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Topic

Science Subtopic
& Mathematics Mathematics

Understanding
Multivariable Calculus:
Problems, Solutions,
and Tips
Course Workbook

Professor Bruce H. Edwards


University of Florida
PUBLISHED BY:

THE GREAT COURSES


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no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form, or by any means
ͼ௘electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise௘ͽ,
without the prior written permission of
The Teaching Company.
Bruce H. Edwards, Ph.D.
Professor of Mathematics
University of Florida

P
rofessor Bruce H. Edwards has been a Professor of Mathematics
at the University of Florida since 1976. He received his B.S. in
Mathematics from Stanford University in 1968 and his Ph.D. in
Mathematics from Dartmouth College in 1976. From 1968 to 1972, he was
D3HDFH&RUSVYROXQWHHULQ&RORPELDZKHUHKHWDXJKWPDWKHPDWLFVͼ௘in
Spanish௘ͽ at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.

Professor Edwards’s early research interests were in the broad area of pure mathematics called algebra.
His dissertation in quadratic forms was titled “Induction Techniques and Periodicity in Clifford Algebras.”
Beginning in 1978, Professor Edwards became interested in applied mathematics while working summers for
NASA at the Langley Research Center in Virginia. This work led to his research in numerical analysis and the
solution of differential equations. During his sabbatical year, 1984 to 1985, he worked on two-point boundary
value problems with Professor Leo Xanthis at the Polytechnic of Central London. Professor Edwards’s current
research is focused on the algorithm called CORDIC that is used in computers and graphing calculators for
calculating function values.

Professor Edwards has coauthored a number of mathematics textbooks with Professor Ron Larson of Penn
State Erie, The Behrend College. Together, they have published leading texts in calculus, applied calculus,
OLQHDUDOJHEUD¿QLWHPDWKHPDWLFVDOJHEUDWULJRQRPHWU\DQGSUHFDOFXOXV

Over the years, Professor Edwards has received many teaching awards at the University of Florida. He was
named Teacher of the Year in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences in 1979, 1981, and 1990. In addition, he
was named the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Student Council Teacher of the Year and the University of
Florida Honors Program Teacher of the Year in 1990. He also served as the Distinguished Alumni Professor for
the UF Alumni Association from 1991 to 1993. The winners of this two-year award are selected by graduates
of the university. The Florida Section of the Mathematical Association of America awarded Professor Edwards
the Distinguished Service Award in 1995 for his work in mathematics education for the state of Florida. His
textbooks have been honored with various awards from the Text and Academic Authors Association.

3URIHVVRU(GZDUGVKDVWDXJKWDZLGHUDQJHRIPDWKHPDWLFVFRXUVHVDWWKH8QLYHUVLW\RI)ORULGDIURP¿UVW\HDU
calculus to graduate-level classes in algebra and numerical analysis. He particularly enjoys teaching calculus to
freshmen because of the beauty of the subject and the enthusiasm of the students.

i
Professor Edwards has been a frequent speaker at both research conferences and meetings of the National
Council of Teachers of Mathematics. He has spoken on issues relating to the Advanced Placement calculus
examination, especially on the use of graphing calculators.

Professor Edwards has taught four other Great Courses:

x Mathematics Describing the Real World: Precalculus and Trigonometry;

x Understanding Calculus: Problems, Solutions, and Tips;

x Understanding Calculus II: Problems, Solutions, and Tips; and

x Prove It: The Art of Mathematical Argument. Ŷ

ii
Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Professor Biography ................................................................................................................................i


Course Scope .........................................................................................................................................1

LESSON GUIDES

LESSON 1
A Visual Introduction to 3-D Calculus .....................................................................................................3
LESSON 2
Functions of Several Variables ...............................................................................................................7
LESSON 3
Limits, Continuity, and Partial Derivatives ............................................................................................11
LESSON 4
Partial Derivatives—One Variable at a Time ........................................................................................15
LESSON 5
Total Differentials and Chain Rules ......................................................................................................19
LESSON 6
Extrema of Functions of Two Variables ................................................................................................22
LESSON 7
Applications to Optimization Problems .................................................................................................26
LESSON 8
Linear Models and Least Squares Regression.....................................................................................29
LESSON 9
Vectors and the Dot Product in Space..................................................................................................32
LESSON 10
The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space ........................................................................................36
LESSON 11
Lines and Planes in Space ...................................................................................................................40
LESSON 12
Curved Surfaces in Space ....................................................................................................................44
LESSON 13
Vector-Valued Functions in Space........................................................................................................48
LESSON 14
Kepler’s Laws—The Calculus of Orbits ................................................................................................52
LESSON 15
Directional Derivatives and Gradients ..................................................................................................55

iii
Table of Contents

LESSON 16
Tangent Planes and Normal Vectors to a Surface ................................................................................58
LESSON 17
Lagrange Multipliers—Constrained Optimization .................................................................................61
LESSON 18
Applications of Lagrange Multipliers .....................................................................................................64
LESSON 19
Iterated Integrals and Area in the Plane ...............................................................................................67
LESSON 20
Double Integrals and Volume ...............................................................................................................71
LESSON 21
Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates ..................................................................................................75
LESSON 22
Centers of Mass for Variable Density ...................................................................................................79
LESSON 23
Surface Area of a Solid .........................................................................................................................83
LESSON 24
Triple Integrals and Applications ...........................................................................................................87
LESSON 25
Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates ............................................................................................91
LESSON 26
Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates ..............................................................................................95
LESSON 27
Vector Fields—Velocity, Gravity, Electricity ..........................................................................................99
LESSON 28
Curl, Divergence, Line Integrals ........................................................................................................ 104
LESSON 29
More Line Integrals and Work by a Force Field................................................................................. 108
LESSON 30
Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals.............................................................................................112
LESSON 31
Green’s Theorem—Boundaries and Regions.....................................................................................117
LESSON 32
Applications of Green’s Theorem ...................................................................................................... 122
LESSON 33
Parametric Surfaces in Space ........................................................................................................... 126

iv
Table of Contents

LESSON 34
Surface Integrals and Flux Integrals .................................................................................................. 130
LESSON 35
Divergence Theorem—Boundaries and Solids ................................................................................. 136
LESSON 36
Stokes’s Theorem and Maxwell’s Equations ..................................................................................... 140

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

Solutions ............................................................................................................................................ 144


Glossary ............................................................................................................................................ 193
Summary of Differentiation Formulas ................................................................................................ 214
Summary of Integration Formulas ..................................................................................................... 216
Quadric Surfaces ............................................................................................................................... 218
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................... 221

v
vi
Understanding Multivariable Calculus: Problems, Solutions, and Tips

Scope:

T
he goal of this course is to complete your understanding and appreciation of calculus by seeing
how calculus is extended to three dimensions. Many of the ideas of elementary calculus in the plane
generalize naturally to space, whereas other concepts will be brand new. Most concepts will be
introduced using illustrative examples, and you will see how multivariable calculus plays a fundamental role
in all of science and engineering. You will also gain a new appreciation for the achievements of
higher mathematics.

<RXZLOOEHJLQE\VHHLQJKRZIXQFWLRQVRIDVLQJOHYDULDEOHDUHJHQHUDOL]HGWRIXQFWLRQVRIWZRͼ௘RUPRUH௘ͽ
variables. In particular, the graphs of such functions are surfaces in space. After a brief look at limits, you
will generalize elementary derivatives to partial derivatives. You will learn how to generalize the differential
WRWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDOVZRUNZLWKDPRUHJHQHUDOFKDLQUXOHDQG¿QGH[WUHPDIRUIXQFWLRQVRIPRUHWKDQRQH
variable. This leads to optimization applications and linear modeling of data.

You will then study vectors in space, a natural extension of vectors in the plane. Lines and planes are studied
in depth, as well as other surfaces in space. You will use vector-valued functions to understand Kepler’s laws
and prove one of them using calculus.

Your study then takes you to the world of multivariable integration, which is far more powerful than its
VLQJOHYDULDEOHFRXQWHUSDUW<RXZLOOVHHKRZWRGH¿QHDQGXVHGRXEOHDQGWULSOHLQWHJUDOVZKLFKKDYH
applications to volume, surface area, mass, and far more. You will study additional kinds of integrals that
EHFRPHSRVVLEOHLQVSDFHOLQHLQWHJUDOVDQGVXUIDFHLQWHJUDOVͼ௘LQFOXGLQJLQWHJUDOVIRUÀX[WKURXJKDVXUIDFH௘ͽ
GH¿QHGXVLQJYHFWRU¿HOGV

One of the recurring themes throughout these lessons is the fundamental theorem of calculus. Recall from
elementary calculus how the fundamental theorem relates integration and differentiation:

b
³ F c x dx F b  F a .
a

This theorem will appear in other forms in multivariable calculus, including in the famous fundamental
theorem of line integrals, which allows you to integrate over a piecewise smooth curve to make sense of such
topics as gravitation and conservation of energy.

/LQHLQWHJUDOVͼ௘ZKLFKFDQEHXVHGZLWKDQ\FXUY\OLQHDQGPLJKWWKHUHIRUHEHEHWWHUFDOOHG³FXUYHLQWHJUDOV´௘ͽ
combine with double, triple, and surface integrals to form three of the crowning theorems in all of calculus,
each of which generalizes the ability of the fundamental theorem of calculus to extract maximum information
IURPUHODWLYHO\OLPLWHGLQSXWVLQIDUPRUHSRZHUIXOZD\V7KHVHDUH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPͼ௘ZKLFKUHODWHVWKHGRXEOH
LQWHJUDORIDUHJLRQWRDOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJERXQGDU\௘ͽWKHGLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHPͼ௘ZKLFK

1
UHODWHVWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDORIDVROLGWRWKHVXUIDFHLQWHJUDORYHUWKHVXUIDFHRIWKDWVROLG௘ͽDQG6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHP
ͼ௘ZKLFKUHODWHVWKHVXUIDFHLQWHJUDORYHUDVXUIDFHWRWKHOLQHLQWHJUDORYHUWKHERXQGDU\RIDVXUIDFH௘ͽ6WRNHV
was a colleague and friend of James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge University, and the course concludes by
touching on mathematical connections between our capstone generalizations of the fundamental theorem of
calculus and Maxwell’s famous equations of electromagnetism.

This course presents essentially the same topics as a typical university-level, third-semester calculus course.
The material is based on the 10th edition of the bestselling textbook Calculus by Ron Larson and Bruce H.
(GZDUGVͼ௘%URRNV&ROH௘ͽ+RZHYHUDQ\VWDQGDUGFDOFXOXVWH[WERRNFDQEHXVHGIRUUHIHUHQFHDQGVXSSRUW
throughout the course.

The study of multivariable calculus has surprisingly few prerequisites. For a high school student who has
completed the equivalent of the Advanced Placement Calculus AB and Calculus BC courses, this course is a
very logical next step. And although some university programs teach multivariable calculus only after linear
DOJHEUDDQGRUGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQVQRVXFKSUHSDUDWLRQLVDVVXPHGRUQHHGHGIRUWKLVFRXUVH,QGHHGDJRRG
JUDVSRISUHFDOFXOXVDQG¿UVWVHPHVWHUFDOFXOXVLVRIWHQWKHRQO\HVVHQWLDOSUHSDUDWLRQ

That’s because calculus II and multivariable calculus start from a shared foundation but proceed in
substantially different directions. For example, while Understanding Calculus II: Problems, Solutions,
and Tips, a natural predecessor for this course, does introduce some topics in preparation for multivariable
calculus—conics, vectors, parametric equations, polar coordinates, and vector-valued functions—the bulk of
WKDWFRXUVHLVFRQFHUQHGZLWKWRSLFVVXFKDVLQ¿QLWHVHULHVWKDWDUHLPSRUWDQWIRUKLJKHUIRUPVRIPDWKHPDWLFDO
analysis but are not featured in multivariable calculus. Moreover, in this course, any preparatory topics from
FDOFXOXV,,DUHEULHÀ\UHLQWURGXFHG²EXWLQWHUPVRIWKUHHGLPHQVLRQV²PDNLQJWKHWZRFRXUVHVHYHQPRUH
distinct and self-contained.

Graphing calculators and computers are playing an increasing role in the mathematics classroom.
Without a doubt, graphing technology can enhance the understanding of calculus, so some instances where
JUDSKLQJFDOFXODWRUVDUHXVHGWRYHULI\DQGFRQ¿UPFDOFXOXVUHVXOWVKDYHEHHQLQFOXGHG)RUWKHYLGHROHVVRQV
many of the graphs of surfaces were produced using Mathematica software—a more limited online version
of which can even be explored on your own, at little or no cost, using the website Wolfram|Alpha
ͼ௘Z ZZZROIUDPDOSKDFRP௘ͽ

By the end of this course, you will have covered all the important theoretical ideas and theorems of a three-
semester university calculus sequence, without dwelling on their technical proofs. You will be prepared for
courses in engineering, physics, and other subjects that use calculus.

6WXGHQWVDUHHQFRXUDJHGWRXVHDOOFRXUVHPDWHULDOVWRWKHLUPD[LPXPEHQH¿WLQFOXGLQJWKHYLGHROHVVRQV
which you can review as many times as you wish; the individual lesson summaries and accompanying problems
in the workbook; and the supporting materials in the back of the workbook, including the solutions to all
Scope

problems and various review items.Ŷ

2
A Visual Introduction to 3-D Calculus
Lesson 1

Topics

x Introduction to multivariable calculus.

x Generalizing elementary calculus to three dimensions.

x The three-dimensional coordinate system.

x Distance and midpoint formulas.

x Introduction to functions of two variables.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x In the three-dimensional coordinate systemSRLQWVDUHUHSUHVHQWHGE\RUGHUHGWULSOHVͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ)RU


H[DPSOHWKHRULJLQLVͼ௘௘ͽ

x The distanceEHWZHHQWKHSRLQWVͼ௘x1, y1, z1௘ͽDQGͼ௘x2, y2, z2௘ͽLVJLYHQE\WKHIRUPXOD

2 2 2
d x2  x1  y2  y1  z 2  z1 .

x A sphereZLWKFHQWHUͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽDQGUDGLXVrLVWKHVHWRIDOOSRLQWVͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽVXFKWKDWWKHGLVWDQFH


EHWZHHQͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽDQGͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽLVr. That is,

2 2 2
d x  x0  y  y 0  z  z 0 r.

7KLVVLPSOL¿HVWRWKHHTXDWLRQRIDVSKHUHͼ௘xíx0௘ͽ2ͼ௘yíy0௘ͽ2ͼ௘zíz0௘ͽ2 = r2.

x The midpointEHWZHHQWKHSRLQWVͼ௘x1, y1, z1௘ͽDQGͼ௘x2, y2, z2௘ͽLVJLYHQE\WKHIRUPXOD

§ x1  x2 y1  y 2 z1  z 2 ·
¨ 2 , 2 , 2 ¸.
© ¹

x If z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVDfunction of two variables, then x and y are called the independent variables, and z
is the dependent variable.

3
Summary

Welcome to Understanding Multivariable Calculus: Problems, Solution, and Tips,QRXU¿UVWOHVVRQZHVKRZ


how many of the fundamental ideas of elementary calculus can be extended to multivariable calculus. That
is, we look at how calculus in the two-dimensional plane is generalized to three-dimensional space. After
these introductory remarks, we develop the three-dimensional coordinate system as well as the distance and
midpoint formulas. We end the lesson with a brief look at functions of two variables.

Elementary Calculus Compared to Multivariable Calculus

In these lessons, we will see how elementary calculus, the calculus of two dimensions, can be extended to
PXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVWKHFDOFXOXVRIWKUHHGLPHQVLRQVRUVSDFH/HW¶VEULHÀ\QRWHVRPHRIWKHLGHDVZH
will develop.

You know about the xy±FRRUGLQDWHV\VWHPLQZKLFKSRLQWVDUHUHSUHVHQWHGE\RUGHUHGSDLUVͼ௘௘x, y௘௘ͽ


<RXZLOOOHDUQKRZWRUHSUHVHQWSRLQWVLQVSDFHDVRUGHUHGWULSOHVͼ௘௘x, y, z௘௘ͽ

You know about functions of a single variable, such as


8
f ͼ௘௘x௘ ͽ VLQ x<RXZLOOOHDUQDERXWIXQFWLRQVRIWZRͼ௘RUPRUH௘ͽ
variables, z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽVXFKDVz = x2 + y2. 6

4
You know about the graph of a function of a single variable
ͼ௘VHHFigure 1.1௘ͽ<RXZLOOOHDUQWRJUDSKIXQFWLRQVRIWZR 2

YDULDEOHVLQVSDFHͼ௘VHHFigure 1.2௘ͽ y = x2
í í í  2 

You know about derivatives of functions of a single


Figure 1.1
variable, such as the derivative d >sin x @ cos x . You will
dx
learn about partial derivatives of functions of two or more
Lesson 1: A Visual Introduction to 3-D Calculus

wf wf z
variables, , . 4
wx wy

You know about integrals in elementary calculus, 3


b
z = x2 + y2
³ f x dx and ³ f x dx. You will learn about double
a
b d
integrals, ³ ³ f x , y dy dx ; triple integrals; line integrals; 2
a c
and more.
1
í
í í
í
You know about the fundamental theorem of calculus: If í
b
F is an antiderivative of f, then ³ f x dx F (b )  F ( a ). 1
1
a 2
You will learn about many generalizations of this theorem, 2 y
x
including Green’s theorem, the divergence theorem, and
Figure 1.2
Stokes’s theorem.

4
You know about vectors in the plane, v v1 , v2 . You will learn about vectors in space, v v1 , v2 , v3 .

You know about vector-valued functions in the plane, such as r௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ FRVti + sin tj. You will learn about vector-
valued functions in space, such as the helix given by r௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ FRVti + sin tj + tk.

<RXNQRZDERXW¿QGLQJPD[LPXPDQGPLQLPXPYDOXHVRIIXQFWLRQVLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV<RXZLOOOHDUQ
more advanced optimization techniques for functions of two variables.

Example 1

)LQGWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHSRLQWVͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘í௘ͽ

Solution

Using the distance formula, we have

2 2 2
d 1  2  0  1  2  3 1  1  25 27 3 3.

Example 2

)LQGWKHHTXDWLRQRIWKHVSKHUHKDYLQJͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘í௘ͽDVHQGSRLQWVRIDGLDPHWHU

Solution
z
The center of the sphere is the midpoint, §¨ 4  0 , 2  4 , 3  3 ·¸ 2, 1, 0 .
© 2 2 2 ¹

By the distance formula, the radius is

r 0  2 2  4  1 2  3  0 2 = 499 = 22 . í
y

7KHHTXDWLRQRIWKHVSKHUHLVͼ௘x±௘ͽ2ͼ௘y±௘ͽ2ͼ௘z±௘ͽ2 = 22 2,
í
ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWRͼ௘x±௘ͽ2ͼ௘y±௘ͽ2 + z2 = 22. ͼ௘See Figure 1.3.௘ͽ
x
Example 3 Figure 1.3

For the function of two variables z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2 + xy, we have f ͼ௘௘ͽ DQGf ͼ௘௘ͽ 2ͼ௘௘ͽ 

Study Tips

x We will use a right-handed coordinate system in space. That is, if the x-axis is your right hand and the
y-axis is your left hand, then the z-axis points upward.

5
x The formulas for distance, midpoint, and sphere are immediate generalizations for the familiar
formulas for distance, midpoint, and circle in elementary calculus.

x *LYHQͼ௘x, y௘ͽLQWKHGRPDLQRIDIXQFWLRQf of two variables, the value in the range is z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ

Pitfall

x Just as in elementary calculus, you cannot divide by zero or take square roots of negative numbers.
For instance, if f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  y  1 , then f ͼ௘í௘ͽDQGf ͼ௘í௘ͽDUHXQGH¿QHG
x y

Problems

1. Calculate the derivative of the function f ͼ௘x௘ͽ OQ௘x + e3x.


S
2
2. Calculate the integral ³0
cos x dx .

3. Determine the vector with initial point P௘ͼ௘௘ͽDQGWHUPLQDOSRLQWQ௘ͼ௘í௘ͽ

4. Eliminate the parameter to demonstrate that the graph of the vector-value function r௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ  FRV ti + 3 sin tj
is a circle.

5. Find the critical numbers and relative extrema of the function f ͼ௘x௘ͽ x3 + 3x2 – 12x.

6. )LQGWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHSRLQWVͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘íí௘ͽ

7. )LQGWKHPLGSRLQWRIWKHOLQHVHJPHQWMRLQLQJWKHSRLQWVͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

8. )LQGWKHHTXDWLRQRIWKHVSKHUHZLWKFHQWHUͼ௘௘ͽDQGUDGLXV
Lesson 1: A Visual Introduction to 3-D Calculus

9. Calculate f ͼ௘௘ͽLIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ OQ௘௘y + ex+y.

10. Calculate g ͼ௘ʌ௘ͽLIg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  FRV ͼ௘x + y௘ͽ±VLQ ͼ௘x – y௘ͽ

6
Functions of Several Variables
Lesson 2

Topics

x Functions of two or more independent variables.

x Graphs of functions of two variables.

x Traces.

x Level curves and level surfaces.

x Applications of functions of two variables.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let DEHDVHWRIRUGHUHGSDLUVRIUHDOQXPEHUV,IWRHDFKRUGHUHGSDLUͼ௘x, y௘ͽLQD there corresponds a


unique real number z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽWKHQf is called a function of x and y. The set D is the domain of f, and
the corresponding set of values f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVWKHrange of f.

x The graph of a function of two variables z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽFRQVLVWVRIDOOSRLQWVͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽVXFKWKDWz = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ

x A trace is the intersection of a surface with a plane.

x Let z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽDQGc be a constant. A level curve or contour line is the set of all points in the plane
satisfying f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ c.

Summary

In this lesson, we continue our study of functions of two or more independent variables. We will formally
GH¿QHIXQFWLRQVRIWZRYDULDEOHVLQFOXGLQJWKHLUGRPDLQVDQGUDQJHV:HZLOOVHHWKDWLWLVHDV\WRFRPELQH
such functions and also extend these ideas to functions of three or more variables. Perhaps the most important
and interesting theme of this lesson is the graph of a function of two variables. To this end, we look at traces
and level curves for functions of two variables. Typical applications of level curves are topographic maps.
Finally, we will set up an application involving the minimal cost of construction of a box.

7
Example 1 z
2

Find the domain of the function f x , y 4  x2  y2 .


1

Solution í
í
í í
í
The expression inside the radical must be nonnegative, so the domain 1
1 y
x 2
2
FRQVLVWVRIDOORUGHUHGSDLUVVDWLVI\LQJíx2íy2•
Figure 2.1

So, we have D ^ x, y : x 2
 y d 4` .
2

The domain is a circle of radius 2. Notice that the graph of the function is a hemisphere of radius 2 centered at
the origin, x2 + y2 + z2 ”z”ͼ௘6HHFigure 2.1௘ͽ

z
Example 2

Find the largest possible value of the function of two variables


z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + 4yíx2íy2.
y
Solution
f(x, y  í xí 2í yí 2

By completing the square, we see that z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íͼ௘xí௘ͽ ௘ͽíͼ௘yí௘ͽ .


2 2
x
Figure 2.2

Therefore, the largest possible value is 5, which is obtained when x = 1 and y = 2. Notice that there is no
VPDOOHVWYDOXHͼ௘6HHFigure 2.2௘ͽ

Example 3
z
4
Let f x , y 16  4 x 2  y 2 . Describe the level curve for c = 0. 3
ͼ௘6HHFigure 2.3௘ͽ 2
í
Lesson 2: Functions of Several Variables

í 1
Solution

 y
Setting f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ c, we have 2
16  4 x  y 2
0. x
Figure 2.3
y2
2
7KLVVLPSOL¿HVWRWKHHOOLSVH 16  4 x 2  y 2 0Ÿ x  1.
4 16

,QWKH¿JXUHͼ௘VHHFigure 2.4௘ͽZHKDYHGUDZQWKLVHOOLSVHDORQJZLWKVRPHRWKHUOHYHOFXUYHV

8
Example 4 4
c=0

A rectangular box with an open top has a length of x feet, a width of y


2 c=2
feet, and a height of zIHHWͼ௘VHHFigure 2.5௘ͽ,WFRVWVSHUVTXDUHIRRWWR
EXLOGWKHEDVHDQGSHUVTXDUHIRRWWREXLOGWKHVLGHV:ULWHWKHFRVWC of
c=4
constructing the box as a function of x, y, and z. í í 2 3

í
Solution

í
The cost depends on the cost of the base and the four sides.
Figure 2.4
C = 3.00xyͼ௘yz௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘xz௘ͽ xy + 4yz + 4xz.

Later in this course, we will determine the minimum cost of the box,
JLYHQD¿[HGYROXPH z

Study Tips z
y

x
x If z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽWKHQx and y are called the independent variables, Figure 2.5
and z is the dependent variable.

x ,QJHQHUDOWKHUDQJHRIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHVLVPRUHGLI¿FXOWWRGHWHUPLQHWKDQWKHGRPDLQ
Often, a graph can help determine the range.

x <RXFDQGH¿QHIXQFWLRQVRIWKUHHRUPRUHYDULDEOHVLQDVLPLODUPDQQHU)RUH[DPSOH
f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x2íy2 + sin z is a function of three variables.

x You can add, subtract, and multiply functions of two or more variables. For example, if f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy2
and g ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ VLQͼ௘xy௘ͽWKHQWKHVXPRIWKHWZRIXQFWLRQVLVͼ௘f + g௘ͽͼ௘x, y௘ͽ f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ 
2xy2VLQͼ௘xy௘ͽ

x Level curves extend naturally to level surfaces. For example, consider the function of three variables,
f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x2 + y2 + z2. Each level surface is of the form 4x2 + y2 + z2 = c, which are ellipsoids.

x You will often see different letters used for the independent and dependent variables, as well as the
names of the functions.

Pitfalls

x You cannot form the composition of two functions, each of two variables. However, if g is a function
of a single variable and f is a function of two variables, then the following composition makes sense:
g D f x, y g f x, y .

9
x Make sure you understand if you are working in the plane or in space. For example, the graph of the
equation y = x is a line in the plane, but a plane in space.

x The graph of a function of two variables is a surface in space, whereas its level curves are graphs in
the xy-plane.

x Keep in mind that for a surface in space, its level curves lie in the xy-plane. On the other hand, a trace
is the intersection of the surface with a plane.

Problems

1. Calculate f ͼ௘௘ͽLIf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ  x  y  z .

x y
2. Describe the domain of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  .
xy

3. Describe the domain of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ OQ௘ͼ௘íxíy௘ͽ

4. Describe the graph of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ 

5. Describe the graph of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  1  x 2  y 2 .

6. Describe the level curves of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íxíy for c = 0, 2, 4.

7. Describe the level curves of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy for c = ±1, ±3.

8. Describe the level surface of the function f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x2 + y2 + z2 at c = 9.

9. Complete the square for the function z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + 4yíx2íy2WRFRQ¿UPWKDWWKHODUJHVWYDOXHRIWKH
function is z = 5.
Lesson 2: Functions of Several Variables

10. A propane tank is constructed by welding hemispheres to the ends of a right circular cylinder. Write the
volume of the tank as a function of r and x, where r is the radius of the cylinder and hemispheres and x is
the length of the cylinder.

10
Limits, Continuity, and Partial Derivatives
Lesson 3

Topics

x Limits of functions of two variables.

x Disks in the plane.

x 7KHIRUPDOGH¿QLWLRQRIOLPLW

x Continuity of functions of two variables.

x Partial derivatives.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV
į

x /HWͼ௘x0 , y0௘ͽEHDSRLQWLQWKHSODQH (x0, y0 )

7KHRSHQGLVNFHQWHUHGDWͼ௘x0 , y0௘ͽZLWKUDGLXVį is the set of points

^ x, y : 2
x  x0  y  y 0 2 `
 į .ͼ௘6HHFigure 3.1௘ͽ
Figure 3.1

x Let fEHDIXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHVGH¿QHGH[FHSWSRVVLEO\DWͼ௘x0 , y0௘ͽRQDQRSHQGLVNFHQWHUHGDW


ͼ௘x0 , y0௘ͽDQGOHWL be a real number.

Then,

lim f ( x, y ) L
x , y o x0 , y0

if, for every ѓ > 0, there exists į > 0 such that

2 2
f x , y  L < ѓ whenever 0  x  x0  y  y 0 < į.

x A function of two variables is continuousDWDSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLIf ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLVGH¿QHGDQG


lim f ( x , y ) f x0 , y 0 .
x , y o x0 , y0

11
x 'H¿QLWLRQRISDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

wf f x  'x , y  f x , y
f x x, y lim .
wx 'x o 0 'x

wf f x , y  'y  f x , y
f y x, y lim .
wy 'y o 0 'y

Summary

In this lesson, we continue to study the fundamental concepts of limits and continuity for functions of two
variables. We will see that limits in multivariable calculus are more complicated, but we won’t dwell on the
theoretical aspects. We then present partial derivatives, the generalization of derivatives from elementary
FDOFXOXV:HZLOOOHDUQKRZWRFDOFXODWHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVDQGGLVFRYHUWKHLUJHRPHWULFVLJQL¿FDQFH

Example 1

5x2 y
Calculate the limit lim .
x , y o 1,2 x 2  y 2

Solution

5x2 y 5(1) 2 2 10
The limit is easy to evaluate: lim 2.
x , y o 1,2 x 2  y 2 12  2 2 5

:HZHUHDEOHWRMXVWSOXJLQWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽLQWKLVH[DPSOH7KHQH[WH[DPSOHLVPRUHLQWHUHVWLQJ

Example 2
2
§ x2  y2 ·
Show that the limit lim ¨ 2 does not exist.
x , y o 0,0 © x  y 2 ¸¹
Lesson 3: Limits, Continuity, and Partial Derivatives

Solution

:HDSSURDFKWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽDORQJWZRGLIIHUHQWSDWKV
2 2
Along the path y = 0, lim § x 2  02 · 1. And along the path y = x, lim § x2  x2 · 0.
¨ ¸
x ,0 o 0,0 © x 2  0 2 ¹
¨ ¸
x , x o 0,0 © x 2  x 2 ¹

Because these values do not agree, the limit does not exist.

Example 3

Calculate the partial derivatives of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x3 + sin y.

12
Solution

We calculate the partial derivative with respect to x by holding the variable y constant and differentiating with
wf
respect to x: 3x 2.
wx
wf
Similarly, the partial derivative with respect to y is calculated by holding the variable x constant: cos y .
wy

Study Tips

x Open disks are circles without boundaries. Closed disks contain the boundary.

x In elementary calculus, you can approach the point c in only two directions—from the left and from
WKHULJKW7KHNH\GLIIHUHQFHLQPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVLVWKDW\RXFDQDSSURDFKWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽIURP
any direction and along any path.

x <RXFDQGH¿QHOLPLWVDQGFRQWLQXLW\RIIXQFWLRQVRIWKUHHRUPRUHYDULDEOHVLQDVLPLODUPDQQHU

x 7KHGH¿QLWLRQRIFRQWLQXLW\LVVLPLODUWRWKDWLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV7KHIXQFWLRQLVFRQWLQXRXV
DWDSRLQWLILWLVGH¿QHGDWWKHSRLQWLWVOLPLWH[LVWVDWWKHSRLQWDQGWKHOLPLWHTXDOVWKHYDOXHRI
the function.

x Partial derivatives are rates of change with respect to one of the independent variables.

Pitfalls

x ,Q([DPSOH\RXFDQQRWMXVWSOXJLQWKHYDOXHͼ௘௘ͽ$OZD\VEHRQWKHORRNRXWIRUGLYLVLRQE\]HUR
In fact, there is a nonremovable discontinuity at this point.

x There are lots of notations for partial derivatives. For instance, if z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽWKHQWKHSDUWLDO
derivative with respect to x might be written as

wf w f x, y wz
f x x, y z x.
wx wx wx

Problems

1. Find the limit lim


x , y o 2, 1
2x 2
 y .

2. Find the limit lim e xy .


x , y o 1, 2

xy  1
3. Find the limit lim .
x , y o 1, 1 1  xy
y
4. Discuss the continuity of the function f x, y .
x  y2
2

13
5. Discuss the continuity of the function f x, y 1 .
x2  y2  4
xy
6. Show that the limit lim does not exist.
x , y o 0, 0 x  y2
2

 xy 2
7. Show that the limit lim does not exist.
x , y o 0, 0 x2  y 4
wf wf
8. Calculate the partial derivatives and for f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xíy + 3.
wx wy
wf wf
9. Calculate the partial derivatives and for f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  x y .
wx wy
wf wf
10. Calculate the partial derivatives and for f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ FRVxy.
wx wy
Lesson 3: Limits, Continuity, and Partial Derivatives

14
Partial Derivatives—One Variable at a Time
Lesson 4

Topics

x Partial derivatives of functions of two variables.

x The geometric interpretation of partial derivatives.

x Partial derivatives of functions of three or more variables.

x Higher-order partial derivatives.

x Equality of mixed partial derivatives.

x Partial differential equations and Laplace’s equation.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x 'H¿QLWLRQRISDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

wf f x  'x , y  f x , y .
f x x, y lim
wx 'x o 0 'x

wf f x , y  'y  f x , y .
f y x, y lim
wy 'y o 0 'y

x Higher-order partial derivatives:

w § wf · w2f w § wf · w2f
f xx ; f yy .
wx ¨© wx ¸¹ wx 2 wy ¨© wy ¸¹ wy 2

w § wf · w2f w § wf · w2f
f xy ; f yx .
wy ¨© wx ¸¹ wywx wx ¨© wy ¸¹ wxwy

2 2
x Laplace’s partial differential equation: w z2  w z2 0$IXQFWLRQWKDWVDWLV¿HVWKLVHTXDWLRQLVVDLGWR
wx wy
be harmonic.

15
Summary

In this lesson, we continue our study of partial derivatives. After reviewing how to calculate partial
GHULYDWLYHVZHUHFDOOWKHLUJHRPHWULFVLJQL¿FDQFHDVUDWHVRIFKDQJH:HWKHQWXUQWRKLJKHURUGHUSDUWLDO
derivatives and observe a surprising property of so-called mixed partial derivatives. Finally, we generalize
differential equations to partial differential equations and look at Laplace’s equation as an example.

Example 1

)LQGWKH¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVRIWKHIXQFWLRQ z f x, y x 3  y 4  sin xy.

Solution

wz wf
The partial derivative with respect to x is 3 x 2  cos xy y , and the partial derivative with respect to
wz wf wx wx
y is 4 y 3  cos xy x.
wy wy

Example 2

Find the slopes in the x-direction and in the y-direction of the surface given by the function
f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íͼ௘xí௘ͽ2íͼ௘yí௘ͽ2DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

Solution

The partial derivative with respect to x is


z
fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íͼ௘xí௘ͽDQGfx ͼ௘௘ͽ  1 í
(1, 2, 1)
1 2
1 3 4
The partial derivative with respect to y is 2 í y
Lesson 4: Partial Derivatives—One Variable at a Time

f y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íͼ௘yí௘ͽDQG f y ͼ௘௘ͽ  3 í


x
í
Notice that the slopes are zero at the maximum
point on the surface. Later, we will expand on the
LGHDRIXVLQJSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVWR¿QGPD[LPXP
DQGPLQLPXPYDOXHVRIIXQFWLRQVͼ௘6HHFigure 4.1௘ͽ Figure 4.1

Example 3

wf
Find for the function f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xy + yz2 + xz.
wx

Solution

Calculating partial derivatives for functions of three or more variables is no different. We consider the
wf
variables y and z as constants and differentiate with respect to x : y  z.
wx

16
Example 4

Calculate the four second-order partial derivatives for the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ VLQx + ey + xy.

Solution

wf wf
:HEHJLQE\FDOFXODWLQJWKHWZR¿UVWRUGHUSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVRIWKHIXQFWLRQ cos x  y and e y  x.
wx wy

7KHIRXUVHFRQGRUGHUSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVDUHREWDLQHGE\GLIIHUHQWLDWLQJWKH¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

f xx w § wf · w cos x  y  sin x.
wx ¨© wx ¸¹ wx

w § wf · w ey  x
f yy
wy ¨© wy ¸¹ wy
ey.

w § wf · w e y  x 1.
f yx
wx ¨© wy ¸¹ wx

f xy w § wf · w cos x  y 1.
wy ¨© wx ¸¹ wy

Notice that the two mixed partial derivatives are equal. Under suitable hypotheses, this is always true for
mixed partial derivatives.

Example 5

Show that z f x, y e x sin y is a solution to Laplace’s equation.

Solution

2 2
We have wz e x sin y , w z2 e x sin y , wz e x cos y , and w z2  e x sin y .
wx wx wy wy
2 2
Therefore, w z2  w z2 e x sin y   e x sin y 0.
wx wy

Study Tips

x To calculate a partial derivative, hold one variable constant and differentiate with respect to the
other variable.

x The partial derivative with respect to x is the slope of the graph in the x-direction. Similarly, the
partial derivative with respect to y is the slope in the y-direction.

x Under suitable hypotheses, the mixed partial derivatives are equal: fxy = f yx.

17
Pitfalls

x The notation for partial derivatives can be confusing. Notice that for mixed second-order partials, you
do the derivative “closest to f ´¿UVW

w § wf · w2 f
wx ©¨ wy ¹¸ wxwy
f y x
f yx .

x Although the mixed partial derivatives are equal for most common functions, there exist examples for
which this is not true. For instance, they are not equal for the function

­ xy x 2  y 2
° , x , y z 0, 0
f x, y ® x2  y2 .
°
¯ 0, x, y 0, 0

Problems

1. )LQGERWK¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVfx and f y for f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ VLQ5x cos5y.

y
2. )LQGERWK¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVfx and f y for f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  ye . x

3. Find the slope of the surface g ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íx2íy2 in the x- and yGLUHFWLRQVDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

4. )LQGWKH¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVf[࣠, f \࣠, and fz for f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x3yz2DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ ͼ௘௘ͽ

5. Find the four second partial derivatives for the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2íxy + 3y2.
Lesson 4: Partial Derivatives—One Variable at a Time

6. Find the four second partial derivatives for the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ex tan y.

7. For the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2íxy + y2íx + y¿QGDOOYDOXHVRIx and y such that fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ DQG
f y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ 

8. For the function fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  1  1  xy , ¿QGDOOYDOXHVRIx and y such that fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ DQGf y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ 
x y
y 2 2
9. Show that the function z = arctan VDWLV¿HV/DSODFH¶VHTXDWLRQ w z2  w z2 0.
x wx wy
2 2
10. Show that the function z VLQ ͼ௘xíct௘ͽVDWLV¿HVWKHZDYHHTXDWLRQ w 2z c 2 w z2 .
wt wx

18
Total Differentials and Chain Rules
Lesson 5

Topics

x The total differential of a function of two variables.

x Differentiability for functions of two variables.

x The total differential and error analysis.

x Chain rules.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽdx ¨x, and dy ¨y. The total differential of z is the expression
dz wz dx  wz dy = fx࣠ͼ௘x, y௘ͽdx + f y࣠ͼ௘x, y௘ͽdy.
wx wy

x A function z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVdifferentiableDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLI¨z can be written in the form


¨z = fx࣠ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ¨x + f y࣠ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ¨y + ѓ1¨x + ѓ2¨y, where ѓ1 and ѓ2WHQGWR]HURDVͼ௘¨ x¨y௘ͽĺͼ௘௘ͽ

x Let w be a function of x and y, and assume that x and y are both functions of t. Then, w is a function of
t, and the chain rule says that

dw ww dx  ww dy .
dt wx dt wy dt

Summary

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHFRQWLQXHRXUVWXG\RIIXQFWLRQVRIWZRRUPRUHLQGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHV:H¿UVWJHQHUDOL]H
GLIIHUHQWLDOVIURPHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVWRGH¿QHWKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDORIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHV:HWKHQ
GH¿QHGLIIHUHQWLDELOLW\RIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHVDQGQRWHWKDWWKHGH¿QLWLRQORRNVTXLWHGLIIHUHQWIURPWKH
FRUUHVSRQGLQJGH¿QLWLRQLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV:HDSSO\WKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDOWRHUURUDQDO\VLV)LQDOO\ZH
present one of the many chain rules in multivariable calculus.

Example 1

Find the total differential of the function z = 2x sin yíx2y2.

Solution

We have dz wz dx  wz dy  ͼ௘VLQyíxy2௘ͽdxͼ௘x cos yíx2y௘ͽdy.


wx wy

19
Example 2 z
2

Use the total differential to approximate the change in the function


z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  4  x 2  y 2 DVͼ௘x, y௘ͽFKDQJHVIURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽ (1.01, 0.97, 039 )
2.0
(1, 1, 2)

ͼ௘6HHFigure 5.1௘ͽ í

í

Solution (1.01, 0.97 ) (1, 1)


2
2
y
x
:HKDYHͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ͼ௘௘ͽdx ¨x = 0.01, and dy ¨y í Figure 5.1

1 4  x 2  y 2  1 2 2 x y
The partial derivatives are wz x and wz .
wx 2 4  x2  y2 wy 4  x2  y2

wz 'x  wz 'y x y
So, 'z | dz 'x  'y.
wx wy 4  x2  y2 4  x2  y2

When x = y = 1, 'z | 1 0.01  1 0.03 | 0.0141.


2 2

This compares favorably with the exact change:

2 2
ǻz = f ͼ௘௘ͽíf ͼ௘௘ͽ 4  1.01  0.97  4  12  12 §í§

Example 3

8VHWKHFKDLQUXOHWR¿QG dw if w = x2yíy2, x = sin t, and y = et.


dt

Solution

We have the following:


Lesson 5: Total Differentials and Chain Rules

dw ww dx  ww dy = 2xyͼ௘FRV t௘ͽͼ௘x2íy௘ͽet ͼ௘VLQ t௘ͽͼ௘et௘ͽFRV tͼ௘VLQ2 tíet௘ͽet.


dt wx dt wy dt

Study Tips

x The total differential extends naturally to functions of three z


4

or more variables. For example, if w = x2 + y3 + z4, then 3

dw = 2x dx + 3y2 dy + 4z3 dz. 2


í
í 
1
x We will see later that differentiability at a point implies that the surface í
í
can be approximated by a tangent plane at that point. This is similar to 2 y
2

elementary calculus, where differentiability at a point implies that the


x
JUDSKFDQEHDSSUR[LPDWHGE\DWDQJHQWOLQHͼ௘6HHFigure 5.2௘ͽ Figure 5.2

20
x There are many other chain rules in multivariable calculus, but we will not need them in this course.

x It is possible to solve Example 3 without the chain rule. First, express w as a function of t, and
then differentiate:

2
w x2 y  y2 sin t e  e
2 t t
.

1H[W¿QG dw to verify that you obtain the same answer.


dt

Pitfalls

x 7KHGH¿QLWLRQRIGLIIHUHQWLDELOLW\ORRNVTXLWHGLIIHUHQWIURPWKHGH¿QLWLRQLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV

x Notice in the chain rule that some of the derivatives are ordinary derivatives, and others are
partial derivatives.

Problems

1. Find the total differential if z = 2x2y3.

2. Find the total differential if z = ex sin y.

x y
3. Find the total differential if w .
z  3y

4. 8VHWKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDOWRDSSUR[LPDWHWKHTXDQWLW\ͼ௘௘ͽ2ͼ௘௘ͽí2ͼ௘௘ͽ

5. Use the total differential to approximate the quantity sin ª 1.05  0.95 º  sin 12  12 .
2 2

¬ ¼

6. The radius r and height h of a right circular cylinder are measured with possible errors of 4% and 2%,
respectively. Approximate the maximum possible percent error in measuring the volume.


7. Use the chain rule from elementary calculus to calculate the derivative of the function h x sin e 3 x .
2

8. 8VHWKHFKDLQUXOHWR¿QG dw if w = xy, x = et, and y = eít.


dt

9. 8VHWKHFKDLQUXOHWR¿QG dw if w FRV ͼ௘xíy௘ͽx = t2, and y = 1.


dt

10. 8VHWKHFKDLQUXOHWR¿QG dw at t = 1 if w = exy, x = t2, and y = t.


dt

21
Extrema of Functions of Two Variables
Lesson 6

Topics

x Maximum and minimum values of functions of two variables.

x The extreme value theorem.

x Relative extrema and critical points.

x The second partials test for relative extrema.

x Applications.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽEHFRQWLQXRXVRQWKHFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQR in the plane. The values f ͼ௘a, b௘ͽDQG


f ͼ௘c, d௘ͽVDWLVI\LQJf ͼ௘a, b௘ͽ”f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ”f ͼ௘c, d௘ͽDUHWKHmaximum and minimum values of f on R.

x The extreme value theorem says that if z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVFRQWLQXRXVRQWKHFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQR


in the plane, then there is at least one point in R at which f takes on a minimum value and at least one
point in R at which f takes on a maximum value.

x Let fEHDIXQFWLRQGH¿QHGRQWKHUHJLRQRFRQWDLQLQJWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ7KHIXQFWLRQf has a relative


minimumDWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ•f ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽIRUDOOͼ௘x, y௘ͽLQVRPHRSHQGLVNFRQWDLQLQJͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ7KH
GH¿QLWLRQRIrelative maximum is similar.
Lesson 6: Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

x Let fEHGH¿QHGRQDQRSHQUHJLRQRFRQWDLQLQJͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ7KHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLVDcritical point if either


ͼ௘௘ͽ fx ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ DQG f y ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ RUͼ௘௘ͽfx ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽRU f y ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽGRQRWH[LVW

x Relative extrema occur at critical points. In other words, the critical points are the candidates for
relative maxima and relative minima.

x Second partials test/HWͼ௘a, b௘ͽEHDFULWLFDOSRLQWRIf.

2
'H¿QHWKHTXDQWLW\ d f xx a , b f yy a , b  ª¬ f xy a , b º¼ . Then, we have the following.

1. d > 0, fxx ͼ௘a, b௘ͽ!Ÿ relative minimum.


2. d > 0, fxx ͼ௘a, b௘ͽŸ relative maximum.

22
3. d < 0, Ÿ saddle point.
4. d = 0: Test is inconclusive.

Summary

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHGHYHORSWHFKQLTXHVIRU¿QGLQJPD[LPXPDQGPLQLPXPYDOXHVRIIXQFWLRQVRIWZRYDULDEOHV
We will see that the critical points of a function are the candidates for relative extrema, just as in elementary
calculus. The second partials test can be used to determine the exact nature of these critical points. Finally, we
close with an application from a previous lesson.

Example 1
z
(1, 2, 5)
,ISRVVLEOH¿QGWKHKLJKHVWDQGORZHVWSRLQWVRQWKHJUDSKRIWKH
4
function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + 4yíx2íy2.

Solution
2

wf wf
We set the partial derivatives 2  2 x and 4  2 y equal to í
wx wy
]HURDQGREWDLQWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ͼ௘௘ͽ 2 2
4
4 y
x
By completing the square, we see that this point is a maximum and that
í
í
WKHUHLVQRPLQLPXPYDOXHͼ௘6HHFigure 6.1௘ͽ

f x, y 2x  4 y  x2  y2 í
í 
 x 2  2 x  1  y 2  4 y  4  5
2 2
5  x  1  y  2 .
Figure 6.1

Example 2

Determine the relative extrema of f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2 + y2 + 8xíy + 20.

Solution

:HVHWWKHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVHTXDOWR]HURWRGHWHUPLQHWKHFULWLFDOSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽ f x 4x  8 0Ÿ x 2
and f y 2 y  6 0 Ÿ y 36RWKHRQO\FULWLFDOSRLQWLVͼ௘í௘ͽ

By completing the square, f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ͼ௘x௘ͽ2ͼ௘yí௘ͽ2+HQFHͼ௘í௘ͽLVDUHODWLYHPLQLPXP


ͼ௘DQGDEVROXWHPLQLPXP௘ͽDQGWKHUHLVQRUHODWLYHPD[LPXP

Example 3

8VHWKHVHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWRQ([DPSOHJLYHQWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

23
Solution

:H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVfx = 4x + 8, fxx = 4, f y = 2yíf yy = 2, and fxy = 0. So, we have

2
d f xx a , b f yy a , b  ª¬ f xy a , b º¼ 4(2)  0 8 ! 0,

and fxx > 0. Thus, by the second partials test, the point is a relative minimum.

Study Tips

x 7KHGH¿QLWLRQRIFULWLFDOSRLQWLVVLPLODUWRWKHGH¿QLWLRQLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVH[FHSWWKDWQRZZH
use partial derivatives.

x The critical points are the candidates for relative extrema. It is possible that none of the critical points
are relative extrema. For instance, the critical point of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y2íx2LVͼ௘௘ͽZKLFKLV
neither a relative minimum nor relative maximum. Such points are called saddle points.

Pitfalls

x When using the extreme value theorem, make sure that the region R is closed and bounded.
Otherwise, there might not be a maximum or minimum value. For instance, there was no minimum
value in Example 1.

x 5HPHPEHUWKDWERWKSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVPXVWEHHTXDOWR]HURͼ௘RURQHRIWKHPXQGH¿QHG௘ͽIRUWKHUHWR
be a critical point.

x Keep in mind that the relative extrema are not necessarily absolute extrema.
Lesson 6: Extrema of Functions of Two Variables

x 7KHVHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWFDQIDLOLQWZRZD\Vͼ௘௘ͽ7KHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVPLJKWQRWH[LVWRUͼ௘௘ͽWKH
discriminant d = 0.

Problems

1. )LQGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRIWKHIXQFWLRQ f x, y x 2  y 2  1.

2. )LQGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRIWKHIXQFWLRQ f x, y  x 2  y 2  10 x  12 y  64.
2

3. )LQGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRIWKHIXQFWLRQ f x, y x 2
 y2 .
3

4. Complete the square to determine the relative minimum of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2 + y2 + 8xíy + 20.

24
5. Determine the relative extrema of f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy.

6. Use the second partials test to determine the relative extrema of the function
f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2 + 2y2íxíy + 16.

7. Use the second partials test to determine the relative extrema of the function
f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íx2 + 4xyíy2 + 16x + 10.

8. Examine the function f x, y 2 xy  1 x 4  y 4  1 for relative extrema.


2

9. )LQGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRIWKHIXQFWLRQ f x, y x  y and determine the relative extrema.


2 2
3 3

10. An open box is to be constructed with 2 square meters of material. Determine the dimensions
of the box so that the volume is a maximum.

ª C  3 xy º
11. Verify that that the partial derivative with respect to x for V xy « » is
¬ 4( x  y ) ¼
y2
2
Vx C  3 x 2  6 xy .
4 x  y

y2 x2
2
12. Verify that Vx C  3 x 2  6 xy 0 and V y 2
C  3 y 2  6 xy 0 gives the solution
4 x  y 4 x  y
x = y = 12.

25
Applications to Optimization Problems
Lesson 7

Topics

x Applications of functions of two variables.

x Maximum and minimum values on closed and bounded regions.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽEHFRQWLQXRXVRQWKHFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQR in the plane. The values f ͼ௘a, b௘ͽDQG


f ͼ௘c, d௘ͽVDWLVI\LQJf ͼ௘a, b௘ͽ”f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ”f ͼ௘c, d௘ͽDUHWKHmaximum and minimum values of f on R.

x The extreme value theorem says that if z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVFRQWLQXRXVRQWKHFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQR


in the plane, then there is at least one point in R at which f takes on a minimum value and at least one
point in R at which f takes on a maximum value.

Summary

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHFRQWLQXHRXUVWXG\RIRSWLPL]DWLRQDSSOLFDWLRQVRIIXQFWLRQVRIWZRYDULDEOHV:H¿UVWORRN
DWPD[LPXPDQGPLQLPXPYDOXHVIRUIXQFWLRQVGH¿QHGRQFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQV:HWKHQORRNDWWZR
UHDOOLIHDSSOLFDWLRQV7KH¿UVWRQHLQYROYHVPD[LPL]LQJWKHYROXPHRIDSDFNDJHDQGWKHVHFRQGLQYROYHVWKH
construction of a water line through three different regions.

Example 1
Lesson 7: Applications to Optimization Problems

Find the absolute extrema of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2 + 2y2íy
on the closed region bounded below by the parabola y = x2 and í 
above by the line y ͼ௘6HHFigure 7.1௘ͽ
3
Solution

:H¿UVW¿QGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWVLQWKHUHJLRQE\VHWWLQJWKHSDUWLDO
derivatives equal to zero: fx = 6x = 0, f y = 4yí 

+HQFHWKHRQO\FULWLFDOSRLQWLQWKHUHJLRQLVDWͼ௘௘ͽ
Figure 7.1
and f ͼ௘௘ͽ í

26
Next, we analyze the boundary of the region.

Along the line segment y í”x”ZHKDYHf ͼ௘x௘ͽ x2í x2 + 16 = g ͼ௘x௘ͽ


Because gƍͼ௘x௘ͽ x, we evaluate g ͼ௘௘ͽ g ͼ௘௘ͽ DQGg ͼ௘í௘ͽ 

Along the parabola y = x2í”x”f ͼ௘x, x2௘ͽ h ͼ௘x௘ͽ x2 + 2 x 2 íx2 = 2x4íx2í”x”
2

We have Kƍͼ௘x௘ͽ x3íx = 2x௘ͼ௘x2í௘ͽDQGKHQFHKƍͼ௘x௘ͽ  Ÿ x = 0, r 1 .


2


We evaluate these points to obtain h ͼ௘௘ͽ  h r 1
2
 1 , and h ͼ௘“௘ͽ 
8

)LQDOO\ZHVHHWKDWWKHDEVROXWHPD[LPXPLVDWͼ௘“௘ͽDQGWKHDEVROXWHPLQLPXPLVíDWͼ௘௘ͽ

Example 2 P B

A water line is to be built from point P to point S and must pass


2 2
through regions where construction costs differ. The cost is
3 million dollars per kilometer from P to Q, 2 million dollars per x Q
C
kilometer from Q to R, and 1 million dollars from R to S. Find 1 1
x and yVRWKDWWKHWRWDOFRVWLVDPLQLPXPͼ௘6HHFigure 7.2௘ͽ
A y R íy S
Figure 7.2
Solution

2
)URPWKH¿JXUHZHVHHWKDWWKHWRWDOFRVWLQPLOOLRQVRIGROODUVLVC x , y 3 x2  4  2 y  x  1  (10  y ).

The partial derivatives are

3x  2( y  x )
Cx
x2  4 y  x 2  1
2( y  x )
Cy  1.
y  x 2  1

6HWWLQJWKHVHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVHTXDOWR]HUR\LHOGVͼ௘VHH3UREOHPIRUDGHULYDWLRQ௘ͽ

2 1.414, 3 2 1.284.
x | y  |
2 3 2

§ 3 ·
These values yield the minimum cost C ¨ 2 ,  2 ¸ | 17.39.
© 2 3 2 ¹

You can verify that this is a minimum by the second partials test or by analyzing the values
on the boundary. It is instructive to compare this minimum with other values for x and y:
C௘ͼ௘௘ͽ  C௘ͼ௘௘ͽ  104 §DQGC௘ͼ௘௘ͽ  5 §

27
Study Tips

x $VLOOXVWUDWHGLQ([DPSOHWKHWHFKQLTXHIRU¿QGLQJDEVROXWHH[WUHPDIRUIXQFWLRQVGH¿QHGRQFORVHG
DQGERXQGHGUHJLRQVUHTXLUHVWZRVWHSV<RXPXVW¿QGWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWVLQVLGHWKHUHJLRQDQGDOVR
analyze the function values on the boundary of the region.

x When solving an applied optimization problem, make sure that your answer is indeed a maximum
ͼ௘RUPLQLPXP௘ͽ7KHVHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWFDQRIWHQEHXVHG

Pitfalls

x :KHQ¿QGLQJWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWVIRUDIXQFWLRQGH¿QHGRQDFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQPDNHVXUHWKDW
the points are indeed in the region.

x Calculating partial derivatives is a calculus skill. But setting those derivatives equal to zero and
VROYLQJWKHUHVXOWLQJHTXDWLRQVLVDOJHEUD7KHDOJHEUDSRUWLRQLVRIWHQWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOW

Problems

1. Find the absolute extrema of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2íxy + 5 on the region R ^ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ”x”
”y”`

2. Find the absolute extrema of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íxíy on the triangular region in the xy-plane
ZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

3. )LQGWKHPLQLPXPGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽWRWKHSODQHxíy + z = 3. Hint: To simplify the


computations, minimize the square of the distance.
Lesson 7: Applications to Optimization Problems

4. Find three positive integers such that their product is 27 and their sum is a minimum.

5. Show that a rectangular box of given volume and minimum surface area is a cube.

6. If Vx = 108yíxyíy2 and Vy = 108xíx2íxyͼ௘x, y௘ͽVKRZWKDWVx = Vy = 0 implies that x = y = 18.

3x 2 y  x 2 y  x
7. If C x  and C y  1, ͼ௘”x”x”y”௘ͽVKRZWKDW
x2  4 y  x
2
1 y  x
2
1

2 and 3
Cx = Cy = 0 implies that x y  2.
2 3 2

28
Linear Models and Least Squares Regression
Lesson 8

Topics

x The least squares regression line.

x Application to systolic blood pressure.

x Nearly vertical data.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x *LYHQDVHWRIGDWDͼ௘x1, y1௘ͽͼ௘x2, y2௘ͽ«ͼ௘xn, yn௘ͽWKHleast squares regression line f ͼ௘x௘ͽ ax + b is


given by
n n n
n ¦ xi yi  ¦ xi ¦ yi n n
1 § y  a x ·.
a i 1
n
i 1 i 1
2
,b ¨ ¦
n© i 1 i ¦ i ¸
¹
§ n · i 1
n ¦ xi 2  ¨ ¦ xi ¸
i 1 ©i 1 ¹

Summary

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHDSSO\RXURSWLPL]DWLRQWHFKQLTXHWRFXUYH¿WWLQJ*LYHQDVHWRIGDWDSRLQWVLQWKHSODQH
ZHVKRZKRZWR¿QGWKHOLQHWKDWEHVW¿WVWKHGDWD7KLVOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHLVXVHGH[WHQVLYHO\LQ
real-life models of data sets that are nearly linear. After we show an application to systolic blood pressure, we
ORRNEULHÀ\DWWKHVXUSULVLQJVLWXDWLRQLQZKLFKWKHGDWDLVQHDUO\YHUWLFDO

Example 1

)LQGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHIRXUSRLQWVLQWKHSODQHͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ

Solution

For this example, n = 4, and we have the following sums.

4 4

¦x
i 1
i 3  1  0  2 2, ¦ yi
i 1
0  1  2  3 6.

4 4
2
¦x y i i 0 1 0  6 5, ¦ xi 9  1  0  4 14.
i 1 i 1

29
So, the slope is
n n n
n ¦ xi yi  ¦ xi ¦ yi
i 1 i 1 i 1 4(5)  ( 2)(6) 20  12 32 8,
a
n
§ · n
2
4(14)  ( 2) 2 56  4 52 13
n ¦ xi 2  ¨ ¦ xi ¸
i 1 ©i 1 ¹

and the y-intercept is


n n
b 1§ y a x ·
¨ ¦
n© i 1 i ¦
i 1
i ¸
¹ 4
1 6  8 2
13
1 § 6(13)  16 ·
4 ¨© 13 ¸
¹
1 94
4 13
47 .
26

The least squares regression line is f x ax  b 8 x  47 .


13 26 4
ͼ௘6HHFigure 8.1௘ͽ

3

Example 2 
2
y = f ( x)
í
The ages xͼ௘LQ\HDUV௘ͽDQGV\VWROLFEORRGSUHVVXUHVy of a man 1 = 8 x + 47
13 26
í
are shown in the graph. Find the least squares regression line
í í í í 1 2 3 4
for this data. Then, use the line to approximate the change in
Figure 8.1
systolic blood pressure for each 1-year increase in age.
ͼ௘6HHFigure 8.2௘ͽ

Solution
(70, 199)
200
(64, 183)
Using a graphing utility, you obtain the line y = 1.6x + 84. (45, 165)
(39, 150)
From the slope, you see that the systolic blood pressure (49, 159)
Lesson 8: Linear Models and Least Squares Regression

Blood Pressure

(25, 122)
changes by approximately 1.6 for each 1-year increase in age. (16, 109)
100
y = 1.6x + 84
Study Tips

x The formula for the least squares regression line is


derived by minimizing the sum of the squares of the 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
differences between the data and the line: Figure 8.2

n n
2 2
S ¦ ª¬ f x  y º¼
i 1
i i ¦ > ax
i 1
i  b  yi @ .

x Most graphing utilities have built-in capabilities for calculating the least squares regression line. For
Example 1, your calculator will give the very accurate approximation y = 0.61538x + 1.80769.

x <RXFDQDOVR¿WPDQ\RWKHUFXUYHVWRVHWVRIGDWDLQFOXGLQJSRO\QRPLDOH[SRQHQWLDOORJDULWKPLFDQG
trigonometric functions.

30
Pitfalls

x The least squares regression line is not a good approximation for nearly vertical data. For example, for
WKHWKUHHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHLVKRUL]RQWDOy = 1.5.

x If your data is not nearly linear, you might want to use a different least squares model. For instance, if
the data seems quadratic, you might use a second-degree polynomial to approximate the data.

Problems

1. )LQGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

2. )LQGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

3. 8VHDJUDSKLQJXWLOLW\RUFRPSXWHUWR¿QGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ
ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘í௘ͽ

4. 8VHDJUDSKLQJXWLOLW\RUFRPSXWHUWR¿QGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ
ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

5. An agronomist used four test plots to determine the relationship between the wheat yield yͼ௘LQEXVKHOVSHU
DFUH௘ͽDQGWKHDPRXQWRIIHUWLOL]HUxͼ௘LQKXQGUHGVRISRXQGVSHUDFUH௘ͽ7KHUHVXOWVDUHDVIROORZV

ͼ௘x, y௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ

8VHDJUDSKLQJXWLOLW\RUFRPSXWHUWR¿QGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHGDWDDQGXVHWKHPRGHO
to estimate the yield for a fertilizer application of 160 pounds per acre.

6. A store manager wants to know the demand y for an energy bar as a function of price x. The daily sales for
three different prices of the energy bar are as follows.

ͼ௘x, y௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ

8VHDJUDSKLQJXWLOLW\RUFRPSXWHUWR¿QGWKHOHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHIRUWKHGDWDDQGXVHWKHPRGHO
WRHVWLPDWHWKHGHPDQGZKHQWKHSULFHLV

31
Vectors and the Dot Product in Space
Lesson 9

Topics

x Vectors in space.

x The dot product of two vectors.

x The angle between two nonzero vectors.

x Lines in space.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Vectors in space are denoted by v v1 , v2 , v3 , where v1, v2, and v3 are the components of the
vector. The zero vector is 0 0, 0, 0 , and the standard unit vectors are i 1, 0, 0 , j 0, 1, 0 ,
k 0, 0, 1 .

x The length or magnitude of the vector v is v v12  v2 2  v3 2 .

x Two vectors are equal if they have the same components—that is, if they have the same length
and direction.

x Two nonzero vectors u and v are parallel if u = cv for some nonzero scalar c.

x The dot product of u u1 , u 2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 is u < v u1 v1  u 2 v2  u3 v3 .


Lesson 9: Vectors and the Dot Product in Space

x Two vectors are orthogonalͼ௘SHUSHQGLFXODU௘ͽLIWKHLUGRWSURGXFWLV]HUR

x If ș is the angle between the two nonzero vectors u and v, then cos T u< v .
u v

x Lines in space: Consider the line L through the point P௘ͼ௘x1, y1, z1௘ͽDQGSDUDOOHOWRWKHdirection
JJJG
vector v a , b, c . The line L consists of all points Q௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽIRUZKLFK PQ is parallel to v,
JJJG
PQ x  x1 , y  y1 , z  z1 t a , b, c tv . The parametric equations for the line are

x = x1 + at
y = y1 + bt
z = z1 + ct.

32
Summary

We extend our knowledge of vectors in the plane to vectors in space. The formulas for length, dot product, and
DQJOHDUHHDV\JHQHUDOL]DWLRQVRIWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJGH¿QLWLRQVIURPHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV:HWKHQVKRZKRZ
WRGH¿QHOLQHVLQVSDFHXVLQJYHFWRUV:HGHYHORSWKHSDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVIRUOLQHVLQVSDFHDQGLOOXVWUDWHWKLV
new idea with examples.

Example 1

Determine if the points P௘ͼ௘í௘ͽQ௘ͼ௘௘ͽDQGR௘ͼ௘í௘ͽDUHFROOLQHDU

Solution

JJJG JJJG
There are at least two ways to solve this problem. You could form the vectors PQ and PR and see if they are
parallel. Or, you could see if the sum of the distances between two points equals the distance between the third
pair. To this end, notice that

2 2 2
d ( P, Q ) 2  1  1  2  0  3 19

2 2 2
d P, R 4  1  7  2  6  3 171

2 2 2
d Q, R 4  2  7  1  6  0 76.

So, we have PQ  QR 19  76 19  2 19 3 19 171 PR, which implies that the points


are collinear.

Example 2

Consider the three vectors u 3,  1, 2 , v 4, 0, 2 , and w 1,  1,  2 . We have


u‡v ͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ íDQGu‡w ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽ 7KLVLPSOLHVWKDWWKHYHFWRUV
u and w are orthogonal.

Example 3

Find the angle between the vectors u 3, 1, 2 and v 4, 0, 2 .

Solution

The cosine of the angle is cos ș = u < v 8 4 .


u v 14 20 70
§ 4 ·
Using a graphing utility and the inverse cosine button, you obtain ș = arccos ¨ ¸ | 2.069 | 118.56q.
© 70 ¹

33
Example 4

)LQGWKHSDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQRIWKHOLQHWKDWSDVVHVWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGLVSDUDOOHOWRWKHYHFWRU
v 2, 4,  4 .

Solution

Using the formula for parametric equations, we have x = x1 + at = 1 + 2t, y = y1 + bt ít, and
z = z1 + ct ít.

Study Tips

x Lines in space are described using a point and a direction vector. This is quite different from lines in
the plane, for which we use slope and y-intercept.

x The parametric equations in Example 4 are x = 1 + 2t, y ít, and z ít. Notice that for
t WKHHTXDWLRQV\LHOGWKHRULJLQDOSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ$VtYDULHVRQWKHLQWHUYDOͼ௘í’’௘ͽWKHSRLQW
ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽPRYHVXSDQGGRZQWKHOLQH

Pitfall

x 7KHGRWSURGXFWRIWZRYHFWRUVLVDVFDODUͼ௘UHDOQXPEHU௘ͽ,QWKHQH[WOHVVRQZHZLOOGH¿QHWKHFURVV
product of two vectors, which is a vector.

Problems

1. )LQGWKHFRPSRQHQWIRUPDQGPDJQLWXGHRIWKHYHFWRUKDYLQJLQLWLDOSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽDQGWHUPLQDOSRLQW
ͼ௘௘ͽ
Lesson 9: Vectors and the Dot Product in Space

2. Find the length of the vector v 1, 3, 4 .

3. 'HWHUPLQHLIWKHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽDUHFROOLQHDU

4. Find the dot product of the vectors u 2,  1, 1 and v 1, 0,  1 .

5. Find a unit vector in the direction of the vector v 2, 1,  2 .

6. Find the angle between the vectors u = 3i + 2j + k and v = 2iíj.

7. Find the angle between the vectors u = 3i + 4j and v = 2j + 3k.

34
8. )LQGDVHWRISDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVIRUWKHOLQHWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽDQGSDUDOOHOWRWKHYHFWRU
v 3, 1, 5 .

9. )LQGDVHWRISDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVIRUWKHOLQHWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGSDUDOOHOWRWKHYHFWRU
v 0, 6, 3 .

10. )LQGDVHWRISDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVIRUWKHOLQHWKURXJKWKHSRLQWVͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘í௘ͽ

35
The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space
Lesson 10

Topics

x The cross product of two vectors in space.

x Properties of the cross product.

x The triple scalar product.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x The FURVVSURGXFW of the vectors u u1i  u 2 j  u3k u1 , u 2 , u3 and v v1i  v2 j  v3k v1 , v2 , v3 is

i j k
uu v u1 u 2 u3 u2 v3  u3v2 i  u1v3  u3v1 j  u1v2  u2 v1 k .
v1 v2 v3

x The cross product X × v is orthogonal to X and to v. That is,

u u v <u 0 and u u v < v 0.

x Additional properties of the cross product:


Lesson 10: The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space

X × X = 0, X × v íͼ௘v × X௘ͽDQGXîͼ௘v + w௘ͽ ͼ௘X × v௘ͽͼ௘X × w௘ͽ

x The area of the parallelogram having the vectorsX and v as adjacent sides is u u v u v sin ș.

u1 u2 u3
x The WULSOHVFDODUSURGXFW is the scalar u < v u w v1 v2 v3 .
w1 w2 w3

x The volume of the parallelepiped with X, v, and w as adjacent sides is V u < v u w .

6XPPDU\

The cross product of two vectors in space is a vector, not a scalar. We calculate cross products using a
determinant formula. One of the most important properties states that the cross product of two nonzero vectors

36
LVDYHFWRURUWKRJRQDOͼ௘SHUSHQGLFXODU௘ͽWRERWKRIWKHRULJLQDOYHFWRUV,QRWKHUZRUGVWKHFURVVSURGXFWLV
RUWKRJRQDOWRWKHSODQHGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHRULJLQDOYHFWRUV:HSUHVHQWVRPHRIWKHEDVLFSURSHUWLHVRIWKHFURVV
SURGXFWDQGFORVHZLWKWKHWULSOHVFDODUSURGXFWZKLFKFRPELQHVWKHGRWSURGXFWDQGFURVVSURGXFW

([DPSOH

Calculate the cross product of the vectors X = iíj + k and v = 3i + jík.

6ROXWLRQ

:HHYDOXDWHWKHFURVVSURGXFWE\H[SDQGLQJWKHGHWHUPLQDQWDORQJWKH¿UVWURZ

i j k
2 1 1 1 1 2
uu v 1 2 1 i j k
1 2 3 2 3 1
3 1 2

ͼ௘í௘ͽiíͼ௘íí௘ͽjͼ௘௘ͽk = 3i + 5j + 7k.

z
Notice that the cross product is orthogonal to each of the original vectors.

v
([DPSOH u

Find the area of the parallelogram having adjacent sides X = i + j + k and


v = j + kͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
y
x
Figure 10.1
6ROXWLRQ

The cross product of the two vectors is X × v íj + k, and the area is
therefore the length of this vector, u u v 2.

([DPSOH

Find the volume of the parallelepiped with adjacent sides u


X = i + j, v = j + k, and w = i + kͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ
w
1 1 0
The triple scalar product is u < v u w 0 1 1 2, which implies
WKDWWKHYROXPHLV 1 0 1 v
Figure 10.2

37
6WXG\7LSV

x Keep in mind that the cross product of two vectors is orthogonal to the original vectors. You can use
WKLVIDFWWRFKHFN\RXUFDOFXODWLRQV

x The words “orthogonal” and “perpendicular” mean the same thing. Another term that we will use is
“normal” in the sense that a vector is normal to a plane.

x 7KHGH¿QLWLRQRIWKHFURVVSURGXFWLVEDVHGRQDGHWHUPLQDQWFDOFXODWLRQ<RXPLJKWEHIDPLOLDUZLWK
îGHWHUPLQDQWV

a b
ad  bc.
c d

1 2
)RUH[DPSOH 1(4)  2(3) 2.
3 4

x ,QWKHIRUPXODIRUWKHYROXPHRIDSDUDOOHOHSLSHGQRWLFHWKDWZHDUHXVLQJWKHXVXDODEVROXWHYDOXH

x ,Q([DPSOHZHREVHUYHGWKDWWKHFURVVSURGXFWZDVX × v = 3i + 5j + 7k5HYHUVLQJWKHRUGHU\RX
REWDLQWKHQHJDWLYHRIWKHRULJLQDOFURVVSURGXFWY× X íͼ௘i + 5j + 7k௘ͽ íiíjík íͼ௘X × v௘ͽ

3LWIDOOV

x 7KHFURVVSURGXFWRIWZRYHFWRUVLQVSDFHLVQRWFRPPXWDWLYH,QIDFWX × v íͼ௘Y× X௘ͽ

x Don’t forget the minus sign in front of the jWHUPZKHQ¿QGLQJWKHFURVVSURGXFW


Lesson 10: The Cross Product of Two Vectors in Space

x 7KHFURVVSURGXFWLVRQO\GH¿QHGIRUYHFWRUVLQVSDFHͼ௘WXSOHV௘ͽ7KDWVDLG\RXFDQ¿QGWKHFURVV
SURGXFWRIͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘í௘ͽ7KHDQVZHULVk.

x 7KHGRWSURGXFWRIWZRYHFWRUVLVDVFDODUͼ௘UHDOQXPEHU௘ͽZKHUHDVWKHFURVVSURGXFWLVDYHFWRU

3UREOHPV

 Find the cross products k × i and i × k:KDWGR\RXREVHUYH"

 Find the cross product of the vectors u 7, 3, 2 and v 1,  1, 5 .

 Find the cross product of the vectors u 3, 1,  2 and v 1,  2, 1 .

 6KRZWKDWWKHFURVVSURGXFWRIi + j + k and j + k is orthogonal to each of these vectors.

38
 Find a vector orthogonal to the vectors iDQGj + k.

 Let v 1, 0,  2 and calculate v × v:KDWGR\RXREVHUYH"

 Find a unit vector orthogonal to the vectors 1, 2, 0 and 3,  4, 0 .

 Find the area of the parallelogram having adjacent sides 3, 2,  1 and 1, 2, 3 .

 Find the volume of the parallelepiped with adjacent edges 1, 3, 1 , 0, 6, 6 , and 4, 0,  4 .

 )LQGWKHYROXPHRIWKHSDUDOOHOHSLSHGZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ
ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ

 )LQGDYHFWRURUWKRJRQDOWRWKHWULDQJOHIRUPHGE\WKHSRLQWVA௘ͼ௘௘ͽB௘ͼ௘í௘ͽDQGC௘ͼ௘í௘ͽ

39
Lines and Planes in Space
Lesson 11

Topics

x 7KHGH¿QLWLRQRIDSODQHLQVSDFH

x 7KHDQJOHEHWZHHQWZRSODQHV

x Projections of vectors onto vectors.

x 7KHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQDSRLQWDQGDSODQH

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Planes in space: Let P௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDSRLQWRQWKHSODQHDQGOHW n a , b, c EHDQRQ]HURYHFWRU


JJJG
orthogonal to the plane. The SODQHconsists of all points Q௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽIRUZKLFKWKHYHFWRU PQ is
JJJG
orthogonal to Q. That is, the dot product is zero: n < PQ a , b, c < x  x1 , y  y1 , z  z1 0.
6LPSOLI\LQJZHREWDLQWKHVWDQGDUGIRUP of the equation of the plane, a௘ͼ௘xíx௘ͽb௘ͼ௘yíy௘ͽ
c௘ͼ௘zíz௘ͽ 

x The JHQHUDOIRUP of the equation of the plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0.


§ u< v ·
x The SURMHFWLRQ of the vector X onto the vector v is projv u ¨ 2 ¸ v.
¨ v ¸
© ¹
x The DQJOHEHWZHHQWZRSODQHVLVWKHVDPHDVWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHLUQRUPDOYHFWRUV

x The GLVWDQFHEHWZHHQDSODQHDQGDSRLQWQ not in the plane is


JJJG JJJG
JJJG § PQ <n · PQ <n
D projn PQ ¨ ¸n ,
Lesson 11: Lines and Planes in Space

¨ n2 ¸ n
© ¹

where PLVDQ\SRLQWLQWKHSODQH

6XPPDU\

:HGH¿QHSODQHVLQVSDFHXVLQJDSRLQWLQWKHSODQHDQGDQRUPDOͼ௘SHUSHQGLFXODU௘ͽYHFWRUWRWKHSODQH7KLV
DQDO\VLVJLYHVULVHWRWKHVWDQGDUGHTXDWLRQDQGJHQHUDOHTXDWLRQRIDSODQHLQVSDFH7KHFURVVSURGXFWSOD\VD
PDMRUUROHLQWKHGLVFXVVLRQ7KHSURMHFWLRQRIRQHYHFWRURQWRDQRWKHUZDVVWXGLHGLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVDQG
ZHH[WHQGWKLVLGHDWRYHFWRUVLQVSDFH7KLVOHDGVWRDEHDXWLIXOIRUPXODIRUWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQDSRLQW
and a plane.


([DPSOH z C í

Find the general form of the equation of the plane containing the three
points A௘ͼ௘௘ͽB௘ͼ௘௘ͽC௘ͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ x
A  B 
y
7R¿QGWKHHTXDWLRQZHQHHGDSRLQWLQWKHSODQHͼ௘WKHUHDUHWKUHHWR Figure 11.1

FKRRVHIURP௘ͽDQGDQRUPDOYHFWRUWRWKHSODQH7R¿QGWKHQRUPDOYHFWRU
ZHFRPSXWHWKHFURVVSURGXFWRIWKHYHFWRUVIRUPHGE\MRLQLQJWKHSRLQWV

JJJG
AB 0  2, 4  1, 1  1 2, 3, 0

JJJG
AC 2  2, 1  1, 4  1 4, 0, 3 .

Their cross product is


i j k
JJJG JJJG
n AB u AC 2 3 0 9i  6 j  12k 9, 6, 12 .
4 0 3

Using this normal vector and the point A௘ͼ௘௘ͽZHKDYHWKHVWDQGDUGIRUPRIWKHSODQH


a௘ͼ௘xíx௘ͽb௘ͼ௘yíy௘ͽc௘ͼ௘zíz௘ͽ ͼ௘xí௘ͽͼ௘yí௘ͽͼ௘zí௘ͽ 7KLVVLPSOL¿HVWRWKHJHQHUDOIRUP
3xyzí <RXFDQFKHFNWKDWHDFKRIWKHRULJLQDOWKUHHSRLQWVVDWLV¿HVWKLVHTXDWLRQ

([DPSOH

)LQGWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHWZRSODQHVxy + 3z DQGx + 3yíz = 0.

6ROXWLRQ

7KHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHSODQHVLVWKHVDPHDVWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHLUQRUPDOYHFWRUV n1 1, 2, 3
and n 2 2, 3,  1 .

n1 < n 2 1, 2, 3 < 2, 3,  1 263 5,


7KHFRVLQHRIWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHVHYHFWRUVLV cos T
n1 n 2 14 14 14 14
which implies that ș§ƒ

([DPSOH

Find the projection of the vector u 5, 10 onto the vector v 4, 3 .


6ROXWLRQ

The formula for projection gives

§ · § 5, 10 < 4, 3 ·
projv u ¨ u < v2 ¸v ¨ ¸ 4, 3 50 4, 3 2 4, 3 8, 6 .
¨ v ¸ ¨ 4, 3
2
¸ 25
© ¹ © ¹

ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ 10
u 5, 10

8
([DPSOH
6
proj 8, 6
)LQGWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHSRLQWQ௘ͼ௘௘ͽDQGWKHSODQH
4
x + 3y + z 
2 v 4, 3
6ROXWLRQ

2 4 6 8 10
The normal vector to the plane is n 2, 3, 1 . Figure 11.2

JJJG
6HWWLQJy = z ZHREWDLQWKHSRLQWP௘ͼ௘௘ͽLQWKHSODQH+HQFH PQ 0  6, 0  0, 0  0 6, 0, 0 .
JJJG
PQ <n 6, 0, 0 < 2, 3, 1 12 12
The distance is D .
n 4  9 1 14 14

6WXG\7LSV

x For the plane ax + by + cz + d WKHFRHI¿FLHQWVDUHWKHFRPSRQHQWVRIWKHQRUPDOYHFWRUWRWKH


plane, n a , b, c .

x 7KHZRUGV³RUWKRJRQDO´³SHUSHQGLFXODU´DQG³QRUPDO´SUHWW\PXFKPHDQWKHVDPHWKLQJ

x ,Q([DPSOHZHFRXOGKDYHXVHGWKHQRUPDOYHFWRU 3, 2, 4 , which is a scalar multiple of 9, 6, 12 .


Lesson 11: Lines and Planes in Space

x Two distinct planes are parallel if their normal vectors are scalar multiples of each other. For instance,
the planes 3xíy + z = 6 and 6xíyz DUHSDUDOOHOEHFDXVHWKHLUQRUPDOYHFWRUVn1 3,  2, 1
and n 2 6,  4, 2 VDWLVI\Q Q.

x 7ZRSODQHVDUHSHUSHQGLFXODUͼ௘RUWKRJRQDO௘ͽLIWKHLUQRUPDOYHFWRUVDUHSHUSHQGLFXODU²WKDWLVLIWKH
dot product of the normal vectors is zero.

x ,QWKHIRUPXODIRUWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQDSRLQWQ and a plane, the choice of the point P in the plane is


DUELWUDU\)RULQVWDQFH\RXZRXOGKDYHREWDLQHGWKHVDPHDQVZHULQ([DPSOHLI\RXKDGFKRVHQWKH
point P௘ͼ௘௘ͽ


3LWIDOO

x 7KUHHSRLQWVLQVSDFHGRQRWQHFHVVDULO\GHWHUPLQHDSODQH,IWKHSRLQWVDUHFROOLQHDUWKHQWKHUHLVDQ
LQ¿QLWHQXPEHURISODQHVFRQWDLQLQJWKHWKUHHSRLQWV

3UREOHPV

 )LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIWKHSODQHSDVVLQJWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGSHUSHQGLFXODUWRWKHYHFWRUQ = j.

 )LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIWKHSODQHSDVVLQJWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGSHUSHQGLFXODUWRWKHOLQH
x ít, y ít, z ít.

 )LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIWKHSODQHSDVVLQJWKURXJKWKHWKUHHSRLQWVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘íí௘ͽ

 )LQGWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHWZRSODQHVxyíz = 7 and xíyz = 0.

 Determine whether the planes 5xíy + z DQGxy + 7z DUHSDUDOOHORUWKRJRQDORUQHLWKHU

 Determine whether the planes 3x + yíz DQGíxíyz DUHSDUDOOHORUWKRJRQDORUQHLWKHU

 )LQGWKHSDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVRIWKHOLQHWKDWSDVVHVWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽDQGLVSHUSHQGLFXODUWRWKH
SODQHJLYHQE\xyíz = 6.

 )LQGWKHSDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQVRIWKHOLQHWKDWSDVVHVWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽDQGLVSDUDOOHOWRWKHxz
plane and the yzSODQH

 )LQGWKHGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽWRWKHSODQHx + yíz = 9.

 )LQGWKHGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽWRWKHSODQHxíy + 5z = 6.


Curved Surfaces in Space
Lesson 12

Topics

x 6SKHUHVDQGSODQHV

x &\OLQGULFDOVXUIDFHV

x Quadric surfaces.

x 6XUIDFHVRIUHYROXWLRQ

x 7KH0|ELXVVWULS

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x 6SKHUHRIFHQWHUͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽDQGUDGLXVrͼ௘xíx0௘ͽͼ௘yíy0௘ͽͼ௘zíz0௘ͽ = r.

x 3ODQH in space: ax + by + cz + d = 0.

x Let CEHDFXUYHLQDSODQHDQGOHWLEHDOLQHQRWLQDSDUDOOHOSODQH7KHVHWRIDOOOLQHVSDUDOOHO
to L and intersecting C is called a F\OLQGHU. C is theJHQHUDWLQJ FXUYH, and the parallel lines are
the UXOLQJV.

x The general equation of a TXDGULFVXUIDFH is

Ax + By + Cz + Dxy + Exz + Fyz + Gx + Hy + Iz + J = 0.

6XPPDU\
Lesson 12: Curved Surfaces in Space

:HKDYHDOUHDG\VHHQPDQ\JUDSKVRIVXUIDFHVLQVSDFHLQFOXGLQJSODQHVDQGVSKHUHV,QWKLVOHVVRQZHIRFXV
RQYDULRXVW\SHVRIVXUIDFHVWKDWSOD\DUROHLQRXUVWXG\RIPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXV:H¿UVWORRNDWF\OLQGULFDO
VXUIDFHVDJHQHUDOL]DWLRQRIWKHIDPLOLDUF\OLQGHU7KHQZHSUHVHQWWKHFODVVRIVXUIDFHVFDOOHGTXDGULF
VXUIDFHV:HKDYHDOUHDG\VHHQVRPHRIWKHVHLQFOXGLQJSDUDERORLGVDQGHOOLSVRLGV:HEULHÀ\PHQWLRQ
VXUIDFHVRIUHYROXWLRQZKLFKZLOOVHHPIDPLOLDUIURPHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV)LQDOO\ZHVKRZWKHIDPRXV
0|ELXVVWULSDVXUIDFHZLWKRQO\RQHVLGH

([DPSOH

6NHWFKWKHVXUIDFHz = y.


6ROXWLRQ
z
8
7KHJUDSKLVDF\OLQGHUZKRVHJHQHUDWLQJFXUYH z = yLVDSDUDEROD
in the yzSODQH7KHUXOLQJVRIWKHF\OLQGHUDUHSDUDOOHOWRWKHxD[LV
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH 4

6NHWFKWKHVXUIDFHJLYHQE\xíyz 

6ROXWLRQ  y
í
4
We rewrite the equation as follows: x
Figure 12.1
2 2 2
4 x  3 y  12 z 12
2
x2  y  z 2 1
3 4
z
y2 x2 z 2 4
  1.
4 3 1

7KLVLVDK\SHUERORLGRIWZRVKHHWV7KHWUDFHVLQWKHxySODQH í
ͼ௘z ௘ͽDQGLQWKHyzSODQHͼ௘x ௘ͽDUHK\SHUERODV7KHUHDUHQR í


traces in the xzSODQHͼ௘y ௘ͽͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ 4


y
4
x
([DPSOH

6NHWFKWKHVXUIDFHJLYHQE\xy + zíxyíz + 3 = 0. í
Figure 12.2

6ROXWLRQ

%\FRPSOHWLQJWKHVTXDUH\RXREWDLQWKHHTXDWLRQRIDQHOOLSVRLG z
FHQWHUHGDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

2
2 2 2
x  2 y  1 z  1
  1.
4 2 4

í
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ 2
y

4
x
Figure 12.3


([DPSOH z
4

,I\RXURWDWH y 1 , z ! 0, DERXWWKHzD[LV\RXREWDLQWKHVXUIDFHRI
z
2
revolution x 2  y 2 §¨ 1 ·¸ . ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ 2
©z¹

6WXG\7LSV

í
x &RPSXWHUVDQGJUDSKLQJFDOFXODWRUVDUHYHU\XVHIXOLQ 2
y
x
producing graphs of surfaces in space. Figure 12.4

x 4XDGULFVXUIDFHVDUHWKHWKUHHGLPHQVLRQDODQDORJVRIFRQLFVHFWLRQV

x 7KH0|ELXVVWULSLVDQH[DPSOHRIDVXUIDFHZLWKRQO\RQHVLGH

3LWIDOOV

x 7KHZRUG³F\OLQGHU´FDQEHPLVOHDGLQJ,QFDOFXOXVDF\OLQGHUGRHVQRWKDYHWRORRNOLNHWKHXVXDO
³WLQFDQ´DVLOOXVWUDWHGLQ([DPSOH

x 7KHJUDSKRIDQHTXDWLRQGHSHQGVRQZKHWKHU\RXDUHZRUNLQJLQDSODQHRUVSDFH)RULQVWDQFHWKH
equation z = xLVDSDUDERODLQWKHxzSODQHEXWLWLVDF\OLQGHULQVSDFH

3UREOHPV

 'HVFULEHWKHVXUIDFHy = 5.

 'HVFULEHWKHVXUIDFHy + z = 9.

x2 y 2 z 2
 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFH   1.
16 25 25
Lesson 12: Curved Surfaces in Space

 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFHxíyz 

 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFHxíyíz 

 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFHxíy + z = 0.

 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFHx + 9yzíxíy + 36 = 0.

 ,GHQWLI\WKHTXDGULFVXUIDFHx + yízíxíyíz 


 )LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIWKHVXUIDFHRIUHYROXWLRQJHQHUDWHGE\UHYROYLQJWKHFXUYHz y in the yzSODQHDERXW
the yD[LV

 )LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIWKHVXUIDFHRIUHYROXWLRQJHQHUDWHGE\UHYROYLQJWKHFXUYHz y in the yzSODQHDERXW


the zD[LV


Vector-Valued Functions in Space
Lesson 13

Topics

x 9HFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQV

x 7KHGHULYDWLYHRIDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQ

x ,QWHJUDOVRIYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQV

x Particle motion.

x The unit tangent vector.

x Arc length and the differential of arc length.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x 9HFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQV r t f t i  g t j  h t k f t , g t , h t .

r t  't  r t
x The GHULYDWLYHRIDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQ r c t lim .
't o 0 't

x The derivative of the cross product: d >r u u @ r u uc  r c u u .


dt

x Particle motion

Position: Uͼ௘t௘ͽ xͼ௘t௘ͽi + yͼ௘t௘ͽj + zͼ௘t௘ͽk.


Lesson 13: Vector-Valued Functions in Space

9HORFLW\ vͼ௘t௘ͽ Uƍͼ௘t௘ͽ xƍͼ௘t௘ͽi + yƍͼ௘t௘ͽj + zƍͼ௘t௘ͽk.


Acceleration: Dͼ௘t௘ͽ UƎͼ௘t௘ͽ xƎͼ௘t௘ͽi + yƎͼ௘t௘ͽj + zƎͼ௘t௘ͽk.
2 2 2
6SHHG v t rc t ¬ª xc t ¼º  ¬ª y c t ¼º  ¬ª z c t ¼º .

rc t
x The XQLWWDQJHQWYHFWRU: T t .
rc t

b 2 2 2 b
x $UFOHQJWK: s ³ ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt ³ r c t dt .
a a

2 2 2
x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIDUFOHQJWK: ds ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt r c t dt .


6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHH[WHQGRXUNQRZOHGJHRIYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQVLQWKHSODQHWRIXQFWLRQVLQVSDFH:HUHFDOO
WKHGH¿QLWLRQRIWKHGHULYDWLYHRIDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQDQGGHYHORSVRPHRILWVSURSHUWLHV:HWKHQIRFXV
RQRQHRIWKHPDLQWKHPHVRIFDOFXOXV²SDUWLFOHPRWLRQ:HGH¿QHWKHSRVLWLRQYHORFLW\DQGDFFHOHUDWLRQ
IXQFWLRQV7KHXQLWWDQJHQWYHFWRULVLQWURGXFHGDQGZLOOSOD\DQLPSRUWDQWUROHLQXSFRPLQJOHVVRQV)LQDOO\
ZHUHFDOOWKHGH¿QLWLRQRIDUFOHQJWKRIDFXUYH

([DPSOH

&DOFXODWHWKH¿UVWDQGVHFRQGGHULYDWLYHVRIWKHYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQIRUWKHKHOL[U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ FRVti + sin tjtk.

6ROXWLRQ

:HGLIIHUHQWLDWHWKHFRPSRQHQWVWRREWDLQUƍͼ௘t௘ͽ íVLQti + cos tjtk and UƎͼ௘t௘ͽ íFRVtiíVLQtj.

([DPSOH

&DOFXODWHWKHGHULYDWLYHRIWKHGRWSURGXFWRIWKHYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQV r t 1 i  j  ln tk and
t
u t t 2 i  2 tj  k .

6ROXWLRQ

:HFDQGRWKLVSUREOHPWZRZD\V:HFRXOG¿UVWWDNHWKHGRWSURGXFWDQGGLIIHUHQWLDWHWKHUHVXOW
U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ‡X௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ  1 ͼ௘t௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘ít௘ͽOQ௘t௘ͼ௘௘ͽ ttOQ௘t = 3tOQ௘t.
t

The derivative is therefore d ª¬r t <u t º¼ d 3t  ln t 3  1 .


> @
dt dt t

Or, we could use the product rule for the dot product, ª¬r t <u t º¼c r t <uc t  r c t <u t . We will,
RIFRXUVHREWDLQWKHVDPHDQVZHU

([DPSOH

Find the antiderivative of the function r c t cos 2ti  2sin tj  1 k.


1 t 2

6ROXWLRQ

:HLQWHJUDWHWHUPE\WHUP r t 1 sin 2ti  2 cos tj  arctan tk  C . Notice that the constant of integration is a
2
vector, not a scalar.


([DPSOH

$QREMHFWLVPRYLQJZLWKSRVLWLRQIXQFWLRQ r t 4 cos ti  4sin tj  3tk)LQGLWVYHORFLW\DFFHOHUDWLRQ


and speed.

6ROXWLRQ

:HFDOFXODWHWKH¿UVWDQGVHFRQGGHULYDWLYHVWRREWDLQWKHYHORFLW\DQGDFFHOHUDWLRQ

v௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ Uƍͼ௘t௘ͽ íVLQ ti FRV tj + 3k and D௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ UƎͼ௘t௘ͽ í FRV tií VLQ tj.

7KHVSHHGLVJLYHQE\

2 2 2
v t rc t ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ 16sin 2 t  16 cos 2 t  9 16  9 5.

ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH z

)LQGWKHDUFOHQJWKRIRQHWXUQRIWKHKHOL[

8
U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ  FRV ti VLQ tj +3tk”t”ʌ.

6ROXWLRQ

7KHDUFOHQJWKLVJLYHQE\

b 2 2 2 í
s ³ ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt í
Lesson 13: Vector-Valued Functions in Space

2S 
2 2 2
> 4sin t @  > 4 cos t @  >3@  
³0
dt
x
y

2S Figure 13.1
³ 5 dt 10S .
0

6WXG\7LSV

x <RXFDQHYDOXDWHWKHGHULYDWLYHRIDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQE\GLIIHUHQWLDWLQJWKHLQGLYLGXDO
components. That is, if U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ f ͼ௘t௘ͽi + g ͼ௘t௘ͽj + h௘ͼ௘t௘ͽk, then the derivative is Uƍͼ௘t௘ͽ f ƍͼ௘t௘ͽi + gƍͼ௘t௘ͽj + hƍͼ௘t௘ͽk.

x The derivative vector is tangent to the curve and points in the direction of motion.

50
x 7KHXQLWWDQJHQWYHFWRULQ([DPSOHLVDXQLWYHFWRUSRLQWLQJLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIPRWLRQ

rc t 1 4sin ti  4 cos tj  3k .
T t
rc t 5

x <RXFDQLQWHJUDWHDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQE\LQWHJUDWLQJWKHLQGLYLGXDOFRPSRQHQWV)XUWKHUPRUH
\RXFDQFRPELQHWKHFRQVWDQWVRILQWHJUDWLRQLQWRRQHFRQVWDQWC, which is a vector.

3LWIDOO

x The constant of integration CIRUDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQLVDYHFWRUQRWDVFDODU

3UREOHPV
2
 Calculate the derivative of the function r t 1 i  16tj  t k .
t 2

 Calculate the derivative of the function r t t 3 , cos 3t ,sin 3t .

 Calculate r c t <r cc t if r t 1 t 2 ,  t, 1 t 3 .
2 6

 )LQGWKHLQGH¿QLWHLQWHJUDO ³ 2ti  j  k dt .
S
 (YDOXDWHWKHGH¿QLWHLQWHJUDO ³0 4 ª¬ sec t tan t i  tan t j  2sin t cos t k º¼ dt .

 )LQGWKHYHORFLW\VSHHGDQGDFFHOHUDWLRQRIDSDUWLFOHPRYLQJZLWKSRVLWLRQIXQFWLRQU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ titjtk.

 Find the unit tangent vector to the curve r t 2 cos t , 2sin t , 4 .

 Find the unit tangent vector to the curve U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ ti + tj + tkDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the arc length of the space curve U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ ítitj + 3tkRYHUWKHLQWHUYDO”t”

 Find the arc length of the space curve r t 2sin t ,5t , 2 cos t RYHUWKHLQWHUYDO”t”ʌ.


Kepler’s Laws—The Calculus of Orbits
Lesson 14

Topic

• Kepler’s laws.

Definitions and Theorems

• Kepler’s first law: The orbit of each planet is an ellipse, with the Sun at one of the two foci.
﴾ See Figure 14.1. ﴿

• Kepler’s second law: A line joining a planet and the


Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of planet

time. ﴾ See Figure 14.2. ﴿ Sun

• Kepler’s third law: The square of the orbital period Figure 14.1
of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the
semimajor axis of the orbit.

• Newton’s second law of motion: F = ma.

• Newton’s law of gravitation: F = − GMm r.


r2

Here, F is the gravitational force on the planet,


M is the mass of the Sun, m is the mass of the planet,
G is a constant, and r = r is the length of the
Lesson 14: Kepler’s Laws—The Calculus of Orbits

position vector. Figure 14.2

Summary

Kepler’s famous laws of planetary motion were announced by the German astronomer and mathematician
Johannes Kepler ﴾ 1571–1630 ﴿. His three laws were based on a 20-year study of astronomical data compiled by
the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. Isaac Newton later used calculus to derive these laws from basic laws of
physics. In this lesson, we will study these three laws and use our calculus skills to prove the second law.

52
Example 1

Show that a given planet always moves in a plane.

Solution

Recall that the cross product of a vector with itself is zero. In fact, the cross product of parallel vectors is zero:
If u = u1i + u2j + u3k and v = cu = cu1i + cu2j + cu3k are parallel vectors, then

i j k
u × c=
u u1 u2 u=3 ( u2 cu3 − u3 cu2 ) i − ( u1cu3 − u3 cu1 ) j + ( u1cu2 − u2 cu1 )=
k 0.
cu1 cu 2 cu3

From Newton’s second law of motion and the law of gravitation,

F =ma =− GMm r ⇒ a =− GM r.
r2 r2

This means that a and r are parallel, so their cross product is zero, r × r ′′ = r × a = 0.

Next, consider the following derivative: d [r × r ′] = r ′ × r ′ + r × r ′′ = 0.


dt

Because the derivative is zero, r × r′ is a constant—for example, r × r′ = L. So, the planet moves in a plane
orthogonal to this constant vector L. That is, the vector r lies in a plane orthogonal to L.

Example 2

Prove Kepler’s second law.

Solution

Begin by writing the position function in polar coordinates,


= r r ( cos θ i + sin θ j) .

r ( sin θ i + cos θ j) dθ . We calculate the cross product of r and


dr =−
Then, we have r = r and r ′ =
dt dt
its derivative:

i j k
r × r ′ =r cos θ r sin θ 0 dθ
dt
− r sin θ r cos θ 0

=r 2 ( cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ ) dθ k =r 2 dθ k .
dt dt

53
6RQRZZHKDYH r u r c r 2 dT k and U × Uƍ L, which implies that r u r c L r 2 dT .
dt dt

&RQVLGHUWKHDUHDVZHSWRXWEHWZHHQș Įand ș ȕ,QSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWKHDUHDLV

1 E r 2 dT 1 t1 r 2 dT dt 1 t1 L dt 1 L t t .
A
2 ³D 2 ³t0 dt 2 ³t0 2
1 0

6RIRUWKHWLPHLQWHUYDO>t0, t@WKHDUHDVZHSWRXWLVFRQVWDQW,QRWKHUZRUGVIRUWLPHLQWHUYDOVRIHTXDOOHQJWK
the areas swept out are the same, which proves Kepler’s second law.

([DPSOH

)RUWKHSODQHW0HUFXU\a DQGP .HSOHU¶VWKLUGODZLVYHUL¿HGEHFDXVHa3 = 0.05800 and


P ZKLFKDUHYHU\FORVH

6WXG\7LSV

x 7KHRUELWDOSHULRGIRU(DUWKLVP \HDU

2 y2
x 7KHVHPLPDMRUD[LVRIWKHHOOLSVH x 2  2 1, a ! b , is a,QDVWURQRPLFDOXQLWVͼ௘$8௘ͽa 
a b
1 E r 2 dT .
2 ³D
x Recall the formula for area in polar coordinates: A

3UREOHPV

 +DOOH\¶V&RPHWKDVDQHOOLSWLFDORUELWZLWKWKH6XQDWRQHIRFXVDQGKDVDQHFFHQWULFLW\RIe§
7KHOHQJWKͼ௘a௘ͽRIWKHPDMRUD[LVRIWKHRUELWLVDSSUR[LPDWHO\DVWURQRPLFDOXQLWVͼ௘$8௘ͽ
ͼ௘$ QDVWURQRPLFDOXQLWLVGH¿QHGDVWKHPHDQGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQ(DUWKDQGWKH6XQPLOOLRQPLOHV௘ͽ
$SRODUHTXDWLRQIRUWKHRUELWLV
Lesson 14: Kepler’s Laws—The Calculus of Orbits

r ed .
1  e sin T

Find the value of d. Then, use the fact that c = eaLVWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQWKHIRFXVDQGWKHFHQWHUWR


GHWHUPLQHKRZFORVHWKHFRPHWFRPHVWRWKH6XQ

 7KHDVWHURLG$SROORKDVDSHULRGRI(DUWKGD\VDQGLWVRUELWLVDSSUR[LPDWHGE\WKHHOOLSVH

r 1 9 ,
1 5 9 cosT 9  5cos T

where rLVPHDVXUHGLQDVWURQRPLFDOXQLWV7KHDUHDRIWKLVHOOLSVHLVDSSUR[LPDWHO\
8VHDJUDSKLQJXWLOLW\WRDSSUR[LPDWHWKHWLPHLWWDNHV$SROORWRPRYHIURPWKHSRVLWLRQJLYHQE\
ș íʌWRș = ʌ


Directional Derivatives and Gradients
Lesson 15

Topics

x Directional derivatives.

x 7KHJUDGLHQWRIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRRUPRUHYDULDEOHV

x Properties of the gradient.

x *UDGLHQWVDQGOHYHOFXUYHV

x *UDGLHQWVDQGOHYHOVXUIDFHV

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let X = cos și + sin șjEHDXQLWYHFWRULQWKHSODQHDQGOHWfEHDGLIIHUHQWLDEOHIXQFWLRQRIx and y.


The GLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYH of f in the direction of X is

Du f x , y f x x , y cos T  f y x , y sin T .

x Let z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽEHDIXQFWLRQZKRVHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVH[LVW7KHJUDGLHQW of f is the vector


grad f x , y ’f x , y f x x , y i  f y x , y j .

x Theorem: Du f x, y ’f x , y <u.

x Theorem: Du f x , y ’f x , y cos I , where ijLVWKHDQJOHEHWZHHQWKHJUDGLHQWDQGWKHXQLW


vector X7KHGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHLVDPD[LPXPZKHQFRV‫ ׋‬DQGDPLQLPXPZKHQFRV‫ ׋‬í

x 7KHRUHP,IfLVGLIIHUHQWLDEOHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽDQG ’f x0 , y0 z 0, then ’f x0 , y0 is orthogonal


WRWKHOHYHOFXUYHWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ,QDVLPLODUPDQQHUJUDGLHQWVRIIXQFWLRQVRIWKUHH
YDULDEOHVDUHRUWKRJRQDOWROHYHOVXUIDFHV

6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHFRQWLQXHRXUVWXG\RIIXQFWLRQVRIWZRRUPRUHLQGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHV:H¿UVWJHQHUDOL]HWKH
FRQFHSWRISDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHWRWKHVRFDOOHGGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYH7KLVOHDGVWRWKHGH¿QLWLRQRIWKHJUDGLHQW
RIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRͼ௘RUPRUH௘ͽYDULDEOHV:HZLOOVHHWKDWWKHJUDGLHQWLVDYHFWRUWKDWSRLQWVLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRI

55
PD[LPXPLQFUHDVHͼ௘VWHHSHVWDVFHQW௘ͽ)LQDOO\ZHGLVFRYHUWKDWWKHJUDGLHQWYHFWRULQWKHSODQHLVRUWKRJRQDO
WROHYHOFXUYHV$QGLQVSDFHWKHJUDGLHQWLVRUWKRJRQDOWROHYHOVXUIDFHV7KLVZLOOEHDNH\UHVXOWZKHQZH
GHYHORSWDQJHQWSODQHVWRVXUIDFHVLQWKHQH[WOHVVRQ

([DPSOH

Find the directional derivative of f ( x , y ) 4  x 2  1 y 2 DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRI


4
u §¨ cos S ·¸ i  §¨ sin S ·¸ j.
© 3¹ © 3¹

6ROXWLRQ

y
Du f x , y f x x , y cos T  f y x , y sin T 2 x cos T  §¨  2 ·¸ sin T .
© ¹

We have T S , x y VR D f 1, 2


u 2 §¨ 12 ·¸  1 §¨ 3·
¸ 1 
3
| 1.866.
3 © ¹ © 2 ¹ 2

([DPSOH

Find the gradient of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y௘OQ௘x + xyDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ

y
The partial derivatives are f x x , y  y 2 and f y x , y ln x  2 xy.
x
§y ·
6RZHKDYH ’f x , y f x x , y i  f y x , y j ¨  y 2 ¸ i  ln x  2 xy j.
© x ¹

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ ’f 1, 2 § 2  2 2 · i  ln1  2(1)(2) j 6i  4 j.


¨ ¸
©1 ¹

([DPSOH
Lesson 15: Directional Derivatives and Gradients

7KHJUDGLHQWRIWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKUHHYDULDEOHV f ( x , y , z ) x 2  y 2  4 z is

’f x , y , z f x ( x , y , z ) i  f y ( x , y , z ) j  f z ( x , y , z )k 2 xi  2 yj  4k .

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ ’f 2,  1, 1 4 i  2 j  4k . z
4

Consider a level surface through this point


f ͼ௘í௘ͽ ͼ௘í௘ͽíͼ௘௘ͽ 7KHJUDGLHQWYHFWRU 2

is orthogonal to the level surface through the point í


x 2  y 2  4 z 1 Ÿ z 1 x 2  y 2  1 .
í
í 
í í
4 í

2 2 y
4
,QWKLVFDVHWKHJUDGLHQWLVSRLQWLQJGRZQZDUGDWWKHSRLQW x4
ͼ௘í௘ͽRQWKHSDUDERORLGͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ Figure 15.1

56
6WXG\7LSV

x 7KHGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHLVDQXPEHU,Iș = 0, then the directional derivative is just the partial


derivative fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ6LPLODUO\LIș ƒ ʌWKHQWKHGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHLVf y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ

x 7KHJUDGLHQWRIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRͼ௘RUPRUH௘ͽYDULDEOHVLVDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQ

x *UDGLHQWVRIIXQFWLRQVRIWZRYDULDEOHVDUHRUWKRJRQDOWROHYHOFXUYHVDQGJUDGLHQWVRIIXQFWLRQVRI
WKUHHYDULDEOHVDUHRUWKRJRQDOWROHYHOVXUIDFHV

3LWIDOOV

x ,QWKHGH¿QLWLRQRIGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHWKHGLUHFWLRQYHFWRUXPXVWEHDXQLWYHFWRU

x Furthermore, the function fPXVWEHGLIIHUHQWLDEOH<RXFDQFRQVXOWDFDOFXOXVWH[WERRNIRUDPRUH


JHQHUDOGH¿QLWLRQRIGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHLQYROYLQJOLPLWV

3UREOHPV

 Find the directional derivative of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xíxy + 9y at the point P௘ͼ௘௘ͽLQWKHGLUHFWLRQ
of v 3 i  4 j.
5 5

 Find the directional derivative of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ex sin y at the point P௘ͼ௘ʌ௘ͽLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRI
v íi.

 Find the directional derivative of the function f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x + y + z at the point P௘ͼ௘௘ͽLQWKHGLUHFWLRQ
of v = iíj + k.

 Find the gradient of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + 5yDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the gradient of the function z OQ௘ͼ௘xíy௘ͽDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the gradient of the function f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xíyzDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

 )LQGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIWKHGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHRIWKHIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xxyDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 )LQGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIWKHGLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHRIWKHIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyzDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find a normal vector to the level curve f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íxíy = 6 at the point P௘ͼ௘௘ͽ

 7KHWHPSHUDWXUHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽRQDPHWDOSODWHLV T x . Find the direction of greatest increase


x2  y 2
LQKHDWIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

57
Tangent Planes and Normal Vectors to a Surface
Lesson 16

Topics

x Normal vectors to surfaces.

x Tangent planes to surfaces.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x &RQVLGHUDVXUIDFHJLYHQE\F ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ 7KLVLVDOHYHOVXUIDFHVRWKHJUDGLHQWYHFWRU n a , b, c


LVQRUPDOWRWKHVXUIDFHDWDQ\SRLQWͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽRQWKHVXUIDFH7KLVYHFWRUWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHSRLQW
determines the WDQJHQWSODQH to the surface. The equation of the tangent plane is
a௘ͼ௘xíx0௘ͽb௘ͼ௘yíy0௘ͽc௘ͼ௘zíz0௘ͽ 

x 7KHHTXDWLRQRIWKHWDQJHQWSODQHFDQEHZULWWHQDV

Fx x0 , y0 , z 0 x  x0  Fy x0 , y0 , z 0 y  y0  Fz x0 , y0 , z 0 z  z 0 0.

6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHVKRZKRZWR¿QGWKHHTXDWLRQRIDWDQJHQWSODQHWRDVXUIDFH7KHVHFUHWLVWRXVHWKHIDFW
IURPWKHSUHYLRXVOHVVRQWKDWJUDGLHQWVDUHRUWKRJRQDOWROHYHOVXUIDFHV:HDOVRVKRZWKDWDSSUR[LPDWLRQVE\
Lesson 16: Tangent Planes and Normal Vectors to a Surface

WKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDODUHHTXLYDOHQWWRXVLQJWKHWDQJHQWSODQHWRDSSUR[LPDWHWKHVXUIDFH

([DPSOH z
2
The level surface F ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ IRUWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKUHH
YDULDEOHVF ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x + y + zíLVDVSKHUHRIUDGLXV
í
F ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x + y + zí RUx + y + z = 9. í
2
2
The gradient of the function is ’F x , y , z 2 xi  2 yj  2 zk , y
x
ZKLFKLVQRUPDOWRWKHVXUIDFHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ
’F 1, 2, 2 2i  4 j  4k . ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ í

([DPSOH
Figure 16.1

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the surface z = x + y at


WKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

58
6ROXWLRQ

'H¿QHWKHIXQFWLRQRIWKUHHYDULDEOHVF ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽíz = x + yíz and consider the level surface
F ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x + yíz = 0.

The gradient is ’F x , y , z 2 x , 2 y ,  1 , and ’F 1, 1, 2 2, 2,  1 . This vector is normal to the surface at


WKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

z
Using this normal vector and the given point, we have 4
ͼ௘xí௘ͽͼ௘yí௘ͽíͼ௘zí௘ͽ 6RWKHHTXDWLRQRIWKHWDQJHQW
SODQHLVxyíz ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH 2
(1, 1, 2)

6KRZWKDWDSSUR[LPDWLRQVE\WKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDODUHHTXLYDOHQWWR
í
í
DSSUR[LPDWLQJDVXUIDFHE\LWVWDQJHQWSODQH í

2
2 y
6ROXWLRQ x
Figure 16.2
Consider the surface] I ͼ௘x, y௘ͽDQGIRUPWKHIXQFWLRQF ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽíz.

7KHWDQJHQWSODQHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽLVJLYHQE\

Fx x  x0  Fy y  y0  Fz z  z 0 0
f x x0  y0 x  x0  f y x0  y0 y  y0  z  z 0 0
z  z0 f x x0  y0 x  x0  f y x0  y0 y  y0 .

&RPSDUHWKLVWRWKHHUURUIRUPXODJLYHQE\WKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDO

'z | f x x0 , y0 'x  f y x0 , y0 'y .

6WXG\7LSV

x )RUIXQFWLRQVRIWKUHHYDULDEOHVWKHJUDGLHQWYHFWRU ’F x0 , y0 , z 0 LVQRUPDOͼ௘RUWKRJRQDO௘ͽWRWKH
OHYHOVXUIDFHWKURXJKWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0, z0௘ͽ

x 7KHNH\WR¿QGLQJWKHWDQJHQWSODQHWRDVXUIDFHz = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVWRH[SUHVVWKHHTXDWLRQDVWKHOHYHO


VXUIDFHRIDIXQFWLRQRIWKUHHYDULDEOHVF ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽíz DVZHGLGLQ([DPSOH

x $VPHQWLRQHGLQDSUHYLRXVOHVVRQWKHWRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDOLVDWDQJHQWSODQHDSSUR[LPDWLRQWRDVXUIDFH
7KLVLVVLPLODUWRWKHWDQJHQWOLQHDSSUR[LPDWLRQWRDFXUYHLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV

59
3LWIDOO

x A function F ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽKDVWREH³QLFH´LQRUGHUWRKDYHDWDQJHQWSODQHDWDSRLQW)RUH[DPSOHWKHUHLV


QRWDQJHQWSODQHGH¿QHGDWWKHYHUWH[RIDFRQH

3UREOHPV

 Find a unit normal vector to the surface 3xyz DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find a unit normal vector to the surface x + y + z DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find a normal vector to the surface zíx sin y DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘ʌ௘ͽ

 Find a normal vector to the surface z = x3DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

 Find an equation of the tangent plane to the surface z = x + yDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

y
 Find an equation of the tangent plane to the surface f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ
x

 Find an equation of the tangent plane to the surface xz = yDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

 Find an equation of the tangent plane to the surface xy + z DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ

 )LQGWKHSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRQWKHVXUIDFHz íxíy + 6y at which the tangent plane is horizontal.


Lesson 16: Tangent Planes and Normal Vectors to a Surface

 )LQGWKHSRLQW௘ͼ௘V௘ͽRQWKHVXUIDFH z xy  1  1 at which the tangent plane is horizontal.


x y

60
Lagrange Multipliers—Constrained Optimization
Lesson 17

Topics

x Lagrange multipliers.

x $SSOLFDWLRQVWRRSWLPL]DWLRQSUREOHPVZLWKFRQVWUDLQWV

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Lagrange’s theorem: Let f and gKDYHFRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVVXFKWKDWfKDVDQH[WUHPXP


DWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽRQWKHVPRRWKFRQVWUDLQWFXUYHg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ k,I ’g x0 , y0 z 0, WKHQWKHUHLVDUHDOQXPEHUȜ
such that ’f x0 , y0 O’g x0 , y0 . 7KHQXPEHUȜ is called a /DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHU.

6XPPDU\

7KHPHWKRGRI/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVLVDSRZHUIXOWHFKQLTXHIRUVROYLQJRSWLPL]DWLRQSUREOHPVWKDWKDYH
FRQVWUDLQWV)RULQVWDQFH\RXPLJKWZDQWWR¿QGWKHPD[LPXPYROXPHRIDER[ZLWKWKHFRQVWUDLQWWKDWWKH
FRVWRIWKHPDWHULDOIRUWKHER[LV¿[HG:HEHJLQWKLVOHVVRQZLWKDVLPSOHH[DPSOHRIPD[LPL]LQJWKHYDOXHRI
DIXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHVJLYHQDFHUWDLQFRQVWUDLQWRQWKRVHYDULDEOHV7KHQZHVROYHWKHVDPHER[SUREOHP
ZHVDZLQRXUSUHYLRXVOHVVRQRQPD[LPXPPLQLPXPDSSOLFDWLRQV

([DPSOH

)LQGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIWKHIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy, where x, y!VXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


2
g ( x, y ) x2  y 1.
2 2
3 4

6ROXWLRQ

The gradients are ’f x , y 4 y i  4 x j and ’g x , y 2x i  y j .


9 8
y
We solve the equation ’f x , y O g x, y , which implies that 4 y i  4 x j O 2 x i  O j.
9 8
2
y 2 y
+HQFHZHKDYHWKHWKUHHHTXDWLRQV 4 y O 2x , 4x O , and x 2  2 1.
9 8 3 4


18 y
:HQRZXVHRXUDOJHEUDVNLOOVWRVROYHWKHVHHTXDWLRQV)URPWKH¿UVWHTXDWLRQ O .
x
y
§ 18 y · y 9 y2 x2 y
2
6XEVWLWXWHWKLVLQWRWKHVHFRQGHTXDWLRQ 4 x O ¨ x ¸ 8 Ÿ 4 x 4 x Ÿ 9 16 .
8
© ¹
2 y2 y 2
y 2
1H[WXVHWKHFRQVWUDLQWHTXDWLRQ x 2  2 1Ÿ  1 Ÿ 2 y 2 16 Ÿ y 2 8.
3 4 16 16
9 y2 9 8 9Ÿx 3 2.
Thus, we have y 2 2 and x 2
16 16
2 2
§ · § ·
With these values of x and yWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHLV f ¨ 3 2 , 2 2 ¸ 4¨ 3 2 ¸ 2 2 24.
© 2 ¹ © 2 ¹

([DPSOH

7KHPDWHULDOIRUFRQVWUXFWLQJWKHEDVHRIDQRSHQER[FRVWVSHUVTXDUHIRRWDQGWKHPDWHULDOIRU
FRQVWUXFWLQJWKHVLGHVFRVWVSHUVTXDUHIRRW)RUD¿[HGDPRXQWRIPRQH\C 
¿QGWKHGLPHQVLRQVRIWKHER[RIODUJHVWYROXPHWKDWFDQEHPDGHͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ

:HZDQWWRPD[LPL]HWKHYROXPHRIWKHER[f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyz,


VXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQWg ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyxzyz  z
Using Lagrange multipliers, we have
z
’f x , y , z O ’g x , y , z
y
yzi  xzj  xyk O ª¬ 3 y  4 z i  3 x  4 z j  4 x  4 y k º¼ .
x
Lesson 17: Lagrange Multipliers—Constrained Optimization

6RZHPXVWVROYHWKHIROORZLQJIRXUHTXDWLRQVLQIRXUXQNQRZQV Figure 17.1

yz = Ȝ௘ͼ௘yz௘ͽ
xz = Ȝ௘ͼ௘xz௘ͽ
xy = Ȝ௘ͼ௘xy௘ͽ
3xyxzyz 

7KLVUHTXLUHVDORWRIDOJHEUDDQGWKH¿QDOVROXWLRQLVx = y z = 9, and O 3 . 7KHPD[LPXPYROXPHLV


2
xyz îî FXELFIHHW

6WXG\7LSV

x /DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVDUHSDUWLFXODUO\XVHIXOIRURSWLPL]DWLRQDSSOLFDWLRQVKDYLQJVLGHFRQGLWLRQV
or constraints.

x <RXFDQH[WHQG/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWRSUREOHPVZLWKPRUHWKDQRQHFRQVWUDLQW


x :KHQXVLQJ/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWKHDOJHEUDFDQEHTXLWHGLI¿FXOW

x <RXFDQZULWHWKHFRQVWUDLQWLQGLIIHUHQWZD\VEXWWKHJUDGLHQWZLOOEHWKHVDPH)RULQVWDQFHLQ
x2 y2 x2 y2
([DPSOHZHXVHG g x , y 2
 2 1, EXWZHFRXOGKDYHXVHG g x , y   1 0.
3 4 32 4 2

x 1RWLFHWKDWWKHDQVZHUWR([DPSOHLVWKHVDPHDVWKHRQHZHREWDLQHGLQ/HVVRQ:KLFKPHWKRG
GR\RXSUHIHU"

3LWIDOOV

x The technique of Lagrange multipliers can fail ’g x0 , y0 0.

x 7KHJUHDWHVWGLI¿FXOW\ZLWK/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVLVLQVROYLQJWKHV\VWHPRIHTXDWLRQV0DNHVXUHWKDW
\RXFKHFN\RXUDQVZHUZLWKWKHRULJLQDOHTXDWLRQV

3UREOHPV

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPLQLPXPYDOXHRIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + yVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


xyí $VVXPHWKDWx and y are positive.

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xíyVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


yíx = 0. Assume that x and y are positive.

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xxy + yVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


x + y $VVXPHWKDWx and y are positive.

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPLQLPXPYDOXHRIf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x + y + zVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


x + y + zí $VVXPHWKDWx, y, and z are positive.

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPD[LPXPYDOXHRIf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyzVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQW


x + y + zí $VVXPHWKDWx, y, and z are positive.

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPLQLPXPGLVWDQFHIURPWKHOLQHx + y WRWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHPLQLPXPGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSDUDERODy = xWRWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

 $FDUJRFRQWDLQHULQWKHVKDSHRIDUHFWDQJXODUVROLGPXVWKDYHDYROXPHRIFXELFIHHW7KHERWWRP
ZLOOFRVWSHUVTXDUHIRRWWRFRQVWUXFWDQGWKHVLGHVDQGWKHWRSZLOOFRVWSHUVTXDUHIRRWWRFRQVWUXFW
8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKHGLPHQVLRQVRIWKHFRQWDLQHURIWKLVVL]HWKDWKDVPLQLPXPFRVW

63
Applications of Lagrange Multipliers
Lesson 18

Topics

x Applications of Lagrange multipliers.

x 0D[LPL]LQJWKHYROXPHRIDSDFNDJH

x 6QHOO¶VODZRIUHIUDFWLRQ

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Lagrange’s theorem: Let f and gKDYHFRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVVXFKWKDWfKDVDQH[WUHPXP


DWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽRQWKHVPRRWKFRQVWUDLQWFXUYHg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ k,I ’g x0 , y0 z 0 WKHQWKHUHLVDUHDOQXPEHUȜ
such that ’f x0 , y0 O’g x0 , y0 7KHQXPEHUȜ is called a /DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHU.

x When light waves traveling in a transparent medium strike the surface of a second transparent
PHGLXPWKH\WHQGWR³EHQG´LQRUGHUWRIROORZWKHSDWKRIPLQLPXPWLPH7KLVWHQGHQF\LVFDOOHG
UHIUDFWLRQDQGLWLVGHVFULEHGE\6QHOO¶VODZ RIUHIUDFWLRQ.

P
Let v and vEHWKHYHORFLWLHVRIOLJKWLQWKHWZRPHGLD Medium 1
DQGOHWWKHDQJOHVEHDVLQGLFDWHGLQWKH¿JXUH7KHQ
d1
sin T1 sin T 2 ș1
.
v1 v2 x y

d2
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ Medium 2 ș2
Lesson 18: Applications of Lagrange Multipliers

a=x+y Q
6XPPDU\ Figure 18.1

:HFRQWLQXHRXUVWXG\RIFRQVWUDLQHGRSWLPL]DWLRQDSSOLFDWLRQVXVLQJ/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUV:H¿UVWXVHWKHP
WRPD[LPL]HWKHYROXPHRIDSDFNDJHJLYHQDFHUWDLQFRQVWUDLQWRQWKHGLPHQVLRQV:HVDZWKLVSUREOHPLQ
/HVVRQEXWLWZLOOEHHDVLHUZLWK/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUV7KHQZHGHULYH6QHOO¶VODZRIUHIUDFWLRQ

([DPSOH

7KHVXPRIWKHOHQJWKDQGJLUWKͼ௘SHULPHWHURIDFURVVVHFWLRQ௘ͽRIDSDFNDJHFDUULHGE\DGHOLYHU\VHUYLFH
FDQQRWH[FHHGLQFKHV)LQGWKHGLPHQVLRQVRIWKHUHFWDQJXODUSDFNDJHRIODUJHVWYROXPHWKDWFDQEHVHQW
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ


6ROXWLRQ

:HZDQWWRPD[LPL]HWKHYROXPHRIWKHER[V௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyzVXEMHFW


to the constraint g ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyz 8VLQJ/DJUDQJH z
multipliers, we have y
x
’V yz i  xz j  xy k
’g i  2 j  2 k
’V ( x , y , z ) O ’g x , y , z .
Figure 18.2

+HQFHZHPXVWVROYHWKHIROORZLQJIRXUHTXDWLRQVLQIRXUXQNQRZQV

yz = Ȝ
xz Ȝ
xy Ȝ
xyz 

7KHFDOFXOXVSRUWLRQRIWKHSUREOHPLVRYHUDQGQH[WZHQHHGWRXVHDORWRIDOJHEUD)URPWKHVHFRQGDQG
third equations, xz Ȝ and xy Ȝ, we have xz = xy Ÿ z = y)URPWKH¿UVWDQGWKLUGHTXDWLRQVyz = Ȝ and
xy ȜZHKDYHyz Ȝ = xy Ÿ x z6RZHKDYHy = z, x y z1H[WXVHWKHFRQVWUDLQWHTXDWLRQ

xyz 
yyy = 6y 

6RZHKDYHy x = 36, z 7KHGLPHQVLRQVDUHîîLQFKHV

([DPSOH P
Medium 1
8VH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWRGHULYH6QHOO¶VODZRIUHIUDFWLRQ
d1
ș1
6ROXWLRQ x y

Medium 2 d2
Consider the )LJXUH. ș2

a=x+y Q

The distance from P to Q is d1 2  x 2  d 2 2  y 2 . Figure 18.3

Because speed = distance/time, we have time = distance/speed, which is what we want to minimize.

d1 2  x 2 d22  y 2
+HQFHZHZDQWWRPLQLPL]H T x , y  VXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQWg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + y = a.
v1 v2

65
Using Lagrange multipliers,

’T x , y O ’g x , y
x y
i j Oi  O j .
v1 d12  x 2 v2 d 2 2  x 2

6RZHQHHGWRVROYHWKHWKUHHHTXDWLRQV

x O
v1 d12  x 2
y
O
v2 d 2 2  y 2

x y a.

x y
+HQFH 2 2
.
v1 d1  x v2 d 2 2  y 2
x y sin T1 sin T 2
)URPWKH¿JXUH sin T1 and sin T 2 , ZKLFKJLYHV6QHOO¶VODZ .
d1 2  x 2 d22  y 2 v1 v2

6WXG\7LS

x ,W¶VZRUWKUHSHDWLQJWKDWRIWHQWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWVWHSLQVROYLQJD/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUSUREOHPLV
WKHDOJHEUD

3LWIDOO

x The technique of Lagrange multipliers can fail if ’g x0 , y0 0.

3UREOHPV
Lesson 18: Applications of Lagrange Multipliers

 7KH&REE'RXJODVSURGXFWLRQIXQFWLRQIRUDVRIWZDUHPDQXIDFWXUHULVJLYHQE\ f x, y 100 x y ,
3 1
4 4

where xUHSUHVHQWVWKHXQLWVRIODERUͼ௘DWSHUXQLW௘ͽDQGyUHSUHVHQWVWKHXQLWVRIFDSLWDOͼ௘DWSHU
XQLW௘ͽ7KHWRWDOFRVWRIODERUDQGFDSLWDOLVOLPLWHGWR)LQGWKHPD[LPXPSURGXFWLRQOHYHOIRU
this manufacturer.

 )LQGWKHH[WUHPHYDOXHVRIf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xyíxVXEMHFWWRWKHFRQVWUDLQWx + y”


2 2 2
 The volume of an ellipsoid x 2  y 2  z 2 1 is 4S abc. )RUD¿[HGVXPa + b + c, show that the ellipsoid
a b c 3
RIPD[LPXPYROXPHLVDVSKHUH

 )LQGWKHGLPHQVLRQVRIDULJKWFLUFXODUF\OLQGHUZLWKYROXPHV0FXELFXQLWVDQGPLQLPXPVXUIDFHDUHD

 )LQGWKHPLQLPXPGLVWDQFHIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽWRWKHSODQHx + y + z 

66
Iterated Integrals and Area in the Plane
Lesson 19

Topics

x Iterated integrals.

x Iterated integrals and area.

x Reversing the order of integration.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

h2 y g2 x
d
ª f x , y dx º dy and
b
ª f x , y dy º dx .
x Iterated integrals are of the form ³ «¬ ³
c h1 y »¼ ³ «¬ ³
a g1 x »¼

6XPPDU\

We now turn to the theory of integration for multivariable calculus. We begin with iterated integrals, which
are nothing more than repeated simple integrals. We show how an iterated integral can be used to calculate the
area of a planar region. We end the lesson by studying how you can reverse the order of integration. In fact, for
some iterated integrals, you must reverse the order of integration.

([DPSOH

4 x
Calculate the iterated integral ³ ª¬« ³
2 1
2 xy dy º dx .
¼»

6ROXWLRQ

First, we evaluate the integral in the brackets with respect to y, and then we integrate the result with respect to x.

x 4
4
ª x 2 xy dy º dx 4 4 ª x4 x2 º
ª¬ xy 2 º¼ dx ³ x  x dx 64  8  4  2
3
³2 ¬« ³1 ¼» ³
2 1 2 «¬ 4  2 »¼
2
54 .

([DPSOH f (x) = sin x

8VHDQLWHUDWHGLQWHJUDOWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQ
bounded by the graphs of f ͼ௘x௘ͽ VLQ x and g ͼ௘x௘ͽFRV x π 5π

between x S and x 5S . ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ


4 4
4 4
g (x) = cos x

Figure 19.1

67
6ROXWLRQ

We have the following:

5S sin x
4
A ³S ³
4
cos x
dy dx

5S sin x
³S > y @
4
cos x
dx
4

5S

³S >sin x  cos x @ dx
4

5S
>  cos x  sin x @S 44 2 2.

([DPSOH

2 4
6NHWFKWKHUHJLRQZKRVHDUHDLVUHSUHVHQWHGE\WKHLWHUDWHGLQWHJUDO ³ ³ dx dy.
0 y2

6ROXWLRQ

We know that y2”x”6RWKHUHJLRQLV 2


bounded on the left by x y 2 œ y x
and on the right by x 

)XUWKHUPRUH”y”VRWKHUHJLRQLVDV
shown in )LJXUH. 4

Figure 19.2
([DPSOH

2 2 2
6NHWFKWKHUHJLRQRILQWHJUDWLRQUHSUHVHQWHGE\WKHLWHUDWHGLQWHJUDO ³ ³ e  y dy dx. Then, evaluate the integral
Lesson 19: Iterated Integrals and Area in the Plane

0 x
by reversing the order of integration.

6ROXWLRQ 4
y=x
The region of integration is shown in )LJXUH.

2 2 2 2 y 2
Reversing the order, we have ³³ e  y dy dx ³³ e  y dx dy. 2
0 x 0 0

Although the original integral could not be evaluated using the


fundamental theorem of calculus, the new integral can easily be
evaluated using substitution.
2 4

The answer is 1 §¨1  14 ·.


¸
2© e ¹ Figure 19.3

68
6WXG\7LSV

x Iterated integrals are similar to partial derivatives in that you integrate with respect to one variable
ZKLOHKROGLQJWKHRWKHUYDULDEOH¿[HG)RUH[DPSOHLI

f x x, y 2 xy , then f x , y ³ f x, y dx ³ 2 xy dx
x x2 y  C y .

Notice that the “constant of integration” is a function of y.

x Iterated integrals are usually written without brackets or parentheses. For instance, the iterated
LQWHJUDOLQ([DPSOHLVXVXDOO\ZULWWHQDVIROORZV

4 x 4 x
³ ª«¬ ³
2 1
2 xy dy º dx
»¼ ³³
2 1
2 xy dy dx.

x Representative rectangles can be very useful in describing the region of integration.

3LWIDOOV

x For area computations, the outer limits of integration must be constants. For instance, the following
x 4
iterated integral is incorrect: ³ ³ 2 dx dy.
0 y

x .HHSLQPLQGWKDWWKHYDULDEOHRILQWHJUDWLRQFDQQHYHUDSSHDUDVDOLPLWRILQWHJUDWLRQ)RUH[DPSOH
x
the following integral is incorrect: ³ y dx.
0

3UREOHPV
x
 Evaluate the integral ³ x  2 y dy.
0

2y y
 Evaluate the integral ³ dx.
1 x
1 2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³ ³ x  y dy dx.
0 0

S 1
2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³ ³
0 0
y cos x dy dx.

 Evaluate the iterated integral


3 y 4 dx dy.
³³
1 0 x2  y 2

 8VHDQLWHUDWHGLQWHJUDOWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQERXQGHGE\ x  y 2, x DQGy 

69
1 1 y 2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³
0  1 y 2
dx dy.

Then, reverse the order of integration and evaluate the resulting iterated integral.

2 1
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³
0 x
dy dx.
2

Then, reverse the order of integration and evaluate the resulting iterated integral.

1 2 2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³
0 2x
4e y dy dx.

2 4
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³
0 y2
x sin x dx dy.
Lesson 19: Iterated Integrals and Area in the Plane

70
Double Integrals and Volume
Lesson 20

Topics

x Double integrals and volume.

x Properties of double integrals.

x Average value.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Properties of double integrals:

³³ cf x, y dA
R
c ³³ f x , y dA
R

³³ ª¬ f x, y  g x, y º¼ dA ³³ f x, y dA  ³³ g x, y dA.
R R R

x Let f be integrable over the plane region R of area A. The DYHUDJHYDOXH of f over R is

1 f x , y dA.
A ³³

R

6XPPDU\

We continue our study of integration of functions of two variables. We show that the volume of a solid
can be represented by a double integral. These double integrals have many of the same properties as
single integrals. Although the motivation for double integrals was area and volume, we will see in upcoming
lessons that there are many more applications of such integrals. We end the lesson with the familiar topic of
average value.

([DPSOH

Calculate the volume below the surface z íy and above the rectangle given by 0 d x dd y d 2.


6ROXWLRQ z

4 2
The volume is given by the double integral ³³ f ( x, y ) dA ³ ³ 6  2 y dy dx.
R
0 0
z = xíy

We evaluate the integral as follows:

4 2 4 2 4 4
³ ³ 6  2 y dy dx ³
0 0 0
ª¬6 y  y 2 º¼ dx
0 ³0
8 dx >8 x @0 32 .
y

ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH x
Figure 20.1

The double integral for the volume under the surface z VLQ y2 VLQ ͼ௘y2௘ͽDQGDERYHWKHUHJLRQERXQGHGE\
y x , x DQGy LV V ³ ³ x sin y 2 dy dx. Reverse the order of integration.
2 1

2 0 2

6ROXWLRQ

y
The region of integration is a triangle, and the given integral uses
y x
YHUWLFDOUHSUHVHQWDWLYHUHFWDQJOHVͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ 2
x 2y
If instead we use horizontal representative rectangles, we obtain 1 (2, 1)
the integral

2 1 1 2y
V ³³ sin y 2 dy dx ³³ sin y 2 dx dy.
0 x
2 0 0 x
2
1RWLFHWKDWWKH¿UVWLQWHJUDOFDQQRWEHGRQHHDVLO\ZKHUHDVWKH Figure 20.2

second integral is straightforward. The answer is  cos1  1 | 0.4597.

([DPSOH

Find the average value of f x , y 1 xy over the rectangular region RZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ


Lesson 20: Double Integrals and Volume

2
DQGͼ௘௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ

7KHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQLVî 7KHDYHUDJHYDOXHLV

1 f x , y dA 1 4 3 1 xy dy dx .
A ³³
12 ³0 ³0 2
R

7KLVLQWHJUDOLVHDV\WRHYDOXDWHDQGWKH¿QDODQVZHULV 3 .
2

72
6WXG\7LSV

x Double integrals do not only represent areas and volumes. We will see many other applications in
upcoming lessons.

x It is very helpful to draw the region of integration together with a representative rectangle.

x &RPSXWHUVDQGJUDSKLQJFDOFXODWRUVFDQHYDOXDWHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOV6RPHWLPHVWKHDQVZHUPLJKWEHDQ
DSSUR[LPDWLRQ7KHIROORZLQJDUHWZRUHVXOWVIURPDFDOFXODWRU

1 2y
³³ sin y 2 dx dy cos(1)  1
0 0

2 1
³ ³ x
sin y 2 dy dx 0.4596976941.
0 2

3LWIDOOV

x Remember that the outer limits of integration must be constants, and the variable of integration can
QHYHUDSSHDUDVDOLPLWRILQWHJUDWLRQ)RUH[DPSOHWKHIROORZLQJGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLVLQFRUUHFWIRUWZR
2 1
reasons: ³ ³x sin y 2 dx dy.
y 2

x ,Q([DPSOHWKHJLYHQLQWHJUDOFDQQRWEHHYDOXDWHGE\WKHIXQGDPHQWDOWKHRUHPRIFDOFXOXVEHFDXVH
the integrand, sin y2, does not have an elementary antiderivative.

3UREOHPV
y
 Find the volume of the solid bounded by the surface z DQGDERYHWKHUHFWDQJOH”x””y”
2

 Find the volume of the solid bounded by the surface z íxy and above the triangle bounded by
y x, y DQGx 

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWERXQGHGE\z xy, z y x,


and x 

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\x2 + y2 + z2 r2.

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWERXQGHGE\y íx2
and z íx2.

1 1
2 2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³ y
e  x dx dy by switching the order of integration.
0 2

2 2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³
0 x2
y cos y dy dx by switching the order of integration.
2


 Find the average value of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xRYHUWKHUHFWDQJOHZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ
DQGͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the average value of the function f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ VLQͼ௘x + y௘ͽRYHUWKHUHFWDQJOHZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘ʌ௘ͽ
ͼ௘ʌ, ʌ௘ͽDQGͼ௘ʌ௘ͽ

2 y
 :K\LVWKHH[SUHVVLRQ ³0 ³0 x  y dy dx invalid?
Lesson 20: Double Integrals and Volume


Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates
Lesson 21

Topics

x Polar coordinates.

x Double integrals in polar coordinates.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Conversion formulas:

x r cos ș, y r sin ș

y
x2  y2 r 2 , tan T .
x

x Double integrals in polar coordinates: Let R be a planar region consisting of all points
x, y r cos T , r sin T satisfying ”gͼ௘ș௘ͽ”r”g2ͼ௘ș௘ͽĮ”ș”ȕDQG”ͼ௘ȕíĮ௘ͽ”ʌ.
E g 2 T
Then, ³³ f x, y dA ³D ³
R
g1 T
f r cos T , r sin T r dr dT .

6XPPDU\

In this lesson, we develop double integrals in polar coordinates. This conversion is especially useful if the
UHJLRQRILQWHJUDWLRQRUWKHLQWHJUDQGLVHDVLO\H[SUHVVHGLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHV:HEHJLQZLWKDUHYLHZRI
polar coordinates and then develop the formula for a double integral in polar coordinates. In this case, the
differential of area, dA, becomes r dr Gș'RQ¶WIRUJHWWKHH[WUDr factor. We illustrate these ideas with area and
YROXPHH[DPSOHV

y
([DPSOH
2
Use polar coordinates to describe the region in )LJXUH.

6ROXWLRQ 1

The region is a quarter circle of radius 2: ^ r, T : 0 d r d 2, 0 d T d S2 `.


x
1 2
Figure 21.1

75
([DPSOH

2 4 y2
Evaluate the double integral ³³
0 0
y dx dy by converting to polar coordinates.

6ROXWLRQ

The region is a quarter circle of radius 2.

2 4 y2 S 2
³ ³ r sin T r dr dT .
2
In polar coordinates, the integral becomes ³³
0 0
y dx dy
0 0

This integral is easy to evaluate because the limits of integration are constants:

2
S S 3
2ªr º
2
³0 ³0 r sin T r dr dT ³0 «¬ 3 sin T »¼ 0 dT
2

8 S 2 sinT dT 8  cos T S 2
3 ³0 3
> @0
8 ª0  1 º 8.

¼ 3

([DPSOH ʌ
2

6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKH
area of the region bounded by the polar graph r  FRV ș. r = 3 cos 3θ
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

θ=π
6ROXWLRQ 6

7KHJUDSKLVDURVHFXUYHZLWKSHWDOV
Lesson 21: Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

2QHSHWDOLVGH¿QHGE\  S d T d S , θ = −π
6
6 6
where 0 d r d 3cos 3T .

S
6RWKHWRWDODUHDLV A 3³ 6
3cos 3T
r dr dT 9S .
S
6
³ 0 4
Figure 21.2
([DPSOH

6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHLFHFUHDPFRQHERXQGHGDERYHE\WKHKHPLVSKHUH
z 2  x 2  y 2 and bounded below by the cone z x2  y2 .

76
z
6ROXWLRQ

:H¿UVWGHWHUPLQHZKHUHWKHVXUIDFHVLQWHUVHFWE\HTXDWLQJ z= 2 − x2 − y2
the equations:

2  x2  y2 x2  y2
z= x2 + y2
2  x2  y2 x2  y2
2 2x2  2 y2 x2 + y2 = 1
x2  y2 1.
y
x
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ Figure 21.3

In polar coordinates, the equations are

z 2  x2  y2 2  r 2 and z x2  y2 r.

The volume is therefore

2S 1
V ³ ³ ª 2  r 2  r º r dr dT .
0 0 ¬ ¼

The evaluation requires substitution, and you obtain

4 2  1
V S.
3

6WXG\7LSV

x The area of a polar sector is A r¨r¨ș. Hence, the differential of area in rectangular coordinates,
dA dy dx dx dy becomes r dr Gș in polar coordinates.

x In polar coordinates, area is given by ³³ dA ³³ r dr dT .


R R

x The r value can be negative in polar coordinates.

3LWIDOO

x Remember that the differential of area in polar coordinates is dA r dr Gș. Don’t forget the r.

77
3UREOHPV
3 9 x2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³0 0
x dy dx by converting to polar coordinates.

2 4 x2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³ ³
2 0
x 2
 y 2 dy dx by converting to polar coordinates.

2 2 x  x2
 Evaluate the iterated integral ³³0 0
xy dy dx by converting to polar coordinates.

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQHQFORVHGE\WKHJUDSKRIWKH
equation r  FRV ș.

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQHQFORVHGE\WKHJUDSKVRIWKH
equations r DQGr 

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHDUHDERXQGHGE\WKHWKUHHOHDYHGURVHFXUYH
r  VLQ ș.

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWERXQGHG
by z xy and x2 + y2 

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\ z x 2  y 2 , z 
and x2 + y2 

 8VHDGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVWR¿QGWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQVLGHWKHKHPLVSKHUH
z 16  x 2  y 2 and outside the cylinder x2 + y2 

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHDUHDLQVLGHWKHFLUFOHr  FRV ș and outside the


circle r 
Lesson 21: Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

78
Centers of Mass for Variable Density
Lesson 22

Topics

x Mass.

x Moments.

x Centers of mass for variable density.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x If the planar lamina given by the region R has variable density ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽWKHQWKHPDVV is

m ³³ U x, y dA .
R

x The PRPHQWVRIPDVV with respect to the xDQGyD[HVDUH

Mx ³³ y U x, y dA, M
R
y ³³ x U x, y dA .
R

§ My Mx ·
x If m is the mass of the lamina, the FHQWHURIPDVVLVͼ௘ଲxଲ y ௘ͽ  ¨ , ¸.
© m m ¹
6XPPDU\

In this lesson, we apply our knowledge of double integrals to the calculation of mass and centers of mass.
The formula for mass is the double integral of the density function. The formulas for the moments with
UHVSHFWWRWKHD[HVDUHPXFKVLPSOHUWKDQWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJIRUPXODVLQ
y
HOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV,QVRPHH[DPSOHVSRODUFRRUGLQDWHV\LHOGHDVLHU
y=3
integrals than Cartesian coordinates.
(0, 3) (2, 3)
3
([DPSOH
2 R
)LQGWKHPDVVRIWKHWULDQJXODUODPLQDZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ 2y
x
DQGͼ௘௘ͽLIWKHGHQVLW\DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + y. 1 3
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
x
(0, 0) 1 2 3

Figure 22.1

79
6ROXWLRQ

2y
The boundaries of the triangular region are x y DQGx  .
3

Using a horizontal representative rectangle, the mass is

3 2y

³³ 2 x  y dA ³0 ³0 2 x  y dx dy
3
m 10.
R

([DPSOH

)LQGWKHFHQWHURIPDVVRIWKHODPLQDFRUUHVSRQGLQJWRWKHSDUDEROLFUHJLRQ”y”íx2 if the density at the


SRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVFRQVWDQWȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ 

6ROXWLRQ

The mass is

2 4 x2 2 4 x2 2
³ > y@ ³ 4  x dx
2
m ³ ³
2 0
1 dy dx
2 0
dx
2

2
ª x3 º ª§ 8· § 8 ·º 32 .
«¬ 4 x  3 »¼ «¬¨© 8  3 ¸¹  ¨© 8  3 ¸¹ »¼ 3
2

By symmetry, the center of mass lies on the yD[LVVRMy 

2 4 x2 256 .
The moment about the xD[LVLV M x ³ ³ 2 0
y dy dx
15
256
Mx 15 8 , DQGWKHFHQWHURIPDVVLVͼ௘ଲxଲ y ௘ͽ  § 0, 8 · .
6RZHKDYHଲ y  ¨ ¸
m 32 5 © 5¹
3
Lesson 22: Centers of Mass for Variable Density

([DPSOH

6ROYHWKHSUHYLRXVH[DPSOHDVVXPLQJWKDWWKHGHQVLW\LVQRWFRQVWDQWEXWUDWKHUJLYHQE\ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y.

6ROXWLRQ

7KHFRPSXWDWLRQVDUHYHU\VLPLODUWRWKHSUHYLRXVH[DPSOH

2 4 x2 512 . By symmetry, M  


The mass is m ³ ³
2 0
2 y dy dx
15 y

2 4 x2 8192 .
The moment about the xD[LVLV M x ³ ³ y 2 y dy dx
2 0 105

80
y
8192
Mx
6Rଲ y  = 105
= 16 .
m 512
15
7 4

)LQDOO\WKHFHQWHURIPDVVLVͼ௘ ଲ xଲ y ௘ͽ  §¨ 0, 16 ·¸ . 16


© 7 ¹ 7
8
5
Notice that the balancing point has moved up a bit from the previous
H[DPSOHͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
x
í 2
6WXG\7LSV Figure 22.2

x Usually, density is mass per unit of volume. But for planar laminas, density is mass per unit of
surface area.

x The formulas for center of mass are equivalent to those studied in elementary calculus.

x The setup of the problem is the most important step. Calculating the resulting integrals can be
done by hand or by using computers and graphing calculators.

x 1RWLFHKRZZHWRRNDGYDQWDJHRIV\PPHWU\LQ([DPSOHVDQG

3LWIDOO

x The formula for Mx involves y, and the formula for My involves x6LPLODUO\WKHIRUPXODIRUଲ x
involves yDQGWKHIRUPXODIRUଲ y involves x.

3UREOHPV

 )LQGWKHPDVVRIWKHVTXDUHODPLQDERXQGHGE\”x”DQG”y”LIWKHGHQVLW\LVȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy.

 )LQGWKHPDVVRIWKHODPLQDERXQGHGE\”x”DQG”y” 1  x 2 if the density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy.

 )LQGWKHPDVVDQGFHQWHURIPDVVRIWKHWULDQJXODUODPLQDZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽLIWKH
density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y.

 )LQGWKHPDVVDQGFHQWHURIPDVVRIWKHWULDQJXODUODPLQDZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽLIWKH
density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x.

 Find the mass and center of mass of the lamina bounded by y  x , y DQGx LIWKHGHQVLW\LV
ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y.


 Find the mass and center of mass of the lamina bounded by y x2, y DQGx LIWKHGHQVLW\LV
ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy.

 Find the mass and center of mass of the lamina bounded by x2 + y2 ”xDQG”y if the density is
ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ͼ௘x2 + y2௘ͽ
Lesson 22: Centers of Mass for Variable Density

82
Surface Area of a Solid
Lesson 23

Topics

x 6XUIDFHDUHDRIVROLGVLQVSDFH

x The differential of arc length and the differential of surface area.

x 6XUIDFHDUHDLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHV

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let the function f represent a smooth curve on the interval > a , b @ . The DUFOHQJWK between a and b is

b 2
s ³ 1  ª¬ f c x º¼ dx.
a

x If a piece of arc length is rotated about the xD[LVWKHVXUIDFHDUHD of the resulting surface of
revolution is

b 2
A 2S ³ f x 1  ª¬ f c x º¼ dx.
a

x If a piece of arc length is rotated about the yD[LVWKHVXUIDFHDUHD of the resulting surface of
revolution is

b 2
A 2S ³ x 1  ª¬ f c x º¼ dx .
a

x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIDUFOHQJWK is

2
ds 1  ª¬ f c x º¼ dx .

x For a surface given by z f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽGH¿QHGRYHUDUHJLRQR in the xySODQHWKHVXUIDFHDUHD is

2 2
S ³³ 1  ª¬ f x x , y º¼  ª¬ f y x , y º¼ dA.
R

x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFHDUHD is

2 2
dS 1  ª¬ f x x , y º¼  ª¬ f y x , y º¼ dA.


6XPPDU\

The formula for surface area is similar to that of arc length. Both involve an important differential: the
differential of arc length and the differential of surface area. After a brief review of arc length and surfaces
of revolution, we present the general formula for surface area of graphs of functions of two variables.
,QVRPHH[DPSOHVZHZLOOVHHWKDWSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVDUHXVHIXOLQVLPSOLI\LQJWKHFRPSXWDWLRQV

([DPSOH z
2
(0, 0, 2)

Find the surface area of the plane z íxíyLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQW


ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ z íxíy
1

6ROXWLRQ
(0, 2, 0)
We have fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íf y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íDQG 1 y
2
(2, 0, 0) 1
(1, 1, 0)
x2
2 2 Figure 23.1
dS 1  f x  f y dA 1  1  1 dA 3 dA .

6RWKHVXUIDFHDUHDLV

2 2
S ³³ 1  ª¬ f x x , y º¼  ª¬ f y x , y º¼ dA ³³ 3 dA 3 ³³ dA.
R R R

2 2 x
Using a vertical representative rectangle, S 3³ ³ dy dx 2 3.
0 0

([DPSOH

6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHSRUWLRQRIWKHVXUIDFHf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íx2 + y that lies above


WKHWULDQJXODUUHJLRQZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ
Lesson 23: Surface Area of a Solid

The partial derivatives are fx ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íx and f y ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ +HQFH

2 2
S ³³ 1  ª¬ f x x , y º¼  ª¬ f y x , y º¼ dA
R

³³ 1  4 x 2  1 dA
R

³³ 2  4 x 2 dA.
R


y
:HQRZQHHGWR¿QGWKHERXQGVIRUWKHUHJLRQGHWHUPLQHGE\WKH
WKUHHSRLQWVͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

:HVHHWKDW”x”xí”y”íx. Hence, the integral for 1 y íx


surface area becomes R”x”
x í”y”íx
1 1 x x
S ³³ 2  4 x 2 dA ³³ 2  4 x 2 dy dx.
0 x 1 1
R

7KLVLQWHJUDOLVGLI¿FXOWWRHYDOXDWH$FDOFXODWRUJLYHV y = xí
í

2 | 1.618.
S ln 3  2 
3

([DPSOH Figure 23.2

)LQGWKHVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHLFHFUHDPFRQH z x 2  y 2 that lies above the circular region x2 + y2”

6ROXWLRQ

x y
The partial derivatives are f x and f y . The differential of surface area is
x  y2
2
x  y2
2

2 2
§ x · § y ·
dS 1 ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ dA
¨ x2  y2 ¸ ¨ x2  y2 ¸
© ¹ © ¹
2
1 x2  y dA
x2  y2 x2  y2

2x2  2 y2 2( x 2  y 2 )
dA dA 2 dA.
x2  y2 x2  y2

+HQFHWKHVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHLFHFUHDPFRQHLV

S ³³ dS ³³ 2 dA 2 ³³ dA 2 Area of circle 2 S S 2.
R R R

6WXG\7LSV

x Notice the similarity between the differential of arc length and the differential of surface area:

2
ds  1  ª¬ f c x º¼ dx differential of arc length

2 2
dS  1  ª¬ f x x , y º¼  ª¬ f y x , y º¼ dA differential of surface area.

85
x 6XUIDFHDUHDLVWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDORIWKHGLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFHDUHD S ³³ dS .
R

x <RXFRXOGKDYHXVHGHOHPHQWDU\JHRPHWU\WRVROYH([DPSOH7KHVXUIDFHDUHDRIDULJKWFLUFXODU
cone of height h and radius r is S S r r 2  h 2 . ,Q([DPSOHr h DQGKHQFH S S 2.

3LWIDOOV

x ,QHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVPDQ\RIWKHLQWHJUDQGVIRUDUFOHQJWKDQGVXUIDFHDUHGLI¿FXOWWRLQWHJUDWH
7KLVLVDOVRWUXHLQPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVDVZHVDZLQ([DPSOH

x 'RQ¶WIRUJHWWKHH[WUDr when using polar coordinates: dA r dr Gș.

3UREOHPV

 Find the area of the surface given by f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x + 2y over the triangular region RZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽ
ͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the area of the surface given by f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xíy over the square region RZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽ
ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

 Find the area of the surface given by f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xíy over the circular region R given by
R ^ x, y : x 2
 y 2 d 9` .

 Find the area of the portion of the plane z íxíyLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQW

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHDUHDRIWKHSRUWLRQRIWKHSDUDERORLGz íx2íy2LQWKH¿UVWRFWDQW

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHDUHDRIWKHVXUIDFHf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y + x2 over the triangular region R with


YHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLQSRODUFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHDUHDRIWKHVXUIDFHf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íx2íy2 over the


region R given by R ^ x, y : 0 d f x, y `.
Lesson 23: Surface Area of a Solid

 6HWXSWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHDUHDRIWKHVXUIDFHf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ex over the region R given by


R ^ x, y : 0 d x d 1, 0 d y d 1`.
 6KRZWKDWWKHVXUIDFHDUHDRIWKHFRQHz  k x 2  y 2 , k > 0, over the circular region x2 + y2”r2 in
the xySODQHLV S r 2 k 2  1.

86
Triple Integrals and Applications
Lesson 24

Topics

x Triple integrals.

x Changing the order of integration.

x Triple integrals and mass.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Mass in triple integrals: m ³³³ U x, y , z dV .


Q

6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHH[WHQGRXUNQRZOHGJHRIGRXEOHLQWHJUDOVWRWULSOHLQWHJUDOV:HEHJLQE\XVLQJWULSOH
LQWHJUDOVWRFDOFXODWHYROXPHLQZKLFKWKHLQWHJUDQGLV/DWHULQWKHOHVVRQZHXVHWULSOHLQWHJUDOVWR
calculate the mass of a solid. An important skill with triple integrals is changing the order of integration.
,QJHQHUDOWKHUHDUHVL[SRVVLEOHRUGHUVRILQWHJUDWLRQ

([DPSOH

4 3 2
Evaluate the triple integral ³³³
0 0 0
1 dz dy dx.

6ROXWLRQ

7KLVWULSOHLQWHJUDOUHSUHVHQWVWKHYROXPHRIDER[:HHYDOXDWHWKHLQWHJUDOLQWKHVDPHPDQQHUDVZH
evaluated double integrals,
z
4 3 2 4 3 2
³³³
0 0 0
dz dy dx ³ ³ > z @ dy dx
0 0 0
4 3
³ ³ 2 dy dx
0 0 2
4 3
³ > 2 y @ dx
0 0
4
³ 6 dx
0
4 4 3
> 6 x @0 24.
x y

ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
Figure 24.1

87
([DPSOH z
1
6NHWFKWKHVROLGZKRVHYROXPHLVUHSUHVHQWHGE\WKHWULSOHLQWHJUDO z íy
1 2 1 y
³ ³ ³ dz dx dy. Then, rewrite the integral in the order dy dz dx.
0 0 0

6ROXWLRQ
1
y
The limits of integration determine the shape of the solid.
ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
2
1 2 1 y 2 1 1 z
Because z íy œ y íz, ³ ³ ³ x
0 0 0
dz dx dy ³³³
0 0 0
dy dz dx.
%RWKLQWHJUDOVJLYHWKHVDPHYROXPHRI Figure 24.2

([DPSOH

z
6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGUHJLRQERXQGHG 2

below by the surface z x2 + y2 and above by z íx2íy2.


ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ 1

:HPXVW¿UVW¿QGWKHLQWHUVHFWLRQRIWKHWZRSDUDERORLGVE\VHWWLQJ í
í
the equations equal to each other:
í
z 2  x2  y2 x2  y2 Ÿ 2 2x2  2 y2 Ÿ x2  y2 1. y
1 1
x
The region of integration is the unit circle. The volume is
Figure 24.3

1 1 x 2 2 x2  y2
V ³ ³
1  1 x 2 ³ x2  y2
dz dy dx.
Lesson 24: Triple Integrals and Applications

7KLVLQWHJUDOLVGLI¿FXOWDQGWKHDQVZHULVʌ,QWKHQH[WOHVVRQZHZLOOVHHKRZWRVROYHWKHSUREOHPXVLQJ
cylindrical coordinates.

([DPSOH

)LQGWKHPDVVRIWKHXQLWFXEHLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWJLYHQWKDWWKHGHQVLW\DWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽLVWKHVTXDUHRILWV
distance to the origin.

88
6ROXWLRQ

The density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ k௘ͼ௘x2 + y2 + z2௘ͽ+HQFHWKHPDVVLVJLYHQE\

1 1 1
³³³ U x, y , z dV ³ ³ ³ k x  y 2  z 2 dz dy dx.
2
m
0 0 0
Q

7KLVLQWHJUDOLVQRWGLI¿FXOWWRHYDOXDWHDQGWKH¿QDODQVZHULVk.

6WXG\7LSV

x -XVWDVZLWKGRXEOHLQWHJUDOVZHRIWHQRPLWLQWHJUDQGVRI)RULQVWDQFHLQ([DPSOH
4 3 2 4 3 2
³ ³ ³ 1 dz dy dx ³ ³ ³ dz dy dx.
0 0 0 0 0 0

x 7KHUHDUHVL[RUGHUVRILQWHJUDWLRQIRUWULSOHLQWHJUDOVLQ&DUWHVLDQFRRUGLQDWHVdz dy dx, dz dx dy,


dy dz dx, dy dx dz, dx dy dz, dx dz dy.

x It is worth repeating that the setup of a problem is more important than the actual integrations.

3LWIDOO

x Remember that the variable of integration cannot appear as a limit of integration. The following triple
1 2 1 z
integral is incorrect: ³ ³ ³ dz dx dy.
0 0 0

3UREOHPV
5 2 1
 Evaluate the triple integral ³ ³ ³ dy dx dz. What does this represent?
0 0 0

3 2 1
 Evaluate the triple integral ³ ³ ³ x  y  z dx dz dy.
0 0 0

1 1 1
 Evaluate the triple integral ³ ³ ³
1 1 1
x 2 y 2 z 2 dx dy dz.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWERXQGHGE\WKHFRRUGLQDWHSODQHV
and the plane z íxíy.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\z íx2, z y DQGy x.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\z íx2íy2 and z 

 6HWXSWKHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHPDVVRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\xy + 6z x y DQGz LIWKH


density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ 

89
 6HWXSWKHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHPDVVRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGE\xy + 5z x y DQGz LIWKH
density is ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ y.

1 0 y2
 Rewrite the iterated integral ³³ ³
0 1 0
dz dy dx using the order dy dz dx.

4 4 x 12 3x  6y
2 4
 Rewrite the iterated integral ³³
0 0 ³0
dz dy dx using the order dy dx dz.
Lesson 24: Triple Integrals and Applications

90
Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates
Lesson 25

Topics

x Cylindrical coordinates.

x Conversion formulas.

x Triple integrals in cylindrical coordinates.

x The differential of volume in cylindrical coordinates.

x Applications of triple integrals in cylindrical coordinates.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let P ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDSRLQWLQVSDFH,WVF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDUHͼ௘r, ș, z௘ͽZKHUHͼ௘r, ș௘ͽDUHWKHSRODU


coordinates of the projection of the point onto the xySODQH7KHz coordinate is the same.

x Conversion formulas:

x r cos ș, y r sin ș, z z

y
r2 x2 + y2, tan ș  , z z.
x

x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIYROXPH in cylindrical coordinates is dV U࣠G]࣠GU࣠Gș.

6XPPDU\

7KHF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHV\VWHPLVWKHWKUHHGLPHQVLRQDOJHQHUDOL]DWLRQRISRODUFRRUGLQDWHV
These coordinates are especially useful for representing cylindrical surfaces and surfaces of revolution.
The conversion formulas are similar to the conversion formulas between polar coordinates and Cartesian
FRRUGLQDWHV:H¶OOVWXG\H[DPSOHVRIWULSOHLQWHJUDOVLQF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDQGQRWHWKDWWKHGLIIHUHQWLDO
RIYROXPHKDVWKHH[WUDr factor, dV U࣠G]࣠GU࣠Gș.

([DPSOH

Convert the point r , T , z 4, 56S , 3 to Cartesian coordinates.


6ROXWLRQ

We use the conversion formulas: x


and z 
r cosT 4cos 5S
6
§
4¨ 
© 2

¸
¹
2 3, y r sin T 4sin 5S
6
4 1
2
2,

The Cartesian coordinates of the point are x , y , z 2 3, 2, 3 .

([DPSOH

Convert the point x , y , z 1, 3, 2 to cylindrical coordinates.

6ROXWLRQ

y 3 S  nS .
We have r2 x2 + y2   Ÿ r “DQG tan T 3, which gives T
x 1 3
Of course, z 

7KHUHDUHPDQ\SRVVLEOHF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHV)RUH[DPSOH r , T , z 2, S3 , 2

or r , T , z 2, 4S , 2 .
3
z
([DPSOH

The surface ș cLVDYHUWLFDOSODQHͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH y
x
θ =c

Find the volume of the solid bounded below by z x + y and above 2 2

by z íx2íy2ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
Lesson 25: Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates

Figure 25.1
6ROXWLRQ
z
2
The intersection of the two paraboloids is obtained by setting the
equations equal to each other:

z íx2íy2 x2 + y2 Ÿ  x2 + 2y2 Ÿ x2 + y2 


1

Converting to cylindrical coordinates, z íx2íy2 ír2 and


z x2 + y2 r2. í
í

2S 1 2 r 2
The volume is V ³³³ dV ³ ³³ r dz dr dT . í
0 0 r2 y
Q
1 1
x
Figure 25.2

92
This integral is easy to evaluate:

2S 1 2 r 2
V ³ ³ > rz @
0 0 r2
dr dT
2S 1
³ ³ ª¬r 2  r  r 2 º¼ dr dT
2
0 0

2S 1
3
³ ³ ª¬2r  2r º¼ dr dT
0 0

1
2S ª 2 r4 º
³0 «¬ r  2 »¼ dT
0

2S
2S 1 dT ª1T º S.
³0 2 «¬ 2 »¼ 0

6WXG\7LSV

x 1RWLFHWKDWF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDUHWKHQDWXUDOH[WHQVLRQRI&DUWHVLDQFRRUGLQDWHVWR
three dimensions.

x When converting from one coordinate system to another, you can always check your answer by
converting back to the original coordinates.

x ,WLVKHOSIXOWRLGHQWLI\WKHFRRUGLQDWHV\VWHPUHSUHVHQWLQJDJLYHQSRLQW)RULQVWDQFHLQ([DPSOH


write r , T , z 4, 5S , 3 and x , y , z 2 3, 2, 3 .
6

3LWIDOOV

x The cylindrical coordinates of a point are not unique. In particular, the rYDOXHFDQEHSRVLWLYHRU
QHJDWLYH$QGWKHUHDUHLQ¿QLWHO\PDQ\FKRLFHVIRUWKHDQJOHș.

x 'RQ¶WIRUJHWWKHH[WUDr in the differential of volume, dV U࣠G]࣠GU࣠Gș.

3UREOHPV

 &RQYHUWWKHSRLQWͼ௘r, ș, z௘ͽ ͼ௘íʌí௘ͽWRUHFWDQJXODUFRRUGLQDWHV

 &RQYHUWWKHSRLQWͼ௘r, ș, z௘ͽ ͼ௘ S , ௘ͽWRUHFWDQJXODUFRRUGLQDWHV


4

 &RQYHUWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ  2 2 ,  2 2 , 4 to cylindrical coordinates.

 Find an equation in cylindrical coordinates for the rectangular equation x 

 Find an equation in rectangular coordinates for the cylindrical equation r2 + z2 


 Find an equation in rectangular coordinates for the cylindrical equation r VLQș.
3
2S R1 R12  r 2 4S R 2  R 2 2 .
 Verify that V 2³
0 ³ ³
R2 0
r dz dr dT
3
1 2
2 4 x2 4
 Convert the integral ³ ³
2  4  x 2 ³ x2  y 2
x dz dy dx to cylindrical coordinates.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOLQF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGERXQGHGDERYH
by z x and below by z x2 + 2y2.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOLQF\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQVLGHWKHVSKHUH
x2 + y2 + z2 DQGDERYHWKHXSSHUQDSSHRIWKHFRQHz2 x2 + y2.
Lesson 25: Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates


Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates
Lesson 26

Topics

x 6SKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHV

x Conversion formulas.

x Triple integrals in spherical coordinates.

x The differential of volume in spherical coordinates.

x Applications of triple integrals in spherical coordinates.

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x Let P ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDSRLQWLQVSDFH,WVVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDUHͼ௘ȡ, ș, ‫׋‬௘ͽZKHUHȡ is the distance


from P to the origin, ș is the same angle as used in cylindrical coordinates, and ‫ ׋‬is the angle between
the positive zD[LVDQGWKHOLQHVHJPHQW OP ”‫”׋‬ʌ.

x Conversion formulas:

r ȡ sin ‫׋‬, z ȡ cos ‫׋‬

x r cos ș ȡ sin ‫ ׋‬cos ș

y r sin ș ȡ sin ‫ ׋‬sin ș

ȡ2 x2 + y2 + z2 Ÿ ȡ  x2  y 2  z 2

y
tan ș 
x

cos ‫  ׋‬z z .
U x2  y2  z 2

x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIYROXPH in spherical coordinates is dV ȡ2 sin ‫࣠׋‬Gȡ࣠G‫࣠׋‬Gș.

95
6XPPDU\

6SKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDUHVLPLODUWRWKHORQJLWXGHDQGODWLWXGHFRRUGLQDWHVRQ(DUWK7KH¿UVWFRRUGLQDWHLVD
GLVWDQFHDQGWKHRWKHUWZRFRRUGLQDWHVDUHDQJOHV:HEHJLQE\GH¿QLQJVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVLQVSDFHDQG
GHYHORSWKHLUFRQYHUVLRQIRUPXODV$IWHUORRNLQJDWVRPHH[DPSOHVRIVXUIDFHVLQVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVZH
apply them to the calculation of volumes and mass. For spherical coordinates, the differential of volume is a bit
complicated: dV ȡ2 sin ‫࣠׋‬Gȡ࣠G‫࣠׋‬Gș.

([DPSOH

Convert the point U , T , I § 4, S , S · to Cartesian coordinates.


¨ ¸
© 6 4¹

6ROXWLRQ

We use the conversion formulas:

§ ·§ 3 ·
x U sin I cos T 4sin S cos S 4 ¨ 2 ¸¨ ¸ 6
4 6 © 2 ¹© 2 ¹

§ ·
y U sin I sin T 4sin S sin S 4 ¨ 2 ¸ §¨ 1 ·¸ 2
4 6 © 2 ¹© 2 ¹

§ ·
z U cos I 4 cos S 4¨ 2 ¸ 2 2.
4 © 2 ¹

Hence, the Cartesian coordinates are x , y , z 6, 2 , 2 2 .

([DPSOH
Lesson 26: Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates

&RQYHUWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ ͼ௘௘ͽWRVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHV

z
6ROXWLRQ

y 0
We have U x2  y2  z 2 42  0  0 4, tan T 0 ŸT 0,
x 4
and cos I z 0ŸI S.
U 2
y

Therefore, U , T , I § 4, 0, S · ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ ( x , y , z ) = ( 4, 0, 0 )
¨ ¸
© 2¹ ( e, θ , φ ) = ⎛⎜ 4, 0, π2 ⎞⎟
⎝ ⎠
x
Figure 26.1

96
z
([DPSOH

The surface ȡ cLVDVSKHUHFHQWHUHGDWWKHRULJLQͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH
c y
)LQGWKHYROXPHRIWKHLFHFUHDPFRQHERXQGHGDERYHE\WKHXSSHUKDOIRI x
the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 DQGEHORZE\ z x 2  y 2 ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
Figure 26.2
6ROXWLRQ
z

The intersection of the two surfaces is obtained by setting the


equations equal to each other: z= 2 − x2 − y2

x2  y2 z Ÿ z2 x2  y2
z= x2 + y2
2
x y z 2 2
x  y  x  y
2 2 2 2
2
x2 + y2 = 1
Ÿ x2  y2 1 Ÿ z 1.
y
x
Converting to spherical coordinates, Figure 26.3

x2  y2  z 2 2 U2 Ÿ U 2 and z U cos I Ÿ 1 2 cos I Ÿ cos I 1 ŸI S.


2 4

$OVR”ș”ʌ7KHLFHFUHDPFRQHLVJLYHQE\ 0 d U d 2 ,0 d I d S ,0 d T d 2S . The volume is


4

S
2S
4
2
U 2 sin I d U dI dT 4S ª 2  1º .
V ³³³ dV ³ ³ ³
Q
0 0 0 3 ¬ ¼

You are asked to verify this integration in Problem 7.

6WXG\7LSV

x 6SKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVDUHHVSHFLDOO\XVHIXOIRUVSKHUHVZKLFKKDYHDFHQWHURIV\PPHWU\

x ,WLVKHOSIXOWRLGHQWLI\WKHFRRUGLQDWHV\VWHPUHSUHVHQWLQJDJLYHQSRLQW)RULQVWDQFHLQ([DPSOH
write U , T , I §¨ 4, S , S ·¸ and x , y , z 6 , 2 , 2 2 .
© 6 4¹

97
3LWIDOOV

x )RUVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHV”‫”׋‬ʌ and ȡ•)XUWKHUPRUHș is the same angle as in polar


coordinates for r•

x 7KHUHFDQEHFRQIXVLRQLIWKHFRRUGLQDWHV\VWHPLVQRWPDGHH[SOLFLW)RULQVWDQFHͼ௘ʌ௘ͽLVWKH
origin in spherical coordinates, but it is a point on the yD[LVLQUHFWDQJXODUFRRUGLQDWHV

x Don’t forget the complicated differential of volume in spherical coordinates, dV ȡ2 sin ‫࣠׋‬Gȡ࣠G‫࣠׋‬Gș.

3UREOHPV

 Convert the point U , T , I §¨12,  S , 0 ·¸ to rectangular coordinates.


4 © ¹

 Convert the point U , T , I §¨ 5, S , 3S ·¸ to rectangular coordinates.


4 4 © ¹

 Convert the point x, y , z 2, 2 3, 4 to spherical coordinates.

 Find an equation in spherical coordinates for the rectangular equation z 

 Find an equation in rectangular coordinates for the spherical equation ‫  ׋‬S .


6
2 2 2
2 4 x 2 4 x  y
 Convert the integral ³ ³
2  4  x 2 ³ 2
x dz dy dx to spherical coordinates.

S
 Verify that V
2S
4
2
U 2 sin I dU dI dT 4S ª 2  1º .
³³³ dV ³ ³ ³
Q
0 0 0 3 ¬ ¼

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOLQVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHVROLGLQVLGHWKHVSKHUH
Lesson 26: Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates

x2 + y2 + z2 RXWVLGH z x 2  y 2 , and above the xySODQH

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOLQVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHYROXPHRIWKHWRUXVJLYHQE\ȡ  VLQ ‫׋‬.

 6HWXSWKHWULSOHLQWHJUDOLQVSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVIRUWKHPDVVRIWKHVSKHUHRIUDGLXVLIWKHGHQVLW\LV
proportional to the distance of the point to the zD[LV

98
Vector Fields—Velocity, Gravity, Electricity
Lesson 27

Topics

x 9HFWRU¿HOGV

x 5RWDWLRQDQGUDGLDOYHFWRU¿HOGV

x 7KHJUDGLHQWDVDYHFWRU¿HOG

x *UDYLWDWLRQDO¿HOGV

x (OHFWULFIRUFH¿HOGV

x &RQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGV

x &DOFXODWLQJWKHSRWHQWLDOIRUDFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGLQWKHSODQH

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x A YHFWRU¿HOG over a planar region R is a function F that assigns a vector )ͼ௘x, y௘ͽWRHDFKSRLQWLQR.

x A YHFWRU¿HOG over a solid region Q is a function F that assigns a vector )ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽWRHDFKSRLQWLQQ.

x 1HZWRQV¶VODZRIJUDYLWDWLRQVWDWHVWKDWWKHIRUFHRIDWWUDFWLRQH[HUWHGRQDSDUWLFOHRIPDVVm
ORFDWHGDWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽE\DSDUWLFOHRIPDVV m2ORFDWHGDWͼ௘௘ͽLV

Gm1m2
F x, y , z u.
x2  y2  z 2

Here, G is the gravitational constant, and uLVWKHXQLWYHFWRUIURPWKHRULJLQWRͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ

x &RXORPE¶VODZVWDWHVWKDWWKHIRUFHH[HUWHGRQDSDUWLFOHZLWKHOHFWULFFKDUJHqORFDWHGDWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽE\
c q1 q2
a particle of charge q2ORFDWHGDWͼ௘௘ͽLV F x , y , z 2
u.
r

x $YHFWRU¿HOGF is FRQVHUYDWLYHLIWKHUHH[LVWVDGLIIHUHQWLDEOHIXQFWLRQfͼ௘WKHSRWHQWLDO௘ͽVXFKWKDW
F ’f .

x Theorem: Let M and NKDYHFRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVRQDQRSHQGLVNR7KHYHFWRU¿HOG


given by ) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ Mi + Nj is conservative if and only if wN wM .
wx wy

99
6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHGHYHORSWKHFRQFHSWRIDYHFWRU¿HOG,QWKHSODQHDYHFWRU¿HOGLVDIXQFWLRQWKDWDVVLJQVD
YHFWRUWRHDFKSRLQWLQWKHSODQH6LPLODUO\LQVSDFHDYHFWRU¿HOGDVVLJQVDYHFWRUWRHDFKSRLQWLQVSDFH:H
EHJLQE\GHVFULELQJW\SLFDOYHFWRU¿HOGVLQFOXGLQJURWDWLRQDO¿HOGVJUDYLWDWLRQDO¿HOGVDQGHOHFWULF¿HOGV,Q
IDFWWKHJUDGLHQWRIDIXQFWLRQLVDYHFWRU¿HOG:HGH¿QHZKDWLVPHDQWE\DFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGRQHWKDW
LVWKHJUDGLHQWRIDSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQ0RVWRIWKHLPSRUWDQW¿HOGVLQDSSOLFDWLRQVDUHFRQVHUYDWLYH:HGHYHORS
DWHVWIRUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGVLQWKHSODQHDQGVKRZKRZWR¿QGWKHSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQ

([DPSOH

6NHWFKVRPHYHFWRUVLQWKHYHFWRU¿HOGJLYHQE\) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íyi + xj.

6ROXWLRQ
y Vector field:
:H¿UVWFRPSXWHVRPHSRLQWVWRJHWDQLGHDRIWKH¿HOG F(x, y) = íyi + xj

) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ íyi + xj


) ͼ௘௘ͽ ij j
x
) ͼ௘௘ͽ íi + 0j íi
) ͼ௘௘ͽ íi + 2j.

%\SORWWLQJWKHVHYHFWRUVZHREWDLQWKHIROORZLQJH[DPSOHRID
URWDWLRQYHFWRU¿HOGͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
Figure 27.1
([DPSOH
Lesson 27: Vector Fields—Velocity, Gravity, Electricity

6NHWFKVRPHYHFWRUVLQWKHYHFWRU¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xi + yj.


y
6ROXWLRQ

:H¿UVWFRPSXWHVRPHSRLQWVWRJHWDQLGHDRIWKH¿HOG
í


) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xi + yj
) ͼ௘௘ͽ i + j
x
íí
) ͼ௘íí௘ͽ íiíj
) ͼ௘í௘ͽ íi + 2j.

%\SORWWLQJWKHVHYHFWRUVZHREWDLQWKHIROORZLQJH[DPSOHRID
UDGLDOYHFWRU¿HOGͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ Figure 27.2


([DPSOH

Thegradient of a function fLVDYHFWRU¿HOG

y2
)RUH[DPSOHLI f x , y x2 y  , then ’f x , y f x x , y i  f y x , y j 2 xyi  x 2  y jLVDYHFWRU¿HOG
2

$WHDFKSRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽLQWKHSODQHWKHJUDGLHQWDVVLJQVDYHFWRU

([DPSOH

7KHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ ͼ௘xy௘ͽiͼ௘x + 2y௘ͽj is conservative with potential f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2xy + y2
because F ’f .

([DPSOH

7KHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2yi + xyj is not conservative because M x 2 y , wM x2 , N xy , wN y , and x2y.


wy wx

([DPSOH

)LQGDSRWHQWLDOIRUWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xyiͼ௘x2íy௘ͽj.

6ROXWLRQ

1RWHWKDWWKH¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVH wM 2 x and wN 2 x.
wy wx

:HQHHGWR¿QGDIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽVXFKWKDW’f x , y 2 xyi  x 2  y j. That is, fx࣠ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xy and
f y࣠ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2íy.

,QWHJUDWLQJWKH¿UVWHTXDWLRQ

f x, y ³ f x, y dx ³ 2 xy dx
x x 2 y  g y .

Integrating the second equation,

y2
f x, y ³ f x, y dy ³ x  y dy
2
y x2 y   h ( x ).
2

From these two versions of the function f, we have

y2
f x, y x2 y   K.
2


6WXG\7LSV

x $YHFWRU¿HOGDVVLJQVDvector to each point in the domain.

x *UDYLWDWLRQDO¿HOGVDQGHOHFWULF¿HOGVKDYHWKHVDPHIRUPDQGDUHH[DPSOHVRILQYHUVHVTXDUH¿HOGV.
Given U xi + yj + zkWKHYHFWRU¿HOGFLVDQLQYHUVHVTXDUH¿HOGLI F x , y , z k u.
2
r

x (YHU\LQYHUVHVTXDUH¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH+HQFHJUDYLWDWLRQDO¿HOGVDQGHOHFWULFIRUFH¿HOGV
are conservative.

x $IWHUFDOFXODWLQJWKHSRWHQWLDOIRUDFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOG\RXFDQFKHFN\RXUDQVZHUE\WDNLQJ
the gradient of the potential.

§ y2 ·
)RULQVWDQFHLQ([DPSOH ’f x , y ’ ¨ x 2 y  K¸ 2 xyi  x 2  y j, which is the original
© 2 ¹
YHFWRU¿HOG

3LWIDOOV

x )RUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGV F ’f , keep in mind that f is a function of two or three variables,


whereas FLVDYHFWRU¿HOG

x 1RWLFHLQ([DPSOHWKDWWKH³FRQVWDQWVRILQWHJUDWLRQ´DUHIXQFWLRQVRIWKH³RWKHU´YDULDEOH7KH¿QDO
answer has a true constant.

3UREOHPV

 'HVFULEHWKHYHFWRU¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ i + j and compute F .


Lesson 27: Vector Fields—Velocity, Gravity, Electricity

 'HVFULEHWKHYHFWRU¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ i + j + k and compute F .

 'HWHUPLQHZKHWKHURUQRWWKHYHFWRU¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y2ͼ௘yixj௘ͽLVFRQVHUYDWLYH

1
 'HWHUPLQHZKHWKHURUQRWWKHYHFWRU¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  i  j is conservative.
x2  y 2

 )LQGWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGIRUWKHSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  x 2  1 y 2 .


4

 )LQGWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGIRUWKHSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyz.

2
 )LQGWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGIRUWKHSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQ f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ  z  ye x .


 )LQGDSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQIRUWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ yi + xj.

x y
 )LQGDSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQIRUWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  2 2
i 2 j.
x y x  y2

 )LQGDSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQIRUWKHFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ x2y2i + 2xyj.


Curl, Divergence, Line Integrals
Lesson 28

Topics

x 7KHFXUORIDYHFWRU¿HOG

x 7KHGLYHUJHQFHRIDYHFWRU¿HOG

x /LQHLQWHJUDOVRIIXQFWLRQVGH¿QHGRQFXUYHV

x $SSOLFDWLRQVWRPDVV

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x TheFXUORIWKHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽLV

§
curl F x , y , z ¨ wP  wN
© wy wz
·
¹

wP wM § wN wM

¸ i  wx  wz j  ¨ wx  wy
©
·
¸k
¹

i j k
’ u F x, y , z w w w .
wx wy wz
M N P

x 8QGHUVXLWDEOHK\SRWKHVHVDYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYHLIDQGRQO\LIFXUO F 

x TheGLYHUJHQFHRIWKH¿HOG) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽLV div F x , y , z ’ <F wM  wN  wP .


wx wy wz
Lesson 28: Curl, Divergence, Line Integrals

x Let CEHDSODQDUFXUYHJLYHQE\U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ x௘ͼ௘t௘ͽi + y௘ͼ௘t௘ͽj, a”t”b

b 2 2
7KHOLQHLQWHJUDORIfLV ³ f x , y ds
C ³ f x t , y t
a
ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼ dt .

$VLPLODUGH¿QLWLRQKROGVIRUFXUYHVLQVSDFH

2 2 2
x 'LIIHUHQWLDORIDUFOHQJWK ds ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt .

104
6XPPDU\

5HFDOOWKDWPRVWRIWKHLPSRUWDQWYHFWRU¿HOGVLQDSSOLFDWLRQVDUHFRQVHUYDWLYH+HQFHZHEHJLQWKLVOHVVRQ
ZLWKDWHVWIRUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGVLQVSDFH7KLVWHVWLQYROYHVWKHFRQFHSWRIWKHFXUORIDYHFWRU¿HOGDQ
RSHUDWLRQUHODWHGWRWKHFURVVSURGXFW7KHFXUORIDYHORFLW\¿HOGLVUHODWHGWRLWVWHQGHQF\WRURWDWH$QRWKHU
LPSRUWDQWRSHUDWLRQRQDYHFWRU¿HOGLVWKHGLYHUJHQFHZKLFKLVUHODWHGWRVRXUFHVDQGVLQNVIRUYHORFLW\¿HOGV
)LQDOO\ZHLQWURGXFHOLQHLQWHJUDOVIRUIXQFWLRQVRIWZRDQGWKUHHYDULDEOHV7KHVHLQWHJUDOVDUHPRWLYDWHGE\
WKHFDOFXODWLRQRIPDVVIRUDWKLQZLUH

([DPSOH

&DOFXODWHWKHFXUORIWKHYHFWRU¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyiͼ௘x + z௘ͽjyzk

6ROXWLRQ

:HXVHWKHGHWHUPLQDQWGH¿QLWLRQRIFXUO

i j k i j k
curl F ( x , y , z ) = ∂ ∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ ∂
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z
M N P 2 xy x + z2
2
2 yz

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= ∂y ∂z i − ∂x ∂z j + ∂x ∂y k
x + z2
2
2 yz 2 xy 2 yz 2 xy x2 + z 2

= ( 2 z − 2 z ) i − ( 0 − 0 ) j + ( 2 x − 2 x ) k = 0.

1RWLFHWKDWWKHFXUOLV]HURVRWKHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH

([DPSOH

&DOFXODWHWKHGLYHUJHQFHRI)ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ x3y zi + x zj + xyk

6ROXWLRQ

We have div F x , y , z wM  wN  wP w ª x3 y 2 z º  w ª x 2 z º  w ª x 2 y º .
wx wy wz wx ¬ ¼ wy ¬ ¼ wz ¬ ¼

+HQFH div F 3 x 2 y 2 z  0  0 3 x 2 y 2 z.

105
([DPSOH

(YDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³ x 2  y  3 z ds , ZKHUHCLVWKHOLQHVHJPHQWJLYHQE\U௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ titj + tk”t”


C

6ROXWLRQ

We ¿UVWFRPSXWHds%HFDXVH xc t 1, y c t 2, z c t 1,

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ds ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt 12  2 2  12 dt 6 dt 
z

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³ x  y  3 z ds ³ t  2t  3t 6 dt
2 2

C 0 6

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ȡ௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ zͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
y

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Figure 28.1
2 2
We have Uƍͼ௘t௘ͽ íVLQ tiFRV tj + kDQG ds sin t  cos t  1 dt 2 dt .

6S
6RWKHOLQHLQWHJUDOLV ³ 1  z ds ³ 1  t 2 dt 6S 2 3S  1 .
C 0

<RXDUHDVNHGWRYHULI\WKLVLQWHJUDWLRQLQ3UREOHP

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x <RXZLOORIWHQVHHWKHFURVVSURGXFWQRWDWLRQIRUFXUO curl F ’ u F.

x 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLQ([DPSOHLVFRQVHUYDWLYH7KHSRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQLVf ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xy + yz + K

x /RRVHO\VSHDNLQJFXUOLVDPHDVXUHRID¿HOG¶VWHQGHQF\WRURWDWH,I curl F 0, ZHVD\WKDWWKH


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) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ yiíxjLVQRW

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106
x /RRVHO\VSHDNLQJWKHGLYHUJHQFHRIDYHORFLW\¿HOGPHDVXUHVWKHWHQGHQF\RIWKHÀXLGWRGLYHUJHIURP
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x 7KHOLQHLQWHJUDOGLVFXVVHGLQWKLVOHVVRQLVPRWLYDWHGE\PDVVRIDWKLQZLUH+HQFHWKHYDOXHRIWKH
LQWHJUDOGRHVQRWGHSHQGRQWKHSDUDPHWHUL]DWLRQRIWKHFXUYHC)XUWKHUPRUHLIWKHLQWHJUDQGLV
ZHKDYHWKHIRUPXODIRUDUFOHQJWK

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x 1RWLFHWKHGLIIHUHQWLDORIDUFOHQJWK ds ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt LQWKHGH¿QLWLRQRI
OLQHLQWHJUDO

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x /LQHLQWHJUDOVVKRXOGUHDOO\EHFDOOHG³FXUYHLQWHJUDOV´EHFDXVHWKH\DUHGH¿QHGRQFXUYHVLQWKH
SODQHRUVSDFH

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 (YDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C x 2  y 2  z 2 ds , ZKHUHCLVWKHSDWKU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ VLQ tiFRV tjk”t” S .


2
6S
 9HULI\WKDW ³0 1  t 2 dt 6S 2 3S  1 .

107
More Line Integrals and Work by a Force Field
Lesson 29

Topics

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x :RUN

x /LQHLQWHJUDOVLQGLIIHUHQWLDOIRUP

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vector TWKHQWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO of FLV

b
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F < dr ³
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F < T ds ³ F x t , y t <rc t dt.
a

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2
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F < dr ³ F x t , y t <rc t dt DQG rc t
a
 sin ti  cos tj.

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r ( t ) = cos t i + sin t j
b
t=π 0≤t ≤ π
³
C
F < dr ³ F x t , y t <rc t dt
a 2 2
S

³ >3cos ti  4sin tj@<>  sin ti  cos tj@ dt


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2
0

S
S
ª sin 2 t º 2 1. x
³
2
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b
W ³ F < dr ³ F <r c t dt
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³ 0
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 12 cos ti  12 sin tj  14 k <  sin ti  cos tj  k dt
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109
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111
Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals
Lesson 30

Topics

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Lesson 30: Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals

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) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyiͼ௘x + z௘ͽjyzk

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S
³ ª¬ sin
3
t  1 i  3 1  cos t sin 2 t  1 jº¼ <>sin ti  cos tj@ dt
Lesson 30: Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals

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0 0 0
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xy
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z

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25 16

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 (YDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO³C yz dx  xz dy  xy dz ,ZKHUHCLVWKHFXUYHU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ tij + tk”t”

 (YDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO³C yz dx  xz dy  xy dz ,ZKHUHCLVWKHFXUYHU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ ti + tj + tk”t”

 (YDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO³C cos x sin y dx  sin x cos y dy , ZKHUHCLVWKHOLQHVHJPHQWIURPͼ௘íʌ௘ͽ


2 2
to 3S , S .
2
 )LQGWKHZRUNGRQHE\WKHIRUFH¿HOG)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  2x i  x 2 j LQPRYLQJDQREMHFWIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽWR
y y
WKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ

y
 9HULI\WKDW)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ  i  2 x 2 j LVFRQVHUYDWLYH
x  y2
2
x y

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C
Lesson 30: Fundamental Theorem of Line Integrals

116
Green’s Theorem—Boundaries and Regions
Lesson 31

Topics

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

x &RQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGVDQG*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP/HWCEHDSLHFHZLVHVPRRWKFORVHGFXUYHRULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH7KHFXUYHLV
WUDYHUVHGRQFHZLWKWKHVLPSO\FRQQHFWHGUHJLRQRRQLWVOHIW7KHQ

§ wN wM ·
³C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA.
¹

6XPPDU\

*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPUHODWHVDOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGWKHERXQGDU\RIDUHJLRQZLWKDGRXEOHLQWHJUDORYHUWKH
HQWLUHUHJLRQ:HEHJLQE\LOOXVWUDWLQJWKHWKHRUHPZLWKDQH[DPSOHDQGWKHQZHVWDWHWKHJHQHUDOWKHRUHP
*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPLPSOLHVWKDWIRUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGVWKHOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGDQ\FORVHGFXUYHLV]HUR
)LQDOO\ZHVKRZKRZ*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPLVUHODWHGWRWKHURWDWLRQDOWHQGHQF\RIDYHORFLW\¿HOG

([DPSOH
y
(1, 1)
Let REHWKHUHJLRQLQWKH¿UVWTXDGUDQWERXQGHGE\WKHJUDSKVRI 1
y = xDQGy = x y=x

Let CEHWKHERXQGDU\RULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH y = x2
C1
Calculate ³ y 2 dx  x 2 dy. ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
C R
C2
(0, 0)
6ROXWLRQ x
1
Figure 31.1
1RWLFHWKDWZHDUHXVLQJGLIIHUHQWLDOQRWDWLRQKHUH

7KDWLV ³ y 2 dx  x 2 dy ³ M dx  N dy , ZKHUH) ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ Mi + Nj = yi + xj


C C

$OVRWKHIRUFH¿HOGLVQRWFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVH wN 2 x z wM 2 y.
wx wy

117
:HFDQSDUDPHWHUL]HWKHERXQGDU\DV

2
°­ ti  t j, 0 d t d1
r t ® .
°̄ 2  t dt d2
i  2  t j, 1

+HQFHWKHUHDUHWZRLQWHJUDOVWRHYDOXDWH7KH¿UVWRQHJRHVDORQJWKHSDUDERODC1IURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽ
r t ti  t 2 j , 0 d t d 1, r c t i  2tj.

%HFDXVHx = t, dx = dt, y = t, dy tdtWKHOLQHLQWHJUDOLV

1 2
y 2 dx  x 2 dy ³ ª¬« t dt  t 2 2t dt º
2
³C1 0 ¼»
1
³ t  2t 3 dt
4
0

1
ªt5 t4 º 11 7.
«¬ 5  2 »¼ 5 2 10
0

7KHVHFRQGSDWKCLVWKHOLQHIURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ ͼ௘ít௘ͽiͼ௘ít௘ͽj”t” r c t  i  j

%HFDXVHx ít, dx ídt, y ít, dy ídtZHKDYH

2 2 2
³C2
y 2 dx  x 2 dy ³ ª¬ 2  t  dt  2  t  dt º¼
1

2 2
³ 2 2  t
1
(  dt )
Lesson 31: Green’s Theorem—Boundaries and Regions

2
ª 2 2  t 3 º
« » 0 2  2.
«¬ 3 »¼ 3 3
1

&RPELQLQJWKHVHUHVXOWV

y 2 dx  x 2 dy 7 2 1 
³C 10 3 30

*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPVD\VWKDWWKHOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGWKHERXQGDU\HTXDOVDFHUWDLQGRXEOHLQWHJUDORYHUWKH
HQFORVHGUHJLRQ

§ wN wM ·
³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA.
¹

118
+HUH M y 2 , wM 2 y , DQG N x 2 , wN 2 x. 6RZHKDYH
wy wx

§ wN wM · 1 x
³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA
¹
³ ³ 2 x  2 y dy dx
0 x2

1 x
³ ª¬ 2 xy  y 2 º¼ 2 dx
0 x

1
³ ª¬ 2 x  x 2  2 x 3  x 4 º¼ dx
2
0

1
³ x  2 x 3  x 4 dx
2
0

1
ª x3 x 4 x5 º 111 1 .
«¬ 3  2  5 »¼ 3 2 5 30
0

§ wN wM · dA.
:HKDYHYHUL¿HGLQWKLVH[DPSOHWKDW ³ M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
C
R
wy ¸¹

([DPSOH

$SDUWLFOHWUDYHOVRQFHFRXQWHUFORFNZLVHDURXQGWKHFLUFOHRIUDGLXVFHQWHUHGDWWKHRULJLQVXEMHFWWRWKH
force )ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ y3iͼ௘x3 + 3xy௘ͽj8VH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWR¿QGWKHZRUNGRQHE\WKHIRUFH¿HOG

6ROXWLRQ

1RWLFHKRZZHFRQYHUWWRSRODUFRRUGLQDWHV

W ³ y 3 dx  x 3  3 xy 2 dy
C

§ wN wM ·
³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA
¹

³³ 3 x  3 y 2  3 y 2 dA
2 2

R
³³ 3 x
R
dA

2S 3 2
³ ³ 3 r cos T
0 0
r dr dT .

:HFDQHYDOXDWHWKLVLQWHJUDOXVLQJDKDOIDQJOHIRUPXOD

3
2S 3 2 2S ªr4 º
W ³ ³ 3 r cos T r dr dT 3³ 2
«¬ 4 cos T »¼ dT
0 0 0
0

3 81
4 ³ 2S

0
cos 2 T dT 243 2S 1  cos 2T dT
4 ³0 2
2S
243 ªT  sin 2T º 243 (2S ) 243S .
8 «¬ 2 »¼ 0 8 4

119
([DPSOH y

3 2
C
Calculate ³ y dx  3 xy dyZKHUHCLVWKHFXUYHLQ)LJXUH
C

6ROXWLRQ

7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH wM 3y2 wN .
wy wx x
+HQFHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDOLV]HUR ³ y 3 dx  3 xy 2 dy 0.
C

Figure 31.2
6WXG\7LSV

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPFDQEHH[WHQGHGWRUHJLRQVWKDWDUHQRWQHFHVVDULO\VLPSO\FRQQHFWHG

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPLVDSODQDUWKHRUHP*HQHUDOL]DWLRQVWRVSDFHZLOOFRPHLQODWHUOHVVRQVWKH
GLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHPDQG6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHP

x 6RPHWH[WVXVHWKHQRWDWLRQ v³ F < dr IRUDOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGDFORVHGFXUYHC


C

x 5HFDOOWKDWIRUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGV wN wM , WKHYDOXHRIDOLQHLQWHJUDORYHUDFORVHGFXUYHLV
wx wy
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§ wN wM · dA 0.
³C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸¹

3LWIDOO
Lesson 31: Green’s Theorem—Boundaries and Regions

x :KHQXVLQJ*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP\RXPXVWPDNHVXUHWKDWWKHERXQGDU\FXUYHCLVWUDYHUVHGRQFHVRWKDW
WKHUHJLRQRLVRQWKHOHIW

3UREOHPV

 9HULI\*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPIRUWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C y 2 dx  x 2 dy , ZKHUHCLVWKHERXQGDU\RIWKHUHJLRQO\LQJ
EHWZHHQWKHJUDSKVRIy = xDQG y x.

 8VH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWRHYDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C y  x dx  2 x  y dy ,ZKHUHCLVWKHUHJLRQO\LQJ
LQVLGHWKHVHPLFLUFOH y 25  x 2 DQGRXWVLGHWKHVHPLFLUFOH y 9  x2 .

 8VH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWRHYDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C y  x dx  2 x  y dy , ZKHUHCLVWKHHOOLSVH
x  FRV ș, y VLQ ș


 8VH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWRHYDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C e x cos 2 y dx  2e x sin 2 y dy , ZKHUHCLVWKHFLUFOH
x + y 

 )LQGWKHZRUNGRQHE\WKHIRUFH)ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ xyiͼ௘x + y௘ͽjWKDWLVPRYLQJDSDUWLFOHFRXQWHUFORFNZLVHRQFH


DURXQGWKHXQLWFLUFOHx + y 

 )LQGWKHZRUNGRQHE\WKHIRUFH F x, y x 3
2

 3 y i  6 x  5 y j WKDWLVPRYLQJDSDUWLFOH
FRXQWHUFORFNZLVHRQFHDURXQGWKHWULDQJOHZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽ


Applications of Green’s Theorem
Lesson 32

Topics

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

x $SSOLFDWLRQVRI*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWRDUHD

x 7KHDUHDHQFORVHGE\DSRO\JRQ

x $QDOWHUQDWHIRUPRI*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP/HWCEHDSLHFHZLVHVPRRWKFORVHGFXUYHRULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVH7KHFXUYHLV
WUDYHUVHGRQFHZLWKWKHVLPSO\FRQQHFWHGUHJLRQRRQLWVOHIW7KHQ

§ wN wM ·
³C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA.
¹

x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPDQGDUHD6HOHFWIXQFWLRQVMDQGNVXFKWKDW wN  wM 1. 7KHQ
wx wy
§ wN wM ·
³C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA
¹
³³ 1 dA = area of R
R

x ,IRLVDSODQDUUHJLRQERXQGHGE\WKHFORVHGFXUYHCRULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVHWKHQWKHDUHD
HQFORVHGLV A 1 ³ x dy  y dx.
2 C

x 7KHDUHDRIDSRO\JRQZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘x1, y1௘ͽͼ௘x, y௘ͽ«ͼ௘xn, yn௘ͽLV


Lesson 32: Applications of Green’s Theorem

1 ª x y  x y  x y  x y } x y  x y
A
2¬ 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 n1 n n n1  xn y1  x1 yn º¼ .

x $OWHUQDWHIRUPRI*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

§ wN wM · dA
³C
F < dr ³
C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸¹ ³³ curl F <k dA.
R

6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHFRQWLQXHRXUVWXG\RI*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP:HEHJLQZLWKDQH[DPSOHRIKRZ*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP
SHUPLWVXVWRHYDOXDWHDOLQHLQWHJUDOE\FDOFXODWLQJDFRUUHVSRQGLQJGRXEOHLQWHJUDO:HWKHQVKRZKRZ
*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPFDQEHXVHGWRFDOFXODWHWKHDUHDRIDSODQDUUHJLRQ:HHQGWKHOHVVRQZLWKDEULHIORRNDWDQ
DOWHUQDWHIRUPRI*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPRQHWKDWZHZLOOODWHUJHQHUDOL]HWR6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHP


([DPSOH

8VH*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWRHYDOXDWHWKHLQWHJUDO ³ y  x dx  2 x  y dy , ZKHUHCLVWKHERXQGDU\RIWKHUHJLRQ
C
EHWZHHQWKHJUDSKVRIy = xDQGy = xíx

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y
:HFDQGHWHUPLQHWKHUHJLRQE\¿QGLQJWKHSRLQWVZKHUHWKH
JUDSKVLQWHUVHFW

x = xíx Ÿ 3xíx = 0 Ÿ x௘ͼ௘íx௘ͽ  Ÿ x 


(3, 3)

6RWKHJUDSKVLQWHUVHFWDWͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ y x
y = x2 − 2x
<RXZLOOQHHGWZROLQHLQWHJUDOVRQHIURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽDORQJ
WKHSDUDERODDQGRQHIURPͼ௘௘ͽEDFNWRWKHRULJLQDORQJWKHOLQH R
x
7KHVROXWLRQE\*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPLVPXFKHDVLHU (0, 0)

We have N 2 x  y Ÿ wN 2 DQG M y  x Ÿ wM 1.
wx wy Figure 32.1

7KXVWKHLQWHJUDQGIRU*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPLV wN  wM 2  1 1.
wx wy
y
)LQDOO\WKHOLQHLQWHJUDOLV x2 y2
+ =1
a2 b2
³ y  x dx  2 x  y dy ³³ 1 dA
C

3
³³
0
x

x2 2 x
dy dx
3 x

³0 > y @x 2 x dx
2
R
{
b
{ a
x

3 3
R
³ x  x  2 x dx ³ 3 x  x dx
2 2
0 0

3
ª 3x 2 x3 º 27  9 9.
«¬ 2  3 »¼ 2 2
0
Figure 32.2

([DPSOH

x2 y2
8VHDOLQHLQWHJUDOWR¿QGWKHDUHDHQFORVHGE\WKHHOOLSVH  1. ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ
a 2 b2

6ROXWLRQ

:HFDQSDUDPHWHUL]HWKHHOOLSVHDV x a cos t , y b sin t , 0 d t d 2S . 7KHQ dx  a sin t dt DQG dy b cos t dt .


6RWKHDUHDRIWKHHOOLSVHLV
z 

1 x dy  y dx
2 ³C
A

1 2S ª a cos t b cos t  b sin t  a sin t º dt 


2 ³0 ¬
¼
í
ab 2S cos 2 t  sin 2 t dt
2 ³0

y
 
ab 2S 1 dt ab t 2S
2 ³0
>@
2 0
S ab.

([DPSOH Figure 32.3

)LQGWKHDUHDRIWKHSHQWDJRQZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

6ROXWLRQ

8VLQJWKHIRUPXODIRUDUHDRIDSRO\JRQWZLFHWKHDUHDLV

>0(0)  0(2)@  > 2(2)  3(0)@  >3(4)  1(2)@  >1(1)  ( 1)(4)@  >( 1)(0)  0(1)@
0  4  10  5  0 19.

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2

6WXG\7LSV

x ,Q([DPSOHZHDFWXDOO\IRXQGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQ

x 7KHDUHDRIDQHOOLSVHLVʌDE,IWKHHOOLSVHLVDFLUFOHWKHQa = bDQGZHJHWWKHDUHDRIDFLUFOHʌD
Lesson 32: Applications of Green’s Theorem

x $SODQLPHWHULVDQHQJLQHHULQJGHYLFHIRUFDOFXODWLQJWKHDUHDRIDUHJLRQE\WUDFLQJRXWLWVERXQGDU\
,WLVEDVHGRQ*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

x 7KHNH\WRWKHIRUPXODIRUWKHDUHDRIDSRO\JRQLVWKHYDOXHRIWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO

³C
x dy  y dx x1 y2  x2 y1,

ZKHUHCLVWKHOLQHVHJPHQWMRLQLQJͼ௘x1, y1௘ͽDQGͼ௘x, y௘ͽ<RXDUHDVNHGWRGHULYHWKLVIRUPXODLQ


3UREOHP


3LWIDOO

x :KHQXVLQJ*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPWKHFXUYHPXVWEHRULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVHDURXQGWKHUHJLRQ

3UREOHPV

 9HULI\WKDWWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C y  x dx  2 x  y dy DORQJWKHSDUDERODy = xíx, 0 d x dLV

 8VHDOLQHLQWHJUDOWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHFLUFOHx + y = a

 8VHDOLQHLQWHJUDOWR¿QGWKHDUHDRIWKHUHJLRQERXQGHGE\WKHJUDSKVRIy = 5xíDQGy = x

y dx  x dy
 Calculate ³ LICLVDFLUFOHRULHQWHGFRXQWHUFORFNZLVHWKDWGRHVQRWFRQWDLQWKHRULJLQ
C x2  y2

 Let CEHWKHOLQHVHJPHQWMRLQLQJWKHSRLQWVͼ௘x1, y1௘ͽDQGͼ௘x, y௘ͽ

9HULI\WKHIRUPXOD ³ x dy  y dx x1 y2  x2 y1 .
C

 )LQGWKHDUHDHQFORVHGE\WKHKH[DJRQZLWKYHUWLFHVͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘í௘ͽ

 3URYHthat ³ f x dx  g y dy
C
0 LIfDQGgDUHGLIIHUHQWLDEOHIXQFWLRQVDQGCLVDSLHFHZLVHVPRRWK
VLPSOHFORVHGSDWK


Parametric Surfaces in Space
Lesson 33

Topics

x 3DUDPHWULFFXUYHV

x 3DUDPHWULFVXUIDFHVLQVSDFH

x 1RUPDOYHFWRUVWRSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHV

x 6XUIDFHDUHDDQGWKHGLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFHDUHD

'H¿QLWLRQVDQG7KHRUHPV

x $VWKHUHDOQXPEHUVuDQGvYDU\DFURVVWKHLUGRPDLQVWKHIXQFWLRQ

U௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽ x௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽi + y௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽj + z௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽk

 WUDFHVRXWDSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFH

x &RQVLGHUDSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHDQGLWVSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

r u, v x u, v i  y u, v j  z u, v k

ru u , v wx i  wy j  wz k
wu wu wu

rv u , v wx i  wy j  wz k .
wv wv wv
Lesson 33: Parametric Surfaces in Space

A QRUPDOYHFWRUWRWKHVXUIDFHLVWKHFURVVSURGXFWN = Uv × Uu

x The VXUIDFHDUHDRIDSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHLV A ³³ r
D
u u rv dA.

x The GLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFH DUHDLV dS ru u rv dA.

6XPPDU\

,QWKLVOHVVRQZHH[WHQGRXUNQRZOHGJHRISDUDPHWULFFXUYHVWRSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHV$SDUDPHWULFVXUIDFH
LVJLYHQE\DYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQKDYLQJWZRSDUDPHWHUV$VWKHSDUDPHWHUVYDU\RYHUWKHLUGRPDLQVWKH
IXQFWLRQWUDFHVRXWDVXUIDFHLQVSDFH:HZLOOXVHWKHFURVVSURGXFWRISDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVWRFRQVWUXFWQRUPDO


YHFWRUVWRSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHV:HFORVHWKHOHVVRQZLWKWKHLQWHJUDOIRUVXUIDFHDUHDDQGWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJ
GLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFHDUHD

([DPSOH z
4

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í

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x 
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7KLVPHDQVWKDWx + y ZKLFKWHOOVXVWKDWWKHVXUIDFHLVDULJKW Figure 33.1

FLUFXODUF\OLQGHURIUDGLXVDQGKHLJKWͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ

([DPSOH
z
1
r ( u , v ) = uuii + vvjj + v k
'HVFULEHWKHVXUIDFH r u , v ui  vj  v k . 2
2

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1
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1 2
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([DPSOH Figure 33.2

7KHSDUDERORLGz = x + yFDQEHGHVFULEHGDVDSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFH
U௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽ ui + vjͼ௘u + v௘ͽk)LQGDQHTXDWLRQRIDQRUPDOYHFWRU
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8

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6

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YHFWRULVN i + 4jík
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í
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VLPSOL¿HVWRx + 4yíz ͼ௘6HH)LJXUH௘ͽ Figure 33.3


([DPSOH

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 Uv íVLQuVLQviVLQuFRVvj

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2S S
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 7KHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVDUH rx i  ¨ ¸ k DQG ry j  ¨ ¸ k .
w
© ¹x © wy ¹
2 2
wf wf § wf · § wf ·
Lesson 33: Parametric Surfaces in Space

 7KHFURVVSURGXFWLV rx u ry  i j  k DQG rx u ry ¨ ¸  ¨ ¸  1.
wx wy © wx ¹ © wy ¹

3LWIDOOV

x 7KH0|ELXVVWULSLVDQH[DPSOHRIDVXUIDFHZLWKRQO\RQHVLGH:HZLOOVHHODWHUWKDWWKH0|ELXV
VWULSLVQRWRULHQWDEOH

x 1RWLFHWKDWWKHQRUPDOYHFWRUVWRDVXUIDFHN1 = Uv × UuDQGN = Uu × Uv íN1SRLQWLQRSSRVLWH


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Uu FRV u FRV viFRV u VLQ vjíVLQ uk


Uv íVLQ u VLQ viVLQ u FRV vj

LV ru u rv sin u.


Surface Integrals and Flux Integrals
Lesson 34

Topics

x 6XUIDFHLQWHJUDOV

x 6XUIDFHLQWHJUDOVDQGPDVV

x 3DUDPHWULFVXUIDFHVDQGVXUIDFHLQWHJUDOV

x 2ULHQWDEOHVXUIDFHV

x )OX[LQWHJUDOV

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2
³³ f x, y, z dS ³³ f x, y, g x, y
2
1  g x  g y dA.
S R

2 2
The GLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFH DUHDLV dS 1  g x  g y dA.

x &RQVLGHUWKHSDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHU௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽ x௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽi + y௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽj + z௘ͼ௘u, v௘ͽk7KHVXUIDFHLQWHJUDOLV


Lesson 34: Surface Integrals and Flux Integrals

³³ f x, y, z dS ³³ f x u , v , y u , v , z u , v dS ,
S S

ZKHUH dS ru u , v u rv u , v dA LVWKHGLIIHUHQWLDORIVXUIDFHDUHD

x $VXUIDFHSLVRULHQWDEOHLIDXQLWQRUPDOYHFWRUNFDQEHGH¿QHGDWHYHU\QRQERXQGDU\SRLQWRQS
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x Let z = g ͼ௘x, y௘ͽEHDQRULHQWDEOHVXUIDFHDQGOHWG ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ zíg ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ7KHJUDGLHQWRIGLVQRUPDOWR


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130
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GHULYDWLYHVLVQRUPDOWRWKHVXUIDFH

rv u ru
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rv u ru

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S

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R R

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dS 1  g x  g y dA

x2 y2
1 2 2
 dA
9 x  y 9  x2  y2
Lesson 34: Surface Integrals and Flux Integrals

9  x 2
 y2  x2  y2
dA 3 dA.
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mass ³³ U x, y, z dS ³³ 2 z ¨¨ 9  x2  y2
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y
x
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133
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Lesson 34: Surface Integrals and Flux Integrals

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3 2 3  x 243 .
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xy
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S
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134
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135
Divergence Theorem—Boundaries and Solids
Lesson 35

Topics

x 7KHGLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHP

x 7KHGLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHPDQG*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP

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Let )ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDYHFWRU¿HOGZKRVHFRPSRQHQWIXQFWLRQVKDYHFRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV
The GLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHPVWDWHVWKDW

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Lesson 35: Divergence Theorem—Boundaries and Solids

Q
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136
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x N1 ík
S1: z 0

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2 2
³³ F < N
S1
1 dS
S1 R R

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2S 2
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N2 
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6RZHKDYH

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137
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Figure 35.2

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Lesson 35: Divergence Theorem—Boundaries and Solids

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3
3 volume of sphere 3 4 S 2
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138
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139
Stokes’s Theorem and Maxwell’s Equations
Lesson 36

Topics

x 6XPPDU\RIIXQGDPHQWDOWKHRUHPVLQFDOFXOXV

x 6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHP

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b
x 7KHIXQGDPHQWDOWKHRUHPRIFDOFXOXV ³ F c x dx F b  F a .
a

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³ F < dr ³ ’ f < dr f x b , y b , z b  f x a , y a , z a .
C C

§ wN wM ·
x *UHHQ¶VWKHRUHP ³ F < dr ³ M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx  ¸ dA .
C C
R
wy ¹

x 7KHGLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHP ³³ F < N dS ³³³ div F dV ³³³ ’<F dV .


S Q Q

x Let SEHDQRULHQWHGVXUIDFHZLWKXQLWQRUPDONDQGOHWCEHDFORVHGFXUYHERXQGLQJWKHVXUIDFH
Let ) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDYHFWRU¿HOGZKRVHFRPSRQHQWIXQFWLRQVKDYHFRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV
Lesson 36: Stokes’s Theorem and Maxwell’s Equations

7KHQ6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHPVWDWHVWKDW

³C
F < dr ³³ curl F < N dS .
S

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140
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GHVFULEHWKHLQWHUDFWLRQRIHOHFWULFDQGPDJQHWLF¿HOGV

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z
Let SEHWKHSRUWLRQRIWKHSDUDERORLGz íxíy
S 2: z = 4 − x 2 − y 2
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x
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C
R: x2 + y2 ≤ 4
S
Figure 36.1

/HW¶V¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDO

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’G x , y , z 2 2
NdS gx  g y  1 dA ’G x , y , z dA .
’G x , y , z

1H[WZHFDOFXODWHWKHFXUORI) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ zi + xj + yk

i j k
curl F w w w 2 yi  2 j  k .
wx wy wz
2z x y2

)LQDOO\

³³ curl F < N dS ³³ 2 yi  2 j  k < 2 xi  2 yj  k dA


S R

³³ 4 xy  4 y  1 dA
R
4S .

141
:HQH[WFDOFXODWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO

7KHERXQGDU\CFDQEHSDUDPHWHUL]HGDVr t 2 cos ti  2sin tj  0k , 0 d t d 2S 6Rr c t 2sin ti  2 cos tj 

We have x 2 cos t , dx 2sin t dt , y 2sin t , dy 2 cos t dt DQGz %HFDXVH)ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ zi + xj + yk,

³C
F < dr ³C
M dx  N dy  P dz

³ 2 z dx  x dy  y 2 dz
C

2S
³ >0  2 cos t (2 cos t )  0@ dt
0

2S
³ 4 cos 2 t dt 4S .
0

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C ³³ curl F < N dS
S
4S .

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C

6ROXWLRQ
i j k
w w w
:HVHHWKDWWKHFXUORIFLV]HUR curl F
wx wy wz
0. Therefore, ³³ curl F < N dS ³
S
C
F < dr 0.

yze x ze x ye x
([DPSOH
Lesson 36: Stokes’s Theorem and Maxwell’s Equations

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2S
4 ³ 1  cos 2t dt
2S 2S
³ 4 cos 2 t dt 2 ªt  sin 2t º 4S .
0 0 2 ¬« 2 ¼» 0


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S
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S

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y
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 8VH6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHPWRHYDOXDWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO ³C F < dr , ZKHUH) ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ xyzi + yj + zkDQGSLVWKH


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 $VVXPHWKDWWKHPRWLRQRIDOLTXLGLQDF\OLQGULFDOFRQWDLQHURIUDGLXVLVGHVFULEHGE\WKHYHORFLW\¿HOG
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S

 $VVXPHWKDWWKHPRWLRQRIDOLTXLGLQDF\OLQGULFDOFRQWDLQHURIUDGLXVLVGHVFULEHGE\WKHYHORFLW\
¿HOG F x , y , z  y x 2  y 2 i  x x 2  y 2 j. )LQG ³³ (curl F ) < N dS , ZKHUHSLVWKHXSSHUVXUIDFHRIWKH
S
F\OLQGULFDOFRQWDLQHU

143
Solutions

Lesson 1

1. By the chain rule, f c x 1 2  e3 x 3 1  3e 3 x .


2x
x

S
sin S  sin 0 1.
S
2. ³0
2
cos x dx >sin x @0 2 2

3. v 4  1, 0  2 5,  2 5i  2 j.

x and sin t y
4. x 3cos t and y 3sin t implies cos t .
3 3
2
By the fundamental trigonometric identity, we have cos 2 t  sin 2 t x2  y 1 Ÿ x2  y2 9. This is the
9 9
equation of a circle of radius 3 centered at the origin.

5. f c x 6 x 2  6 x  12 6 x 2  x  2 6 x  2 x  1 . Setting this derivative equal to zero yields the


critical numbers x = 1 and x í$QDO\]LQJWKHGHULYDWLYHLQWKHRSHQLQWHUYDOVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHFULWLFDO
QXPEHUVZHVHHWKDWWKHJUDSKLVLQFUHDVLQJRQͼ௘í’í௘ͽDQGͼ௘’௘ͽDQGGHFUHDVLQJRQͼ௘í௘ͽ. Hence,
WKHUHLVDUHODWLYHPD[LPXPDWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGDUHODWLYHPLQLPXPDWͼ௘í௘ͽ.

2
6  1  2  2  2  4
2 2
6. The distance is 25  0  36 61.

7. The midpoint is §¨ 4  8 , 0  8 , 6  20 ·¸ 6, 4, 7 .
© 2 2 2 ¹

2 2 2 2 2
8. x  0  y  2  z  5 22 Ÿ x 2  y  2  z  5 4.

9. f 1, 3 ln 3  e1 3 ln 3  e 4 .

10. g S , 0 3cos S  0  sin S  0 3 1  0 3.


Solutions

144
Lesson 2

1. f 0, 5, 4 05 4 9 3.

2. The domain is ^ x, y : x z 0 and y z 0`. That is, the domain consists of all points in the plane that do not
lie on either axis.

3. We must have 4  x  y ! 0 Ÿ x  y  4. So, the domain is the set ^ x, y : y   x  4`.

4. The graph is a plane 4 units above, and parallel to, the xy-plane.

5. The graph is a hemisphere of radius 1 above the xy-plane.

6. 6HWWLQJíxíy = cZHVHHWKDWx + 3y íc. Hence, the level curves are lines of slope  2 .
3

7. The level curves are hyperbolas of the form xy = c.

8. The level surface is the sphere of radius 3, x + y + z = 9.

9. We complete the square as follows:

 x 2  2 x  1  y 2  4 y  4  5
2 2
z 2x  4 y  x2  y2 5  x  1  y  2 .

Hence, the largest value of z is 5, when x = 1 and y 

10. The volume consists of the cylinder and two hemispheres. Hence, we have

S r2x  4 S r3 S r 2 3 x  4r .
V
3 3

145
Lesson 3

1. lim
x , y o 2, 1
2x 2
 y
2
2 2  1 9.

2. lim e xy e1 2 e2 .
x , y o 1, 2

xy  1 1 1  1 0
3. lim 0.
x , y o 1, 1 1  xy 1  1 1 2

4. 7KHIXQFWLRQLVFRQWLQXRXVH[FHSWDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ. This point is not in the domain of the function.

5. 7KHFRQWLQXRXVIRUDOOͼ௘x, y௘ͽ satisfying x + y7KHVHSRLQWVDUHQRWLQWKHGRPDLQRIWKHIXQFWLRQ

6. $SSURDFKLQJWKHRULJLQDORQJWKHSDWKy WKHIXQFWLRQHTXDOV

$SSURDFKLQJWKHRULJLQDORQJWKHSDWKy = x, the function equals x2 1.


x  x2
2
2

)RUDQ\RSHQGLVNDERXWWKHRULJLQWKHUHDUHYDOXHVRIWKHIXQFWLRQHTXDOWRDQGRWKHUYDOXHVHTXDOWR 1 .
2
Hence, the limit does not exist.

 xy 2  y2 y2
7. $SSURDFKLQJWKHRULJLQDORQJWKHSDWKx = y, the function equals 1.
x2  y4 y4  y4 2
 xy 2 y2 y2 1.
$SSURDFKLQJWKHRULJLQDORQJWKHSDWKx íy, the function equals
x2  y4 y4  y4 2
1
For any open disk about the origin, there are values of the function equal to  and other values equal to
1 . Hence, the limit does not exist. 2
2

wf wf
8. 2, 5.
wx wy

wf wf 1 xy 1 2 x .
9. y,
wx wy 2 2 y

wf wf
Solutions

10.  sin xy ( y )  y sin xy ,  sin xy ( x )  x sin xy.


wx wy

146
Lesson 4

1. fx 5cos 5 x cos 5 y , f y 5sin 5 x sin 5 y.

y  y2 y x y y y § y·
2. fx ye x
 yx
2
e , fy e x  1 ye x e x
¨1  x ¸ .
x2 x © ¹

3. g x 2 x , g y 2 y. $WWKHJLYHQSRLQWWKHVORSHLQWKHxGLUHFWLRQLVíͼ௘௘ͽ íDQGWKHVORSHLQWKH
yGLUHFWLRQLVíͼ௘௘ͽ í

4. fx 3 x 2 yz 2 , f x 1, 1, 1 3, f y x 3 z 2 , f y 1, 1, 1 1, f z 2 x 3 yz , f z 1, 1, 1 2.

5. 7KH¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVDUH f x 2 x  2 y, f y 2 x  6 y. Differentiating again,


f xx 2, f yy 6, f xy 2, f yx 2.

6. 7KH¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVDUH f x e x tan y , f y e x sec 2 y. Differentiating again,


f xx e x tan x , f yy 2e x sec 2 y tan y , f xy e x sec 2 y , f yx e x sec 2 y.

7. We have f x 2x  y  5 0Ÿ y 2 x  5. Next, substitute into the partial with respect to y:


fy  x  2 y  1  x  2 2 x  5  1 3 x  9 0. Hence, x = 3 and y = 1.

8. fx  12  y , f y  12  x. Setting these partial derivatives equal to zero gives y 1 and x 1 .


x y x2 y2

Hence, y = y4 Ÿ y = 1 and x = 1. Notice that xDQGy

9. :H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHVHFRQGSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

y 2 xy x ,z 2 xy
zx , z xx , zy yy .
x  y2
2
x 2
y 2

2
x  y2
2
x 2
 y2
2

2 2 2 xy 2 xy
Hence, w z2  w z2 2
 2
0.
wx wy x 2
 y2 x 2
 y2


10. :H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHVHFRQGSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

zt  c cos x  ct , ztt  c 2 sin x  ct , z x cos x  ct , z xx  sin x  ct .

2 2
Hence, w 2z  c 2 sin x  ct c 2 w z2 .
wt wx

Lesson 5

1. dz 4 xy 3 dx  6 x 2 y 2 dy.

2. dz e x sin y dx  e x cos y dy.

3. dw 1 dx  3 x  z dy  x  y dz.
z  3y z  3y
2
z  3y
2

4. Let z x 2 y, x 2, y 9, dx 0.01, dy 0.02.

2
Then, dz 2 xy dx  x 2 dy and 2.01 9.02  2 2 9 | 2 2 9 0.01  2 2 0.02 0.44.

5. Let z sin x 2  y 2 , x y 1, dx 0.05, dy 0.05. Then, dz 2 x cos x 2  y 2 dx  2 y cos x 2  y 2 dy ,


and we have sin ª 1.05  0.95 º  sin 12  12 | 2 1 cos 12  12 0.05  2 1 cos 12  12 0.05 0.
2 2

¬ ¼

6. The volume is V S r 2 h, which implies that dV 2S rh dr  S r 2 dh. Hence,

dV 2S rh dr  S r 2 dh
2 dr  dh 2 0.04  0.02 0.10.
V S r 2h r h

6RWKHSHUFHQWDJHHUURULV“

7. hc x dxd e
cos e 3 x
2
3 x2
2 2
cos e 3 x e 3 x (6 x )
2


6 xe 3 x cos e 3 x .
2

8. dw ww dx  ww dy y e t  x 2e 2 t e 2 t e t  e t 2e 2 t e  t .
dt wx dt wy dt
Solutions

148
9. dw ww dx  ww dy  sin x  y (2t )  sin x  y (0) 2t sin t 2  1 .
dt wx dt wy dt

10. dw ww dx  ww dy ye xy 2t  xe xy 1 . $Wt = 1, x = 1 and y = 1. Hence, dw e 2  e 3e.


dt wx dt wy dt dt

Lesson 6

x y
1. fx 0Ÿ x 0, f y 0Ÿ y 0. 7KHFULWLFDOSRLQWLVͼ௘௘ͽ.
x2  y2  1 x2  y2  1

2. fx 2 x  10 0Ÿ x 5, f y 2 y  12 0Ÿ y 6. 7KHFULWLFDOSRLQWLVͼ௘௘ͽ.

4x 4y
3. The partial derivatives f x 1
, fy 1
DUHQRWGH¿QHGDWx = y 7KHFULWLFDO
SRLQWLVͼ௘௘ͽ. 3 x2  y2 3
3 x2  y2 3

2 x 2  y 2  8 x  6 y  20 2 x 2  4 x  4  y 2  6 y  9  20  8  9 Ÿ f x , y
2 2
4. 2 x  2  y  3  3
KDVDUHODWLYHPLQLPXPDWͼ௘í௘ͽ.

5. fx y, f y x Ÿ 0, 0 is the only critical point. f xx f yy 0, f xy 1.

2
By the second partials test, d f xx f yy  f xy 0  1  0, DQGKHQFHͼ௘௘ͽ is a saddle point.

6. fx 6 x  6, f y 4 y  4 Ÿ 1, 1 is the only critical point. f xx 6, f yy 4, f xy 0.

2
Hence, d f xx f yy  f xy 6(4)  0 ! 0, DQGE\WKHVHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWͼ௘௘ͽ is a relative minimum.

7. f x 10 x  4 y  16 0, f y 4 x  2 y 0. 6ROYLQJWKHVHHTXDWLRQVZHVHHWKDWͼ௘௘ͽ is the only


critical point. f xx 10, f yy 2, f xy 4.

2
Hence, d f xx f yy  f xy ( 10)( 2)  4 2 ! 0, DQGE\WKHVHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWͼ௘௘ͽ is a
relative maximum.

149
8. fx 2 y  2 x3 0, f y 2x  2 y3 0. Solving these equations, we see that there are three critical points:
ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽDQGͼ௘íí௘ͽ. f xx 6 x 2 , f yy 6 y 2 , f xy 2.

2
$Wͼ௘௘ͽ, d f xx f yy  f xy  0 Ÿ 0, 0, 1 is a saddle point.

2
$Wͼ௘௘ͽ, d f xx f yy  f xy ! 0 and f xx  0, VRͼ௘௘ͽ is a relative maximum.

2
)LQDOO\DWͼ௘íí௘ͽ, d f xx f yy  f xy ! 0 and f xx  0, VRͼ௘íí௘ͽ is a relative maximum.

9. fx 2 , f 2 , ZKLFKLPSOLHVWKDWͼ௘௘ͽ is the only critical point.


1 y 1
3x 3 3y 3
Clearly, f x , y t 0, VRͼ௘௘ͽ is a relative minimum.

10. Let x and y be the dimensions of the base and z the height.

2  xy
The amount of material is 2 xy  2 xz  2 yz Ÿ z .
2x  2 y
§ 2  xy ·
The volume of the box is therefore V xyz xy ¨ ¸.
© 2x  2 y ¹

Setting the partial derivatives equal to zero, you obtain x = y and the nontrivial critical point

x, y §¨ 36 , 36 ·¸ .
© ¹

6
By the second partials test, this is a maximum. The corresponding z value is , and the maximum
6 6
volume is .
9

C  3 xy Cxy  3 x 2 y 2
11. We have V xy So, by the quotient rule,
4( x  y ) 4( x  y )

4 x  y Cy  6 xy 2  Cxy  3 x 2 y 2 4 Cxy  6 x 2 y 2  Cy 2  6 xy 3  Cxy  3 x 2 y 2


Vx 2 2
.
ª¬ 4 x  y º¼ 4 x  y

y 2 C  3 x 2  6 xy
7KLVVLPSOL¿HVWR Vx 2
.
4 x  y
Solutions

12. The numerators both equal zero: C  3 x 2  6 xy C  3 y 2  6 xy , which implies that x = y. Using the value
C  1296  3 x 2  6 x 2 0 Ÿ 9x2 1296 Ÿ x 12. Hence, the solution is x = y 


Lesson 7

1. f x 2 x  4 y 0, f y 4 x 0 Ÿ 0, 0 is the only critical point, and it lies outside the rectangular region.
We now analyze the function along its boundaries.

$ORQJ y 0, 1 d x d 4: f x 2  5, f 1, 0 6, f 4, 0 21.

$ORQJ y 2, 1 d x d 4, f x 2  8 x  5, f c 2 x  8 0, f 1, 2 2, f 4, 2 11.

$ORQJ x 1, 0 d y d 2, f 4 y  6, f 1, 0 6, f 1, 2 2.

$ORQJ x 4, 0 d y d 2, f 21  16 y , f (4, 0) 21, f (4, 2) 11.

6XPPDUL]LQJWKHPD[LPXPLVͼ௘௘ͽDQGWKHPLQLPXPLVͼ௘í௘ͽ.

2. The function has no critical points. We analyze the function along its boundary.

$ORQJWKHOLQH y x  1, 0 d x d 1, f 12  3 x  2 x  1 5 x  10. 7KHPD[LPXPLVDQGWKHPLQLPXP


is 5.

$ORQJ y 2 x  4, 1 d x d 2, f 12  3 x  2( 2 x  4) x  4. The maximum is 6, and the minimum is 5.

$ORQJ y  1 x  1, 0 d x d 2, f 2 x  10 7KHPD[LPXPLVDQGWKHPLQLPXPLV
2

)LQDOO\WKHDEVROXWHPD[LPXPLVͼ௘௘ͽDQGWKHDEVROXWHPLQLPXPLVͼ௘௘ͽ.

3. $SRLQWRQWKHSODQHLVJLYHQE\ x, y , z x, y , 3  x  y .
2
7KHVTXDUHRIWKHGLVWDQFHIURPͼ௘௘ͽ to this point is S x2  y 2  3  x  y .

The partial derivatives are S x 2 x  2 3  x  y , S y 2 y  2 3  x  y .

From the equations S x Sy 0, ZHREWDLQWKHFULWLFDOSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ.

2
The corresponding z-value is 1, and the minimum distance is 12  1  12 3.

151
4. Let x, y, and z be the three numbers. Because xyz 27, z 27 .
xy

The sum is S x  y  27 , and the partial derivatives are S x 1  27 , Sy 1  272 .


xy x2 y xy

Setting the partial derivatives equal to zero yields x = 3, y = 3.

Finally, we have z = 3, and the three numbers are equal, x = y = z = 3.

5. Let x, y, and z be the length, width, and height, respectively, and let VEHWKH¿[HGYROXPH

V . The surface area is given by S § ·


Hence, V xyz Ÿ z 2 xy  2 yz  2 xz 2 ¨ xy  V  V ¸ .
xy © x y ¹
§ ·
Setting the partial derivatives equal to zero, S x 2 §¨ y  V2 ·¸ 0, S y 2 ¨ x  V2 ¸ 0, you obtain
© x ¹ © y ¹
x y z 3 V.

6. We have

108 y  4 xy  2 y 2 y 108  4 x  2 y 0 Ÿ 108  4 x  2 y 0

and

108 x  2 x 2  4 xy x 108  2 x  4 y 0 Ÿ 108  2 x  4 y 0.

Setting these two equations equal to each other, you have 4xy x + 4y, which implies that x = y.

Finally, 108  4 x  2 y 108  4 x  2 x 0Ÿ x y 18.

2 y  x 2 y  x 3 x  1 0.
7. Because C y  1 0, 1. So, C x
y  x
2
1 y  x
2
1 x2  4

1Ÿx 2
Solving this equation for x, 3 x x2  4 Ÿ 9x2 x2  4 Ÿ x2 .
2 2

3 2
Knowing this value, you obtain y  .
3 2
Solutions


Lesson 8

1. n 3, ¦x i 9, ¦ yi 9, ¦ xi yi 39, ¦ xi 2 35.

n ¦ xi yi  ¦ xi ¦ yi 3 39  9 9 36 3.
a 2 2
n ¦ xi  ¦ xi
2
3 35  9 24 2

1 1 §9  3 9 · 9  3.
b y  a ¦ xi
n ¦ i 3©
¨
2
¸
¹ 6 2

The least squares regression line is y 3 x 3.


2 2

2. n 5, ¦x i 13, ¦ yi 12, ¦ xi yi 46, ¦ xi 2 51.

n ¦ xi yi  ¦ xi ¦ yi 5 46  13 12 74 37 .
a 2 2
n ¦ xi  ¦ xi
2
5 51  13 86 43

1 1 §12  37 13 · 7 .
b y  a ¦ xi
n ¦ i 5©
¨
43
¸
¹ 43

The least squares regression line is y 37 x  7 .


43 43

3. You obtain y  175 x  945 | 1.1824 x  6.3851.


148 148

4. You obtain y 29 x  425 | 0.5472 x  1.3365.


53 318

5. You obtain y 14 x  19. When x 1.6, y 14(1.6)  19 41.4 bushels per acre.

6. You obtain y 300 x  832. When x 1.59, y 300(1.59)  832 355.

153
Lesson 9

1. The component form is 4  3, 1  2, 6  0 1, 1, 6 . The magnitude is


2
1, 1, 6 1  1  6
2 2
38.

2. The length is 12  32  4 2 26.

3. 7KHYHFWRUMRLQLQJWKH¿UVWWZRSRLQWVLV 1, 3,  4 , DQGWKHYHFWRUMRLQLQJWKH¿UVWDQGWKLUGSRLQWVLV
1,  1, 1 . Because these vectors are not parallel, the points are not collinear.

4. u< v 2, 1,1 < 1, 0, 1 2(1)  ( 1)(0)  1( 1) 1.

5. The length of the vector is 4 1 4 3.

The unit vector in the same direction is 1 v 1 2, 1,  2 2, 1, 2 .


3 3 3 3 3

3(2)  2( 3)  1(0)


6. cos T u< v 0, which implies that the angle is S 90q.
u v u v 2

The vectors are orthogonal.

u< v 3(0)  4(2)  0(3) 8 .


7. cos T
u v 9  16 49 5 13
§ ·
Using a calculator, we have T arccos ¨ 8 ¸ | 1.111 | 63.7q.
© 5 13 ¹

8. The point is P௘ͼ௘௘ͽ, and the direction vector is v 3, 1, 5 . The parametric equations are
x 0  3t , y 0  t, z 0  5t Ÿ x 3t , y t, z 5t .

9. x 3  0t , y 0  6t , z 2  3t Ÿ x 3, y 6t , z 2  3t .

10. The direction vector is v 3  7, 0  2 , 6  6 10, 2, 0 . 8VLQJWKH¿UVWSRLQWZHREWDLQ


Solutions

x ít, y ít, z = 6.

154
Lesson 10
i j k i j k
1. k ui 0 0 1 0 i   j  0k j and i u k 1 0 0 0 i  j  0k  j.
1 0 0 0 0 1

The vectors i and k are orthogonal, and k u i  i u k .

i j k
3 2 7 2 7 3
2. uu v 7 3 2 i j k 17 i  33 j  10k .
1 5 1 5 1 1
1 1 5

i j k
1 2 3 2 3 1
3. uu v 3 1 2 i j k 3i  5 j  7k .
2 1 1 1 1 2
1 2 1

i j k
1 1 1 1 1 1
4. uu v 1 1 1 i j k  j  k.
1 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1

The dot product of this vector with the original vectors is zero, showing orthogonality.

i  j  k <  j  k 1  1 0, j  k <  j  k 1  1 0.

5. The cross product of the given vectors will be orthogonal to the two vectors.

i j k
0 0 1 0 1 0
i u 2j  k 1 0 0 i j k  j  2k .
2 1 0 1 0 2
0 2 1

i j k
0 2 1 2 1 0
6. vu v 1 0 2 i j k 0.
0 2 1 2 1 0
1 0 2

The cross product of a vector with itself is always the zero vector.

155
7. 2QHZD\WRVROYHWKLVSUREOHPLVWR¿QGWKHFURVVSURGXFWDQGWKHQGLYLGHE\LWVOHQJWKWRJHQHUDWHDXQLW
YHFWRU$QRWKHUZD\LVWRREVHUYHWKDWWKHVHYHFWRUVOLHLQWKHxy-plane, so an orthogonal unit vector is k
ͼ௘RUíN௘ͽ.

8. The area is the magnitude of the cross product.


i j k
2 1 3 1 3 2
3, 2,  1 u 1, 2, 3 3 2 1 i j k 8i  10 j  4k .
2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3

$UHD  8i  10 j  4k 64  100  16 180 6 5.

9. The volume is the absolute value of the triple scalar product.

1 3 1
6 6 0 6 0 6
u < v u w 0 6 6 1  3  1 24  24(3)  24 72.
0 4 4 4 4 0
4 0 4

+HQFHWKHYROXPHLV

10. The following three vectors form adjacent sides of the parallelepiped:

3  0, 0  0, 0  0 3, 0, 0 , 0  0, 5  0, 1  0 0, 5, 1 , 2  0, 0  0, 5  0 2, 0, 5 .

We next form the triple scalar product of these three vectors:

3 0 0
5 1 0 1 0 5
0 5 1 3  0  0 75.
0 5 2 5 2 0
2 0 5

+HQFHWKHYROXPHLV

JJJK JJJK
11. Form the vectors AC 3, 8, 2 and AB 1, 1, 3 . Their cross product 22, 7, 5 is orthogonal
to the triangle.
Solutions

156
Lesson 11

1. The normal vector is n j 0i  j  0k .

So, an equation of the plane is 0 x  1  1 y  3  0 z  ( 7) 0 Ÿ y  3 0.

2. The normal vector is n 2i  j  2k .

So, an equation of the plane is 2 x  1  1 y  4  2 z  0 0 Ÿ 2 x  y  2 z  6 0.

3. Let u 2, 0, 3 EHWKHYHFWRUIURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽ, and let v 3, 1, 5 be the vector


IURPWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘íí௘ͽ.

The normal vector to the plane is their cross product, n = u × v = 3, 19, 2 .

So, the equation of the plane is 3 x  0  19 y  0  2 z  0 0 Ÿ 3 x  19 y  2 z 0.

4. The angle between the two planes is the angle between their normal vectors, n1 3, 2, 1
and n 2 1, 4, 2 .

n1 < n 2 38 2 7 6
cos T Ÿ T | 1.1503 | 65.91q.
n1 n 2 14 21 7 6 6

5. The dot product of the normal vectors n1 5, 3, 1 and n 2 1, 4, 7 is zero, so the planes
are orthogonal.

6. The normal vectors n1 3, 1, 4 and n 2 9, 3, 12 DUHSDUDOOHOͼ௘PXOWLSOHVRIHDFKRWKHU௘ͽ, so the


planes are parallel.

7. The direction vector of the line is v = 3ijík. The parametric equations of the line are
x 2  3t , y 3  2t , z 4  t.

8. The direction vector of the line is v = k. The parametric equations of the line are x 2, y 3, z 4  t .


9. The normal to the plane is n 5, 1, 1 . The given point is Q௘ͼ௘௘ͽ, a point in the plane is P௘ͼ௘௘ͽ,
JJJG
and the vector PQ is 0, 9, 0 .
JJJG
PQ <n 9
Therefore, the distance is D 9 3.
n 27 3 3

10. The normal to the plane is n 3, 4, 5 . The given point is Q௘ͼ௘í௘ͽ, a point in the plane is P௘ͼ௘௘ͽ,
JJJG
and the vector PQ is  1, 3, 1 .
JJJG
PQ <n 20
Therefore, the distance is D 20 2 2.
n 50 5 2

Lesson 12

1. The surface is a plane parallel to the xz-plane.

2. The x-coordinate is missing, so you have a right circular cylinder with rulings parallel to the x-axis.
The radius of the cylinder is 3.

3. The surface is an ellipsoid centered at the origin.

y2
4. Rewriting the equation, 4 x 2   4z2 1, we see that this is a hyperboloid of one sheet centered
4
at the origin.

5. The surface is a hyperboloid of two sheets centered at the origin.

6. We have y = x + z, so the surface is an elliptic paraboloid.

7. %\FRPSOHWLQJWKHVTXDUHZHVHHWKDWWKHVXUIDFHLVDQHOOLSVRLGZLWKFHQWHUDWͼ௘௘ͽ.

16 x 2  2 x  1  9 y 2  4 y  4  16 z 2 36  16  36
2 2
16 x  1  9 y  2  16 z 2 16
Solutions

2 2
x  1 y  2
  z2 1.
1 16 9

158
8. %\FRPSOHWLQJWKHVTXDUHZHVHHWKDWWKHVXUIDFHLVDQHOOLSWLFFRQHZLWKFHQWHUDWͼ௘í௘ͽ.

9 x 2  6 x  9  y 2  4 y  4  9 z 2  6 z  9 4  81  4  81
2 2 2
9 x  3  y  2  9 z  3 0.

9. One equation is x + z = 4y.

2
10. One equation is x 2  y 2 § z · , or 4x + 4y = z.
¨ ¸
©2¹

Lesson 13

1. rc t 1 i  16 j  tk .
t2

2. rc t 3t 2 , 3sin 3t , 3cos 3t .

3
3. rc t t , 1, 1 t 2 , r cc t 1, 0, t Ÿ r c t <r cc t t (1)  ( 1)0  1 t 2 (t ) t  t .
2 2 2

4. ³ 2ti  j  k dt t 2 i  tj  tk  C.

S S

³ ª¬ sec t tan t i  tan t j  2sin t cos t k º¼ dt


4
5. ª¬sec ti  ln cos t j  sin 2 tk º¼ 4
0 0

§ 2 ·
2  1 i  ¨ ln  0 ¸ j  §¨ 1  0 ·¸ k 2  1 i  ln 2 j  1 k .
© 2 ¹ ©2 ¹ 2

6. r t 4 ti  4 tj  2 tk , v t r c t 4 i  4 j  2 k , a t v c t DQGWKHVSHHGLV
,
v t 42  42  22 36 6.

7. We calculate the derivative and then divide by its length, as follows:

rc t 2sin t , 2 cos t , 0
r c t 2sin t , 2 cos t , 0 Ÿ T t  sin t , cos t , 0 .
rc t 2

159
8. $WWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ, t +HQFH r c t i  2tj  k , r c 0 i  k , r c 0 2.

r c 0 ik 2 2
The unit tangent is T 0 i k.
r c 0 2 2 2

9. x c t 1, y c t 4, z c t 3. Hence, the arc length is given by

b 2 2 2 1 1
s ³ ª¬ x c t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt ³ 1  16  9 dt ª¬ 26t º¼ 26.
a 0 0

10. xc t 2 cos t , y c t 5, z c t 2sin t . Hence, the arc length is given by

b 2 2 2 S
s ³ ª¬ x c t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt ³ 4 cos 2 t  25  4sin 2 dt
a 0

S S
³ 4  25 dt ª¬ 29t º¼ 29S .
0 0

Lesson 14

1. The vertices of the ellipse occur when T S and T 3S . So, the length of the major axis is
2 2

2 a 35.88 0.967 d  0.967 d | 29.79 d .


1  0.967 1  0.967

So, d§ and ed§ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ§7KHHTXDWLRQIRUWKHRUELWLVQRZ

r 1.164 .
1  0.967 sin T

7R¿QGWKHFORVHVWSRLQWWRWKH6XQͼ௘WKHIRFXV௘ͽ, use c = ea ͼ௘௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ 7KHFORVHVWSRLQWLV


therefore aíc §í§$8RUPLOHV

2. The area swept out from T  S to T S is given by the integral


2 2
2
1 E r 2 dT 1 S2 § 9 · dT | 0.90429.
2 ³D 2 ³S 2 © 9  5cos T ¹
A ¨ ¸

We next apply Kepler’s second law. The time t required to move from position T  S to position T S
2 2
is given by

t area of elliptical segment 0.90429 Ÿ t | 109 days.


661 area of ellipse 5.46507
Solutions


Lesson 15

1. ’f x , y 3  4 y i  9  4 x j Ÿ ’f 1, 2 5i  5 j.

The vector v is a unit vector, so Du f 1, 2 ’f 1, 2 < v 5i  5 j <§¨ 53 i  54 j ·¸ 3  4 1.


© ¹

2. ’f x , y e x sin y i  e x cos y j Ÿ ’f §¨1, S ·¸ ei .


© 2¹

The vector v is a unit vector, so Du f §¨1, S ·¸ ’f §¨1, S ·¸< v ei <  i  e.


© 2¹ © 2¹

3. ’f x , y , z 2 x i  2 y j  2 z k Ÿ ’f 1, 1, 1 2i  2 j  2k .

v 3 3 3
The vector v is a not a unit vector, so u i j k.
v 3 3 3

Finally, the directional derivative is

Du f 1, 1, 1 ’f 1, 1, 1 <u 2i  2 j  2k <§¨ 3
i
3
j
3 ·
k
3 ¸¹
2 3
.
© 3 3 3

4. ’f x , y 3i  10 yj Ÿ ’f 2, 1 3i  10 j.

’f x , y 2 x i  1 j Ÿ ’f 2, 3 4i  j.
5.
x2  y x2  y

6. ’f x , y , z 6 xi  10 yj  4 zk Ÿ ’f 1, 1,  2 6i  10 j  8k .

7. The maximum value is the magnitude of the gradient. So, we have

’f x , y 2 x  2 y i  2 xj Ÿ ’f 1, 0 2i  2 j and ’f 1, 0 44 2 2.

8. The maximum value is the magnitude of the gradient. So, we have

’f x , y , z y 2 z 2 i  2 xyz 2 j  2 xy 2 zk Ÿ ’f 2, 1, 1 i  4 j  4k

and, thus,

’f 2, 1, 1 1  16  16 33.

161
9. The gradient is ’f x, y 2i  3 j. 7KHOHYHOFXUYHLVx + 3y $Wͼ௘௘ͽ, the gradient
’f 0, 0 2i  3 j is normal to this line.

10. The gradient points in the direction of maximum increase in heat.

y2  x2 2 xy 7 i  24 j is the direction.
Therefore, ’T 2
i 2
j Ÿ ’T 3, 4
625 625
x  y
2 2
x  y2
2

Lesson 16

1. Let F x, y , z 3 x  4 y  12 z and, hence, ’F 3i  4 j  12k .

We have ’F 9  16  144 169 13.

So, a unit normal vector to this plane is n ’F 3 i  4 j  12 k .


’F 13 13 13

2. Let F x, y , z x 2  y 2  z 2  6 and, hence, ’F 2 xi  2 yj  2 zk .

We have ’F 1, 1, 2 2i  2 j  4k and ’F 1, 1, 2 4  4  16 24 2 6.

So, a unit normal vector to this surface is n ’F 1 i  1 j 2 k.


’F 6 6 6

3. Let F x, y , z  x sin y  z  4 and, hence, ’F  sin yi  x cos yj  k .

$QRUPDOYHFWRUWRWKHVXUIDFHDWWKHSRLQW §¨ 6, S , 7 ·¸ is ’F §¨ 6, S , 7 ·¸  1 i  3 3j  k .
© 6 ¹ © 6 ¹ 2

4. Let F x, y , z x 3  z and, hence, ’F 3 x 2 i  k .

+HQFHDQRUPDOYHFWRUWRWKHVXUIDFHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ is ’F 2, 1, 8 12i  k .

5. Let F x, y , z x 2  y 2  3  z. We have Fx 2 x , Fy 2 y , Fz 1.

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ, Fy 2, 1, 8 2, Fy 2, 1, 8 2, and Fz 2, 1, 8 1.


Solutions

So, the tangent plane is 4 x  2  2 y  1  1 z  8 0, ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWRxyíz 


y y 1,F
6. Let F x, y , z  z. We have Fx  , Fy 1.
x x2 x z

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ, Fx 1, 2, 2 2, Fy 1, 2, 2 1, and Fz 1, 2, 2 1.

So, the tangent plane is 2 x  1  y  2  1 z  2 0, ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWRxíy + z 

7. Let F x, y , z x 2  y 2  2 z 2 . We have Fx 2 x , Fy 2 y , Fz 4 z.

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ, Fx 1, 3, 2 2, Fy 1, 3, 2 6, and Fz 1, 3, 2 8.

So, the tangent plane is 2 x  1  6 y  3  8 z  2 0, ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWRxíyíz 

8. Let F x, y , z x 2  4 y 2  z 2  36. We have Fx 2 x , Fy 8 y , Fz 2 z.

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ, Fx 2, 2, 4 4, Fy 2, 2, 4 16, and Fz 2, 2, 4 8.

So, the tangent plane is 4 x  2  16 y  2  8 z  4 0, ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWRxíyz = 18.

9. Let F x, y , z 3  x 2  y 2  6 y  z. We have ’F 2 xi  2 y  6 j  k .

7KHWDQJHQWSODQHZLOOEHKRUL]RQWDOLIíx DQGíy 7KXVx y = 3, and


z 3  0 2  32  6(3) 12. 7KHSRLQWLVͼ௘௘ͽ, which is the vertex of the paraboloid.

§ ·
10. Let F x, y , z xy  1  1  z. We have ’F §¨ y  12 ·¸ i  ¨ x  12 ¸ j  k .
x y © x ¹ © y ¹

The tangent plane will be horizontal if y 1 and x 1 . Thus, x 1 x 4 Ÿ x 1, y 1, z 3.


x2 y2 y2
7KHSRLQWLVͼ௘௘ͽ.

Lesson 17

1. The constraint is g x, y x  2 y  5 0. ’f O’g Ÿ 2 xi  2 yj O i  2 j .

We solve the equations 2 x O , 2 y 2O , x  2 y  5 0 and obtain O 2, x 1, y 2. The minimum value


is f 1, 2 12  2 2 5.

163
2. The constraint is g x, y 2 y  x 2 0. ’f O’g Ÿ 2 xi  2 yj O 2 xi  2 j .

We solve the equations 2 x 2O x , 2 y 2O , 2 y  x 2 0 and obtain O 1, x 2 , y 1.


The maximum value is f 2 , 1 2  1 1.

3. g x , y 2 x  y 100. ’f O’g Ÿ (2  2 y ) i  (2 x  1) j O 2i  j .

We solve the equations 2  2 y 2O , 2 x  1 O , 2 x  y 100 and obtain O 51, x 25, y 50.


The maximum value is f 25, 50 2(25)  2(25)(50)  50 2600.

4. g x, y x yz 9. ’f O’g gives rise to the equations 2 x O , 2 y O , 2 z O , x  y  z 9.

Solving these equations, we obtain O 6, x 3, y 3, z 3. The minimum value is f 3, 3, 3 27.

5. g x, y x yz 3. ’f O’g gives rise to the equations yz O , xz O , xy O , x  y  z 3.

Solving these equations, we obtain O 1, x 1, y 1, z 1 . The maximum value is f 1, 1, 1 1.

6. We minimize the square of the distance. f x, y x 2  y 2 with the constraint g x, y x  y  1 0.


’f O’g gives rise to the equations 2 x O , 2 y O , x  y 1.
2 2
1, y 1 . The minimum distance is therefore § 1· § 1· 2
Solving these equations, O 1, x ¨ ¸ ¨ ¸ .
2 2 ©2¹ ©2¹ 2

2
7. We minimize the square of the distance. f x, y x 2  y  3 with the constraint g x, y y  x 2 0.
’f O’g gives rise to the equations 2 x O 2 x , 2( y  3) O , y x 2 .
2
5, x § · 5  § 1 ·
If x y WKHQf ͼ௘௘ͽ = 9. If x z 0, O 1, y r 5 . f ¨r 5 , 5 ¸ ¨ ¸
11 .
2 2 © 2 2 ¹ 2 © 2 ¹ 4

The minimum distance is therefore


11 .
2

8. Minimize C x, y , z 5 xy  3 2 xz  2 yz  xy subject to the constraint g x, y , z xyz 480.


’C O’g gives rise to the equations 8 y  6 z O yz , 8 x  6 z O xz , 6 x  6 y O xy , xyz 480.

4 3 360.
Solutions

3
Solving these equations, you obtain x y 360 , z
3

The dimensions are 3


360 u 3 360 u 4 3 360 feet.
3

164
Lesson 18

1 1 3 3
1. The gradient is ’f x, y 75 x y 4 i  25 x 4 y 4 j. The constraint is g x , y 150 x  250 y
4 500,000.
So, ’g x , y 150i  250 j. Setting ’f O’g produces the system of equations

1 1
75 x 4 y 4 150O
3 3
25 x 4 y 4 250O
150 x  250 y 50, 000.
3

Solving these equations, you obtain x 250, y 50, and O


5 4 | 0.334. The maximum production
10
level is therefore

3 1 3
f 250, 50 100 250 4
50 4
5000 5 4
| 16, 719 units.

2. There are two cases. For points on the circle x 2  y 2 10, \RXFDQXVH/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUVWR¿QGWKH
maximum and minimum values. If yWKHQ\RXREWDLQx íy = ± 3, and Ȝ +HQFHWKHPD[LPXP
value of fLVZKLFKRFFXUVDWͼ௘í௘ͽDQGͼ௘íí௘ͽ. If y \RXREWDLQWKHPLQLPXPYDOXHRIf,
DSSUR[LPDWHO\DQGWKLVYDOXHRFFXUVDW 10 , 0 . For points inside the circle, you can use partial
GHULYDWLYHVWRFRQFOXGHWKDWWKHIXQFWLRQKDVDUHODWLYHPLQLPXPRIDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ. Combining these
results, fKDVDPD[LPXPRIDWͼ௘í“௘ͽDQGDPLQLPXPRIDWͼ௘௘ͽ.

3. We want to maximize f a , b, c 4S abc subject to the constraint g a , b, c a  b  c K .


3
Setting ’f O’g produces the equations

4S bc O , 4S ac O , 4S ab O, a  b  c K.
3 3 3

Solving these equations, you obtain a b c K . So, the ellipse is a sphere.


3

4. We want to minimize A h, r 2S rh  2S r 2 subject to the constraint g h, r S r 2 h V0 . Setting


’A O’g produces the equations

2S h  4S r O 2S rh, 2S r OS r 2 , S r 2 h V0 .

V0 V0
Solving these equations, you obtain h r and V ʌU3. The dimensions are r 3 and h 23 .
2S 2S

165
2 2 2
5. Minimize the square of the distance f x, y , z x  2  y  1  z  1 subject to the constraint
g x , y , z x  y  z 1. Setting ’f O’g produces

2 x  2 O , 2 y  1 O , 2 z  1 O , x  y  z 1.

Solving these equations, you obtain x = 1, y = z DQGȜ í7KHSRLQWRQWKHSODQHLVͼ௘௘ͽ, and the


2 2 2
desired distance is d 1  2  0  1  0  1 3.

Lesson 19

x x
1. ³ x  2 y dy
0
ª¬ xy  y 2 º¼
0
x2  x2  0 2x2 .

2y y 2y
2. ³ dx ª¬ y ln x º¼ y ln 2 y  0 y ln 2 y , y ! 0.
1 x 1

2
1 2
ª 1 2º 1 1 1
3. ³0 ³0 x  y dy dx ³0 «¬ xy  2 y »¼ 0 dx ³0 2 x  2 dx ª¬ x 2  2 x º¼
0
1  2 3.

1 S
S
2
1 S
2 ª y2 º S
2 1 cos x dx ª 1 sin x º 2 1.
4. ³ ³ 0 0
y cos x dy dx ³ 0 « 2 cos x » dx
¬ ¼0
³ 0 2 ¬« 2 ¼» 0 2

y
3 y 4 dx dy 3 ª4 § x ·º 3 4 § S · dy 3 S dy 3
5. ³³ ³ « y arctan ¨ y ¸ » dy ³ ¨ ¸ ³ >S ln y @1 S ln 3.
1 0 x2  y2 1
¬ © ¹¼ 0 1 y© 4¹ 1 y

2 4
2 x 2 x
2
ª 2
º
x  x dx « 4 x  8 x x  x » 8.
4 4 4
6. A ³ ³ 0 0
dy dx ³0 > y @0 dx ³ 4  4
0
¬ 3 2 ¼0 3

1 y 2 S (area of semicircle).
³ 2
1 1
7. ³³ dx dy 1  y 2 dy
0  1 y 2 0 2
1 1 y 2 1 1 x 2 1
1  x 2 dx S.
Reversing the order of integration, ³³ 0  1 y 2
dx dy ³ ³ 1 0
dy dx ³ 1 2

2
2 1 2
§ x· ª x2 º
8. ³ ³ 0 x
2
dy dx ³0 ¨©1  2 ¸¹ dx «¬ x 
4 »¼ 0
1.

1 2y 1 1
Reversing the order of integration, ³³ dx dy ³ 2 y dy ª¬ y 2 º¼ 1.
0 0 0 0
Solutions

9. We must reverse the order of integration.


y y 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4e y dy dx 2
4e y dx dy ª 4 xe y º 2 dy 2 ye y dy ªe y º e 4  1.
³³ 0 2x ³ ³ 0 0 ³ 0 ¬ ¼0 ³ 0 ¬ ¼0

166
10. We must reverse the order of integration.

2 4 4 x 4 x 4
³ ³ x sin x dx dy ³ ³ x sin x dy dx ³ ª¬ y x sin x º¼ dx ³ x sin x dx.
0 y2 0 0 0 0 0

4
Next, use integration by parts to obtain >sin x  x cos x @0 sin 4  4 cos 4 | 1.858.

Lesson 20
2
4 2 y 4 ª y2 º 4
1. V ³ ³ 0 0 2
dy dx ³ 0 « 4 » dx
¬ ¼0
³ 0
dx 4.

y 1
1 y 1 ª x2 y º §1 y3 · ª y2 y4 º 3.
2. V ³0 ³0 1  xy dx dy ³0 « x  ¬ 2 »¼ 0
dy ³0 ©¨ y  2 ¹¸ dy « 2  8 »
¬ ¼0 8

xy dy dx §¨ 1 ·¸ .
1 x
3. V ³³ 0 0 © 8¹

4. :HFDOFXODWHWKHYROXPHRIWKHVSKHUHLQWKH¿UVWRFWDQWDQGPXOWLSO\WKHDQVZHUE\

r 2 x2
r 2  x 2  y 2 dy dx §¨ 4 S r 3 ·.
r
V 8³ ³ ¸
0 0 © 3 ¹

4 x 2
4  x dy dx §¨© 256 · .
2
2
5. V ³ ³ 0 0 15 ¹
¸

6. Notice that we use integration by parts in the solution.

1 1 1 2x 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
2
e  x dx dy 2
e  x dy dx 2
2 xe  x dx ª e  x º 2
³³ 0 y
2
³ ³
0 0 ³ 0 ¬ ¼0 1 e 4 .

2 2 2 2y 2 2
7. ³ ³
0 x2
2
y cos y dy dx ³ ³ 0 0
y cos y dx dy ³ 0
2y y cos y dy 2 ³ y cos y dy
0

2
2 > cos y  y sin y @0 2 > cos 2  2sin 2  1@ .

8. The area of the region is 8. The average value is therefore

1 4 2 x dy dx 1 4 2 x dx 1 ª x2 º4
8 ³0 ³0 8 ³0
Average 2.
8 ¬ ¼0


9. The area of the region is ʌ. The average value is

1 S S 1 S S
Average ³ ³ sin x  y dy dx ³ ª¬  cos x  y º¼ dx
S2 0 0 S2 0 0

1 S 1 S 2 cos x dx 1 2sin x S
S2 ³  cos x  S  cos x dx
0 S 2 ³ 0 2 > @0 S
0.

10. The limits of integration for the inside integral cannot contain the variable of integration, in this case, y.

Lesson 21
3
S S
3 9 x 2 3 ª r3 º S
1. ³³ x dy dx ³ ³
2
( r cos T ) r dr dT ³
2
«¬ 3 cos T »¼ dT 9 >sin T @0 2 9.
0 0 0 0 0
0

2
2 4 x 2 S 2 S ª r4 º S
2. ³ ³
2 0
x 2
y 2
dy dx ³ ³ 0 0
2
r r dr dT ³ 0 «¬ 4 »¼ dT ³ 0
4 dT 4S .
0

2 2
3. Note that y 2x  x2 1  x  1 Ÿ x  1  y 2 1.

The region is the semicircle given by r 2 cos T , 0 d T d S . So, we have


2
2 2 x x 2 S 2cosT
³ ³
0 0
xy dy dx ³ ³ 0
2
0
r cos T r sin T r dr dT
S 2cosT
2
³ ³ r 3 cos T sin T dr dT
0 0

2cosT
S
2 ª r4 º
³ 0 «¬ 4 cos T sin T »¼ dT
0

S
2
4³ cos 5 T sin T dT
0

S
ª  4 cos 6 T º 2 2.
«¬ 6 »¼ 0 3

4. The graph is a circle of radius 3. We have


S
9 ªT  sin 2T º
S 6cosT S S
A ³ ³ r dr dT ³ 18cos 2 T dT 9 ³ 1  cos 2T dT 9S .
0 0 0 0 ¬« 2 ¼» 0
Solutions

168
4
2S 4 2S ª r2 º 2S
5. A ³ ³ r dr dT ³ «¬ 2 »¼ dT ³ 6 dT 12S .
0 2 0 0
2

6. We will calculate the area of one leaf and multiply the answer by 3.
S
S 2sin 3T 3 S 3 4sin 2 3T dT S
3 ªT  sin 6T º
3
A 3³
0
3
³ 0
r dr dT
2 ³0

0
3
1  cos 6T dT «¬ 6 »¼ 0
S.

7. The volume is

S 1 1 S 2 1 r 3 sin 2T dr dT
³ ³ r cos T r sin T r dr dT
2

2 ³0 ³0
V
0 0
S
1 S 2 sin 2T dT ª  cos 2T º 2 1.
8 ³0 «¬ 16 »¼ 0 8

2S 5
r 2 dr dT
2S 125 dT 250S .
8. V ³ ³
0 0 ³ 0 3 3

4
ª 16  r 2 3 2 º
2S 4
16  r 2 r dr dT
2S
« » dT 2S
5 15 dT 10 15S .
9. V ³ ³
0 1 ³ 0 « 3 » ³ 0
«¬ »¼1

10. r 1 2 cos T Ÿ T r S . :HGRXEOHWKHLQWHJUDOIRUWKHDUHDLQWKH¿UVWTXDGUDQW


3
S
§ 3·
r dr dT ¨ S 
2cosT
3
A 2³ ³ ¸.
0 1
© 3 2 ¹

Lesson 22

2
2 2 2 ª xy 2 º 2 2
1. m ³ ³ xy dy dx ³ « 2 » dx ³ 2 x dx ª¬ x 2 º¼ 4.
0 0 0 0 0
¬ ¼0

1 S
S S 4
1
2ª r º ª 1 sin 2 T º 2 1.
2.
³0 ³0 r cos T r sin T r dr dT ³0 «¬cos T sin T 4 »¼ 0 dT
2
m «¬ 4 2 »¼
0
8

169
3. We have the following results:
3 y
m=∫ ∫ 4 y dx dy = 36
0 0

3 y
Mx = ∫ ∫ 4 y 2 dx dy = 81
0 0

4 xy dx dy = 81
3 y
My = ∫ ∫
0 0 2

( )
My 9
= , y = x = 9 , x, y = ⎛⎜ 9 , 9 ⎞⎟ .
M
x=
m 8 m 4 ⎝8 4⎠

4. We have the following results:


3 y
m=∫ ∫ 4 x dx dy = 18
0 0

4 xy dx dy = 81
3 y
Mx = ∫ ∫
0 0 2
3 y
My = ∫ ∫ 4 x 2 dx dy = 27
0 0

( )
My 3
= , y = x = 9 , x, y = ⎛⎜ 3 , 9 ⎞⎟ .
M
x=
m 2 m 4 ⎝2 4⎠

5. We have the following results:

5 y dy dx = 5
1 x
m=∫ ∫
0 0 4

5 y 2 dy dx = 2
1 x
Mx = ∫ ∫
0 0 3

5 xy dy dx = 5
1 x
My = ∫ ∫
0 0 6

( )
My 2
= , y = x = 8 , x , y = ⎛⎜ 2 , 8 ⎞⎟ .
M
x=
m 3 m 15 ⎝ 3 15 ⎠

6. We have the following results:


2 x2
m=∫ ∫ 3 xy dy dx = 16
0 0

2 x2
Mx = ∫ ∫ 3 xy 2 dy dx = 32
0 0

x2
3 x 2 y dy dx = 192
2
My = ∫ ∫
Solutions

0 0 7

( )
M y 12
= , y = x = 2, x, y = ⎛⎜ 12 , 2 ⎞⎟ .
M
x=
m 7 m ⎝ 7 ⎠


7. We use polar coordinates, as follows:
π
3 ( x 2 + y 2 ) dy dx = ∫
4 16− x 2 4
m=∫ ∫
2
∫ 3r 3 dr dθ =96π
0 0 0 0

π
3 ( x 2 + y 2 ) y dy dx ∫
16− x 2
3r 4 sin θ dr dθ = 3072
4 4
Mx = ∫ ∫
2

0 0 0 0 5
M y = M x by symmetry

x= y=
M x 32
m
=
5π ( )
, x, y = ⎛⎜ 32 , 32 ⎞⎟ .
⎝ 5π 5π ⎠

Lesson 23

2 2
1. fx 2, f y 2, 1  f x  f y 1 4  4 3.
4
2
ª º
3 dy dx 3³ 4  x dx 3 « 4 x  x »
4 4 x 4
The surface area is S ³ ³
0 0 0
¬ 2 ¼0
24.

2 2
2. fx 2, f y 3, 1  f x  f y 1 4  9 14.

3 3 3
The surface area is S ³³
0 0
14 dy dx 3³
0
14 dx 9 14.

2 2
3. fx 2, f y 3, 1  f x  f y 1 4  9 14.

2S 3 2S 9 14
We use polar coordinates. S ³ ³ 14 r dr dT ³ dT 9 14S .
0 0 0 2

2 2
4. fx 3, f y 2, 1  f x  f y 1 9  4 14 .

8 123 x
2
The surface area is S ³³
0 0
14 dy dx 48 14.

2 2
5. fx 2 x , f y 2 y , 1  f x  f y 1  4x2  4 y2 .

S 4
1  4 r 2 r dr dT §¨ S 65 65  1 · .
In polar coordinates, S ³ ³ 0
2
0 © 24
¸ ¹

2 2
6. fx 2 x, f y 2, 1  f x  f y 1  4x2  4 5  4x2 .

5  4 x 2 dy dx §¨ 1 27  5 5 ·¸ .
1 x
We have S ³³
0 0 © 12 ¹


2 2
7. fx 2 x , f y 2 y , 1  f x  f y 1  4x2  4 y2 .

1  4 r 2 r dr dT §¨ S 37 37  1 ·¸ .
2S 3
In polar coordinates, S ³ ³ 0 0 © 6 ¹

2 2
8. fx ex , f y 0, 1  f x  f y 1  e2 x .

1 1
The surface area is given by S ³³ 1  e 2 x dy dx | 2.0035 .
0 0

9. We calculate the surface area as follows.

kx ky 2 2 k 2 x2 k 2 y2
fx , fy , 1 fx  f y 1 2 2
 2 1 k 2 .
x  y2
2
x  y2
2
x y x  y2

S ³³ 1  k 2 dA 1  k 2 ³³ dA 1  k 2 area of circle 1 k 2S r 2 S r2 1 k 2 .
R R

Lesson 24

5 2 1 5 2 1 5 2 5 5
2 5
1. ³³³
0 0 0
dy dx dz ³ ³ > y@
0 0 0
dx dz ³³ 0 0
dx dz ³ > x@
0 0
dz ³
0
2 dz > 2 z @0 10.

7KLVLVWKHYROXPHRIWKHER[RIGLPHQVLRQVîî

2. We have the following:


1
2
3 2 1 ªx 3 2 º 3 2
§ 1  y  z · dz dy
³0 ³0 ³0 x  y  z dx dz dy ³0 ³0 «¬ 2  yx  zx » dz dy
¼0
³³
0 0
¨
©2
¸
¹
2
ªz
3 z 2 º dy 3 3
³0 «¬ 2  yz 
2 »¼ 0 ³ 1  2 y  2 dy
0
ª¬3 y  y 2 º¼
0
18.

3. We have the following:


1 1 1
x 2 y 2 z 2 dx dy dz 1 1 1 ª x 3 y 2 z 2 º1 dy dz 2 1 1 y 2 z 2 dy dz
³ ³ ³
1 1 1 3 ³1 ³1 ¬ ¼ 1 3 ³1 ³1
2 1 ª y 3 z 2 º1 dz 4 1 z 2 dz 4 ª z 3 º1 8 .
9 ³1 ¬ ¼ 1 9 ³1 27 ¬ ¼ 1 27

5 x 5 x  y
dz dy dx §¨ 125 ·¸ . Note: Other orders of integration are possible.
5
4. V ³³ ³
0 0 0 © 6 ¹
Solutions


9 x2
dz dy dx §¨ 81 ·¸ . Note: Other orders of integration are possible.
3 2x
5. V ³³ ³
0 0 0 © 2¹

6 6 x2 6 x2  y2
6. V ³ ³
 6  6 x 2 ³ 0
dz dy dx 18S . Note: Other orders of integration are possible.

6 4  2 x 3 2  y 2  x 3
7. m ³³
0 0 ³ 0
3 dz dy dx 24 .

5 x 15  3 x  3 y
3 y dz dy dx §¨ 375 · .
5 5
8. m ³³ ³
0 0 0 © 8 ¹
¸

y2  z
dy dz dx §¨ 1 ·¸ .
1 0 1 1
9. ³³ ³
0 1 0
dz dy dx ³³³ 0 0 1 © 3¹

4
4 x 12  3 x  6 y 3
12  4 z 12  4 z  3 x
10. ³³
2
³
4
dz dy dx ³³
3
³
6
dy dx dz 4 .
0 0 0 0 0 0

Lesson 25

1. x r cos T 1cos S 1, y r sin T 1sin S 0, z 4.

7KHUHFWDQJXODUFRRUGLQDWHVDUHͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ ͼ௘íí௘ͽ.

3cos §¨ S ·¸ 3sin §¨ S ·¸
3 2,y 3 2 , z 1.
2. x r cos T r sin T
©4¹ 2 ©4¹ 2
§3 2 3 2 ·
The rectangular coordinates are x , y , z ¨ 2 , 2 , 1¸ .
© ¹

2 2 y 2 2
3. r2 2 2  2 2 8  8 16 Ÿ r 4. tan T
x 2 2
1.

Hence, T  S and the cylindrical coordinates are r , T , z § 4,  S , 4 · .


¨ ¸
4 © 4 ¹

4. x r cos T 9Ÿr 9sec T .

5. r2  z2 x2  y2  z 2 5, a sphere of radius 5.


6. r 2sin T Ÿ r 2 2 r sin T Ÿ x 2  y 2 2 y. Completing the square, you obtain the cylinder
2
x 2  y  1 1.

7. We have the following:

2S R1 R12  r 2 2S R1 R12  r 2

0 ³ ³
R2 0
r dz dr dT 2³
0 ³R > rz @0
2
dr dT

2S R1
2³ ³ r R12  r 2 dr dT
0 R2

R1
3
 2 ³ ª« R12  r 2 2 º» dT
2S

3 0 ¬ ¼ R2

2 2 S R 2  R 2 3 2 dT
3 ³0
1 2
4S R 2  R 2 3 2 .
3
1 2

2 4 x2 4 2S 2 4 2S 2 4
8. ³ ³
2  4  x 2 ³ x2  y2
x dz dy dx ³ ³ ³ r cos T r dz dr dT ³ ³ ³
0 0 r2 0 0 r2
r 2 cos T dz dr dT .

9. In the xy-plane, 2 x 2 x 2  2 y 2 Ÿ x 2  x  y 2 0.
2 2
§ 1· 2 §1· .
Completing the square, you have the circle ¨ x  ¸  y ¨ ¸
© 2¹ ©2¹
S cos T 2 r cos T
In polar coordinates, the circle is r cos T . Hence, V ³ ³ ³ r dz dr dT .
0 0 2r2

10. The two surfaces intersect when x + y + z = x + yͼ௘x + y௘ͽ = 4.

2S 2 4r 2
Hence, x + y DQGWKHLQWHJUDOLV V ³ ³ ³ r dz dr dT .
0 0 r

Lesson 26

1. x 12sin 0 cos §¨  S ·¸ 0, y 12sin 0sin §¨  S ·¸ 0, z 12 cos 0 12.


© 4¹ © 4¹

7KHUHFWDQJXODUFRRUGLQDWHVDUHͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ ͼ௘௘ͽ.


Solutions


2. x 5sin §¨ 3S · cos § S ·
¸ ¨ ¸
5, y 5sin §¨ 3S · sin § S ·
¸ ¨ ¸
5, z 5cos §¨ 3S ·¸ 5 2.
© 4 ¹ ©4¹ 2 © 4 ¹ ©4¹ 2 © 4 ¹ 2
§5 5 5 2·
The rectangular coordinates are x , y , z ¨ 2 , 2 ,  2 ¸.
© ¹

2 y 2 3
2  2 3  42
2
3. U 32 4 2. tan T  3.
x 2

So, T 2S . Finally, cos I z 4 2 ŸI S.


3 U 4 2 2 4

The spherical coordinates are U , T , I § 4 2 , 2S , S · .


¨ ¸
© 2 4¹

4. z U cos I 6Ÿ U 6sec I .

cos §¨ S ·¸
3 z
5. cos I .
©6¹ 2 x  y2  z2
2

Squaring both sides, we have 3 z2 Ÿ 3x 2  3 y 2  z 2 0, z t 0 , which is the upper nappe


4 x  y2  z2
2

of a cone.

6. By sketching the solid, you see that 0 d I d S and 0 d T d 2S .


4
2
For z ZHKDYH 2 U cos I Ÿ U 2sec I . Finally, for z 2  4  x 2  y 2 , z  2 4  x2  y2 .

So, x 2  y 2  z 2 4z Ÿ U 2 4 U cos I , and the upper limit is U 4 cos I . The integral is

2 4 x2 2 4 x2  y2 S 2S 4 cos I
³ ³2  4  x 2 ³ 2
x dz dy dx
0
4
³ ³ ³ 0 2 sec I
U sin I cos T U 2 sin I dU dT dI ,
S 2S 4 cos I
4
ZKLFKVLPSOL¿HVWR ³ ³ ³ U 3 sin 2 I cos T dU dT dI .
0 0 2 sec I

7. We have the following:


2
2S S
4
2
2
2S S
4 ª U3 º
³³³ dV ³ ³ ³ U sin I dU dI dT ³ ³ « 3 sin I » dI dT
0 0 0 0 0
Q ¬ ¼0
S
S
2S
4 2 2 sin I dI dT 2S ª2 2 º 4
³ ³ ³ «¬ 3 (  cos I ) »¼ dT
0 0 3 0
0

2S 2 2 §  2  1 · dT § 2 2 2· 4S
³
0 3 ¨© 2 ¸
¹
¨  3  3 ¸ 2S
© ¹ 3
2  1 .


2S S 3
2
8. V ³ ³S ³ U 2 sin I dU dI dT .
0 0
4

2S S 4sin I
9. V ³ ³ ³ U 2 sin I dU dI dT 16S 2 .
0 0 0

10. The distance from a point to the z-axis is r x2  y2 U sin I . We set up the integral for the mass in the
¿UVWRFWDQWDQGPXOWLSO\E\

S S 3 S S 3
³ ³ U sin I U
2 2 2 2 2
m 8k ³ sin I dU dI dT 8k ³ ³ ³ U 3 sin 2 I dU dI dT .
0 0 0 0 0 0

Lesson 27

1. The vectors make a 45º angle with the x-axis. They have constant length F 12  12 2.

2. 7KHYHFWRUVSRLQWLQWKHGLUHFWLRQIURPWKHRULJLQWRWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ. They have constant length


F 12  12  12 3.

3. M 5 y3 , N 15 xy 2 Ÿ wN 15 y 2 wM .
wx wy

+HQFHWKHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH

y
4. M 1 ,N 1 Ÿ wN x z wM .
x  y2
2
x  y2
2 wx 3
wy 3
x 2
 y2 2
x 2
 y2 2

+HQFHWKHYHFWRU¿HOGLVQRWFRQVHUYDWLYH

5. fx 2 x, f y  1 y Ÿ F x, y 2 xi  1 yj. Note that ’f F.


2 2

6. fx 6 yz , f y 6 xz , f z 6 xy Ÿ F x , y , z 6 yzi  6 xzj  6 xyk . Note that ’f F.

2 2 2 2
7. fx 2 xye x , f y ex , fz 1 Ÿ F x, y , z 2 xye x i  e x j  k . Note that ’f F.
Solutions


8. f x x, y y Ÿ f x, y xy  g y . f y x , y x Ÿ f x, y xy  h x .

Hence, f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ = xy + K is the potential function.

9. We have

x 1 ln x 2  y 2  g y
f x x, y
x2  y2
Ÿ f x, y
2

y 1 ln x 2  y 2  h x .
f y x, y
x  y2
2
Ÿ f x, y
2

1 ln x 2  y 2  K is the potential function.


Hence, f x , y
2

10. We have

f x x, y 3 x 2 y 2 Ÿ f x, y x3 y 2  g y

f y x, y 2 x 3 y Ÿ f x, y x3 y 2  h x .

Hence, f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ = x3y + K is the potential function.

Lesson 28

i j k
w w w
1. curl F
wx wy wz
xz  xy i  yz  xy j  yz  xz k .
xyz xyz xyz

i j k
w w w
2. curl F
wx wy wz
e x
cos y  e x cos y k 2e x cos yk .

e x sin y  e x cos y 0

i j k
w w w
3. curl F
wx wy wz
1  1 k 2k .

y x 0


4. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVQRWFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVHLWVFXUOLVQRQ]HUR

i j k
w w w
curl F
wx wy wz
cos y i   cos z j  cos xk z 0.
sin z sin x sin y

5. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVHWKHFXUOLV]HUR

1 x 2 y 2 z 2  g y, z
fx xy 2 z 2 Ÿ f
2

1 x 2 y 2 z 2  h x, z
fy x 2 yz 2 Ÿ f
2

1 x 2 y 2 z 2  k x, y .
fz x2 y2 z Ÿ f
2

Hence, the potential function is f x , y , z 1 x2 y2 z 2  K.


2

6. div F x , y wM  wN 2 x  4 y.
wx wy

7. div F x , y , z wM  wN  wP cos x  sin y  2 z.


wx wy wz

8. rc t 4i  3 j Ÿ ds 4 2  32 dt 5 dt .

1 1 1
³ 4t 3t 5 dt ³ 60t
2
So, the line integral becomes ³ xy ds dt ª¬ 20t 3 º¼ 20.
C 0 0 0

9. rc t cos ti  sin tj Ÿ ds cos 2 t  sin 2 t dt dt .

S S S 5S .
³ x  y 2  z 2 ds ³ sin t  cos 2 t  4 dt >5t @0 2
2 2 2 2
So, the line integral becomes
C 0 ³
0
5 dt
2

6S
2
6S ª º
10. ³ 1  t 2 dt 2 «t  t » 2 6S  18S 2 6S 2 3S  1 .
0
¬ 2 ¼0
Solutions


Lesson 29

1. F x, y xi  yj ti  tj, r c t i  j.

1 1 1
So, the line integral becomes ³ F < dr ³ ti  tj < i  j dt ³
C
0 0
2t dt ª¬t 2 º¼
0
1.

2. F x, y 3 xi  4 yj 3ti  4 4  t 2 j, r c t i t j. So, the line integral is


4 t2
2
§ t · ª t º 2

³ 3ti  4
2 2 2
³ F < dr
C
2
4  t 2 j <¨ i 
© 4 t2
j ¸ dt
¹
³2 3t  4t dt ³2 t dt «¬ 2 »¼ 2 0.

3. F x, y , z xyi  xzj  yzk t 3 i  2t 2 j  2t 3 k , r c t i  2 tj  2 k .


1
1 1 1 ª 9t 4 º 9.
³ t i  2t j  2t 3k < i  2tj  2k dt ³ t  4t 3  4t 3 dt ³ 9t dt
3 2 3 3
We have ³ F < dr
C
0 0 0 «¬ 4 »¼
0
4

4. F x, y , z xi  yj  5 zk 2 cos ti  2sin tj  5tk , r c t 2sin ti  2 cos tj  k .


2S
2S 2S ª 5t 2 º
³ F < dr ³ 2 cos ti  2sin tj  5tk < 2sin ti  2 cos tj  k dt ³ 5t dt
C
0 0 «¬  2 »¼
0
10S 2 .

5. F x, y xi  2 yj ti  2t 3 j, r c t i  3t 2 j.
2
2 2 ªt2 6 º
So, the work done is W ³ F < dr ³0
ti  2t 3 j < i  3t 2 j dt ³
0
t  6t 5 dt ¬« 2
t »
¼0
2  64 66.
C

6. The line joining the two points is r t 5ti  3tj  2tk , 0 d t d 1.

Hence, F x , y , z yzi  xzj  xyk 6t 2 i  10t 2 j  15t 2 k , r c t 5i  3 j  2k .

1 1 1
³ F < dr ³ 6 t i  10t 2 j  15t 2 k < 5i  3 j  2k dt ³ 90t dt
2 2
The work done is W ª¬30t 3 º¼ dt 30.
0 0 0
C

7. y 5 x , dy 5 dx , 0 d x d 2. So, we have

2 2
³ 3 y  x dx  y ³ ª¬ 15 x  x dx  5 x 5 dx º¼
2
dy
0
C

2
³ 14 x  125 x dx
2
0

2
ª 2 x3 º 28  125 8 1084 .
«¬7 x  125 3 »¼ 3 3
0


8. y 5 x , dy 5 dx , 0 d x d 2 . So, we have

³ x  3 y dy ³
C
2
2

0
x  3 5 x 5 dx
2

2
³ 5 x  375 x dx
2
0

2
ª x2 3º
«¬5 2  125 x »¼ 10  125 8 1010.
0

9. F x, y x 2 i  xyj 4t 2 i  2t (t  1) j, r c t 2i  j.
3
3 3 ª 10t 3 2 º 236 .
So, we have ³ F < dr ³ 1
4t 2 i  2t t  1 j < 2i  j dt ³1
8t 2  2t 2  2t dt «¬ 3  t »¼ 3
C 1

2
10. F x, y x 2 i  xyj 4 3  t i  2 3  t (2  t ) j, r c t 2i  j.

So, we have ³ F < dr ³


C
2

0
4 3  t i  2(3  t )(2  t ) j < 2i  j dt
2
³ 0
2
ª 8 3  t 2  2 3  t (2  t ) º dt .
¬ ¼

7KLVLQWHJUDOVLPSOL¿HVWRWKHQHJDWLYHRIWKHDQVZHUWR3UREOHP
2
2 ª t3 º 168  116  80  236 .
³ 84  58t  10t dt
2 2
³ F < dr
C
0 «¬ 84t  29t  10 3 »¼
0
3 3

Lesson 30

1. M e x sin y , N e x cos y Ÿ wN e x cos y wM . 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH


wx wy

2. M 1,N x Ÿ wN 1 z 1 wM . 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVQRWFRQVHUYDWLYH
y y2 wx y2 y2 wy

3. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVQRWFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVHWKHFXUOLVQRQ]HUR

i j k
w w w § x § x ·· § y y ·
curl F
wx wy wz ¨  ¨  ¸ ¸ i  ¨  ¸ j   ln z  ln z k z 0.
© z © z ¹¹ © z z ¹
xy
y ln z  x ln z
z
Solutions


4. Because wN 2x wM , WKHYHFWRU¿HOG F x , y
2 xyi  x 2  y 2 j is conservative.
wx wy
y3
The potential function is f x , y x2 y   K.
3
0, 4
ª 2 y3 º 64 .
³ 2 xy dx  x  y dy
2 2
Hence, we have «x y  3 » 3
C ¬ ¼ 5, 0

5. Because wN 2x wM , WKHYHFWRU¿HOG F x , y
2 xyi  x 2  y 2 j is conservative.
wx wy
y3
The potential function is f x , y x2 y   K.
3
0, 4
ª 2 y3 º 64 .
³ 2 xy dx  x dy
2 2
Hence, we have y «x y  3 »
C ¬ ¼ 2, 0 3

6. %HFDXVHWKHFXUOLV]HURWKHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH

4, 2, 4
The potential function is f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ = xyz + K. Hence, ³ yz dx  xz dy  xy dz > xyz @
C
0, 2, 0
32.

7. %HFDXVHWKHFXUOLV]HURWKHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYH

4, 2, 4
The potential is f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ = xyz + K. Hence, ³ yz dx  xz dy  xy dz > xyz @
C
0, 0, 0
32.

8. $SRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQLV f x, y sin x sin y.

3S , S
Hence, the line integral is ³ cos x sin y dx  sin x cos y dy >sin x sin y @
C
2 2
0, S
1.

9. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYHZLWKSRWHQWLDO f x, y x2  K.
y
3, 2
ª x2 º 9 1 7.
The work is therefore W « y»
¬ ¼ 1, 1 2 2

x2  y2
10. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOGLVFRQVHUYDWLYHEHFDXVH wN wM .
wx x2  y2
2
wy

Because the curve does not contain the origin, the line integral is zero.

181
Lesson 31

1. :H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO)RUWKHSDWKC1IURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽ, we have r t ti  tj, 0 d t d 1.


1
1 1 ª t3 º 2.
Because x = y = t, ³C1
y 2 dx  x 2 dy ³0
t 2 dt  t 2 dt ³0
2t 2 dt «¬ 2 3 »¼ 3
0

For the path CIURPͼ௘௘ͽWRͼ௘௘ͽ, we have r t (2  t ) i  2  t j, 1 d t d 2.

Here, x 2  t , dx  dt , y 2  t , dy 1 dt .
2 2t
2 2 § 1 ·
So, we have ³C2
y 2 dx  x 2 dy ³ t  2 dt  2  t
1 ¨ 2 2  t ¸ dt .
© ¹

Evaluating this integral, you obtain  7 . Finally, ³ y 2 dx  x 2 dy 2 7  1 .


10 C 3 10 30

Next, we calculate the double integral:

§ wN wM · 1 x
³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA
¹
³ ³ 2 x  2 y dy dx
0 x

³ 2x
1 x 1 3
³ ª¬ 2 xy  y 2 º¼ 2  x  x 2 dx
0 x 0

1
ª 4 52 x 2 x3 º 411
«¬ 5 x  2  3 »¼  1 .
0
5 2 3 30

2. Notice that wN  wM 2  1 1. Hence, ³ y  x dx  2 x  y dy ³³ 1 dA.


wx wy C
R

This is the area between the two semicircles, 1 S 25  9 8S .


2

3. Notice that wN  wM 2  1 1. Hence, ³ y  x dx  2 x  y dy ³³ 1 dA.


wx wy C
R

This is the area of the ellipse having a b = 1. So, the answer is ʌDE ʌ.

§ wN ·
4. We have wM 2e x sin 2 y wN . Hence,
³³ ¨© wx 
wM
¸ dA 0.
wy wx R
wy ¹
Solutions


5. By Green’s theorem, we have the following:

§ wN wM · dA
W ³ xy dx  x  y dy ³³ ¨© wx 
C R
wy ¸¹ ³³ 1  x dA
R

1
2S 1 2S ª r2 r3 º
³0 ³0 1  r cos T r dr dT ³0 «¬ 2  3 cos T »¼ dT
0

2S
2S
§ 1  1 cos T · dT ª 1 T  1 sin T º S.
³ 0
¨
©2 3
¸
¹ ¬« 2 3 ¼» 0

6. By Green’s theorem, we have the following:

W ³ x
C
3
2

 3 y dx  6 x  5 y dy
§ wN
³³ ¨© wx 
R
wM
wy
·
¸ dA
¹
³³ 6  3 dA.
R

So, the work is 9 times the area of the triangle: W 9 1 5 5 225 .


2 2

Lesson 32

1. y x 2  2 x , dy (2 x  2) dx. So, the line integral becomes

3
³ y  x dx  2 x  y dy ³ x  2 x  x dx  2 x  x 2  2 x 2 x  2 dx
2
C 0

3
³ 2 x  11x 2  11x dx
3
0

3
ª x4 x3 x2 º
«¬  2  11 3  11 2 »¼
0

 81  99  99 9.
2 2

2. Let the circle be x a cos t , y a sin t , 0 d t d 2S . Then, the area is

1 x dy  y dx 1 2S a cos t ( a cos t )  a sin t (  a sin t ) dt 1 2S a 2 dt


A
2 C³ 2 ³0
> @ 2 ³0
S a2 .

3. y x 2  1, dy 2 x dx; y 5 x  3, dy 5 dx. The area is therefore

1 4 ª x 2 x  x 2  1 º dx  1 1 ª x 5  5 x  3 º dx
A
2 ³1 ¬
¼ 2 ³4 ¬ ¼
4
1 ª x3  xº  1 3x 1 1 18  1 9 9.
2 «¬ 3 »¼ 2
> @4 2
2 2
1

183
y x2  y2
4. 7KHYHFWRU¿HOG F x, y i  2 x 2 j is conservative because wN wM .
x  y2
2
x y wx x 2
y 2

2
wy

y dx  x dy § wN wM ·
By Green’s theorem, the line integral is zero because ³
C x2  y2 ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA
¹
0.

y 2  y1 y 2  y1
5. The line joining the points is y
x2  x1
x  x1  y1 . So, dy x2  x1
dx.

x2 ª y 2  y1 § y 2  y1 · º
³  y dx  x dy ³ x1 «  x  x x  x1  y1  x ¨ x  x ¸ »dx
C ¬ 2 1 © 2 1 ¹¼
x2
x2 ª § y 2  y1 · º ª ª § y 2  y1 · º º
³ « x1 ¨ x  x ¸  y1 » dx « « x1 ¨ ¸  y1 » x »
¬ ¬ © x2  x1 ¹
x1
¬ © 2 1¹ ¼ ¼ ¼ x1

ª § y 2  y1 · º
« x1 ¨ x  x ¸  y1 » x2  x1 x1 y 2  y1  y1 x2  x1
¬ © 2 1¹ ¼
x1 y 2  x2 y1 .

1 ª 0  0  4  0  12  4  6  0  0  3  0  0 º 21 .
6. We have A

¼ 2

ªw w º
7. ³ f x dx  g y dy ³³ «¬ wx g y  wy f x »¼ dA ³³ >0  0@ dA
C R R
0.

Lesson 33

1. This is the plane y = x + z.

2 2
2. Because x 2  y 2 u cos v  u sin v u 2, this is the cone x + y = z.

3. ru u , v i  j, rv u , v i  j  k.

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘í௘ͽ, u DQGv = 1. ru 0, 1 i  j, rv 0, 1 i  j  k.

The normal vector is the cross product, N ru u rv i  j  2k . Note that the surface is the plane x – y z.
Solutions

184
4. ru u , v 2 cos vi  3sin vj  2uk , rv u , v 2u sin vi  3u cos vj.

$WWKHSRLQWͼ௘௘ͽ, u DQG v S . r § 2, S · 3 j  4k , r § 2, S · 4i .


u ¨ ¸ v ¨ ¸
2 © 2¹ © 2¹

The normal vector is the cross product, N ru u rv 16 j  12k .

5. We know the point and the normal vector.

So, the tangent plane is x  1  y  1  2 z  1 0 Ÿ x  y  2z 0. This is the original plane.

6. We know the point and the normal vector.

So, the tangent plane is 16 y  6  12 z  4 0 Ÿ 4 y  3 z 12.

7. ru u , v 4i , rv u , v  j  k . The cross product is ru u rv 4 j  4k .

The magnitude of the cross product is ru u rv 16  16 4 2.

1 2 1 2
Finally, the area is A ³³
0 0
ru u rv dA ³³
0 0
4 2 du dv 4 2 (2)(1) 8 2.

8. ru u , v 2sin ui  2 cos uj, rv k.

We have ru u rv 2 cos ui  2sin uj and ru u rv 2.

3 2S 3 2S
Finally, A ³³ ru u rv dA ³³ 2 du dv 2(2S )(3) 12S .
0 0 0 0

9. We will show that x + y + z = 1.

2 2 2
x2  y2  z 2 sin u cos v  sin u sin v  cos u
sin 2 u cos 2 v  sin 2 u sin 2 v  cos 2 u

sin 2 u cos 2 v  sin 2 v  cos 2 u

sin 2 u  cos 2 u 1.

185
10. :H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHFURVVSURGXFW

i j k
ru u rv cos u cos v cos u sin v  sin u
 sin u sin v sin u cos v 0

sin 2 u cos vi  sin 2 u sin vj  (cos u sin u cos 2 v  cos u sin u sin 2 v )k

sin 2 u cos vi  sin 2 u sin vj  cos u sin uk .

The magnitude of the cross product is

2 2
ru u rv sin 2
u cos v  sin 2 u sin v  sin u cos u
2

sin 4 u cos 2 v  sin 2 v  sin 2 u cos 2 u

sin 4 u  sin 2 u cos 2 u

sin 2 u sin 2 u  cos 2 u

sin 2 u sin u.

Lesson 34

1. wz 1, wz 0. dS 1  1  0 dA
2
2 dA. So, we have the following.
wx wy

4 3
³³ x  2 y  z dS ³ ³ x  2 y  (4  x )
S
0 0
2 dy dx

4 3

0 ³ 4  2 y dy dx
0

4 3
2 ³ ª¬ 4 y  y 2 º¼ dx
0 0

4
2 ³ 3 dx 12 2.
0

2. wz wz 0. dS 1  0  0 dA dA. So, we have the following.


wx wy
2
2 4 x2 1 2 x 4  x 2 dx 1 ª2 x 2  x 4 º
³³ xy dS ³³
0 0
xy dy dx
2 ³0
2 «¬ 4 »¼ 0
2.
S
Solutions

186
3. We have the following.

2 3 x
3 2 3 x 3ª y2 º
3³ ³ y 3  x dy dx 3³ « 3  x » dx
0 0 0
¬ 2 ¼0
3 3
3 2 ³ 3  x dx
0

3
ª 3  x 4 º
« 6 » 243 .
«¬ 4 » 2
¼0

4. ru u , v i , rv u , v j  2k . ru u rv 2 j  k , ru u rv 5.
2
ª 2 º
5 « v  5v »
2 1 2
Hence, ³³ y  5 dS ³0 ³0 v  5
S
5 du dv 5 ³ v  5 dv
0
¬ 2 ¼0
12 5.

2 2
5. dS 2x  2 y  1 dA . So, we have

xy xy
³³ dS ³³ x 2
1  4 x 2  4 y 2 dy dx
S
z S
 y2
2S 4 r 2 cos T sin T 1  4 r 2 r dr dT
³ ³
0 2 r2
2S 4
³ ³ r 1  4 r 2 cos T sin T dr dT .
0 2

6. G x, y , z x  y  z  1, ’G i  j  k . So, we have

³³ F < N dS ³³ F <’G dA
S R

1 1 x
³ ³ 3 z  4  y dy dx
0 0

1 1 x
³ ³ 3 1  x  y  4  y dy dx
0 0

1 1 x
³ ³ 1  3 x  2 y dy dx.
0 0


x y
7. G x, y , z z  36  x 2  y 2 , ’G i j  k.
36  x 2  y 2 36  x 2  y 2

x2 y2 x2  y2 36
F<’G  z  36  x 2  y 2 .
36  x 2  y 2 36  x 2  y 2 36  x 2  y 2 36  x 2  y 2

So, we have the following.

S
36 2
6 36 r dr dT .
³³ F < N dS ³³ F <’G dA ³³
S R R 36  x 2  y 2
dA ³ ³
0 0
36  r 2

Lesson 35

1. There are six surfaces to the cube, each with dS 1 dA .

z 0, N k , F < N  z 2 , ³³ 0 dA 0
S

2 2
z 2, N k , F<N z 2 , ³³ 4 dA ³³ 4 dx dy 16
S 0 0

x 0, N i, F <N 2 x , ³³ 0 dA 0
S

2 2
x 2, N i, F<N 2 x , ³³ 4 dA ³³ 4 dx dy 16
S 0 0

y 0, N  j, F < N 2 y , ³³ 0 dA 0
S

2 2
y 2, N j, F < N 2 y , ³³ 4 dA ³ ³ 4 dx dy 16.
S 0 0

$GGLQJWKHVHXS ³³ F < N dS 16  16  16 16. The divergence of F is div F 2  2  2z 2 z.


S

2 2 2 2 2
So, we have the same result: ³³³ div F ³ ³ ³ 2 z dz dy dx ³³ 4 dy dx 4 2 2 16.
0 0 0 0 0
Q

2. There are two surfaces.

For the bottom, z 0, N k , F < N 2 z 2. So, ³³ F < N dS ³³ 2 z


2
dA ³³ 0 dA 0.
S R R

For the side, the outward unit normal is

2 xi  2 yj  k 1
N and F < N ª 2 x 2 z  2 y 2 z  2 z 2 º¼ .
4x2  4 y2 1 4x2  4 y2 1 ¬
Solutions

188
So, we have

³³ F < N dS ³³ ª¬2 x  y 2 z  2 z 2 º¼ dA
2

S R

2S 1
ª 2 r 2 1  r 2  2 1  r 2 2 º r dr dT
³ ³ 0 0 «¬ »¼
2S 1
³ ³ ª¬ 2 r  2 r 3 º¼ dr dT
0 0

2S 1 dT
³ S.
0 2

The divergence of F is div F z  z  4z 6 z. The triple integral of the divergence is

2S 1 1 r 2
³³³ div F ³ ³ ³ 6 z r dz dr dT
0 0 0
Q

2S 1
³ ³ 3  6r  3r 4 r dr dT
2
0 0

1
2S ª r2 r 4  3 r 6 º dT
³0
3
«¬ 2  6
4 6 »¼ 0
2S
ª 3  3  1 º dT S.
³0 «¬ 2 2 2 »¼

3. We have the following.

4 y2 4 y2
4x 4  x
2 2
³ ³
2  4  y 2 4 xz  2 xy  y dx dy ³ ³ 2
2  4  y 2
2
 y 2  2 xy  y 2 dx dy

2 4 y2
³ ³ 2  4  y 2
16 x  4 x 3
 4 xy 2  2 xy  y 2 dx dy

2 4 y2
2 4 2 2 2 2
³2 ª¬8 x  x  2 x y  x y  xy º¼  4 y2
dy

2
³ 2 y 2 4  y 2 dy.
2

Using a graphing utility, or a table of integrals, you obtain 4ʌ.

4. The divergence is div F 2 x  2 y  2 z. So, we have

1 1 1
³³³ div F ³ ³ ³ 2 x  2 y  2 z dz dy dx
Q
0 0 0

1 1
³ ³ 2 x  2 y  1 dy dx
0 0

1
³ 2 x  2 dx
0
1 2 3.

189
5. The divergence is div F 1  2 y  1 2 y. So, we have

7 5 25  y 2
³³³ div F ³ ³ ³
Q
0 5  25  y 2
2 y dx dy dz

7 5
³³ 4 y 25  y 2 dy dz
0 5

5
7 ª  4 25  y 2 3 2 º dz
³0 ¬« 3
¼» 0.
5

6. If F x, y , z ai  bj  ck , then div F 0. So, by the divergence theorem, ³³ F < N dS ³³³ div F 0.


S Q

Lesson 36

1. :H¿UVWFDOFXODWHWKHOLQHLQWHJUDO/HW x 3cos t , dx 3sin t dt and y 3sin t , dy 3cos t dt .


Because z  ³ F < dr ³  y dx  x dy. So, we have
C C

2S 2S
³C
F < dr ³C
 y dx  x dy ³ ª¬ 3sin t 3sin t  3cos t 3cos t º¼ dt ³
0 0
9 dt 18S .

For the double integral, let G x , y , z z  (9  x 2  y 2 ), ’G 2 xi  2 yj  k and N dS 2 xi  2 yj  k dA.


The curl of F is

i j k
curl F w w w 2k .
wx wy wz
y  z xz x y

So, curl F < NdS 2 dA. Hence, ³³ curl F < N dS ³³ 2 dA


S R
2 area of circle 18S .

2. Let u i  j  k and v 2k be the vectors forming the triangle.

i j k
Their cross product is u u v 1 1 1 2i  2 j. The surface is the plane is G 2x  2 y 0.
0 0 2

’G 2i  2 j and N dS 2i  2 j dA.
Solutions


Next, we calculate the curl of F:

i j k
curl F w w w 2 x k.
wx wy wz x2  y2
arctan x ln x2  y2 1
y

Because the curl is orthogonal to N dS 2i  2 j dA, the line integral equals zero:

³ F < dr ³³ curl F < N dS


C S
0.

i j k
3. The curl is curl F w w w xyj  xzk .
wx wy wz
xyz y z

Let G x , y , z x 2  z , ’G 2 xi  k , N dS 2 xi  k dA.

Then, we have

³ F < dr ³³ (curl F )<N dS ³³ xyj  xzk < 2 xi  k dA ³³ xz dA


C S R R

3
3 3 3 ª x4 º 243 .
³³ x x 2 dy dx ³ 3 x 3 dx «¬3 4 »¼
0 0 0
0
4

i j k
4. curl F w w w 0.
wx wy wz
1 1 2

6RWKHGRXEOHLQWHJUDOLVDOVR]HURͼ௘7KHUHLVEDVLFDOO\QRFLUFXODUPRWLRQWRWKHOLTXLG௘ͽ

191
i j k
5. curl F w w w 3 x 2  y 2 k.
wx wy wz
 y x2  y2 x x2  y2 0

Letting N = k,

2S 2 2S 2 2S
³³ (curl F )< N dS ³³ 3
S R
x 2  y 2 dA ³ ³ 3r r dr dT ³
0 0 0
ª¬ r 3 º¼ dT
0 ³
0
8 dT 16S .

ͼ௘7KHUHLVFLUFXODUPRWLRQ௘ͽ
Solutions


Glossary

Note: The number in parentheses indicates the lesson in which the concept or term is introduced.

Some concepts from beginning calculus, and even precalculus, have also been included that were introduced
in Understanding Calculus: Problems, Solutions, and Tips ͼ௘Calculus௘ͽ or in Understanding Calculus II:
Problems, Solutions, and Tipsͼ௘Calculus II௘ͽ.

absolute value function: 7KHDEVROXWHYDOXHIXQFWLRQLVGH¿QHGE\

­ x, x t 0
f x x ® .
¯ x, x  0
It is continuous, but not differentiable, at x = 0. Its graph appears in the shape of the letter V. Reviewed in
Calculus, Lesson 1.

DFFHOHUDWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ,QFDOFXOXVDFFHOHUDWLRQLVWKHUDWHRIFKDQJHRIYHORFLW\DQGKDVWZRFRPSRQHQWVWKH
rate of change in speed and the rate of change in direction. See particle motion. Introduced for two
dimensions in Calculus, Lessons 34–35.

DUFOHQJWKͼ௘௘ͽ: In three dimensions, arc length is

b 2 2 2 b
s ³ ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ dt ³ r c t dt .
a a

The differential of arc length in three dimensions is

2 2 2
ds ª¬ xc t º¼  ª¬ y c t º¼  ª¬ z c t º¼ r c t dt .

For arc length in two dimensions, see Calculus II, Lesson 8.

area of a region in the plane: Let fEHFRQWLQXRXVDQGQRQQHJDWLYHRQWKHLQWHUYDO>௘a, b௘@3DUWLWLRQWKHLQWHUYDO


into n equal subintervals of length

'x ba, x a , x1 , x2 ,! , xn 1 , xn b.
0
n

193
The area RIWKHUHJLRQERXQGHGE\f, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b is
n
A lim ¦ f ci 'x , xi 1 d ci d xi ,
n of
i 1

provided that this limit exists. See Calculus II, Lesson 7.

axis of revolution: If a region in the plane is revolved about a line, the resulting solid is a solid of revolution,
and the line is called the axis of revolution. See Calculus II, Lesson 30.

cardioid: 3RODUHTXDWLRQVRIWKHIRUP r a 1  cos T and r a 1  sin T are called cardioids.


See Calculus II, Lesson 29.

center of mass: &DOFXODWHGE\GLYLGLQJPRPHQWDERXWWKHRULJLQ E\WKHWRWDOPDVVHLWKHU

§ My Mx · M0
x, y ¨ m , m ¸ or x
© ¹ m
,

where m m1  m2  "  mn and the moment about the originLVJLYHQE\ M 0 m1 x1  ...  mn xn .


)RUDUHJLRQRIXQLIRUPGHQVLW\ͼ௘covered in Calculus II, Lesson 9௘ͽ, the center of mass is often called the
centroid of the region. See moment.

centroid7KHJHRPHWULFFHQWHURIDSODQDUODPLQDRUKLJKHUGLPHQVLRQDOREMHFW:KHQPDVVLVXQLIRUPO\
distributed, the centroid is equivalent to the center of mass. See Calculus II, Lesson 9.

FKDLQUXOHͼ௘௘ͽ: 8QOLNHLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVKDVDYDULHW\RIFKDLQUXOHV7KHRQH
covered in this course is

dw ww dx  ww dy ,
dt wx dt wy dt

ZKHUHVRPHRIWKHGHULYDWLYHVDUHRUGLQDU\GHULYDWLYHVZKLOHRWKHUVDUHSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHV

compound interest formula: Let P be the amount of a deposit at an annual interest rate of rͼ௘as a decimal௘ͽ
compounded nWLPHVSHU\HDU7KHDPRXQWDIWHUt\HDUVLV
nt
P §¨1  r ·¸ .
Glossary

A
© n¹

,IWKHLQWHUHVWLVFRPSRXQGHGFRQWLQXRXVO\WKHDPRXQWLV A Pe rt . See Calculus, Lesson 27.

194
concavity: Let f be differentiable on an open interval I. The graph of f is concave upward on I if f c is
increasing on I and concave downward on I if f c is decreasing on I. A graph is concave upward if the
graph is above its tangent lines and concave downward if the graph is below its tangent lines.
See Calculus II, Lesson 2.

FRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGͼ௘௘ͽ: $YHFWRU¿HOGF that can be represented as the gradient of a differentiable


function f, known as the potential functionLQVKRUWDYHFWRU¿HOGIRUZKLFK F ’f . *UDYLWDWLRQDO¿HOGV
DQGHOHFWULFIRUFH¿HOGVDUHFRQVHUYDWLYH,QDFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGWKHYDOXHRIDOLQHLQWHJUDORYHUD
closed curve is zero.

FRQWLQXRXVIXQFWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ,QHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVDIXQFWLRQf is continuous at c if the following three


conditions are met:

f c LVGH¿QHG lim f x exists, and lim f x f c .


x oc x oc

In multivariable calculus, a function of two variables is continuous at a point if 1௘ͽWKHIXQFWLRQLVGH¿QHG


at the point, 2௘ͽ the limit exists at the point, and 3௘ͽ the function value equals the limit.

Coulomb’s law ͼ௘௘ͽ: The force exerted on a particle with electric charge q1ORFDWHGDWͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽE\DSDUWLFOHRI
charge q2ORFDWHGDWͼ௘0, 0, 0௘ͽ is

c q1 q2
F x, y , z 2
u.
r

critical point ͼ௘௘ͽ: For a function fGH¿QHGRQDQRSHQUHJLRQRFRQWDLQLQJͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ is a critical


point if the partial derivatives of the function at that point fx ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ and f y ͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽ are both equal to zero, or
one of them does not exist. These critical points are the candidates for relative extrema.

FURVVSURGXFWͼ௘௘ͽ: 7KHFURVVSURGXFWRIWZRYHFWRUVͼ௘also known as the vector product௘ͽDOORZV\RX


WR¿QGDWKLUGYHFWRULQVSDFHWKDWLVRUWKRJRQDOWRWZRJLYHQQRQ]HURYHFWRUV7KHFURVVSURGXFWLVD
vector and is not commutative: Instead, u u v  v u u . The cross product equals zero for identical
or parallel vectors. We calculate using a determinant formula: u u1i  u 2 j  u3k u1 , u 2 , u3 and
v v1i  v2 j  v3k v1 , v2 , v3 is

i j k
uu v u1 u 2 u3 u2 v3  u3v2 i  u1v3  u3v1 j  u1v2  u2 v1 k .
v1 v2 v3

195
The magnitude of the cross product is a scalar, which equals u u v u v sin T .

The derivative of the cross product is d >r u u @ r u uc  r c u u.


dt

FXUORIDYHFWRU¿HOG ͼ௘௘ͽ$YHFWRU¿HOGWKDWPHDVXUHVDQRWKHUYHFWRU¿HOG¶VWHQGHQF\WRURWDWHͼ௘when curl = 0,


D¿HOGLVLUURWDWLRQDO௘ͽ8VHGDVDWHVWIRUFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGV&DOFXODWHGXVLQJDFURVVSURGXFWRIWKH
GLIIHUHQWLDORSHUDWRUZLWKWKHYHFWRU¿HOG curl F ’ u F. )RUWKHYHFWRU¿HOG)௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ,

§ wP wN · § wP wM · § wN wM ·
curl F x , y , z ¨ wy  wz ¸ i  ¨© wx  wz ¸¹ j  ¨ wx  wy ¸k
© ¹ © ¹

i j k
’ u F x, y , z w w w .
wx wy wz
M N P

curvature: A measure of how much a curve bends,

Tc( t )
K .
r c( t )

The curvature of y = f ͼ௘x௘ͽ is

y cc
K 3
.
ª1  y c 2 º 2

¬ ¼

See Calculus II, Lesson 36.

FXUYHͼ௘௘ͽ: $SODQDUFXUYHLVGH¿QHGE\WKHIXQFWLRQVx = f ͼ௘t௘ͽ, y = J࣠ͼ௘t௘ͽ, and z = K࣠ͼ௘t௘ͽ. A curve is called simple


if it does not cross itself.

F\OLQGHUͼ௘௘ͽ: ,QHOHPHQWDU\JHRPHWU\DF\OLQGHUUHVXOWVZKHQOLQHVSHUSHQGLFXODUWRDFLUFOHJHQHUDWHDWXEH
shape, but LQKLJKHUPDWKHPDWLFVDF\OLQGHUͼ௘RUF\OLQGULFDOVXUIDFH௘ͽFDQUHIHUWRDQ\VXUIDFHFUHDWHGZKHQ
DQ\JHQHUDWLQJFXUYHLQDSODQHͼ௘not just a circle௘ͽLVH[WHQGHGLQWRDWKLUGGLPHQVLRQE\OLQHVLQWHUVHFWLQJ
that curve and orthogonal to its plane.
Glossary

F\OLQGULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVͼ௘௘ͽ: The three-dimensional generalization of polar coordinates: x r cos t ,


y r sin t , z z.

196
cycloid: 7KHFXUYHWUDFHGRXWE\DSRLQWRQWKHFLUFXPIHUHQFHRIDFLUFOHUROOLQJDORQJDOLQH See Calculus II,
Lesson 28.

GH¿QLWHLQWHJUDO: Let fEHGH¿QHGRQWKHLQWHUYDO>࣠D, E࣠@3DUWLWLRQWKHLQWHUYDOLQWRn equal subintervals of


length 'x b  a , x0 a , x1 , x2 , }, xn 1 , xn b.
n
n
Assume that the following limit exists: lim ¦ f ci 'x , where xi 1 d ci d xi .
n of
i 1

b
7KHQWKLVOLPLWLVWKHGH¿QLWHLQWHJUDO of f from a to b and is denoted ³ f x dx. See Calculus II, Lesson 3.
a

GHOͼ௘௘ͽ: See differential operator.

delta xͼ௘¨ x௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ: 7KHV\PERO ¨x is read “delta x” and denotes Dͼ௘small௘ͽ change in x. Some textbooks use h
LQVWHDGRI¨x.

GHQVLW\ͼ௘௘ͽ: 8VXDOO\PDVVSHUXQLWYROXPHEXWIRUSODQDUODPLQDVGHQVLW\LVPDVVSHUXQLWRIVXUIDFHDUHD

derivative: ,QHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVWKHGHULYDWLYH of f at xLVJLYHQE\WKHIROORZLQJOLPLWLILWH[LVWV

f x  'x  f x
f c x lim .
'x o 0 'x

Notations for the derivative of y = f ͼ௘x௘ͽ:

dy
f c x , , y c, d ª¬ f x º¼ , D > y @ .
dx dx

7KHGH¿QLWLRQVRIVORSHDQGWKHGHULYDWLYHDUHEDVHGRQWKHGLIIHUHQFHTXRWLHQWIRUVORSH

change in y 'y
slope .
change in x 'x

In multivariable calculus, WKHIXQFWLRQVDUHRIWZRͼ௘or more௘ͽ variables, and we use partial derivatives:

f x  'x , y  f x , y f x , y  'y  f x , y
f x x, y lim , f y x, y lim .
'x o 0 'x 'y o 0 'y

197
GHWHUPLQDQWQRWDWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: ,QWKLVFRXUVHZHXVHDîGHWHUPLQDQWIRUPRQO\WRKHOSXVUHPHPEHUDQG
calculate the cross product RIWZRYHFWRUV7HFKQLFDOO\DGHWHUPLQDQWLVDVLQJOHUHDOQXPEHUREWDLQHGE\
using determinant notation, but in that sense, this course has no determinants—which are a topic covered
in linear algebra. See cross product.

differentiable ͼ௘௘ͽ: In multivariable calculus, a function z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVGLIIHUHQWLDEOHDWWKHSRLQWͼ௘x0, y0௘ͽLI¨z


can be written in the form 'z f x x0 , y0 'x  f y x0 , y0 'y  H 1'x  H 2 'y , where İ1 and İ2 tend to zero
as 'x , 'y o 0, 0 . 'LIIHUHQWLDELOLW\DWDSRLQWRQDVXUIDFHLPSOLHVWKDWWKHVXUIDFHFDQEHDSSUR[LPDWHG
E\DWDQJHQWSODQHDWWKDWSRLQW

differential: ,QHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVZHOHWy = f ͼ௘x௘ͽ be a differentiable function. Then, dx ¨x is called the
differential of x. The differential of y is dy f c x dx. For multivariable calculus, see total differential.
See Calculus II, Lesson 2.

differential equation: A differential equation in x and y is an equation that involves x, y, and derivatives of y.
The order RIDGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQLVGHWHUPLQHGE\WKHKLJKHVWRUGHUGHULYDWLYHLQWKHHTXDWLRQ
dy
$¿UVWRUGHUOLQHDUGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQFDQEHZULWWHQLQWKHVWDQGDUGIRUP  P x y Q x .
dx
See Calculus II, Lessons 4–6.

GLIIHUHQWLDORSHUDWRUͼ௘GHO௘ͽͼ௘’௘ͽͼ௘௘ͽ: ’ w ,’ w , or ’ w . 8VHGLQFXUOGLYHUJHQFH3URQRXQFHG
wx wy wz
“del,” or “grad,” or “nabla.”

GLUHFWLRQDOGHULYDWLYHͼ௘௘ͽ$JHQHUDOL]DWLRQRIWKHFRQFHSWRISDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHWKDWFDQEHXVHGWR¿QGWKH
VORSHDZD\IURPDSRLQWLQDQ\JLYHQGLUHFWLRQ

GLUHFWLRQQXPEHUVͼ௘௘ͽ: Component numbers in a direction vector.

GLVNͼ௘௘ͽ: Two-dimensional analog for intervals along the x-axis in beginning calculus. An open disk that is the
interior of a circle. Compare with planar lamina.

GLYHUJHQFHRIDYHFWRU¿HOGͼ௘௘ͽ: $VFDODUWKDWPHDVXUHVRXWZDUGÀX[SHUXQLWYROXPHWKHWHQGHQF\
Glossary

RIDYHFWRU¿HOGWRGLYHUJHIURPDJLYHQSRLQW3RVLWLYHGLYHUJHQFHLVDsource, negative divergence is a


sink, and divergence = 0 is divergence free or incompressible. Calculated using a dot product of the
GLIIHUHQWLDORSHUDWRUZLWKWKHYHFWRU¿HOG div F ’ < F.

198
GLYHUJHQFHWKHRUHPͼ௘௘ͽ: A generalization of Green’s theorem that relates a ÀX[LQWHJUDORYHUWKHERXQGDU\
of a solid with a triple integral over the entire solid:

³³ F < N dS ³³³ divF dV ³³³ ’<F dV .


S Q Q

GRWSURGXFWͼ௘௘ͽ: The dot product of two vectors, u u1 , u 2 , u3 and v v1 , v2 , v3 , is u < v u1v1  u 2 v2  u3 v3 .


The dot product of two vectors is a real number, not a vector, and provides a method for determining the
angle between two nonzero vectors; when the dot product equals zero, the two vectors are perpendicular
to each other. For vectors in two dimensions, see Calculus II, Lesson 32.

GRXEOHLQWHJUDOͼ௘௘ͽ: If fLVGH¿QHGRQDFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQLQR in the xy-plane, then the double


integral of f over R is
n

³³ f x, y dA
R
lim ¦ f xi , yi 'Ai .
' o0
i 1

To solve, rewrite as an iterated integral. Can be used to solve for area, volume, mass, surface area, etc.

HUURUDQDO\VLVͼ௘௘ͽ: Using the total differential to approximate function values.

extreme value theorem ͼ௘௘ͽ: If z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ is continuous on the closed and bounded region R in the plane, then
there is at least one point in R at which f takes on a minimum value and at least one point in R at which f
takes on a maximum value.

exponential function: The inverse of the natural logarithmic function y OQ௘x is the exponential function
y = ex. The exponential function is equal to its derivative, d ª¬e x º¼ e x. The exponential function to base
dx
a, a!LVGH¿QHGE\ a x e ln a x. See Calculus, Lesson 1.

¿UVWGHULYDWLYHWHVW: ,QHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVZH let c be a critical number of f. If f ƍFKDQJHVIURPSRVLWLYHWR


negative at c, then fKDVDUHODWLYHPD[LPXPDWͼ௘c, f ͼ௘c௘ͽ௘ͽ. If f ƍFKDQJHVIURPQHJDWLYHWRSRVLWLYHDWc, then f
KDVDUHODWLYHPLQLPXPDWͼ௘c, f ͼ௘c௘ͽ௘ͽ. See second derivative test. See Calculus II, Lesson 2.

ÀX[LQWHJUDOͼ௘௘ͽ$VXUIDFHLQWHJUDOWKDWLVXVHGWRPRGHOWKHÀRZRIDOLTXLGWKURXJKDWZRVLGHGVXUIDFH²
an orientable surface. )OX[LQWHJUDOVDUHQRWGH¿QHGIRUVXUIDFHVWKDWDUHQRWRULHQWDEOH

199
IXQFWLRQRIWZRYDULDEOHVͼ௘௘ͽ: $IXQFWLRQZLWKWZRLQGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOHVͼ௘often x and y௘ͽ and one dependent
YDULDEOHͼ௘often z or t௘ͽ. Let Dͼ௘the domain௘ͽ be a set of ordered pairs of real numbers. If to each ordered pair
ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ in D there corresponds a unique real number f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ, then f is a function of x and y.

IXQGDPHQWDOWKHRUHPRIFDOFXOXVͼ௘௘ͽ: If f is a continuous function on the closed interval [࣠D, E࣠@DQGF is


an antiderivative of f, then

b
³ f x dx
a
F b  F a .

This theorem and the second fundamental theorem of calculus show how integration and differentiation
DUHEDVLFDOO\LQYHUVHRSHUDWLRQV,If is continuous on an open interval I containing a, the second
fundamental theorem of calculusVD\VWKDWIRUDQ\x in the interval,

d ª x f t dt º
dx «¬ ³a
»¼ f x .

fundamental theorem of line integrals ͼ௘௘ͽ: 6WDWHVWKDWWKHOLQHLQWHJUDOIRUDQ\WZRSRLQWVLQDFRQVHUYDWLYH


YHFWRU¿HOGLVVLPSO\WKHGLIIHUHQFHLQWKHYDOXHVRIWKHpotential function at those two points.

Gauss’s law ͼ௘௘ͽ5HODWHVWKHÀX[RXWRIDVXUIDFHWRWKHWRWDOFKDUJHLQVLGHWKHVXUIDFH,QSDUWLFXODULIE is an


HOHFWULF¿HOGWKHQ

Q
³³ E< N dS
S
H0
.

Here, Q is the electric charge inside a sphere and İ 0LVWKHSHUPLWWLYLW\RIVSDFHRUWKHHOHFWULFFRQVWDQW


*HQHUDOL]HGWREHFRPHWKH¿UVWRI0D[ZHOO¶VODZVRIHOHFWURPDJQHWLVP

JUDGLHQWͼ௘௘ͽ: A vector that points in the direction of maximum increase or steepest ascent; is orthogonal
WROHYHOFXUYHVͼ௘for functions of two variables௘ͽDQGOHYHOVXUIDFHVͼ௘for functions of three variables௘ͽ.
7KHJUDGLHQWRIDIXQFWLRQRIWZRͼ௘or more௘ͽ variables is a vector-valued function; for a function of two
variables, the gradient is grad f x , y ’f x , y f x x , y i  f y x , y j. The dot product of the
gradient with the unit vector gives the directional derivative.
Glossary

200
*UHHQ¶VWKHRUHPͼ௘௘ͽ: A theorem about points in the plane that UHODWHVDOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGWKHERXQGDU\RI
a region with a double integral over the entire region:

§ wN wM ·
³C
M dx  N dy ³³ ¨© wx 
R
wy ¸ dA.
¹

Here, M and N are the components of a vector-valued function F. This theorem generalizes to space, in
WZRGLIIHUHQWZD\VZLWKWKHdivergence theorem and Stokes’s theorem.

dy
JURZWKDQGGHFD\PRGHOͼ௘௘ͽ: 7KHVROXWLRQWRWKHJURZWKDQGGHFD\PRGHO ky is y Ce kt . Introduced in
dt
Calculus II, Lesson 5.

half-angle formulas: sin 2 x 1  cos 2 x ; cos 2 x 1  cos 2 x .


2 2

Used when exponents m and n are both even in the integral ³ sin m x cos n x dx. Reviewed in Calculus II,
Lesson 11.

KDUPRQLFIXQFWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: $IXQFWLRQWKDWVDWLV¿HV/DSODFH¶VSDUWLDOGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQIRUWKHVWHDG\VWDWH
distribution of the temperature in plates or solids.

horizontal asymptote: The line y = LLVDKRUL]RQWDODV\PSWRWH of the graph of f if lim f ( x ) L or


x of
lim f ( x ) L. See Calculus II, Lesson 5.
x of

implicit differentiation$WHFKQLTXHXVHGZKHQLWLVGLI¿FXOWWRH[SUHVVy as a function of xH[SOLFLWO\7KH


steps are as follows: Differentiate both sides with respect to x, collect all terms involving dy/dx on the left
side of the equation and move all other terms to the right side, factor dy/dx out of the left side, and solve
for dy/dx. See Calculus II, Lesson 2.

improper integral$QLQWHJUDOZKHUHRQHRIWKHOLPLWVRILQWHJUDWLRQLV’RUí’RIWKHIRUP

f b
³ f x dx
a
lim ³ f x dx ,
b of a

RUWKRVHWKDWDUHQRWFRQWLQXRXVRQWKHFORVHGLQWHUYDO>௘a, b௘@6HHCalculus II, Lesson 15.

201

P ( x ) dx
integrating factor: For a linear differential equation, the integrating factor is u . See Calculus II,
Lesson 6.

integration by partial fractions: An algebraic technique for splitting up complicated algebraic expressions—
LQSDUWLFXODUUDWLRQDOIXQFWLRQV²LQWRDVXPRIVLPSOHUIXQFWLRQVZKLFKFDQWKHQEHLQWHJUDWHGHDVLO\
using other techniques. See Calculus II, Lesson 13.

integration by parts: ³ u dv uv  ³ v du. See Calculus II, Lesson 10.

integration by substitution: Let F be an antiderivative of f. If u = J࣠ͼ௘x௘ͽ, then du g c x dx , so we have

³ f g x g c x dx F g x  C because ³ f u du F u  C.

See Calculus II, Lesson 3.

iterated integrals ͼ௘௘ͽ: Repeated simple integrals, such as double integrals and triple integrals. The inside
limits of integration can be variable with respect to the outer variable of integration, but the outside limits
of integration must be constant with respect to both outside limits of integration.

inverse functions7KRVHZKRVHJUDSKVDUHV\PPHWULFDFURVVWKHOLQHy = x.

A function g is the inverse function of the function f if f ͼ௘J࣠ͼ௘x௘ͽ௘ͽ = x for all x in the domain of g and
J࣠ͼ௘f ͼ௘x௘ͽ௘ͽ = x for all x in the domain of f. The inverse of f is denoted f 1 . Reviewed in Calculus II, Lesson 1.

LQYHUVHVTXDUH¿HOGV ͼ௘௘ͽ: Fields where the force decreases in proportion with the square of distance.
Given r xi  yj  zk , WKHYHFWRU¿HOGFLVDQLQYHUVHVTXDUH¿HOGLI F x , y , z k u.
2
r

inverse trigonometric functions: These inverse functions DUHGH¿QHGE\UHVWULFWLQJWKHGRPDLQRIWKHRULJLQDO


function, as follows.

y arcsin x sin 1 x œ sin y x , for  1 d x d 1 and  S d y d S .


2 2

cos 1 x œ cos y
Glossary

y arccos x x , for  1 d x d 1 and 0 d y d S .

202
y arctan x tan 1 x œ tan y x , for  f  x  f and  S  y  S .
2 2

y arcsec x sec 1 x œ sec y x , for x t 1, 0 d y d S , and y z S .


2

Reviewed in Calculus II, Lesson1.

.HSOHU¶VODZVͼ௘௘ͽ: 1௘ͽ The orbit of each planet is an ellipse, with the Sun at one of the two foci; 2௘ͽ a line
joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time; 3௘ͽ the square of the
RUELWDOSHULRGRIDSODQHWLVGLUHFWO\SURSRUWLRQDOWRWKHFXEHRIWKHVHPLPDMRUD[LVRIWKHRUELW

/DJUDQJHPXOWLSOLHUͼ௘௘ͽ: A scalar, ȜXVHGLQDSRZHUIXOWHFKQLTXHJLYHQE\/DJUDQJH¶VWKHRUHPIRUVROYLQJ


optimization problems that have constraints.

ODPLQDͼ௘௘ͽ$WKLQÀDWSODWHRIPDWHULDOXVXDOO\RIXQLIRUPGHQVLW\

/DSODFH¶VSDUWLDOGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ'HVFULEHVWKHVWHDG\VWDWHWHPSHUDWXUHGLVWULEXWLRQLQSODWHVRU
2 2
solids. w z2  w z2 0. $IXQFWLRQWKDWVDWLV¿HVWKLVHTXDWLRQLVVDLGWREHharmonic.
wx wy

ODZRIFRQVHUYDWLRQRIHQHUJ\ͼ௘௘ͽ,QDFRQVHUYDWLYHIRUFH¿HOGWKHVXPRISRWHQWLDODQGNLQHWLFHQHUJLHVRI
an object remain constant from point to point.

OHDVWVTXDUHVUHJUHVVLRQOLQHͼ௘௘ͽ: 8VHGWR¿WDOLQHWRDVHWRISRLQWVLQWKHSODQH:RUNVEHVWZKHQWKHGDWDLV
QHDUO\OLQHDU'HULYHGE\PLQLPL]LQJWKHVXPRIWKHVTXDUHVRIWKHGLIIHUHQFHVEHWZHHQWKHGDWDDQGWKH
line. If f ͼ௘x௘ͽ = ax + b, then the values of a and bDUHJLYHQE\

n n n
n ¦ xi yi  ¦ xi ¦ yi n n
1 § y  a x ·.
a i 1
n
i 1 i 1
2
,b ¨ ¦
n© i 1 i ¦ i ¸
¹
§ n · i 1
n ¦ xi 2  ¨ ¦ xi ¸
i 1 ©i 1 ¹

level curve ͼ௘௘ͽ: Also known as a contour lineWKHVHWRIDOOSRLQWVLQWKHSODQHVDWLVI\LQJf ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ = c, when
z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ and c is a constant. Contrast with trace, which is the intersection of a surface with a plane.

203
level surface ͼ௘௘ͽ: Although a function in three variables f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ cannot itself be graphed, it is possible to
graph a level surface, the set of all points in space where that function equals a constant, f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽ = c.

L’Hôpital’s rule: A technique for evaluating indeterminate forms for limits such as 0 or f , where no
0 f
guaranteed limit exists. See Calculus II, Lesson 14.

limit'H¿QHGLQIRUPDOO\LIf ͼ௘x௘ͽEHFRPHVDUELWUDULO\FORVHWRDVLQJOHQXPEHUL as x approaches c from either


VLGHZHVD\WKDWWKHOLPLWRIf ͼ௘x௘ͽ as x approaches c is L, which we write as lim f x L.
x oc

Also, the equation lim f x f means that f ͼ௘x௘ͽ increases without bound as x approaches c.
x oc

0RUHIRUPDOO\/HWfEHDIXQFWLRQGH¿QHGRQDQRSHQLQWHUYDOFRQWDLQLQJc ͼ௘H[FHSWSRVVLEO\DWc௘ͽ, and let


L be a real number. The statement lim f x L means that for each İ > 0, there exists a į > 0 such that if
x oc
0  x  c  G , then f ( x )  L  H .

See Calculus II, Lesson 1.

7KHGH¿QLWLRQIRUDOLPLWLQPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVLVVLPLODUWRWKDWLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVH[FHSWWKDWZH
XVHRSHQGLVNVͼ௘DQGDSSURDFKIURPDQ\GLUHFWLRQ௘ͽLQVWHDGRIXVLQJRSHQLQWHUYDOVͼ௘DSSURDFKLQJIURPRQO\
two directions௘ͽ:HVD\WKDW lim f x , y L if for eachİ > 0, there existsį > 0 such that
x , y o x0 , y0

2 2
f x , y  L  H whenever 0< x  x0  y  y 0  G.

OLQHDUPRGHOͼ௘௘ͽ: Given a set of data, a linear model is a function y = ax + bWKDWFORVHO\¿WVWKHGDWD

OLQHLQWHJUDOͼ௘௘ͽ: Integration over a piecewise smooth curve, which can be used to calculate the mass of
DWKLQZLUHͼ௘where the value of the integral does not depend on the orientation of the curve௘ͽRUZRUNE\D
IRUFH¿HOGͼ௘where the orientation of the path does matter and determines the sign of the answer௘ͽ. Green’s
theoremLPSOLHVWKDWWKHOLQHLQWHJUDODURXQGDQ\FORVHGFXUYHZLWKLQDFRQVHUYDWLYHYHFWRU¿HOGLV]HUR
See fundamental theorem of line integrals.

OLQHVLQVSDFHͼ௘௘ͽ'H¿QHGXVLQJDSRLQWDQGDGLUHFWLRQYHFWRUWKHVHDUHTXLWHGLIIHUHQWIURPOLQHVLQWKHSODQH
ͼ௘GH¿QHGXVLQJVORSHDQGy-intercept௘ͽ. See planes in space and parametric equations.
Glossary

204
1
log rule for integration: ³ x dx ln x  C .

For a logarithmic function to base a, when a > 0 and a log a x 1 ln x. See Calculus, Lesson 27.
ln a
See Calculus II, Lesson 3.

mass ͼ௘௘ͽ7KHGRXEOHLQWHJUDORIWKHGHQVLW\IXQFWLRQ

0D[ZHOO¶VHTXDWLRQVͼ௘௘ͽ: Four partial differential equations, and their integral forms, describing the
LQWHUDFWLRQRIHOHFWULFDQGPDJQHWLF¿HOGV7KHLUGLIIHUHQWLDOIRUPVDUHDVIROORZV

U
 )RUDQHOHFWULF¿HOGE and a surface S enclosing a charge Q, ’ <E , where ȡLVWKHFKDUJHGHQVLW\
H0

 If B LVDPDJQHWLF¿HOG ’ <B 0.

 If ELVDQHOHFWULF¿HOGDQGBLVDPDJQHWLF¿HOG ’ u E  wB 0 ͼ௘DOVRNQRZQDV)DUDGD\¶VODZ௘ͽ.


wt

 If ELVDQHOHFWULF¿HOGBLVDPDJQHWLF¿HOGDQGJLVWKHFXUUHQWGHQVLW\ ’ u B wE  J.
wt

Möbius strip ͼ௘௘ͽ$VXUIDFHZLWKRQO\RQHVLGH

PRPHQWͼ௘௘ͽ: Related to the turning force of a mass around a pivot or fulcrum. 0RUHSUHFLVHO\LIDPDVVm
is concentrated at a point and if x is the distance between the mass and another point P, then the
moment of m about P is mx. Formulas for the moments with respect to the axes are much simpler
WKDQWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJIRUPXODVLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXV M x ³³ y U x , y dA, M y ³³ x U x , y dA.
R R
Covered in Calculus II, Lesson 9.

PXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVͼ௘௘ͽ: Calculus of more than one variable. That is, the calculus of functions of two or
more independent variables, and their graphs in space.

natural logarithmic function: 7KHQDWXUDOORJDULWKPLFIXQFWLRQLVGH¿QHGE\WKHGH¿QLWHLQWHJUDO


ln x ³ 1 dt , x ! 0. See Calculus II, Lesson 3.
x

1 t

205
normal: 3HUSHQGLFXODURURUWKRJRQDO$YHFWRULVQRUPDOWRDVXUIDFHDWDSRLQWLILWLVSHUSHQGLFXODUWRWKH
surface at the point. Also, the normal component of acceleration is the direction of the acceleration and is
2
JLYHQE\ aN v Tc a < N a  aT 2 , where the normal vector is written N or n. See Calculus II,
Lesson 35.

one-sided limits: The limit from the right means that x approaches c from values greater than c. The
HOHPHQWDU\QRWDWLRQLV lim f x L.
x oc

6LPLODUO\WKHOLPLWIURPWKHOHIWPHDQVWKDWx approaches c from values less than c, notated lim f x L.


x oc
See Calculus, Lesson 5.

RSWLPL]DWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: )LQGLQJPD[LPXPDQGPLQLPXPYDOXHVͼ௘extrema௘ͽ of a function. The candidates for


extrema are the critical points.

orientable ͼ௘௘ͽ: A surface is orientable when its unit normal vector NFDQEHGH¿QHGDWHYHU\QRQERXQGDU\
point on a surface SVXFKWKDWWKHQRUPDOYHFWRUVYDU\FRQWLQXRXVO\RYHUWKHVXUIDFH

orthogonal ͼ௘௘ͽ7ZRYHFWRUVDUHRUWKRJRQDOͼ௘perpendicular௘ͽ if their dot product is zero. The orthogonal


WUDMHFWRULHVRIDJLYHQIDPLO\RIFXUYHVDUHDQRWKHUIDPLO\RIFXUYHVHDFKRIZKLFKLVRUWKRJRQDO
ͼ௘perpendicular௘ͽWRHYHU\FXUYHLQWKHJLYHQIDPLO\ See normal and dot product.

SDUDOOHOHSLSHGͼ௘௘ͽ: A three-dimensional object whose faces are all parallelograms.

SDUDPHWHUͼ௘௘ͽ: 8VHGWRGH¿QHGDYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQDSDUDPHWHULVDQLQGHSHQGHQWYDULDEOH

SDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: %\HTXDWLQJFRUUHVSRQGLQJFRPSRQHQWVRIDGLUHFWLRQYHFWRU x  x1 , y  y1 , z  z1
with three direction numbersͼ௘a, b, c௘ͽ, we can GH¿QHDOLQHLQVSDFHLQWHUPVRIWKUHHSDUDPHWULF
JJJG
equations, PQ x  x1 , y  y1 , z  z1 t a , b, c :

x x1  at
y y1  bt
z z1  ct .
Glossary

206
In the special case where a, b, and c are all nonzero, the parameter t can also be omitted in favor of so-
FDOOHGV\PPHWULFHTXDWLRQVWKDWRPLWt of the form ( x  x1 ) / a ( y  y1 ) / b ( z  z1 ) / c. 0RUHJHQHUDOO\
IRUDQ\SDUDPHWULFFXUYHZHFRQVLGHUx, y, and zDVIXQFWLRQVRIDIRXUWKYDULDEOHͼ௘“parameter”௘ͽ t. The
FXUYHWUDFHGRXWE\WKHSDUDPHWULFHTXDWLRQV x f t , y g t , z h t induces an orientation to the
curve as the parameter t increases. See Calculus II, Lesson 28.

SDUDPHWULFVXUIDFHͼ௘௘ͽ$JHQHUDOL]DWLRQRIDSDUDPHWULFFXUYHJLYHQE\DYHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQKDYLQJ
two parameters. As the parameters u and vYDU\RYHUWKHLUGRPDLQVWKHIXQFWLRQWUDFHVRXWDVXUIDFHLQ
space: r u , v x u , v i  y u , v j  z u , v k . For example, the paraboloid z = x2 + y2 can be described as
a parametric surface r u , v ui  vj  u 2  v 2 k .

partial derivatives ͼ௘௘ͽ7KHJHQHUDOL]DWLRQRIGHULYDWLYHVIURPHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVGH¿QHGDV

wf f x  'x , y  f x , y wf f x , y  'y  f x , y
f x x, y lim ; f y x, y lim .
wx 'x o 0 'x wy 'y o 0 'y

There are four second-order partial derivatives:

w § wf · w2 x § wf · w2 y
f xx ; w ¨ ¸ f yy
wx ¨© wx ¸¹ wx 2 wy © wy ¹ wy 2

w § wf · w2 f § wf · w2 f
f xy ; w ¨ ¸ f yx .
wy ¨© wx ¸¹ wywx wx © wy ¹ wxwy

SDUWLDOGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: An equation containing partial derivatives. See Laplace’s partial


differential equation.

SDUWLFOHPRWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ7KHSRVLWLRQYHORFLW\DQGDFFHOHUDWLRQDUHDOOYHFWRUVWKHVSHHGLVDVFDODU

 3RVLWLRQ r t x t i  y t j  z t k.

 9HORFLW\ v t rc t xc t i  y c t j  z c t k .

Acceleration: a t r cc t xcc t i  y cc t j  z cc t k .

2 2 2
Speed: v t rc t ¬ª xc t ¼º  ¬ª y c t ¼º  ¬ª z c t ¼º .

207
SLHFHZLVHVPRRWKFXUYHͼ௘௘ͽ: $FXUYHIRUZKLFKWKHLQWHUYDORIWKHFXUYHFDQEHSDUWLWLRQHGLQWRD¿QLWH
number of smooth subintervals. The lower-dimensional counterpart of a simply connected region.

SODQDUODPLQDͼ௘௘ͽ: $ÀDWSODWHRIXQLIRUPGHQVLW\6HHCalculus II, Lesson 9.

SODQHLQVSDFHͼ௘௘ͽ: $SODQHLQVSDFHLVGHWHUPLQHGE\DSRLQWRQWKHSODQHDQGDYHFWRUQRUPDOWRWKHSODQH
The standard equation of a plane in space is a x  x1  b y  y1  c z  z1 0. The general form of a
plane is ax  by  cz  d 0, where a, b, and c are components of the normal vector to the plane.

SRODUFRRUGLQDWHVͼ௘௘ͽ: $QDOWHUQDWLYHWRUHFWDQJXODUͼ௘Cartesian௘ͽ coordinates of P ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ, with each point


LQVWHDGJLYHQE\ͼ௘r, ș௘ͽ, where r is the distance from P to the origin and ș is the angle the segment OP
makes with the positive x-axis. Useful for solving double integrals involving circles, cardioids, rose
FXUYHVDQGDQ\WKLQJLQYROYLQJx2 + y2. See Calculus II, Lesson 29.

planimeter ͼ௘௘ͽ: An engineering device, based on Green’s theoremIRUFDOFXODWLQJWKHDUHDRIDUHJLRQE\


WUDFLQJRXWLWVERXQGDU\

SRWHQWLDOIXQFWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: The differentiable function whose gradient can represent a particular conservative
YHFWRU¿HOGF as follows: F ’f . Finding a potential function is comparable to antidifferentiation:
VRPHWLPHVHDV\WRVHHDWDJODQFHEXWVRPHWLPHVGLI¿FXOWRULPSRVVLEOHWR¿QG

SURMHFWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: When a vector u is projected onto a vector v, the result is a multiple of v, written
§ ·
projv u ¨ u < v2 ¸ v.
¨ v ¸
© ¹
7KHSURMHFWLRQLVXVHGWR¿QGWKHGLVWDQFHEHWZHHQDSODQHDQGDSRLQWQRWLQWKDWSODQH

quadric surface ͼ௘௘ͽ$IDPLO\RIWKUHHGLPHQVLRQDOVXUIDFHVDQDORJRXVWRFRQLFVHFWLRQVFRQVLVWLQJ


RISDUDERORLGVHOOLSVRLGVͼ௘of which the sphere is a special case௘ͽ, elliptic cones, elliptic paraboloids,
K\SHUERORLGVͼ௘of one or two sheets௘ͽDQGK\SHUEROLFSDUDERORLGV7KHJHQHUDOHTXDWLRQRIDquadric
surface is
Glossary

Ax 2  By 2  Cz 2  Dxy  Exz  Fyz  Gx  Hy  Iz  J 0.

208
radian: Calculus uses radian PHDVXUH,IDSUREOHPLVVWDWHGLQGHJUHHPHDVXUH\RXPXVWFRQYHUWWRUDGLDQV
360° is 2ʌ radians; 180° is ʌ radians. See Calculus II, Lesson 1.

UHODWLYHH[WUHPDͼ௘௘ͽ: A relative maximum or relative minimum.

second derivative test: Let f c c 0 ͼ௘c is a critical number of f௘ͽ. If f cc c ! 0, then f has a relative minimum
at c. If f cc c  0, then f has a relative maximum at c. See Calculus II, Lesson 2.

VHFRQGSDUWLDOVWHVWͼ௘௘ͽ6LPLODUWRWKHVHFRQGGHULYDWLYHWHVWLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVXVHGWRGHWHUPLQH
ZKHWKHUFULWLFDOSRLQWVDUHUHODWLYHH[WUHPDRUQRW/HWͼ௘a, b௘ͽ be a critical point of f'H¿QHWKHTXDQWLW\
2
d f xx a , b f yy a , b  ª¬ f xy a , b º¼ . Then, we have the following.

 d ! 0, f xx a , b ! 0 Ÿ relative minimum.

 d ! 0, f xx a , b  0 Ÿ relative maximum.

 d  0 Ÿ saddle point.

 d 0: Test is inconclusive.

VLPSO\FRQQHFWHGUHJLRQͼ௘௘ͽ$UHJLRQWKDWLVFRQQHFWHGͼ௘in one piece௘ͽDQGHYHU\VLPSOHFORVHGFXUYH


LQWKHUHJLRQHQFORVHVRQO\SRLQWVWKDWOLHLQWKHUHJLRQ$KLJKHUGLPHQVLRQDODQDORJRIWKHpiecewise
smooth curve.

Snell’s law RIUHIUDFWLRQͼ௘௘ͽ: When light waves traveling in a transparent medium strike the surface of
DVHFRQGWUDQVSDUHQWPHGLXPWKH\WHQGWR³EHQG´ͼ௘undergo refraction௘ͽ in order to follow the path of
minimum time.

solid of revolution: If a region in the plane is revolved about a line, the resulting solid is a solid of revolution,
and the line is called the axis of revolution. When the plane is a circle, the resulting solid is a torus.
See theorem of Pappus. See Calculus II, Lesson 7.

solution curves7KHJHQHUDOVROXWLRQRID¿UVWRUGHUGLIIHUHQWLDOHTXDWLRQUHSUHVHQWVDIDPLO\RIFXUYHVNQRZQ
DVVROXWLRQFXUYHVRQHIRUHDFKYDOXHRIWKHDUELWUDU\FRQVWDQW6HHCalculus, Lesson 35, and Calculus II,
Lesson 5.

209
VSKHULFDOFRRUGLQDWHVͼ௘௘ͽ6LPLODUWRORQJLWXGHDQGODWLWXGHFRRUGLQDWHVRQ(DUWKEXWWKH¿UVWFRRUGLQDWHȡ
is a distance, while the other two are angles. The distance ȡ is from a point in space P to the origin O, ș is
the same angle as used in cylindrical coordinates, and ij is the angle between the positive z-axis and the
line segment OP , ”ij”ʌ. (VSHFLDOO\XVHIXOIRUOLNHVSKHUHVWKDWKDYHDFHQWHURIV\PPHWU\

6WRNHV¶VWKHRUHPͼ௘௘ͽ: A higher-dimension analog of Green’s theorem that relates a line integral around a
closed curve C to a surface integral of a closed, oriented surface S for which CLVWKHERXQGDU\/HWWLQJ
the unit normal to that surface be N and )௘ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHDYHFWRU¿HOGZKRVHFRPSRQHQWIXQFWLRQVKDYH
FRQWLQXRXV¿UVWSDUWLDOGHULYDWLYHVWKHQStokes’s theorem states that ³ F < dr ³³ curl F < N dS .
C S

summation formulas:
n

¦c
i 1
c  c "  c cn.

n
n ( n  1)
¦i
i 1 2
.

n
n ( n  1)(2 n  1)
¦i
i 1
2
6
.

VXUIDFHͼ௘௘ͽ: Surfaces are graphs in space, such as quadric surfaces and surfaces of revolution. A
surface is simply connectedLIHYHU\VLPSOHFORVHGFXUYHLQWKHUHJLRQHQFORVHVRQO\SRLQWVWKDWDUH
inside that region.

VXUIDFHDUHDͼ௘௘ͽ: In space, surface area equals the double integral of the differential of surface area.
If z = f ͼ௘x, y௘ͽLVGH¿QHGRYHUDUHJLRQR in the xy-plane, the surface area is

2 2
S ³³ 1  ¬ª f x x , y ¼º  ¬ª f y x , y ¼º dA.
R

surface integral ͼ௘௘ͽ$JHQHUDOL]DWLRQRIOLQHLQWHJUDOVZKLFKLQVWHDGRIEHLQJGH¿QHGRQDFXUYHLQVSDFH


DUHGH¿QHGRQDVXUIDFHLQVSDFH/HWWKHVXUIDFHSEHJLYHQE\z = J࣠ͼ௘x, y௘ͽ, let f ͼ௘x, y, z௘ͽEHGH¿QHGDWDOO
points on S, and let R be the projection of S onto the xySODQH:LWKVXLWDEOHK\SRWKHVHVRQf and g, the
surface integral is

2
³³ f x, y , z dS ³³ f x, y , g x, y
2
1  g x  g y dA.
S R
Glossary

210
theorem of Pappus: If a region is rotated about the y-axis, then the volume of the resulting solid of revolution
is V 2S xA. See Calculus II, Lesson 9.

torus$VXUIDFHRUVROLGVKDSHGOLNHDWLUHRUGRXJKQXWDQGIRUPHGE\UHYROYLQJWKHUHJLRQERXQGHGE\WKH
circle x2 + y2 = r2 about the line x R r  R . See Calculus II, Lesson 31.

WRWDOGLIIHUHQWLDOͼ௘௘ͽ: 6LPLODUWRWKHWDQJHQWOLQHDSSUR[LPDWLRQWRDFXUYHLQHOHPHQWDU\FDOFXOXVWKHWRWDO
differential is a tangent plane approximation to a surface. The total differential of z is the expression

dz wz dx  wz dy f x x , y dx  f y x , y dy.
wx wy

WUDFHͼ௘௘ͽ: The intersection of a surface with a plane—for example, the intersection with one of the three
coordinate planes. The trace of a surface is a curve in space, unlike a level curveZKLFKLVDFXUYHRQO\LQ
the xy-plane.

trigonometric functions7KHULJKWWULDQJOHGH¿QLWLRQRIWKHWULJRQRPHWULFIXQFWLRQVXVHVWKHIROORZLQJ
right triangle.

sin T a.
c c
b. a
cos T
c T
tan T sin T a. b
cos T b

)RUDSRLQWͼ௘x, y௘ͽ on the unit circle x2 + y2 WKHXQLWFLUFOHGH¿QLWLRQRIWKHWULJRQRPHWULFIXQFWLRQVLV

sin T y
sin T y , cos T x , tan T
cos T x

csc T 1 , sec T 1 , cot T 1 x.


sin T cos T tan T y

These are reviewed in Calculus II, Lesson 1.

211
trigonometric identities: Trigonometric identities are trigonometric equations that are valid for all values
RIWKHYDULDEOHͼ௘W \SLFDOO\x or ș௘ͽDQGRIIHUDQLPSRUWDQWWHFKQLTXHIRUVLPSOLI\LQJGLIIHUHQWLDWLRQDQG
integration problems. These are presented in Calculus II, Lesson 2. In addition to those described under
trigonometric functions, some of the most useful are as follows.

sin 2 x  cos 2 x 1.

tan 2 x  sec 2 x 1.

cos 2 x cos 2 x  sin 2 x.

sin 2 x 2sin x cos x.

cos 2 x 1  cos 2 x .
2

sin 2 x 1  cos 2 x .
2

trigonometric substitution: A technique for converting integrands to trigonometric integrals. See Calculus II,
Lesson 12.

WULSOHLQWHJUDOͼ௘௘ͽ: 7KHGH¿QLWLRQLVVLPLODUWRWKHGH¿QLWLRQRIGRXEOHLQWHJUDO
n

³³³ f x, y , z dV
Q
lim
' o0
¦ f x , y , z 'V .
i 1
i i i i

There are six orders of integration for triple integrals in Cartesian coordinates:

dz dy dx, dz dx dy, dy dz dx, dy dx dz, dx dy dz, dx dz dy.

WULSOHVFDODUSURGXFWͼ௘௘ͽ: Using three vectors, we take the dot product of one vector with the cross product of
WZRRWKHUYHFWRUV&DQEHXVHGWR¿QGWKHYROXPHRIDSDUDOOHOHSLSHGGH¿QHGE\WKUHHYHFWRUVWKDWGRQRW
lie in the same plane.

u1 u2 u3
u < v u w v1 v2 v3 .
w1 w2 w3

rc t
XQLWWDQJHQWYHFWRUͼ௘௘ͽ: A unit vector pointing in the direction of motion is T t
Glossary

, where r is a
rc t
YHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQͼ௘position vector௘ͽ.

212
YHFWRUͼ௘௘ͽ: )RUTXDQWLWLHVWKDWKDYHERWKPDJQLWXGHDQGGLUHFWLRQVXFKDVYHORFLW\DFFHOHUDWLRQDQG
IRUFH&RQWUDVWHGZLWKVFDODUVZKLFKKDYHRQO\PDJQLWXGHVXFKDVVSHHGPDVVYROXPHDQGWLPH
8VXDOO\DSSHDULQORZHUFDVHEROGOHWWHUV

YHFWRU¿HOGͼ௘௘ͽ: $YHFWRU¿HOGDVVLJQVDYHFWRUWRHDFKSRLQWLQVSDFH$YHFWRU¿HOGLVconservative if there


exists a differentiable function fͼ௘called the potential௘ͽVXFKWKDW F ’f . The gradient of a function is a
YHFWRU¿HOG$URWDWLRQYHFWRU¿HOGis of the form F x , y  yi  xj ; aUDGLDOYHFWRU¿HOGis of the form
F x , y xi  yj .

YHFWRUYDOXHGIXQFWLRQVͼ௘௘ͽ)XQFWLRQVWKDWLQSXWDVFDODUWRJHWDYHFWRU0RUHSUHFLVHO\IXQFWLRQVWKDWXVH
YHFWRUVLQVWHDGRIDOJHEUDLFYDULDEOHVWRGH¿QHWKHLURXWSXWVXVXDOO\RIWKHIRUPU௘ͼ௘t௘ͽ = f ͼ௘t௘ͽL + J࣠ͼ௘t௘ͽM + K࣠ͼ௘t௘ͽN,
or the more compact form, r t f t , g t , h t , where f and g and h are the component functions and
t is the input parameter. See Calculus II, Lessons 33.

YHORFLW\ͼ௘௘ͽ: The GHULYDWLYHRIWKHSRVLWLRQIXQFWLRQ7KHYHORFLW\YHFWRULVWDQJHQWWRWKHSDWKRIDSDUWLFOH


DQGSRLQWVLQWKHGLUHFWLRQRIPRWLRQ7KHPDJQLWXGHRIWKHYHORFLW\ͼ௘a scalar௘ͽ is the speed. See particle
motion. See Calculus II, Lessons 34.

YROXPHͼ௘௘ͽ: 7KHGRXEOHLQWHJUDORIDQRQQHJDWLYHIXQFWLRQGH¿QHGRQDFORVHGDQGERXQGHGUHJLRQLQ
the plane.

ZRUNͼ௘௘ͽ: Force times distance: W F < D. ,QRQHGLPHQVLRQLIWKHIRUFHLVYDULDEOHJLYHQE\f ͼ௘x௘ͽ, then


b
the work WGRQHE\PRYLQJWKHREMHFWIURPx = a to x = b is W ³ F x dx. In multivariable calculus,
a
W ³ F < dr. See Calculus II, Lessons 8.
C

213
Summary of Differentiation Formulas

 Constant multiple rule: d > cu @ cu c


dx

d
 Sum or difference rule: >u r v @ uc r vc
dx

 3URGXFWUXOH d >uv @ uvc  vu c


dx

 Quotient rule: d ª« u »º vu c  uvc .


dx ¬ v ¼ v2

 Constant rule: d > c @ 0.


dx

dw ww dx ww dy
 Chain rule: d ª¬ f u º¼ f c u u c one generalization of which is  .
dx dt wx dt wy dt

 General power rule: d ª¬u n º¼ nu n 1u 


dx

d x 1.

dx
> @

d ªe x º ex .

dx ¬ ¼

 d ª¬e x º¼ e x .
dx
Summary of Differentiation Formulas

 d > log a x @ 1 .


dx ln a x

 d ª¬ a x º¼ ln a a x .
dx

 d >sin x @ cos x.


dx

214
 ௘ d > cos x @  sin x.
dx

 ௘ d > tan x @ sec 2 x.


dx

 ௘ d > cot x @  csc 2 x.


dx

 ௘ d >sec x @ sec x tan x.


dx

 ௘ d > csc x @  csc x cot x.


dx

 ௘ d > arcsin x @ 1 .


dx 1 x2

 ௘ d > arctan x @ 1 .


dx 1 x2

 ௘ d > arc sec x @ 1 .


dx x x2 1

 Derivative of the cross product: d >r u u @ r u uc  r c u u.


dt

215
Summary of Integration Formulas

 ³ kf x dx k ³ f x dx.

 ³ ª¬ f x r g x º¼ dx ³ f x dx r ³ g x dx.

 ³ d x x  C.

 3RZHUUXOHIRULQWHJUDWLRQ ³ x n dx x n 1  C , for n z 1.


n 1

 Log rule for integration: e x dx e x  C.


³

 x
³ e dx e x  C.

 x § 1 ·a x  C.
³ a dx ¨ ¸
© ln a ¹

 ³ sin x dx  cos x  C.

 ³ cos x dx sin x  C.

 ³ tan x dx  ln cos x  C.


Summary of Integration Formulas

 ³ cot x dx ln sin x  C.

 ³ sec x dx ln sec x  tan x  C.

 ³ csc x dx  ln csc x  cot x  C.

216
 ௘ ³ sec 2 x dx tan x  C.

 ௘ ³ csc 2 x dx  cot x  C.

 ௘ ³ sec x tan x dx sec x  C.

 ௘ ³ csc x cot x dx  csc x  C.

 ௘ ³ dx arcsin x  C .
a2  x2 a

 ௘ ³ dx 1 arctan x  C .
a2  x2 a a

 ௘ ³ dx 1 arc sec x  C .


x x2  a2 a a

217
Quadric Surfaces

4XDGULFVXUIDFHVͼdiscussed in Lesson 12௘ͽDUHWKHWKUHHGLPHQVLRQDODQDORJVRIFRQLFVHFWLRQVͼcircle, ellipse,


SDUDERODK\SHUEROD௘ͽ. Their general equation is Ax 2  By 2  Cz 2  Dxy  Exz  Fyz  Gx  Hy  Iz  J 0.

1RWLFHWKDWWKHVTXDUHGWHUPVGHWHUPLQHWKHRYHUDOOVKDSHIRUHDFKTXDGULFVXUIDFH$Q\FURVVPXOWLSOLHG
WHUPVͼsuch as xy, xz, or yz௘ͽDVZHOODVOLQHDUWHUPVDQGFRQVWDQWVPHUHO\WLOWRUVKLIWWKHSRVLWLRQRIWKH
overall shape.

z
x 2y 2
z 2
ellipsoid: 2
+ 2 + 2 = 1.
a b c

All three squared terms are positive.

Is a sphere when a = b = c.
y

Traces are all ellipses.


x

x2 y2 z 2
K\SHUERORLGRIRQHVKHHW   1.
a2 b2 c2

2QO\RQHRIWKHWKUHHVTXDUHGWHUPVLVQHJDWLYH
z
7UDFHVSDUDOOHOWRWKHWZRSRVLWLYHWHUPVͼxy௘ͽ are ellipses;
WUDFHVSDUDOOHOWRWKHSODQHRIWKHQHJDWLYHWHUPͼxz and yz௘ͽ
DUHK\SHUERODV

Other orientations are


y
x2 y2 z 2
  1
a2 b2 c2
x
and

x2 y2 z 2
   1.
a2 b2 c2
Quadric Surfaces

218
x2 y2 z 2 z 2 x2 y2
K\SHUERORLGRIWZRVKHHWV    1   .
a2 b2 c2 c2 a2 b2

Two of the three squared terms are negative.


z
Traces parallel to the plane of one negative term
ͼxz or yz௘ͽDUHK\SHUERODVIRUWKHSODLQZLWKERWKVTXDUHG
terms negative, there is no trace plane.

Other orientations are


y
x2 y2 z 2
  1
a2 b2 c2
x
and

x2 y2 z 2
   1.
a2 b2 c2

x2 y2 z 2
elliptic cone:   0.
a2 b2 c2

$GRXEOHFRQHVLPLODUWRK\SHUERORLGRIRQHVKHHW
H[FHSWWKHWZRHOOLSWLFFRQHVWRXFKRQO\DWDVLQJOHSRLQW z

2QO\RQHRIWKHWKUHHVTXDUHGWHUPVLVQHJDWLYH

Traces parallel to the plane of the two positive terms


DUHHOOLSVHVRWKHUVDUHK\SHUERODV
y
Other orientations are
x
x2 y2 z 2
  0
a2 b2 c2

and

x2 y2 z 2
   0.
a2 b2 c2

219
x2 y2
elliptic paraboloid:  z.
a2 b2 z

Two positive squared terms set equal to a linear third term.

$F\OLQGHUFUHDWHGE\URWDWLQJDSDUDERODZKHQa = b = 1.

Traces are ellipses in planes parallel to the squared terms


y
ͼx2, y2௘ͽ; traces are parabolas in planes parallel to the plane
RIWKHWHUPWKDWLVQRWVTXDUHGͼz௘ͽ.
x

x2 y2
K\SHUEROLFSDUDERORLG  z.
a2 b2

6\PPHWULFDOVDGGOHVKDSHZKHQa = b = 1.
z
One positive squared term and one negative squared
term set equal to a linear third term.

Traces are parabolas in the plane parallel to the


VTXDUHGWHUPVͼx2, y2௘ͽWUDFHVDUHK\SHUERODVLQSODQHV
SDUDOOHOWRWKHSODQHRIWKHWHUPWKDWLVQRWVTXDUHGͼz௘ͽ. y

An alternative orientation is
x
y2 x2
 z.
b2 a2
Quadric Surfaces

220
Bibliography

Fleisch, Daniel. A Student’s Guide to Maxwell’s Equations&DPEULGJH&DPEULGJH8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV


$FOHDUDQGWKRURXJKGLVFXVVLRQRIWKHLQWHJUDODQGGLIIHUHQWLDOIRUPVRI0D[ZHOO¶VIDPRXVHTXDWLRQVRI
electromagnetism—an interesting supplement at the conclusion of this course. Includes a few worked problems
for each equation, plus a free website providing hints and solutions to several dozen more problems.

Larson, Ron, and Bruce H. Edwards. Calculus. 10th ed. Florence, KY: Brooks/Cole, 2014. This text covers an
entire three-semester calculus sequence.

———. Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions. 6th ed. Florence, KY: Brooks/Cole, 2015. This text
offers a different approach to the exponential and logarithmic functions, presenting them in the beginning of
the textbook.

Larson, Ron, and Bruce H. Edwards. Multivariable Calculus. 10th ed. Florence, KY: Brooks/Cole, 2014.
&RQWDLQVWKHFKDSWHUVDERXWPXOWLYDULDEOHFDOFXOXVͼChapters 10–14௘ͽIURPWKHIXOOWKUHHVHPHVWHUWH[WERRNE\
the same authors, Calculus, 10th edition.

———. Precalculus Functions and Graphs: A Graphing Approach. 5thHG%RVWRQ+RXJKWRQ0LIÀLQ


$QH[FHOOHQWVRXUFHIRUSUHFDOFXOXVDOJHEUDDQGWULJRQRPHWU\

3HQURVH5RJHUThe Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. New York: Vintage, 2007.
6RPHRQHFRPSOHWLQJWKLVFRXUVHZLWKDQLQWHUHVWLQWKHRUHWLFDOSK\VLFVPLJKWHQMR\UHDGLQJ&KDSWHUͼ“Real-
Number Calculus”௘ͽRU&KDSWHUͼ“Surfaces”௘ͽRIWKLVHQF\FORSHGLFDWWHPSWWRVXUYH\DOOPDWKHPDWLFVRI
LPSRUWDQFHIRUFRQWHPSRUDU\SK\VLFV

Saxon, John H., Jr., and Frank Y. H. Wang. Calculus with Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry. 2nd ed. Edited
E\%UHW/&URFNDQG-DPHV$6HOOHUV:LOPLQJWRQ0$6D[RQ3XEOLVKHUV7KLVLVDQRWKHUJRRGFKRLFH
DPRQJFDOFXOXVWH[WVDQGLVHGLWHGE\-DPHV$6HOOHUVZKRSURGXFHGAlgebra I, Algebra II, and Mastering the
Fundamentals of Mathematics with The Great Courses.

Simmons, George. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. 2ndHG1HZ<RUN0F*UDZ+LOO$VRPHZKDW


different approach to the three-semester calculus sequence.

Internet Resource

Wolfram|Alpha. www.wolframalpha.com. From the makers of Mathematicaͼthe software used to create


PDQ\RIWKHJUDSKLFVIRXQGLQWKHYLGHROHVVRQVIRUWKLVFRXUVH௘ͽWKLVIUHHZHEVLWHFDQVROYHPDQ\TXHVWLRQV
WKDWPLJKWDULVHGXULQJWKLVFRXUVH7KHZHEVLWHJLYHVWKHGHULYDWLYHLQWHJUDODQGJUDSKIRUDZLGHYDULHW\
of functions.

221