall not exceed one-fifthoftheultimate 922.1.1 General. Wherepressurereducingvalves
strength of the attachment as determined by manufactur- are used, a relief device or safety valve shall be provided
er’s tests in concrete of compressive strength not greater on the low pressure side of the system. Otherwise, the
than that in whichthe attachment will be used,but at pipingand equipment on thelow side ofthesystem
least 2500 psi. shall be designed to withstandtheupstreamdesign
If the compressive strength of the concrete isun-
pressure. The relief or safety devices shall belocated
known, it shall be assumedtobe2500psiandthe adjoining or as close as practicable to thereducing
manufacturer’s ratedload for the fastener shall be valve. The combined relieving capacity provided shall
reduced in the ratio of 2500 psitothe strength used be suchthatthedesign pressure of thelowpressure
in the tests to determine the rating. system will not be exceeded if the reducing valve fails
In the absence of manufacturer’s ratings, the attach- to open.
ment may be tested for ultimate strength in accordance
with ASTM E 488. 922.1.2AlternativeSystems. In steamsystems
wheretheuse of reliefvalves as described in para.
921.5.2Expansion Studs and Anchors. Mechani- 922. l . 1 is not feasible (e.g., because there is no accept-
cally attached concrete or masonry anchors shall extend able discharge location for the vent piping), alternative
into the concrete at least the minimum distance recom- designs maybe substituted for therelief devices. In
mended by the manufacturer; use a length at least 41/2 either case, it is recommended that alarms be provided
timesthe fastener diameter in theabsence of such which will reliably warn the operator of failure of any
recommendation. pressurereducingvalve.
If multiple anchors are required to hold a load, they ( a ) Tandem Steam Pressure Reducing Valves. Two
mustbespaced at least eight diameters on center to or more steam pressure reducing valvesmay be installed
realize the full design capacity of each anchor. in series, each set at or below the safe working pressure

28

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ASME 831.9-1996 Edition 922.1.2-922.3.3

of the equipment served. In this case, no relief device as the inletpipingunlessthedischarge is ventedto
is required. atmosphere, or is operated under low pressure and has
Each pressure reducing valve shall have the capability no stop valves.
of closing off against full line pressure, and of control-
ling the reduced pressure ator below the design pressure 922.3 Fuel Oil Piping
of the low pressure system, in the event that the other
valve fails toopen. 922.3.1PipeMaterial
( b ) Trip Stop Values. A trip stop steamvalve set (a) Pipe in buildings shall be steel pipe of a material
to close at or belowthedesignpressure of thelow listed in Table926.1except as permitted in 922.3.1
pressure systemmaybeused in placeof a second (b). Type F furnace butt welded pipe shall not be used
reducingvalve or a relief valve. where concealed, i.e., in walls, chases, shafts, or above
ceilings. Spiral weldedpipeshallnotbeused.
922.1.3 Bypass Valves. Hand controlledbypass (b) Type L copper tubing maybeused in buildings
valveshaving a capacity no greater thanthereducing if protectedfromexposuretofire.
valve maybe installed around pressure reducing valves ( c ) Underground piping may be steel, Type K copper
if thedownstreampipingis protected by reliefvalves tubing, aluminum, ductile iron, thermoplastic, or rein-
asrequired in para. 922.1.1, or if thedesignpressure forced thermoplastic resin piping. Buried pipe
and
of thedownstreampipingsystemandequipmentisat fittingsshallbeprotected against corrosion.
least ashigh as theupstreampressure.
922.3.2Joints
922.1.4 Design of Valves and Relief Devices. Pres- ( a ) Threaded,welded, brazed, or flared joints shall
sure reducingandbypassvalves,andrelief devices, beusedwithin buildings. A pipethreadcompound
shallbedesigned for inlet pressure andtemperature suitable for oil shall be used on threaded joints. Joints
conditions. relyingon friction or a combustiblematerialshall not
beused.Brazing or flarefittingsshallbewrought.
922.2SteamTrapPiping Flanged or grooved joints maybeusedwith a gasket
material meeting the requirements of API 607 or another
922.2.1DripLines. Drip lines fromsteamheaders, standard acceptable totheowner.
mains, separators, heaters, or other equipment that (b) For underground piping, friction type joints and
operate at differing pressures shallnotbeconnected grooved joints may also beused.
to dischargethroughthesame trap.
922.3.3 Valves. At the point of entry of underground
922.2.2DischargePiping. Trap discharge piping piping to the building, an accessible steel or ductile
shall be designed for the same pressure and temperature iron valve shall be installed to control theflowof oil.

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S T D - A S M E B31-9-ENGL L99b H 0759b70 0580224 O L 2 M

ASME B31.%1996 Edition 923-9U3.2

CHAPTER III
MATERIALS

923 MATERIALS - GENERAL 923.2 Limitations on SpecificMetals


REQUIREMENTS
923.2.1CastIron. The low ductility of cast iron
Chapter III states limitations for materials, based on shouldbe considered and its useshould be avoided
their inherent properties. Their usein piping is also where shock loading may occur.
subject to requirements and limitations in other parts
of this Code. 923.2.2DuctileIron. Ductile (nodular) cast iron
components having dimensions conforming toASME
923.1MaterialsandSpecifications B16.3,ASMEB16.4, or to ASMEB16.5may be
used in accordance withthemanufacturer’spressure-
923.1.1Listed or PublishedSpecifications. Any temperature ratings. Weldingshallnot be used as a
material used in pressure containing piping components method of joining ductile iron components.
shall conform to a specification listed in Appendix A,
or to a published specification in accordance with para. 923.2.3 Copper and Copper Alloys. Consideration
923.1.2. shouldbegiven to themeltingpointof copper in
flammablefluid service.
923.1.2 MaterialsNotListed. Allowable stresses
for materials not shown in Appendix A, but which are 923.2.4 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. Consid-
shown in ASME B3 1.1, may be taken from Appendix eration should be givento the melting point of aluminum
A of ASME B31.1. in flammablefluid service. When assembling threaded
A materialnot listed in thisCodenor in ASME joints in aluminum alloys, a suitable thread compound
B31.1, but which conforms to a published specification shall be used to prevent seizing. Pipe in the annealed
covering composition, physical and mechanical proper- tempershould notbe threaded.
ties, method and process of manufacture, heat treatment
(if applicable), and quality control, maybeused if it 923.3Limitations on SpecificNonmetals
otherwise meets the requirements of this Code. Allow-
able stresses for such materials shall be determined in 923.3.1General. Nonmetallic pressure containing
accordance withthe applicable basis in para. 902.3.1, components, such as glass, ceramics, plastics, or rubber,
or a more conservative basis. Particular attention should may be usedwithinthe limitations of para.923.1.2
be given to properties whichmay tend to affect weldabil- and within manufacturers’ limitations on pressure-tem-
ity or ductility adversely. perature ratings and application. Consideration shall be
giventothe suitability of thematerialforthe service
923.1.3 Used Materials.Used pipe and other compo- conditions and the fluid to be handled, its flammability,
nentsofknown specifications may be employed pro- resistance to shock, its dimensional stability, and proper
vided they have been thoroughly cleaned and visually support and protection from damage.
inspected (and testedif applicable) to determine that they
are in good condition, meet the applicable dimensional 923.3.2 Thermoplastics. Thermoplastics shall not be
requirements, and do notcontain defects whichcould used for toxic fluids or for oxygen. They shall not be
impair strength or tightness or which are not acceptable used for flammable liquids or flammablegases above
underthis Code. ground. If thermoplastics are used for compressed air
or other compressed gases, special precautions must
923.1.4 Limitations on UnknownMaterials. Steel be observed. The stored energy andspecific failure
of unknown specification shall be used only for struc- mechanism of the pipe need to be considered. Materials
tural supports and restraints. such as PVC, CPVC, and PVDF, which exhibit brittle

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.~

S T D = A S M E B I L * S - E N G L L77b m 0759b70 0580225 T57 m

923.3.2-923.5 ASME 831.9-1996 Edition

failure asdefined in ASTM F 41 2, shallnot be used shall be given to theflammability of RTR pipingand
forcompressedair or gas service. its susceptibility to brittle failure.
Considerationshall be given to the brittleness and
flammabilityof thermoplastics and to their loss of 923.4 CoatingsandLinings
strengthunderonly slight increases in temperature. In External coatings or internal linings may be used on
selecting thermoplastics, note that design properties are pipe or components thatconformtotherequirements
subjectto considerable variationfrom one typeand of this Code, but such coatings or linings shall not be
grade to another. considered as adding strength.

923.5 DeteriorationinService
923.3.3 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin. In select- Itistheresponsibility of the engineer to select
ingreinforcedthermosettingresin (RTR) piping,note materialswhichwillresistdeterioration in service, or
that design properties are subject to considerable varia- to make allowances for such deterioration in accordance
tion from one type and grade to another. Consideration withpara. 902.4.1.

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 926-926.4

CHAPTER IV
COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARD
PRACTICES

926DIMENSIONSANDRATINGS OF 926.4Abbreviations
COMPONENTS
Abbreviations used in Tables 926.1 and 926.2 signify
the following:
926.1 StandardPipingComponents
components
Standard
piping shall
one conform
to Abbreviation Term
of the standards or specifications listed in Table 926.1. General
Those listed in ASME B3 1.1may also beused. BW butt-welding
CI iron cast
DI ductile iron
926.1.1BoilerExternalPiping. Materials used in
MI malleableiron
boiler external piping shall be ASME SA or SB specifi- SS stainlesssteel
cations corresponding to the ASTM specifications listed sw socket-welding
in Table HT hightemperature
LT lowtemperature
TS tensilestrength
Practices
926.2 Standard Thd threaded

The standards listed in Table 926.2 should be used for Plastics


design and installation where applicable under this Code. ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
CPVC chlorinatedpolyvinylchloride
PB polybutylene
926.3 NonstandardPipingComponents PE polyethylene
PP polypropylene
When nonstandard piping components are used, pres- PVC Polyvinyl chloride
sure design shall be in accordancewith para. 904. RTP reinforcedthermosettingplastic
Adherencetothedimensional principles in American RTR reinforcedthermosettingresin
SDR standarddimensionratio
National Standards referenced in Table 926.1 is recom-
PR pressurerating
mendedto the greatest practicable extent.

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Table 926.1 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

TABLE 926.1
COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C.

Component Designation

ANSI A21.14
ANSI A21.52

51
594
609

816.1
816.3
816.4
816.5
816.9
816.10
616.11
816.14
816.15
816.18
816.22
616.24
616.26
816.28
816.33
816.34
616.36
816.39
616.42
B36.10M
B36.19M

J513

A 47
A 48
A 53
A 105
A 106
A 126
A 135
A 181lA 181M
A 197
A 211
A 234lA 234M
A 254
A 278lA 278M
A 312lA 312M
A 377
A 395lA 395M
A 403/A 403M
A 536

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table 926.1

TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D)


COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C.

Component Designation

A 539
B 2618 26M
B 42
B 43
B 61
B 62
B b81B b8M
B 75lB 75M
B aa/B aaM
B 13518 135M
B 2101B 210M
B 241lB 241M
B 2471B 247M
B 251/B 251M
B 280
B 283
B 302
B 361
B 547

CllOlA21.10
C151lA21.51
C207
C208
C500
C606

FS WW-P-421

5p-42
S P-43
S P-45
S P-51
5p-67
5p-70
5p-71
S P-72
S P-78
SW ReducerInserts .............................................................................................................................................................. S P-79
Bronze
Gate,
Angle,
and
Check
Valves .................................................................................................................................. S P-80
Carbon Steel Pipe Unions - SW andThd ............................................................................................................................ S P-83
SteelValves - SWandThdEnds ......................................................................................................................................... S P-84
C I Globe
and
Angle
Valves,
FlangedandThd
Ends ............................................................................................................... 5p-85
Diaphragm
Valves
Type ........................................................................................................................................................ 5p-88

(Table continues on next page and Note fallows Table)

35

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Table 926.1 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D)


COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C.

Component Designation

C 3611C 361M
c 582
D 1527
D 1785
D 2104
D 2239
D 2241
D 2282
D 2310
D 2447
D 2464
D 2466
D 2467
D 2468
D 2513
D 2517
D 2609
D 2662
D 2666
D 2672
B 2683
D 2737
D 2846
D 2996
D 2997
D 3000
D 3035
D 3261
D 3287
D 3309
D 3517
D 3754
D 3840
F 437
F 438
F 439
F 441
F 442

C300
C301
C302
C900

(Table continues on next page and Note follows Table)

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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S T D - A S M E B31.7-ENGL 177b 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 0580230 3Lb m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table 926.1

TABLE 926.1 (CONT’D)


COMPONENT STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C.

Component Designation

81.1
81.20.1
B1.20.3
B1.20.7
616.21
816.25
818.2.1
818.2.2

A361A 36M
A 183
A 193/A 193M
A 194lA 194M
A 307
B 32
D 1694
D 2235
D 2564
D 3138
D 3139
F 493

C 1111A21.11

A5.1
A5.2
A5.3
A5.4
A5.5
A5.6
A5.7
A5.8
A5.9

A5.10
A5.12
A5.17
A5.18
A5.20
A5.22
A5.23

S P-6
S P-25
S P-58

J514
NOTE:
(1) Applicability limited to alloy U N S No. C23000.

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Table 926.2 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

TABLE 926.2
STANDARD PRACTICES
The approved years of issue of standards and specifications listed in this Table are given in Appendix C .

Component Designation
American Petroleum Institute (API or ANSUAPI)
Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves. Fourth Edition ............................................................................................. Std 607-1993

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester ............................................................................................ D93
Test Method for Time-to-Failure of Plastic Pipe Under Constant Internal Pressure............................................................... 'D 1598
Test Method for Cyclic Pressure Strength of RTP Pipe ......................................................................................................... D 2143
Practice for Heat Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings ..................................................................................................... D 2657
Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping ............................................................................... D 2774
Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials ................................................................. D 2837
Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints With PVC Pipe and Fittings ........................................................................... D 2855
Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for RTR Pipe and Fittings ........................................................................... D 2992
Practice for Flaring Polyolefin Pipe and Tubing ................................................................................................................... D 3140
Test Method for Strength of Anchors in Concrete and Masonary Elements ............................................................................ E488
Practice for Safe Handling of Solvent Cements Used for Joining Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings ........................................ F402
Definition of Terms Relating to Plastic Piping Systems......................................................................................................... F412

American Water Works Association (AWWA or ANSIIAWWA)


Thickness Design of DI Pipe ................................................................................................................................................. C150/A21.50
Installation of DI Water Mains and Other Appurtenances ...................................................................................................... C600

Copper Development Association (CDA)


Copper Tube Handbook ......................................................................................................................................................... ..
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry (MSS)
Pipe Hangers and Supports - Selection and Application ...................................................................................................... 5p-69
Pipe Hangers and Supports - Fabrication and Installation Practices ................................................................................... 5p-89
Guidelines on Terminology for Pipe Hangers and Supports .................................................................................................... 5p-90

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ASME B31.%1996 Edition 927-927.4.4

CHAPTER V
FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND ERECTION

927WELDEDFABRICATION OF METALS (d) Spacing. The root opening of the joint shall be
as given in theweldingprocedure.
927.1General
927.3.2FilletWelds. If filletwelding isused in
Welding shall be performedinaccordancewiththe joining piping components, applicable requirements of
qualification requirements of para.927.5. Limitations para.927.3.1 shall bemetinpreparingtheparts for
on imperfections and acceptance standards are as stated
welding.
in Chapter VI or inthe engineering design.

927.2 Materials 927.4 Rules forWelding

927.2.1 Filler Metal. Filler metal, including consum- 927.4.1 General


able welding inserts, shall conform to the requirements ( a ) Protection of Work. No weldingshall be done
of Section II, Part C of the ASME BPV Code or AWS if there isimpingement of rain,snow, sleet, or high
AS series specifications for filler metals. A filler metal windontheweld area, or if theweld area is frosted
not conforming to the above maybeusedwith the or wet.
owner’s approval. (b) Preheat. Preheating shallbe as required by the
WeldingProcedure Specification.
927.2.2BackingRings. Backingringsare notre-
quired but when used shall be of a material compatible 927.4.2 Butt andMiter Welds
withthebasemetaland shall fittheinside diameter ( a ) Tuck Welds. If used,tackweldsshall bemade
of the pipe. Backing rings may be tacked to the inside by a qualified welder or shall be removed. Tack welds
of the pipe and shall be fused into the root of the weld. which have cracked shall be removed. Tack welds shall
bemadewithfillermetalwhich is compatible with
927.3 Preparation thefirstpassfiller metal, andshallbe fused withthe
first pass.
927.3.1 Butt andMiterWelds (b) External Alignment. If the external surfaces of
( a ) End Preparation. Endpreparation for buttand the two components are not aligned, the weld shall be
miter joint weldsshall be as shown in thewelding taperedbetweenthe surfaces.
procedure specification. The basicbevelangles shown
in ASME B16.25 may be used. Oxygen or arc cutting 927.4.3 FilletandSocketWelds
is acceptable only if the cut is reasonably smooth and (a)Welding. Theapplicableprovisions of para.
true. Discoloration which may remain ontheflame- 927.4.2(a) shall be followed.
cut surface is not considered to be detrimental oxidation. (b) Contour. Fillet and socket welds mayvaryfrom
(b) Cleaning. Weld areas and surfaces shall be clean convex to concave. The size of a fillet weldis deter-
and free from paint, oil, rust, scale, or any other material mined as shown in Fig. 927.4.3A.
detrimental to the weld or basemetalbeforewelding ( c ) Details. Minimum fillet welds for slip-on flanges
begins and shall be kept clean during welding. All slag and socket welding components areshown in Figs.
shall be cleaned fromflame-cut surfaces. 927.4.3Band C.
(c) Internal Alignment. The prepared ends of piping
components to be joined shall be aligned as accurately as 927.4.4 SealWelds. If seal welding of threaded
is practicable within commercial tolerances on diameter, joints is performed,the surfaces shall be cleaned and
wall thickness, and out-of-roundness. Alignment shall all exposed threads shall be covered by the seal weld.
be preserved during welding. Seal weldingshall be done by qualifiedwelders.

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927.4.5-927.4.1 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

Surface of vertical member

Surface of horizontal member

Theoretical throat

(a) Equal Leg Fillet Weld

GENERAL NOTE:
The size of an equal leg fillet weld is the length of the largest inscribed isosceles right triangle.
(Theoretical throat = 0.707 X size. 1

Surface of vertical member

Surface of horizontal member

I
i Theoretical throat

(b) Unequal Leg Fillet Weld

GENERAL NOTE.
The size of an unequal leg fillet weld is the leg length of the largest right triangle which can be inscribed
within the weld cross section fe. 9.. 1/2 in. X 3i4 in.)

FIG. 927.4.3A FILLET WELD SIZE

927.4.5 Welded Flat Heads. Typical minimum weld a good fit and thatwillpermit a fully penetrated
sizes for attachment offiatheadsare shown in Fig. groove weld.
927.4.5A. Attachment methods shown in Fig. 927.4.5B ( d ) Reinforcement. In branch connections having re-
are not acceptable. inforcementpads or saddles, the reinforcement shall
be attached by weldsaroundthebranchpipeandthe
927.4.6WeldedBranches outer periphery, as shown in Fig. 927.4.6A, sketch (b).
(a) Branch Connections. Figure 927.4.6A illustrates A ventholeshall be provided (at theside,not at the
weldedbranch connections withandwithoutadded crotch) inthering or saddle toreveal leakage in the
reinforcing. No attempthas been made to showall weld between branch and main and to provide venting
acceptable types of constructions. The fact that one during welding or heat treatment. Rings or saddles may
type of construction is illustrated does not indicate that be madeinmorethan one piece if the joints between
it isrecommended over other types not shown. the pieces have adequate strength and if each piece is
( b ) Weld Details. Figure 927.4.6B shows basic types provided with a vent hole. A good fit shall be provided
ofweldsused in fabricating branch connections. The betweenrings or saddles andthepartstowhichthey
locations and minimum sizes of weldsshallconform are attached.
totherequirements of thisfigure.
( c ) Branch Contours. Branch connections (including 927.4.7StructuralAttachmentsandSupports.
integrallyreinforcedwelding outlet fittings) thatabut Welds for structural attachments and supports shall be
the outside surface of themain pipe wall, or which fully penetrated groove welds or filletwelds,unless
are insertedinto an opening in themainpipewall, otherwise specified in the engineering design. Attach-
shallhaveopeningandbranch contours thatprovide mentweldsshall be madebyqualifiedwelders.

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 927.4.8-927.5.3

(a) Front and Back Weld (b) Face and Back Weld

' in. approximate


before welding

( c ) Socket Welding Flange

T, or the thickness of the hub, but not less than 1/8 in


a = the lesser of 1 .I
6 = the lesser of T, or 1/4 in.

FIG. 927.4.3B MINIMUM WELDS FOR DOUBLE-WELDEDSLIP-ONANDSOCKET-WELDING FLANGES


927.4.8 Weld Defect Repairs. Defects in welds shall
Tn be removed
to sound metal. Repairarewelds to be
madein accordance withtheprocedureused for the
original welds, or by another weldingmethodonly if
it is to a qualified procedure, recognizing thatthe cavity
to be repaired may differ in contour and dimensions
from the original joint.

927.5Qualification
927.5.1 General. A Welding Procedure Specification
shall be preparedandtheprocedure shall be qualified
before any welding is done. Qualification of the proce-
dures tobeusedandoftheperformance of welders
and welding operators shall be in accordance withthe
ASME BPV Code, Section IX.
927.5.2WeldingResponsibility. Each employer is
a = the greater of 1.1 T, or 1/8 in.
responsible for allwelding done by his employees.
FIG. 927.4.3C MINIMUM
WELDING 927.5.3
Qualification
Responsibility
DIMENSIONS FOR SOCI<ET-WELDING (u) Procedures. Each employerresponsible
is for
COMPONENTS OTHER THAN FLANGES qualifying any
welding
procedure
that he intends to

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927.53-921.6 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

Greater of: 2 X required pipe thickness,


or 1.25 X actual pipe thickness, but need
4 5 deg. min. not exceed required min. thickness of
45 deg. min.

T min.

Pipe may project beyond weld.


Closure may be beveled
(45 deg. max.) beyond weld.

FIG. 927.4.54, ACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT HEADS

Incomplete penetration

FIG. 927.4.5BUNACCEPTABLEWELDS FOR FLAT HEADS

use. To avoid duplication of effort, welding procedures the same or equivalent procedure wherein the essential
qualified by a technically competent group or agency variables are within the limits of the ASME BPV Code,
maybeused, providedall ofthefollowing conditions Section IX. An employer accepting such a qualification
aremet. shallobtain a copyofthe performance qualification
( I ) The group or agency qualifying the procedure testrecordshowing by whomthewelder or welding
shall have met all of the procedure qualification require- operator was qualified, the date of qualification, and a
ments of thisCode. history of the welder or welding operator showing
(2) The employer shall accept responsibility for continued performance tomaintainthequalification.
theprocedurethusqualified. The employer shall thenprepareandsigntherecord
(3) The employer has qualified at least one welder required in para. 927.6, accepting responsibility for the
or welding operator using the procedure thus qualified. ability of thewelder or welding operator.
(4) The employer shall assume responsibility for
the procedure qualification workdone for him by signing
therecordsrequired in para. 927.6.
(b) Welders and Welding Operators. Each employer 927.6 Qualification Records
shall be responsible for qualifying thewelders and
welding operators employed by him. To avoid duplica- The employer shallmaintainrecords,certified by
tionof effort, hemay accept a welder or welding him and available tothe owner or his agent, of the
operator qualification made by a previous employer or procedures usedandthewelders or welding operators
a technically competent group or agency (subject to he employs, showing the date and results of procedure
approval of the owner or his agent) on pipingusing and performance qualifications.

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COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B31.9-1% Edition 927.4.6B Figs. 927.4.6A,

hole

+"+--L --- """"


-

Reinforcement
Added
Without(a) Reinforcement
Added
(b) With

(cl Angular Branch Without


Added Reinforcement

FIG. 927.4.6A TYPICAL WELD BRANCH CONNECTIONS

in.

Main

1/16 in. to 118 i n . + b - 1/16 in. to 118 in.

Branch Inserted Set-on Branch

6 = the lesser of T, (branch) or 1/4 in,

FIG. 927.4.6B TYPICALWELDDETAILS

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~

S T D - A S M E B 3 1 1 9 - E N G L 179b m O759670 0580237 7 7 0 m

928-934.1.2 ASME 831.94996 Edition

928BRAZINGANDSOLDERING OF METALS results in formed surfaces that conform to specified


dimensions andwhich are uniform and free of cracks
928.1Brazing and tears.
928.1.1BrazingMaterials
( a ) Filler Metal. The brazingfillermetal shall con- 931 HEATTREATMENT
formtoan applicable AWS classification. The materialsand
materialthicknesses permitted
(b) Flux. When required, fluxes shall be compatible underthis Code do not requireheat treatment. If the
with the materialsbrazedandwiththefillermetal engineering design specifies heat treatment after weld-
used. Flux residue should be removed when joints are ing,these requirements shall be made part of the
completed.
Welding Procedure Specification.
928.1.2 Preparation and Technique. The technique
for brazing in the Copper Tube Handbook of the Copper 934FABRICATION OF NONMETALS
DevelopmentAssociationshall be followed.

928.1.3BrazingQualification. Brazing procedure 934.1JoiningThermoplasticPiping


and performance qualification are not required. If quali- 934.1.1Materials. Adhesives, cements, and sealers
fication
is
specified in the engineering design, the used to join pipingcomponentsshallbe compatible
requirements in the ASME BPV Code, Section IX are withthematerialsbeing joined and shall conform to
acceptable. applicable ASTM specifications.Joining materials which
have deteriorated by exposure to air, which are beyond
928.2Soldering theshelf life recommended by the manufacturer, or
whichwillnot spread smoothly shallnot beused.
928.2.1Materials
( a ) FillerMetal. Fillermetalshallconform to the 934.1.2SolventCementedJoints
applicable ASTM specification. Solder shall meltand ( a ) Preparation. PVCandCPVC surfaces to be
flow freelywithinthespecified temperature range. solvent cementedshallbe cleaned. Cleaning for ABS
( b ) Flux. Flux should beusedto preventoxidation shallconformtoASTM D 2235.Cuts shall be free
during soldering andtopromote surface wettability. of burrs. Circumferential cuts shall be as square as
thoseobtained by use of a sawwithmiter box. A
928.2.2 Preparation and Technique. The technique
slight interference fit betweenpipeandfittingsocket
for soldering in the Copper Tube Handbook ofthe
is preferred, and diametral clearance between pipe and
Copper DevelopmentAssociationshall be followed.
entrance of socket shallnotexceed 0.04 in. This fit
shall be checkedbefore solvent cementing.
929BENDING (b) Procedure. Solvent cemented joints shall be made
in accordancewithASTM D 2855. Solvent cements
929.1General for thermoplastics shall conform to the following speci-
fications:
Pipe may bebenttoanyradius by anyhot or cold Material ASTM Specification
methodthatresults in a bend surface free of cracks
PVC D 2564
and substantially free of buckles. Such bends shall meet CPVC D 2846
thedesignrequirements of para. 904.2.1. This shall ABS D 2235
not prohibit the use of creased or corrugated bends if
specified in the engineering design. Application of cement to both surfaces and assembly
ofthe surfaces shall produce a continuous bond and
a smàll fillet of cement at the outside of the joint. For
930FORMING
branch connections not using a tee, a full reinforcement
saddle withintegralbranch socket shall be cemented
930.1General
tothemainpipe over its entire contact surface.In
Piping components may be formed(by swaging, addition, the saddle shall be further securedtothe
lapping, or upsetting of pipe ends, by extrusion of mainpipe by wrapping glass fiber tape saturated with
necks, etc.) byany suitable hot or coldmethodthat epoxyresinaroundthe saddle andthe circumference

44

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 934.1.2-935.2.4

of the pipe. Solvent cement shall be handled as recom- used. The branchshallproject enough to complete a
mended in ASTM F 402. nozzle or to join to the branch pipe. The cut edges
of thehole in the mainpipeshallbe sealed with
934.1.3HeatFusion Joints cement at thetimethe saddle iscemented to the
( a ) Preparation. Surfaces to be heat fused together main pipe.
shall be cleaned free of foreignmaterialand surface
film. Cuts shall be free from burrs, and circumferential 934.2.4HandLay-Up Joints. Application of plies
cuts shall be as square as those obtained by useof a of reinforcement saturated with catalyzed resin to the
sawwithmiterbox. Fixtures shallbeused to align surfaces to be joined shall producea continuous structure
pipeandfitting whenthe joint ismade. with them. Cuts shall be sealed to protect the reinforce-
(b) Technique. Heat fusion joints for polyethylene, mentfrom the contents of the pipe. Thickness of the
polypropylene,andotherthermoplasticscommonly laid-up portionshall be at least equal tothepipe
joined by heat fusion shall be made in accordance with thickness.
procedures inASTM D 2657, Techniques I - Socket
Fusion or II - Butt Fusion, and as recommended by
the manufacturer. Uniform heating of both surfaces and 934.3 RepairofDefective Work
their assembly shall produce a continuous homogeneous Defective material, joints, and other workmanship in
bond between them and a small fillet of fused material nonmetallicpipingthat fails tomeetthe requirements
at the outside ofthe joint. Branchesshall bemade of para. 936 andofthe engineering designshall be
only by useofmoldedfittings. repaired by an acceptable method or shall be replaced.
Repair of defects in plastic piping by use of a patching
934.1.4FlaredJointsandElastomericSealed saddle is an acceptable method.
Joints
( a ) Flared Joints. Flared joints shall bemade in
accordancewithASTM D 3140.
(b) ElastomericSealedJoints. Elastomericsealed 935ASSEMBLY
joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 3 139.
935.1General
934.2ReinforcedThermosettingResinPiping The assembly of piping components, either in a shop
Joints or as field erection, shall be done so that the completely
erectedpiping conforms to therequirements of this
934.2.1Materials. The provisions of para. 934.1.1 Codeand of the engineering design.
shall also apply to reinforced thermosetting resin pipe.

934.2.2 Preparation. Cutting of pipeshall be done 935.2BoltingProcedure


without chipping or cracking it,particularlytheinner
surface of centrifugally cast pipe. Pipe shallbe preheated 935.2.1 Alignment. Flanged joints shall be fitted up
if necessarytocomplywiththeaboverequirement. so that the gasket contact faces, prior to bolting, bear
Cuts shall be free from burrs, and circumferential cuts uniformlyonthe gasket, andthen shall bemadeup
shallbeas square as thoseobtained by useof a saw with relativelyuniformbolt stress.
withmiterbox. For branch connections, holes in the
main pipe shall be made with a hole saw. Mold release 935.2.2 Gasket Loading. In bolting gasketed flanged
agentand other materialwhichwould interfere with joints, the gasket shall be uniformlycompressed in
adhesionshall be sanded or otherwise removedfrom accordance with the design principles applicable to the
surfaces to be cemented. type of gasketused.

934.2.3 Chemical Setting Adhesive Joints. Chemi- 935.2.3 Steel-to-Iron Flanged Joints. When bolting
cal setting adhesive joints shall be made in accordance raised-facesteelflangestoflat-face cast ironflanges,
withthe manufacturer’s recommendations. Application care shall beused to prevent damage to the cast iron
of adhesive to the surfaces andtheirassemblyshall flanges.
produce a continuous bondbetween them.
For branch connections, a fullreinforcement saddle 935.2.4 BoltEngagement. All bolts andnutsshall
having an integral short length of branch pipe shall be be fully engaged.

45

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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935.3-935.13 ASME 8319-1996 Edition

935.3Belland Spigot Joints 935.7Compression Joints


935.3.1CaulkedJoints. Caulked belland spigot Ends of tubing shall be cut squareand deburred.
joints shall be assembled using oakum and poured lead No scratches, breaks, or mars are permittedonthe
or other joint compounds suitable for the service. outside ofthetube at thefitting.
Assembly of cast ironbellandspigotpressurepiping
shallmeettherequirements of ANWAWWA (2600. 935.8 OtherMechanicalandProprietary Joints
Grooved, expanded, rolled, O-ring, clamp, gland, and
935.3.2ElastomericJoints. Belland spigot joints other joints permitted by para. 913 shall be assembled
using elastomeric gaskets shall be assembled in accord-
in accordance withthemanufacturer’s instructions.
ance withthemanufacturer’srecommendations.
935.9Borosilicate Glass Piping
935.4ThreadedPiping
Glass-to-glass connections shall be made with clamp
935.4.1 Threading. Dimensions of threaded joints compression type couplings. Closure pieces should pref-
shall conform to the applicable standard listed in Table erablybe furnished to exact dimension. If necessary,
926.1. Threads shall becleanand free of breaksand pipe may be field cut and beaded according to manufac-
tears. turer’s instructions. Beaded-to-plain end connections
may bemadewith couplings speciallydesigned for
935.4.2 Joint Compound. Any compound or lubri- this purpose. Alignment and support for all glass piping
cant used in threaded joints shall be suitable for the shall be verified and adjusted in accordance with manu-
service conditions, and shall not react unfavorably with facturer’s instructions before joints are tightened.
either the service fluid or thepipingmaterials.
935.10EquipmentConnections
935.4.3 Seal Welded Joints. Threaded joints which
are to be seal welded shall be assembled without thread When connections are made to equipment or strain-
compound. sensitive piping components, care should betaken to
avoidmisalignmentwhichcan introduce undesirable
935.4.4 Backing Off. Backing off of threaded joints end reactions.
to facilitate alignment ofthepipeisnotpermitted.
935.11ColdSpring
935.4.5ThreadedPlasticPipe. Strap wrenches or
other full circumference wrenchesshallbeused to Before assembling joints to be cold sprung, supports,
tightenthreaded joints. Tools and other devices used guides, and anchors shall beexaminedtoverify that
to hold or apply forces shallnotleavethe surface they will not interfere with desired movement or cause
scored or deeply scratched. For RTR piping,threads undesired movements. The gap or overlap prior to final
shall be coated with sufficient catalyzed resin to cover assembly ,shall be checked and corrected if necessary
to conform tothatshownonthe drawing.
the threads and completely fill the clearance between
pipe andfitting.
935.12ValveInstallation
935.5 Flare Joints hori-Installation
thebelow
stem theofwith
valves
zontalisnotrecommended.
Ends of tubingshall be cut square and deburred.
No scratches, breaks, cracks, or other mars at the 935.13 ~~~~i~ of Defective Work
sealing surface oftheflareshallbe permitted.
Joints that leak during test shall be tightened within
limits of procedures or manufacturer’s instructions. Do
935.6FerruleBite Joints
notattempttotightenleaking joints withpneumatic
Ends of tubing shall be cutsquareanddeburred. testpressureon ;he system. Joints which cannot be
No scratches, breaks, or other marsonthe outside safely tightened shall be replaced. Assemblies rejected
surface ofthetubing at thefittingshall be permitted. during examination shall be repairedandreassembled
In tightening the nut, onlysufficienttorqueshall be or replaced.Replaceany glass pipingcomponentthat
used to “bite”lightlyanduniformly into thetube. is chipped or scratched.

46

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 936936.6.1

CHAPTER VI
INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND TESTING

936INSPECTIONANDEXAMINATION 936.4 Methods of Examination


The methods described herein shall be performed by
936.1General
competent personnel.
Inspection applies to quality assurance functions per-
formed by the owner, or for the owner by persons 936.4.1 Visual Examination. Visual examination is
other than the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector. Ex- observation of the portions of materials, components,
amination applies to quality control functions performed joints, supports, and other piping elements that areor can
by personnel employed by the manufacturer, fabricator, be exposed to view before, during, or after manufacture,
or erector of the piping. fabrication; assembly, or erection. This examination
includesverification of, Code and engineering design
936.1.1 Quality System Program. A quality system requirements for materials and components, dimensions,
programis not required by this Code. If a systemis joint preparation, alignment, joining practices, supports,
required by the engineering design, theprogram in assembly, and erection.
Appendix E or a similarprogram acceptable tothe
owner maybeused. 936.5TypeandExtent of RequiredExamination
Unless otherwise specified in the engineering design,
936.2 RequiredInspection the type of examination shall be visual examination in
accordancewiththemethod in para.936.4.1.
Prior to initial operation, it is the owner’s responsibil-
If thedegreeofexaminationandinspection or the
ity toverifythatallrequired examination andtesting
basis for rejection is to be more rigorous than required
have been completed and to inspect the piping, or have
by this Code, it shall be a matter of prior agreement
it inspected, to the extent necessary to satisfy himself
betweenthe fabricator or installer andthepurchaser.
that it conforms toall applicable requirements of this
Code andtheengineering design.
936.6AcceptanceCriteria
936.2.1Access totheWork. The owner andhis Imperfections or indications revealed by examination
representatives shallhave access toanyplacewhere shallbeevaluated in accordance withthe following
work concerned with the piping is being performed. This criteria. They are acceptable unlessthey exceed the
includes manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, specified limitations. Those that exceed the stated limits
examination, andtesting of thepiping. are defects, and the work shall be repaired or replaced
in accordancewiththe appropriate requirements in
936.2.2 Rights of Owner. The owner and his repre- Chapter V. Acceptance criteria in para. 936.6not
sentatives shall have the right to audit any examinations, detectable by visual examination are included to indicate
to inspect the piping using examination methods speci- a minimum quality levelacceptableunder this Code.
fied in the engineering design, and to review all certifi-
cations andrecords. 936.6.1GirthWeldsand Groove Welds. Limita-
tions on imperfections are as follows.
(a) Cracks. None permitted.
936.3Responsibility for Examination
(b) Luck of Fusion. The length of unfused areas
Inspection does not relieve the manufacturer, fabrica- shallnot be morethan 20% of the circumference of
tor, or erector of responsibility for performingall thepipe, or of thetotallength oftheweld,and no
required examinations andpreparing suitable records morethan 11/2 in. inany 6 in. of weld.
for the owner’s use. (c) Incomplete Penetration. The total joint penetra-

47

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936.6.1-937.2.1 ASME B31.9-19% Edition

tion shall not be less than the thickness of the thinner toalignpipe axes shall notexceed10 lb/ft per in.
of the components being joined, except that incomplete of NPS.
root penetration is acceptable if it does not exceed the (b) Boltsandnutsshall be fully engaged.
lesser of 1/32 in. or 20% of the required thickness, and
its extent is not more than I 1/2 in. in any 6 in. of weld. 936.6.7 Flared, Flareless, and Compression Joints.
( d ) Undercut and Reinforcement. Undercut shall not Limitations on imperfections in flared,flareless,and
exceed the lesser of 1/32 in. or 12'/,% of wall thickness. compression joints are as follows.
Thickness ofweldreinforcementshallnotexceedin. ( a ) There shall beno cracks in flare or tube end.
( e ) ConcaveRoot. Concavity oftheroot surface (6) Tube ends shall be cut square (visual).
shall not reduce the totalthickness of the joint, including (c) Tube ends shall be free of distortion or grooves
reinforcement, to less than the thickness of the thinner thatwouldhinderassembly or sealing.
of the components being joined. ( d ) Negligible force shall be required to align ends.
v) ExcessRootPenetration. The excess shallnot
exceed the lesser of '/8 in. or 5% of the inside diameter 936.6.8 Mechanical and Proprietary Joints. Imper-
of thepipe. fections in mechanicalandproprietary joints shall be
(g) WeldSurfaces. There shall beno overlaps or within the limitations established by the manufacturer.
abrupt ridgesand valleys.
936.6.9Solvent-Cemented,Adhesive,andHeat-
936.6.2 FilletWelds. Limitations on imperfections Fusion Joints. Limitations on imperfections in solvent-
in fillet, socket, andsealwelds are thesame as in cemented, adhesive and heat-fusionjoints are as follows.
para.936.6.1 for cracks, lack of fusion, undercut,and ( a ) Internal protrusion shall not exceed 50% of wall
weld surfaces. thickness for solvent-cemented and 25% for adhesive
and heat-fusion joints.
936.6.3 BrazedandSolderedJoints. Limitations (b) There shallbenovisibleunfilled or unbonded
on imperfections in brazedandsoldered joints are as areas.
follows.
( a ) Penetration of fillermetalinsidethepipeshall 936.6.10HandLay-UpJoints. Limitations onim-
not exceed 100% of thewallthickness. perfections in handlay-up joints are as follows.
(b) Thereshall beno visibleunfilled joint space. (u) There shall be novisible evidence of lack of
( c ) There shall beno visible evidence of excessive bonding.
overheating. (b) The length ofthelaid-up joint shall beatleast
the lesser of 4 in. or the nominal diameter of the pipe.
936.6.4Threaded Joints. Limitations on imperfec- ( c ) The thickness of thelaid-up joint shall be at
tions for ASME B 1.20. I threadedpipe joints are as leastequaltothe wall thickness ofthethinnerpipe.
follows.
(u) No morethansixandno less thantwothreads
shall bevisible after makeup of the joint. 937LEAKTESTING
(6) There shall be no severe chipping or tearing of
visible threads. 937.1General

936.6.5CaulkedandLeadedJoints. Limitations Priortoinitial operation, eachpipingsystemshall


on imperfections in caulkedandleaded joints are as be tested for leakage. Hydrostatic testing in accordance
follows. with para. 937.3shall be employed if possible.Pneu-
( a ) The finished joint shall bewithinin.ofthe matic testing may be used in lieu of hydrostatic testing
rim of thebell. only in accordance withthelimitations in para.937.4.
(b) In the finished joint, the spigot shall be centered Initial service testing may be used within the limitations
in the b e l l within 1/8 in. of para. 937.5.
( c ) The joint shall bemade in a continuous pour.
937.2 Preparation for Testing
936.6.6 Flanged Joints. Limitations on imperfections
in flanged joints are as follows. 937.2.1 Exposure of Joints. All joints including
(a) When observed during assembly, the flange faces welds shall be left uninsulated and exposedfor examina-
shall be parallelwithin I deg.,and the force required tionduringthe test.

48

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Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME B31.9-1996 Edition 937.2.2-937.4.8

937.2.2TemporarySupports. Pipingdesigned for (I) 90% ofspecified minimum yield strength;


vapor or gas may be provided with temporary supports (2) 1.7 timesthe SE value in Appendix A(for
if necessary to support theweight of test liquid. brittle materials).

937.2.3ExpansionJoints. Expansion joints which 937.3.5ExaminationforLeakage. Following the


cannot sustain the reactions due totestpressureshall application of hydrostatictestpressureforatleast 10
be providedwithtemporaryrestraint, or they maybe min, examination shall be madeforleakage of the
isolatedfromtesting. piping,and at all joints and connections. I f leaks are
found, they shall be eliminated by tightening, repair,
937.2.4 Equipment Not Subject to Testing. Equip- or replacement, as appropriate, and the hydrostatic test
mentthatisnottobe subjected tothetestpressure repeated until no leakageis found.
shallbe isolated fromthepiping. If a valveis used
toisolatethe equipment, its closure shall be capable 937.4Pneumatic Testing
of sealing against the test pressure without damage to
thevalve.Flanged joints at which blinds areinserted 937.4.1 General. Compressed gas posesthe risk of
toisolateequipment neednotbe tested. sudden release of stored energy. For that reason, pneu-
matictestingshall beused only within the following
937.2.5PrecautionsAgainstOverpressure. If the limitations.
testpressure is to be maintained for a period of time (a) The pipingsystem does not containcastiron
during which the test Auid is subject to thermal expan- pipe or plasticpipe subject to brittle failure.
sion or any other source of overpressurizing during the (b) The system does not contain soldered or solvent
test,precautionssuch as the installation of a relief cement joints over NPS 2.
device shall be takentoavoid excessive pressure. ( c ) The testpressure does not exceed 150 psig.
(d) The system will beused in gas service, or for
937.3HydrostaticTesting other reasons cannot be filledwithwater.
( e ) Traces of a testliquidwouldbe detrimental to
937.3.1 Test Medium. Water at ambient temperature
the intended useofthepiping.
shallbeused as thetestmedium except wherethere
isriskof damage due to freezing. Another liquid may 937.4.2 Test Medium. The gas shall be nonflamma-
beused if it is safe for workmen and compatible with bleand nontoxic.
thepiping.
937.4.4PreliminaryTest. Prior to application of
937.3.2 Vents and Drains. Vents shall be provided full pneumatictestpressure, a preliminarytest ofnot
at highpoints in the system to release trapped air morethan I O psigshallbeapplied to revealpossible
whilefillingthesystem.Drainsshallbeprovidedat majorleaks. (This preliminarytest isnot subject to
low points for complete removal of the testliquid. the limitations in para. 937.4. I , andmaybeused in
conjunction withhydrostatictesting or initial service
937.3.3PreliminaryCheck. The systemshall be testing.)
examined to see that all equipment and parts that cannot
withstandthetestpressureareproperly isolated. Test 937.4.5Pneumatic Test Pressure
equipment shall be examined to ensure that it is tight ( u ) Except as limited in (b) below, the test pressure
andthatlowpressurefillinglines are disconnected. shall not exceed 1.25 times the design pressure. Pressure
shall be applied in several stages, allowing timefor
937.3.4HydrostaticTestPressure thesystem to reach equilibrium at each stage.
(a) Minimum Pressure. Except as limited in (b) (b) The test pressure shall not exceed the maximum
below, a pipingsystemshall be subjected to a hydro- allowable pneumatic test pressure for any vessel, pump,
static test pressure which at every point in the system valve, or other component in thesystemunder test.
is not less than 1.5 timesthedesign pressure.
(b) Maximum Pressure. The test pressure shall not 937.4.8 Examination for Leakage. After the prelim-
exceed the maximum testpressure for any vessel, pump, inary test, pressureshall be raised in stages ofnot
valve, or other component in the system under test. A morethan 25% up to full pneumatic test pressure,
checkshall bemadeto verifythatthe stress due to allowing time for equalization of strains and detection
pressure at the bottom of vertical runs does not exceed of major leaks at each stage. Following the application
either of the following: of testpressureforatleast IO min,thepressure may

49

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Licensed by Information Handling Services
S T D * A S M E B31.7-ENGL 179b 0757b70 0580293 T79

937.4.8-937.5.2 ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

be reduced to designpressureandexaminationshall ble,nonflammableliquids at pressures not over 100


bemade for leakage of the piping.Leaks may be psig and temperatuies not over 200"F, it is permissible
detected by soap bubble, halogen gas, scented gas, test to conduct the system testing with the service fluid as
gage monitoring, ultrasonic, or other suitable means. outlined in para. 937.5.2.
If leaks are found, pressure shall be vented, appropriate
937.5.2 Service Testing. A preliminary test with air
repair or replacement shall be made, and the pneumatic
at lowpressure(para. 937.4.4) may beused. In any
testrepeated until no leakage is found.
event, the piping system shallbe brought up to operating
pressure gradually with visual examination at a pressure
937.5Initial Service Leak Test between one-half and two-thirds of design pressure. A
final examination shall be made at operating pressure.
937.5.1 General. For gases and steam andcondensate If the piping system is free of leaks, it willhavemet
service not over 15 psig, and for nontoxic, noncombusti- the requirements of para. 937.1.

50

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Appendix A

APPENDIX A

Table A-I begins on next page.

51

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TABLE A-l
ALLOWABLE STRESSES

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Max. Allowable Stress Value in Tension SE,
Strengths ksi, for Metal Temperature, OF, Not Exceeding

Min. Min.

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Type or Factor Tensile, Yield, 0 to
Material Spec. No. Grade Class P-No. Notes Eor F ksi ksi 100 150 200 250 300 350 406
Carbon Steel
Seamless Pipe and Tube
is .. ASTM A 53 A S 1 ... 1.00 48.0 30.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
ASTM A 53 B S 1 . . . 1.00 60.0 35.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
ASTM A 106 A . * 1 . . 1.00 48.0 30.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
ASTM A 106 B . . . 1 . . 1.00 60.0 35.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
API 5L A . 1 (1) 1.00 48.0 30.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0
API 5L B 1 (1) 1.00 60.0 35.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0

Butt Welded Pipe and Tube


. . ASTM A 53 F 1 (2) 0.60 45.0 25.0 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
.. . API 5L A25 . . 1 (1) 0.60 45.0 25.0 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Electric Resistance Welded
Pipe and Tube
.* ASTM A 53 A E 1 ... 0.85 48.0 30.0 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2
.. ASTM A 53 B E 1 . . . 0.85 60.0 35.0 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8
. , . ASTM A 135 A . . 1 . . . 0.85 48.0 30.0 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2
ASTM A 135 B .. . 1 . . . 0.85 60.0 35.0 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 %
API 5L A25 , *. 1 (1) 0.85 45.0 25.0 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 E
.. API 5L A . .. 1 (1) 0.85 48.0
.. API 5L B . . . 1 (1) 0.85 60.0 30.0
35.0 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 10.2
12.8 F
P
Spiral Welded Pipe and Tube
:
ASTM A 211 A570-30 . 1 (3) 0.75 49.0 30.0 9.2 8.4 9.2 . . . .., . . . . .
33.0 9.8 9.9 9.8 .a. . . . . . .
ASTM A 211 A570-33 . . . 1 (3) 0.75 52.0 ss!
ASTM A 211 A570-40 . . 1 (3) 0.75 55.0 40.0 10.3 9.4 10.3 . . . . . . . . . B
Forgings and Fittings
.. . ASTM A 105 .. . .. ... . 70.0 36.0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 %
. ASTM A 181 60 .. . . . . . 60.0 30.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 5
. ASTM A 181 70 . .. ... . . 70.0 36.0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 E
. ASTM A 234 WPB .. . .. . 1.00 60.0 35.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 .-
. ASTM A 234 WPC ..~ . . 1.00 70.0 40.0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 1
s
Structurals (12)
. . ASTM A36 . 1 (l)(3) .. . 58.0 36.0 12.6 12.6 12.6 .2.6 12.6 12.6 12.6 E
C
:
Bolts, Nuts, and Studs
. . . ASTM A 307 B . . . .. . .. 55.0 . . . 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
Ductile Iron Pipe
. . ASTM A 377 . .. . . . . (l)(ll) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

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Fittings and Couplings
. ASTM A 395 60-49-18 . . . ,.. , . . 0.80 60.0 40.0 9.6 9.6 . . . . . . .
, ASTM A 536 65-45-12 . . . 0.80 65.0 45.0 10.4 10.4 . . . . . . . .

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Stainless Steel
Seamless Pipe and Tube
18Cr-8Ni ASTM A 312 s30400 . . . 8 . . 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 . 13.3 . 12.0 . . . 11.0
18Cr-8Ni ASTM A 312 530400 . . . 8 (10) 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 . 15.1 . . 14.1 . . . 13.8
18Cr-8Ni ASTM A 312 s30403 . . . 8 (1) 1.00 70.0 25.0 13.3 11.4 . . 10.2 . . 9.3
E 18Cr-8Ni ASTM A 312 s30403 . . . 8 (l)(lO) 1.00 70.0 25.0 13.3 13.3 . . 13.0 .. 12.5
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo ASTM A 312 531600 . . . 8 .. 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 . 13.8 12.4 . .. 11.4
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo ASTM A 312 531600 . . 8 (10) 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 16.0 . . 15.6 .. . 15.4
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo ASTM A 312 S31603 . .. 8 (1) 1.00 70.0 25.0 13.3 . 11.3 . . 10.1 . . . 9.2
lbCr-12Ni-2Mo ASTM A 312 531603 . 8 (l)(lO) 1.00 70.0 25.0 13.3 . 13.3 . . 13.3 . . . 13.2
18Cr-13Ni-3Mo ASTM A 312 s31700 .. . 8 (1) 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 . 13.8 . . 12.4 . . . 11.4
18Cr-13Ni-3Mo ASTM A 312 s31700 8 (l)(lO) 1.00 75.0 30.0 16.0 . 16.0 . . 15.6 . . 15.4

(Table continues on next page and Notes follow Table)


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TABLE A-l (CONT’D)

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


ALLOWABLE STRESSES
Max. Allowable Stress. Value in Tension SE,
Strengths ksi, for Metal Temperature, “F, Not Exceeding

WI Min. Min.
P
Material and Size or Tensile, Yield, 0 to
Spec. No. Alloy Temper Thickness, in. P-No. Notes ksi ksi 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys


Drawn Seamless Pipe and Tubes
ASTM 6 210 3003 0 0.010-0.500 21 (1) 14.0 5.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.4
ASTM 6 210 3003 H14 0.010-0.500 21 (l)(4) 20.0 17.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.3 3.0 2.4
ASTM 6 210 5050 0 0.018-0.500 21 (1) 18.0 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 2.8 1.4
ASTM 6 210 6061 T4 0.025-0.500 21 (l)(5) 30.0 16.0 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.4 6.9 6.3 4.5
ASTM B 210 6061 T6 0.025-0.500 21 (l)(5) 42.0 35.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 9.9 8.4 6.3 4.5
ASTM I3 210 6061 T4,T6 0.025-0.500 21 Welded;(i)(8) 24.0 . . . 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.5 4.6 3.5

Seamless Pipe and Seamless


Extruded Tube
ASTM 6 241 3003 0 All 21 (1) 14.0 5.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.4
ASTM B 241 3003 H18 -cl 21 (l)(4) 27.0 24.0 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.3 5.4 3.5 2.5
ASTM B 241 3003 H112 All 21 (l)(4) 14.0 5.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.0 2.4 1.8 1.4
ASTM B 241 5083 0 Up thru 5.000 25 (l)(9) 39.0 16.0 9.8 9.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASTM B 241 5083 H112 Up thru 5.000 25 (l)(9) 39.0 16.0 9.8 9.8 . . . . . . . . . ,.. .. .
ASTM B 241 6061 T4 All 23 (l)(5)(7) 26.0 16.0 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.0 5.8 4.5
ASTM B 241 6061 T6 All 23 (l)(5)(7) 38.0 35.0 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.1 7.9 6.3 4.5
ASTM B 241 6061 74,T6 All 23 Welded; (l)(7)(8) 24.0 . . . 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.5 4.6 3.5
ASTM B 241 6063 T6 All 23 (l)(5) 30.0 16.0 7.5 7.5 7.4 6.8 5.0 3.4 2.0
ASTM B 241 6063 T5, Tb All 23 Welded; (l)(8) 17.0 1.. 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.0 2.0
%
TABLE A-l (CONT’D)
5
ALLOWABLE STRESSES
E
Max. Allowable Stress Value in Tension SE,
.-
P
Strengths ksi, for Metal Temperature, “F, Not Exceeding G
x
Min. Min.
6
Tensile, Yield, 0 to E
Material Spec. No. Alloy No. Condition P-No. Notes ksi ksi 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 t
Copper and Copper Alloys
Seamless Pipe and Tube
Copper Pipe
Size range NPS 1/8-Z incl ASTM B 42 102, 122 Annealed 31 ... 30.0 9.0 6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0

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Copper Pipe
Size range NPS 1/8-2 incl ASTM B 42 102, 122 Hard drawn 31 (6) 45.0 40.0 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.0 10.3 4.3
Copper Pipe
Size range NPS 2l/e-12 incl ASTM B 42 102, 122 Light drawn 31 (6) 36.0 30.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Red Brass Pipe ASTM 0 43 230 Annealed 32 . 40.0 12.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 5.0
Copper Tube ASTM B 68 102, 122 Annealed . (1) 30.0 9.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.0 3.8 2.5
Copper Tube ASTM B 75 102, 122 Annealed 31 . . . 30.0 9.0 6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0
Copper Tube ASTM B 75 102, 122 Light drawn 31 (6) 36.0 30.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2
Copper Tube ASTM B 75 102, 122 Hard drawn 31 (6) 45.0 40.0 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.0 10.3 4.3
Copper Tube ASTM B 88 102, 122 Annealed . . . (1) 30.0 9.0 6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0
Copper Tube ASTM B 88 102, 122 Drawn . .. (l)(6) 36.0 30.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2
Brass Tube ASTM B 335 230 Annealed 32 . . . 40.0 12.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 5.0
Copper Tube ASTM B 280 102, 122 Annealed (1) 30.0 9.0 6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0
Copper Pipe, Threadless ASTM B 302 102, 122 Drawn . (1) 36.0 30.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2

(Notes follow on next page)


TABLE A-l (CONT’D)

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) See para. 902.3 for discussion of allowable stress values.
(b) The tabulated specifications are ASTM, except as noted. For boiler external piping, the corresponding ASM E specifications shall be used. See Section II of the ASME BPV Code.
tc) The stress values may be interpolated to determine allowable stresses for intermediate temperatures.
(d) The P-Numbers indicated in this Appendix are identical to those adopted in Section IX of the ASME BPV Code.
(e) All stress values are shown in units of thousands of pounds-force per square in. (ksi). Multiply by 1000 to obtain values in psi.
tf) Materials listed in Table 926.1 for which allowable stress values are not tabulated in Appendix A may be used at allowable stresses found in ASME 831.1 or in Section I or Section VIII,
Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code. However, the temperature limits in this Code shall apply.

NOTES:
(1) This material is not acceptable for boiler external piping. See Fig. 900.1.28.
(2) ASTM A 53 Type F pipe shall not be used for flammable or toxic fluids.
(3) These stress values include a quality factor of 0.92 for structural material used in fabricating pressure containing components. Materials used in supports shall have an allowable stress
value in tension of one-fifth the specified minimum tensile strength.

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(4) The stress values given for this material are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed; in such cases, use the value for 0 temper.
(5) The stress values for this material are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed; in such cases, use the values for the welded condition.
(6) Where brazed construction is employed, stress values for the annealed condition shall be used.
(7) For stress-relieved tempers (T351, T3510, T3511, T451, T4510, T4511, T651, T6510, T6511), stress values for material in the basic temper shall be used.
(8) Strength of reduced-section tensile specimen is required to quality welding procedure. See the ASME BPV Code, Section IX, QW-150.

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


(9) The supplier of material shall be consulted as to the ability of the alloy to withstand stress corrosion cracking under design conditions and combinations of stress and corrosive environments.
(10) Due to the relatively low yield strength of these materials, these higher stress values were established for use at temperatures where the short-time tensile properties govern, in order to
permit the use of these alloys where slightly greater deformation is acceptable. The stress values in this range exceed 62’/,% but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature.
Use of these stresses may result in dimensional changes due to permanent strain. These stress values are not recommended for the flanges of gasketed joints or other applications where
slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or malfunction.
(11) The specification provides wall thicknesses appropriate to the various diameters and combinations of pressure and laying condition. See ANSIlAWWA C150/A 21.50, Manual for the
Thickness Design of Ductile Iron Pipe.
(12) Materials such as pipe listed elsewhere in Appendix A may be used as structural material in accordance with para. 921.
ASME 8319-1996 Edition Table A-2

TABLE A-2
HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESSES (HDS) AND RECOMMENDED
TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
Recommended
Temperature
Limits [Notes (l), (2)l Hydrostatic
Design
Stress at

73°F
ASTM Maximum,
Minimum, [Note (3)1,
180°F,100°F,
Spec. No. Material "F "F ksi ksi ksi

D 1527 ABS1210 -30 180 1.0 0.8 ...


D 2282 ABS1316 -30 180 1.6 1.25 ...
D 2513 ABS2112 -30 180 1.25 1.0 ...
D 2846
F 441
F 442
} CPVC4120 O 210 0.5
2.0 1.6

t
D 2513
D 2662
D 2666 P62110 O 210 0.5
1.0 0.8
D 3000
D 3309

D 2104
D 2239 PE2306 -30 140 0.63 0.4 ...
D 2447 PE3306 -30 160 0.63 0.5 ...
D 2513 PE3406 -30 180 0.63 0.5 ...
D 2737 PE3408 -30 180 0.80 0.5 ...
D 3035

... PP 30 210 ... ... ...


D 1785 PVCllZO 150 2.0 1.6 ...
D 2241
D 2513
D 2672

NOTES:
{ PVC1220
PVCZllO
PVC2120
150
130
150
2.0
1.o
2.0
1.6
0.8
1.6
...
...
...

(1) Theserecommended limits are for lowpressure applications with waterandotherfluids that do not
significantly affect thepropertiesofthethermoplastic.Theuppertemperature limits arereduced at
higherpressures,dependingonthe combination of fluid andexpectedservicelife.Lowertemperature
limits are affected more by the environment, safeguarding, and installation conditions than by strength.
(2) These recommended limits apply only to materials listed. Manufacturers should be consulted for
temperature limits on specific types and kinds of materials not listed.
(3) Usethese hydrostatic design stress ( H D S ) values at all lower temperatures.

57

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Tables A-3, A-4 ASME 631.9-19% Edition

TABLE A-3
DESIGN STESS VALUES FOR CONTACT MOLDED (HAND-LAY-UP) PIPE
MADE FROM REINFORCED THERMOSETTING RESINS
Material Values Stress
Resin No. Spec. Reinforcing Thickness,
in. [Note (M, psi

ASTM C 582 Glass


Polyester fiber B/' - 916 900
'14 1200
5/1 6 1350
b '/B 1500

NOTE:
(1)Stress values apply in the range -2OOF to 18OoF.

TABLE A-4
HYDROSTATIC DESIGN BASIS STRESS FOR MACHINE-MADE
THERMOSETTING RESIN PIPE
HoopStress, psi -
Hydrostatic Design Basis
Material [Note U)], 73°F
ASTM Spec. Designation
No. Static
Grade Type (ASTM 2310) [Note (2)l [Note (3)l

Glass-fiber
D 2517 reinforced
...
filament
wound
epoxy resin,
gas pressure
No liner
¡ RTRP-1lAD
RTRW-11AW
5000
... 16,000

pipe

G Iass-fi ber I No liner


1 RTRP-11AD
RTRP-11AW
5000
... ...
16,000
Epoxy resin

D 2996
reinforced
epoxy resin
liner,
reinforced
¡ RTRP-11FE
RTRP-1lFD
6300
5000
...
...
filament

i
Glass-fiber RTRP-12EC 4000
wound Polyestel- ...
reinforced RTRP-12ED 5000
resin Iiner
RTRP-12EU ... ...
polyester
reinfotr L.su
rnrl
12,500
resin
RTRP-12AD 5000
...
{ RTRP-12AU ... 12,500

I Polvester
resin liner RTRP-22BT ... 10,000
Glass-fiber
D 2997
reinforced
reinforced RTRP-22BU ... 12,500
centrifugally
polyester
cast Epoxy resin RTRP-21CT ... 10,000
resin
liner, { RTRP-21CU ... 12,500
nonreinforced

NOTES:
(1) Service (design) factor must be applied to these values to obtain a hydrostatic design stress.
(2) When using the cyclic design basis, the service factor shall not exceed 1.0.
(3) When using the static design basis, the Service factor shall not exceed 0.5.

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S T D - A S M EB 3 1 - 7 - E N G L L97b m 0759b70 0 5 8 0 2 5 2 T87 m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Table B-1

APPENDIX B

TABLE B-1
ALLOWABLE PRESSURES FOR NONMETALLIC,
NONPLASTIC PRESSURE PIPING
Allowable Maximum
Gage Temperature,
Spec. No. Material Class Pressure, psi O F

ASTM C 3 6 1 Reinforced
concrete
low
head
pressure pipe 25 ft 10 ...
50 ft 20 ...
75 f t 30 ...
100 ft 40 ...
125 f t 50 ...
AWWA Cconcrete
300 Reinforced ... 260 ...
water pipe, steel
cylinder type
AWWA C 301 Prestressed
concrete Lined cylinder
pressurepipe,steel 250
cylinder type, for Embedded cylinder 350
water and other liquids
waterC 302concreteReinforced
AWWA ... 45 ...
pipe, noncylinder type

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Appendix C

APPENDIX C
REFERENCE STANDARDS'

Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations
are shown in this Appendix. This Appendix will be revised as needed.Thenames and addresses of the sponsoring organizations are
also shown in this Appendix. An asterisk (*) indicates that the standard has been approved as an American National Standard by the
AmericanNational Standards Institute (ANSI).

AGA ASME (Cont'd) ASTM(Cont'd)


*A2 1 .14-84 '831.3-96 B 42-89
*A21.52-82 'B31.4-92 B43-88
*Z223.1-92 'B31.5-92 B 61-86
*B36.1 OM-95 B 62-86
API *B36.19M-85(R94) B 68-86
5L, 38th Ed., 1992 *BPVCode, 1995 Ed. B 75-86
594, 3rd Ed., 1993 Section I B 88-88a
609, 3rd Ed., 1993 Section II B 135-91
SectionVIII, Division 1 B 210-88
ASME SectionVIII, Division 2 B 241-88
*B1 .l-89 Section IX B 247-88
& Bl.la-84 B 251-88
*B1.20.1-83(R92) ASTM B 280-86
*B1.20.3-76(R82) A 36lA 36M-89 B283-89
*B1.20.7-91 A 47-84(R89) B 302-87
*B16.1-89 A 48-83 B361-88
*B1 6.3-92 A53-90a B547-88
*B1 6.4-92 A105-87a C361-93
*B1 6.5-88 A106-90 C 582-87''
*B1 6.9-93 A126-84 *D 93-90
'B16.10-92 A135-89a D 1527-89
*B16.11-91 A181/A 181M-87 D 1598-86
'B16.14-91 A183-83(R90) D 1694-87(91")
*B1 6.1 5-85 A 193lA193M-90 D 1785-93
B1 6.1 8-84 A 194lA 194M-88a D 2 104-93
'616.21-92 A197-87 D 2 143-69(R87)
*B16.22-89 A 2 1 1 -75(R85) D 2235-93a
*B16.24-91 A 234lA 234M-90a D2239-93
*B1 6.25-92 A 254-90 D 2241-93
'816.26-88 A278-85 D 2282-89
*B1 6.28-94 A307-90 D 2310-91
*B1 6.33-90 A312-89a D 2447-93
*B1 6.36-88 A377-89 D 2464-93
& B16.36a-79 A395-88 D 2466-94
*B1 6.39-86 A403/A403M-89 D 2467-93
*B16.42-87 A536-84(R93) D 2468-93
*B18.2.1-81 A539-90a D 2513-93a
*B18.2.2-87(R93) B 26-88 D 251 7-81 (87)
*B31.1-95 B 32-89 D 2564-93

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Appendix C ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

ASTM(Cont'd) AWS(Cont'd) Federal Covt.


D 2609-93 *A5.4-92 W - P 4 2 1 D-76
D 2657-90 *A5.6-84(R91)
D 2662-89 *A5.8-92
D 2666-89 *A5.9-93
D 2672-89 *A5.10-92 MSS
D 2683-90 *A5.12-92 SP-6-90
D 2737-89 *AS. 17-89 SP-25-92
D 2774-72(R83) *A5.18-93 SP-42-90(R92)
D 2837-90 *A5.20-94 SP-43-91
D 2846-90 *A5.22-80(R89) SP-45-92
D 2855-90 *A5.23-90 SP-51-91(R95)
D 2992-87 D l 0.9-80 SP-58-93
D 2996-88 SP-67-95
D 2997-90 SP-69-95
D 3000-89 AWWA SP-70-90
D 3035-89a *CllO/A21.10-93 SP-71-90
D 3 138-93 *C111/A21.11-90 SP-72-92
D 3 139-89 *Cl 50/A21 .50-91 SP-78-87(R92)
D 3 140-90 *C151/A21.51-91 SP-79-92
D 3261-90 C152-81 [Note (2)1 SP-80-87
D 3309-93 *C207-94 SP-83-95
E 488-90 *C208-83 SP-84-90
F 402-93 & C208a-83 SP-85-94
F 412-93 *C300-89 SP-88-93
F 437-93 *C301-92
F 438-93 C302-87
F 439-93a *C500-93
F 441-93 *C600-93 NFPA
F 442-93 *C606-87 *3 1-92
F 493-93a *C900-89

AWS
*A5.1-91 SAE
*A5.2-92 CDA *J513f-92
*A5.3-91 Copper
Handbook,
Tube *J51
1980 4-92

NOTES:
(1) In general, the issuedate shownimmediatelyfollowing the hyphen afterthe number of the standard (e.g., B16.10-73, A47-84,
J514-80) is the effective date of the issue (edition)of thestandard. Anyadditionalnumbershownfollowing the issue date and
prefixedbythe letter "R" is thelatestdate of reaffirmation [e.g., 81.20.3-76(R82), D1503-73(R78)].
A component or pipe conforming to an earlier material specification edition purchased by the user prior to the date of issuance
of this Edition of the Code may be used, provided the component or pipe is inspected and determined, to be satisfactory for the
service intended.
(2) Out-of-print.

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S T D * A S M E B 3 1 - 9 - E N G L 297b m 0757b70 0560255 77b m

ASME B31.%1996 Edition Appendix C

Specifications and standards of the following organizations


appear AWWA American Water Works Association
in this Appendix: 6666 W.Quincy Avenue,Denver, Colorado
80235
AGA American Gas Association 303 794-771 1
1515 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22209
703 841 -8558 ... Federal Specifications: Superintendent of Docu-
ments
United States Government Printing Office
API AmericanPetroleumInstitute Washington, D.C. 20402
PublicationsandDistribution Section 202783-3238
1220 L Street,N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005
202 682-8375 CDA Copper Development Association, Inc.
260Madison Avenue, 16th fi.
New York, New York 10016-2401
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
212251-7200
Order Department
22Law Drive, P.O. Box2300,Fairfield, New
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
Jersey 07007-2300
Valve and Fittings Industry
201 882-1 167
127 ParkStreet,N.E., Vienna, Virginia22180
703 281-661 3
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Barr Harbor Drive NFPA National Fire ProtectionAssociation
WestConshohocken, PA 19428-2959 Batterymarch Park, Quincy,Massachusetts
610 832-9500 02269
61 7 770-7000

AWS American Welding Society SAE Society of Automotive Engineers


550N.W. LeJeune Road,
P.O. Box351040, 400CommonwealthDrive, Warrendale,Penn-
Miami,Florida33135 sylvania 15096
305443-9353 412776-4841

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ASME B31.9-1996 Edition D-1-D-3

APPENDIX D
PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES

D-1 INTRODUCTION rulesin the scope of theCode. An inquiry letter


concerning unrelatedsubjectswill be returned.
The ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Pip-
(b) Background. State the purpose of the inquiry,
ing,will consider written requests for interpretations
whichwould be either toobtain an interpretation of
and revisions of the Code rules, and develop new
Code rules, or to propose consideration of arevision
rules if dictated by technological development. The
to the present rules. Provide concisely the information
committee’s activities in this regard are limited strictly
needed for the Committee’s understanding of the in-
to interpretations ofthe rules or to the consideration
quiry, being sure to include reference to the applicable
of revisions to thepresentrulesonthe basis ofnew
Code Section, Edition,Addenda,paragraphs,figures,
data or technology. As amatterofpublished policy,
andtables. If sketchesareprovided,they shall be
ASME does not approve, certify, rate, or endorse any
limited to the scope of theinquiry.
item, construction, proprietary device, or activity, and,
( c ) Inquiry Structure
accordingly, inquiries requiring such consideration will ( I ) ProposedQuestion(s). The inquiry shall be
be returned. Moreover, ASME does not act as a consul- stated in acondensedandprecise question format,
tant on specific engineering problems or on the general omittingsuperfluousbackgroundinformation, and,
application or understanding of the Code rules. If, based where appropriate, composed in such a way that “yes”
on the inquiry informationsubmitted, it is the opinion of or ‘ho” (perhaps with provisos) would be an acceptable
the Committee that the inquirer should seek professional reply. The inquiry statement should be technically and
assistance, the inquiry will be returned with the recom- editorially correct.
mendationthatsuch assistance be obtained. (2) Proposed Reply(ies). Provide a proposed reply
Inquiries that do not provide the information needed stating what it .is believed that the Code requires.
for the Committee’s full understanding will be returned. Ifin the inquirer’s opinionarevision to the Code
The Introduction to this Code states, “It is the owner’s is needed, recommended wording shall be provided in
responsibility to select the Code Section thatmost addition to information justifying the change.
nearly applies toaproposedpiping installation.” The
Committee willnotrespond to inquiries requesting
assignment of a Code Section to a piping installation. D-3SUBMITTAL
Inquiries should be submitted in typewritten form;
however, legible handwritten inquiries will be consid-
D-2 REQUIREMENTS
ered. They shall include the name and mailing address
Inquiries shall be limited strictly to interpretations of the inquirer, and be mailed to the following address:
of the rules or to the consideration of revisions to the Secretary
present rules on thebasis ofnew data or technology. ASME B31 Committee
Inquiries shallmeetthe following requirements: 345 East 47th Street
(a) Scope. Involve a single rule or closely related New York, NY 10017

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S T D * A S M E B3Lm7-ENGL L77b m 0757b70 0580257 5b7 m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Appendix E

APPENDIX E
NONMANDATORY QUALITY SYSTEM PROGRAM
(See para. 936. I . I .)

Organizations performing Design, Fabrication, As- lines for the Application of I S 0 9001, IS0 9002, and
sembly, Erection, Inspection, Examination, Testing, In- IS0 9003
stallation, Operation, and Maintenance for B31.9 piping (c) I S 0 9000-3:1991. Quality Management andQual-
systems shall have a written Quality System in accord- ityAssurance Standards - Part 3: Guidelines for the
ance with applicable I S 0 9000 Series documents. Regis- Application of IS0 9 0 0 1 to the Development, Supply,
tration or certificationofthe Quality System shall be andMaintenance of Software
by agreement 'between contracting parties invblved. (d) I S 0 9001:1994. Quality Systems - Model for
Reference I S 0 9000 Documents Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production,
(a) I S 0 9000-1:1994. Quality Management and Qual- Installation, and Servicing
ity Assurance Standards - Part l: Guidelines for ( e ) I S 0 9002:1994. Quality Systems - Model for
Selection and Use Quality Assurance in Productionand Servicing
(b) I S 0 9000-2:1993. Quality Management and @J I S 0 9003:1994. Quality Systems - Model for
Quality Assurance Standards - Part 2: Generic Guide- Quality Assurance in FinalInspectionand Test

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~~
.

S T D * A S M E B3L.S-ENGL L77b m 0759b70 0580258 qT5

ASME 631.9-1996 Edition Index

INDEX

abbreviations ................................. .926.3 branch intersection ..................... .Fig. 904.3.3


acceptance standards.......................... .927.1 branch opening ............................. .904. 3.2
access to the work .......................... .936.2.1 branch pipe ................ .904.3.1, 927.4.6, 934.2.3
acetone .................................. 934.1.2(a) braze welding ................ 900.2; see also welding
adhesive bond........................ .900.2, 934.1.1 brazing qualification ........................ .928.1.3
alarms ..................................... .922.1.2 brine ........................................ .900.2
alignment, bolting .......................... .935.2.1 brittle failure ................. .900.2, 9 19.2.2, 923.3.2
allowances ............................. 902.4, 902.1 buckling .................................... 92 1.2.1
aluminum pipe ................ Fig. 921.1.3D, 923.2.4 building services piping def ................. .900.1.2
ambient influences............................ .90 1.4 butt fusion................. 934.1.3; see also welding
anchor., ........... 900.2, 901.7, 920.1, 921.2, 935.11 butt joint ............................ .900.2, 927.3.1
annealed temper............................ .923.2.4 butt weld .................... .902.2.2. Table 902.4.3,
assembly .............................. 900.2, 935.1 911.1.1, 926.3, 927.3.1
automatic welding ............ 900.2; see also welding
axes ....................................... .904.3.1
capacity .................... 9 19.2.3, Table92 1.2.2A
caps ....................................... .904.4.1
backing ...................................... .900.2 cast ..................................... 904.3.1(b)
backing off ................................ .935.4.4 cast iron ................. 902.3.l(b) and (d), 904.1.2,
backing ring ................. .900.2, 91 1.1.1, 927.2.2 923.2.1, 923.2.2, 926.3
ball joint .................................... .900.2 cathodic protection ......................... ,902.4.1
bars, hanger.............................. 921.2.2(a) cellulose-acetate-butyrate ............. .926.3. 934.1.2;
base material ........................... 900.2, 9 17.1 see also plastic pipe
base metal ........................... .900.2. 927.2.2 cements ................................... .934. 1.1
bead. stringer ................................ .go0.2 centrifugally cast pipe....................... .934.2.2
bead.weave ................................. .90 0.2 ceramics................................... .923.3.1
bellows .............................. .900.3, 921.2.1 certifications ............................... .936.2.2
bending ....................................... 929 chemical setting adhesive joints .............. 934.2.3;
bending and torsion ......................... .902.3.2 see also joint
bends ............................... .906.2. 9 19.2.2 chilled water ................................. .900.2
bevel angles ................... 904.5.1, 904.5.3, 908 chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) ......... Table 926.1,
blanks ......................... 904.5.1, 904.5.3, 908 926.3, 934.1.2(a) and (b);
boiler external piping ......... .900.I .2. Fig. 900.1.2B, see also plastic piping
926. 1.1 clamp-type joint ................................ 913
bolting engagement......................... .935.2.4 clamps .......................... 92 1.2.2(c),92 1.3.1
materials ................................ .902.3.1 cleaning ...................... .927.3.1(b), 934.1.2(a)
procedure.................................. .93 5.2 clevises..................................... 92 1.3.1
torque ..................................... .908.3 closures ................................... .904.4.1
borosilicate glass piping....................... .935.9 coalescence .................................. .90 0.2
branch connection coatings ........................... .902.4.1, 923.3.2
definition .................................. .900 .2 Code computations ....................... 902.3.1(a)
general .................................... .904.3 cold spring............................ 919.9, 935.1 1
full size ............................. .Fig. 904.3.3 column buckling strength .................. 921.2.1(c)
nonmetallic .............................. .934. 1.2 combustible liquid ................. .900 .1.2(a), 900.2
welded ................................ Fig . 904.3 commercial wall thickness ...................,904.1.2

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Index ASME B31.9-1996 Edition

components .........902.2.1(b). 902.2.2, 902.2.3, 903. dynamic effects .............................. .90 1.5
926.1, Table 926.1
compressed gas ..................900.1.2(d). 905.2.1,
ears ....................................... .921.3.2
917.3.2, 923.3.2
earthquake loads ....................902.3.3, 920.1.1
concrete ........................... .921.5.1. 921.5.2
elbows ........................ .919.2.2, Table 926.1
conical section ............................. .904.6.1
electric resistance weld .................Table 902.4.3
consumable insert ........................... ..900.2
end force ................................ 902.3.2(e)
continuous weld ........................... .see weld
end preparation........................... 927.3.1 (a)
contour ............................ .924.4.8. 927.4.3
engineer .............. .900.2. 904.1.2(a), 92 1.6, 923.5
contractor.................................... .900 .2
engineering calculations..................... .904.7.2
cooling .............................. .900.2. 901.4.1
engineering design .................900.2, 904.2.1(b),
copper pipe ............905.2.3, Fig . 921.1.3, 923.2.3,
927.1, 928.1.3, 929.1, 934.3,
Table 926.1, 928.1.2
935.1, 936.2
corrosion allowance ............ .902.4.1. Fig . 904.3.3
equipment connections .................900.2. 935.10
control .................................. .902.4.1
erection ...................... .900.2, 921 .1.2, 935.1,
crack ........................................ .90 0.2
936.2.1, 936.4.1
cradles .................................... .921.3.1
erosion .................... .914.2. see also corrosion
crevice corrosion ............................. .91 4.2
examination ...................... 900.2, 935.13, 936
crosses .................................. 904.3.l(a)
examiner .................................... .900.2
cylindrical attachments ....................... 92 1.3.2
exclusions ................................. .900. 1.3
expansion .............................. 919, 921.5.1
expansion joint .................. 900.2, 913, 919.2.2,
dampeners ................................. .920. 1.3
920.1.2(b), 921.2.1(b)
dead weight................................ .920. 1.1
expected life ............................... .902.4.1
defect ....................................... .900.2
explosive actuated fasteners ..................92 15.4
definitions ................................... .900.2
extended outlets ............................ .904.3.1
deflection ........................ 92 1.1.2(b), 92 1.1.3
external alignment ........................ 927.4.2(b)
deposited metal .............................. .900.2
extruded outlets .......................... 904.3.l(a)
derating ................................... .900.2.4
design
hydrostatic...................... 902.3.1(e) and (f) fabrication ........................ .900.2, 927, 936.3
joint ...................................... .900 .2 fatigue ....................................... 9 19.1
minimum requirements for ................. 900.1.1 field erection................................. .935.1
pressure ........................ ........ .903. 904 filler metal ................... .900.2, 927.2.1, 928.1.1
special ........................ ............. 903 fittings ................904.3.1(a), 906.1, Table 926.1
design conditions ................. ..... 901. 902.2.4 butt welding ........... 902.2.2, 926.3, Table 926.1
design criteria .................... ........ .902. 903 closure .................................. .904.4.1
design methods................... ..........902.4.5 forged steel or alloy threaded.............. .902.2.2
design philosophy ................ ..........904.7.2 outlet .................................
.
design pressure .........900.2, 901.1 904.1.2(a), 926.2
design requirements ...........................91 9.1
fixtures ............................
904.3.2(b)
92 1.2, 934.1.3(a)
flammable gas .............................. .917.3.2
design temperature ............. 900.2, 901.1, 902.2.3 flammable liquid ........ 900.2, 905.2.1, 906.3, 913.1,
design thickness .............................. .900 .2 917.3.2, 923.3.2
deterioration in service ........................ .923.5 flange facing ................................. .908.3
detrimental material ...................... 927.3.1 (b) flanges ...................... .904.5. 908, 921.2.2(c),
diameter ................................ .904.2.1(b) Table 926.1, 927.4.3(c)
dimensional standard ......................... .900 .3 flat heads ...................... .927.4.5, Fig. 927.4.5
direct connection ......................... 904.3.l(c) flexibility ...................................... 919
division valve .............................. .902.2.4 fluid, expansion effects ..................... .901.4.2
drains ..................................... .937.3.2 fluid, incompressible........................ .904.5.3
drip lines .................................. .922.2.1 flux .............................. .900.2, 928.1.1(b)
ductile iron pipe ...............904.1.2, 923.2.2, 926.3 forged couplings ......................... 904.3.l(b)

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forming ....................................... 930 flared. flareless. and compression .............. 9 15.


formulas................................. 904.2.2(a) 934.1.4(a), 935.7, 936.6.7
foundry tolerances .......................... .904. 1.2 hand lay-up ....................... 934.2.4, 936.10
frictional forces .................. 920.1.2, 92 1.2.1(d) heat fusion .............................. .934. 1.3
fusion ............................... .900.2. 936.6.1 limitations ............... .905.1 .l, 906.1.1, 907.1.1
mechanical ..................... .900.2. 9 13, 935.8
piping ....................................... 910
gas pocket ................................... .900.2
proprietary........................... 913.1, 935.8
gases ........................................ .91 3.1
push-type................................... 9 16.2
gasket .................................. .908, 9 16.2
rotary., ................................. .919.2.2
gasket loading.............................. .935.2.2
slip ................................... 920.1.2(b)
gasket moment arm........................... .900.3
socket-type ............................... 911.1.2
gland-type joint ................................ 913
solvent-cemented......................... .934. 1.2
glass ................................ .923.3.1, 935.9
steel-to-iron.............................. .935. 2.3
glass-to-glass connections ..................... .935.9
swivel ........................... 900.2, 921.2.2(c)
grooved joint ................................... 913
threaded ....... 91 1.1.4, 914, 923.2.4, 927.4.4, 935.4
grooving allowance .................... .see threading
welded .......................... 9 11, Appendix A
guides ........................ 920.1, 921.2.1, 935.11
joint compound ............................ .935.4.2
joint deflection ........................... 920.1.2(b)
hangers .............................. .920.1. 92 1.2.2 joint factor ........... 900.3, 902.3.1(a), Table 902.4.3
heat affected zone ............................ .900.2 joint penetration ...................... .900.2. 936.6.1
heat fusion................................... .90 0.2
heat treatment............... .923.1.2. 927.4.6(d), 93 1
lapping ...................................... .930.1
hydraulic shock ............................... 901.5
laterals .................................. 904.3.l(a)
hydrostatic design stresses ............... Appendix A
leak testing .................................... 937
hydrostatic testing ........... 921.1.l(b). 937.1, 937.3,
limits
937.4.4
pressure ................................. .900.1.2
temperature ............................ 900.1.2(b)
imperfection .................... .900.2. 927.1, 936.6 linings....................................... .92 3.4
indicators ................................ 92 1.2.3(c) liquidus ..................................... .900.2
inert gas ..................................... .900 .2 live weight .................................. .920. 1.1
initial operation ................. .919.6, 936.2, 937.1 loads .............. 902.3.2, 920.1, 921.2.1(a), 923.2.1
inquiries ............................... Appendix D loops ....................................... 9 19.2.2
inlet temperature ........................... .922.1.4 lubricant ................................... .935.4.2
inspection .............................. .900.2. 936
inspector .............................. 900.2, 936.2
machined surfaces .......................... .902.4.2
insulation. ......................... .920.l . I . 921.3.1
main .................................. 900.2,904.3
intentional displacement ....................... .919.6
main pipe wall ........................... 927.4.6(c)
internal alignment ........................ 927.3.1(~) malleable iron................. 902.3.1 (c).92 1.2.2(c),
internal pressure tests ....................... .904.3.2 Table 926.1, 926.3
interpolation .................. Table 904.2.1, 904.7.2
manufacturer ................................. .93 6.3
iron supports ................................ 92 I .2.2
manufacturer’s recommendations............. ,907.1.2
manufacturing tolerance ................... 904.1.2(a)
joints marking ..................................... .90 7.2
bell and spigot. ....................... .916. 935.3 materials ............... ,902.3.1(d). 905.1.1, 907.1.1,
brazed and soldered ............. .917. Table 917.3 9 19.4.1, 922.3.1, 923. 934.1.1
caulked or leaded .................. ,916.1, 935.3.1 may ......................................... .900.2
compression ............................... .935.7 mechanical strength................ .902.4.4. 903. 910
copper .............................. .Table 9 17.3 melting range ........................ .900.2. 923.2.3
corrugated ............................. 920.1.2(b) metal temperature ........................ 92 1.2.l(d)
flanged .............................. 912,935.2.1 methylethyl ketone ......................... .934. 1.2

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minimum .thickness......................... .W.4.1 pivots ................................... 921.2.1(a)


misalignment..................... 921.2.3(b), 935.1.0 plugs ...................................... .904.4.1
miter angles................................ .904.2.2 pneumatic testing...................... .937.1, 937.4
miter joint .............900.2, 904.2.2, 906.2, 927.3.1 Poisson’s ratio ............................... .900.3
moduli of elasticity .................... Table 919.3.1 polybuthylene .......................... 914.2, 926.1
moment of inertia ............................ .900 .3 polyethylene ................. 9 14.2, 926. I , 934. I .3(b)
moments ....................... .901.7. 919.6, 921.1 polypropylene ..................... .926. I , 934.1.3(b)
movements ................................... 9 19.8 PVC ................................ .926.1. 934.1.2
multiaxial loading .........P ................ .921. 3.2 porosity ..................................... .900.2
multiple openings ........................ 904.3.3(c) postheating .................................. .900.2
preheating ................ .900.2, 927.4.1(b), 934.2.2
pressure containing components ............... .904.7.
nomenclature..................... 900.3, Fig. 904.2.2 923.1.1, Appendix A
nominal ..................................... .900.2
nominal thickness ............................ .900.2 pressure design....................... .902.3.1. 926.2
pressure reducing system ...................... .922.1
nonflammable. nontoxic liquid service.........904.2.2
pressure-temperature .................... 902.2, 903,
nonmetals. fabrication of NPS ...................934 913. 915. 923.2.2, Table 926.1
nozzles .................................. 904.3.1(b)
nuts ......................................... .908.5 pressure surges .............................. 90 1.2.1
pressures .......... .901.2.1. 902.3.2, 904.1.2, 922.1.1
procedure ................... .900.2. 904. I .2, 904.2.2,
operation ........................ 902.3.3(a), 920.2.2 92 1.3.2, 934.1.2(b)
operation conditions ............................ proof test .................................. .904.7.2
9 13
“orange peel“ reducer ......... see reducer. segmented proportioning .............................. .904.3.3
purge gas.................................... .900.2
O-ring joint .................................... 913
overpressure ............................... .937.2.5
overstress............... 919.1, 921.1.1(b), 921.2.3(b) qualification records .......................... .927.6
owner, rights of ............................ .936.2.2 quality control ............... .907.1.2. 923.1.2, 936. I
oxidizing flame .............................. .900.2 quality system program ......... .936. I .1. Appendix E
oxygen cutting .............900.2, 923.3.2, 927.3.1(a)
RTR ......................... .923.3.3. Table 926.I .
P.Numbers ............................. Appendix A 926.3, 934.2
pads ..................................... 927.4.6(d) radiography ........................... Table 902.4.3
pass ......................................... .900.2 radius of gyration ............................ .900.3
peel test ..................................... .900.2 ratings ....................... .902.1. 902.2.3, 907.1 .1
peening ...................................... .900.2 recommend .................................. .900.2
permanent blank ........................... see blank reducer, segmented ......................... .904.6.2
Pipe reducing flame ............................... .900.2
asbestos-cement .............. .905.2.2, Table 926.1 reference standards ..................... .Appendix C
discharge ................................ .922.2.2 reinforcement ............. .900.2. 904.3.3, 927.4.6(d)
limitations on ................................ 905 repair of defective work ................934.3. 935.13
metallic ..............902.4.2, 911.1, 914.2, 919.4, reserved curve section ...................... .904. 6.1
Table 926.1 restraint ....................... 900.2, 901.7.9 2 0.1 .2
nonmetallic ...... 904.1.2(c), 905.2.4, 911.2, 919.2.3 resultant thermal movement ................... .900.3
plastic ........................... 902.4.2, 904.1.2, rings ....................................... 92 1.3.2
914.2, 905.2.2, 921.1.3(d), root area ................................. 921 .1.1 (a)
Fig. 92 1.I .3D, 934.1 root opening ...................... .900.2. 927.3. 1(d)
supporting elements ................... 900.2, 920, root penetration ...................... .900.2, 936.6. 1
921.1, Appendix A root reinforcement............................ .900 .2
threaded ................................. .935.4.1 root surface ........................... .900.2. 936.6. 1
pipe alignment guide...................900.2, 902.3.1 rubber ..................................... .923.3. 1
pipe bends ................................. .904.2.1 run ................................. .900.2,93 7.4(b)

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S T D * A S f l E B3L.S-ENGL L7Sb m 0759b70 0 5 8 0 2 b 2 72b m

ASME B31.9-1996 Edition Index

saddles .................. 921.3.1,927.6.4(d),934.2.3symbols ..................................... .900.3


safety valve................................ .922. 1.1
saw-tooth segments ....................... 919.4.1(a)
scope........................................ .900.1 tapered pipe threads ........................... 9 14.1
tees ..................................... 904.3.1 (a)
sealers..................................... .934. 1.1
temporary supports ......................... .937. 2.2
seating surface ............................... .91 4.1
tensile strength ............ .902.3.l(b). 921.1.1, 926.3
service conditions ...... 907.2, 917.1, 923.3.1, 934.4.2
terminal reactions ............................ .919.5
service limitations ........................ 902.2.1(b)
test conditions.................... 902.3.3(b), 904.5.3
service record ............................ 919.4.1(a)
test loads .................................... .920.2
service testing................ .937.1. 937.4.4, 937.5.2
testing .............................. .see leak testing
shall ........................................ .900.2
thermal cycling............................ .914, 915
shear lugs .................................. 92 1.3.1
thermal expansion and contraction .......901.7, 919.1,
shock ..................... 914.2, 920.1.3, 921.2.3(c)
Table 919.3.1, 920.1.1, 921.2.3
shoes ....................................... 92 1.3.2
thermoplastic...................... .900.2. 902.3.1(e),
shop erection ................................. .935.1
91 1.2.1, 923.3.2; 905.2.5,
should ........................................ 900.2
see also plastic pipe
simplified analysis ........................ 919.4.1(a)
thermosetting resin ................ .900.1.2(c). 900.2,
skirts ....................................... 92 1.3.2
923.3.2, 926.1, 926.3
slag inclusion ................................ .90 0.2
threading .......... 902.4.2, 921.1.1(a), 926.3, 935.4.1
slings ...................................... 92 1.3.1
thrust .................................... 921.2.1(a)
socket fusion ............................. 934.1.3(b)
thrust block ............................ 900.2, 901.7
solder ................ ,900.2, Table 917.3, 928.2.1(a)
tolerance ........................ 902.4.2, 927.3.1 (c)
soldering ....................... .900.2. 917.1, 928.2
toxic .............................. .917.3.2.923. 3.2
solidus ....................................... 900.2
tungsten electrode ............................ .900.2
solvent cement ................... 900.2, Table 926.1
turnbuckles ................................ .921. 1.2
spacer strip .................................. .90 0.2
spacing .......................... 92 1.1.3, 927.3.l(d)
spatter ....................................... .900.2u-bends .................................. 919.4.1(a)
specific ratings ............................. .902.2.1ultimatestrength ........................... .921.5.1
specifications and standards ............. 903,923.1.1ultrasonicexamination ................. Table902.4.3
specifieddepth of cut ....................... .902.4.2undercut ............................... 900.2, 936.1
springs .......................... 921.1.4, 921.2.3(c)
stainless steel ...................... 900.1.2(c), 926.3
valve installation ............................ 935.12
standard dimension ratio ...................... .926.3
valves ........................ .907. 920.1.1, 921.1.l.
standard practices ................ 926.2, Table 926.2 922.1.2, Table 926.1
steel rods. threaded .................... Table 921.2.2
vector forces ............................... .920. 1.2
stem service ....................... .904.1.2. 922.1.2
vents .................... 904.2.2, 927.4.6(d), 937.3.2
stiffening requirements............ 902.3.2(b), 904.1.2
vibration.......................... .901.5. 914.2, 915
straight pipe thread ........................... .91 4.1 visual examination.................... .935.2. 936.4.1
strap wrench ............................... .935.4.5
straps ........................... 921.2.2(a), 921.3.1
stress analysis .............................. .904.7.2 wall thickness ..................... 900.3, 902.3.2(b),
stress limits .................................. .90 2.3 904.2.1, Table 904.2.1A
stress-strain ........................ .919.2.2, 919.2.3 washers ..................................... .908.5
stresses ...................... 900.2, 902.3.2, 904.2.2, water hammer.............................. .904. 1.2
906.1.1, 921.1.1, 923.1.2, weight balance calculations................ 921.2.3(a)
Appendix A weld
structural attachments ........... 900.2, 921.3, 927.4.7 defect, repairs of ......................... .927.4.8
supplemental steel ...................... 900.2, 921.4 fillet ............... 900.2, 911.1.3, 927.3.2, 936.6.2
support .................. 900.3, 919, 920.1, 921.l(b), groove .................... .900.2. 927.4.6,927.4.7
Fig . 921.1.3C. 926, 935.11 longitudinal ........................ .900.3. 904.6.2
swaging ...................................... 930.1 miter ..................... 911.1.1, 927.3.1, 927.4.2

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Index ASME B31.%1996 Edition

seal.. . . . . . . .. . .900.2, 911.1.4, 914.1, 935.4.3and 4 welding operator . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . 900.2, 91 l . I , 927.5.I


weld details.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .927.4.6(b), Fig. 927.4.6 welding procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .900.2, 9I 1. I ,
weld joint efficiency factor.. . . . . . . . . .902.4.3, 904.6.2 927.5.1, 927.5.3(a),93 1
weldability.. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .923.1.2, 928.2.1 wetting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .900.2
welder.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900.2, 91 l . 1 working pressure . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . 900. i .2(d), 922. I .2
welder certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .900.2 working temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900.1.2(e)
welder performance qualification. :. . . . . .900.2, 927.4.2
welding .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. 900.2, Table 902.4.3,
904.3.1, 911.2, 926.3, 927.4.2
welding dimensions. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fig. 927.4.3 yield strength . . . . . . . . . .902.3.1(b), 904.5.3, 92 i .1. I (b)

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