Anda di halaman 1dari 41

VMWARE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS -

NETWORKING

By Haareshh

What is Service Console?

The service console is developed based up on Redhat Linux Operating system, it is used to manage the VMKernel

What are the basic commands to troubleshoot connectivity between vSphere Client /vCenter to ESX server?

VMWare Kernel is a Proprietary kernel of vmwareand is not based on any of the flavors of Linux operating systems,
.VMkernel requires an operating system to boot and manage the kernel. A service console is being provided when
VMWare kernel is booted. Only service console is based up on Red hat Linux OS not VMkernel.

What is the use of Service Console port ?

Service console port group required to manage the ESX server and it acts as the management network for the
ESX.Vcenter/Vsphere Client uses the service console IP's to communicate with the ESX server.

What is the use of VMKernel Port ?

Vmkernel port is used by ESX/ESXi for vmotion, ISCSI & NFS communications. ESXi uses Vmkernel as the
management network since it don't have service console built with it.

What is the use of Virtual Machine Port Group?

Virtual Machine port group is used by Virtual machine communication.

How Virtual Machine communicates to another servers in Network ?

All the Virtual Machines which are configured in VM Port Group are able to connect to the other machines on the
network. So this port group enables communication between vSwitch and Physical Switch by the use of uplink
(Physical NIC) associated with the port group.

What is the default number of ports configured with the Virtual Switch?

When the time of Virtual switch created, Vswitch is created with 56 ports by default. We can extend the no of ports by
editing the vswitch properties.

What are the different types of Partitions in ESX server?

/ -root
Swap
/var
/Var/core
/opt
/home
/tmp

What are the security options available for ESX vswitch?

Promiscuous Mode - Reject


MAC Address changes - Accept
Forged Transmits - Accept

What is Promiscuous Mode ?

If the promiscuous mode set to Accept, all the communication is visible to all the virtual machines, in other words all
the packets are sent to all the ports on vSwitch. It can be useful when you are running virtual machines with network
sniffers to capture packet in that network.

What is MAC Address changes?

All the virtual machines nics are provide with the MAC address at the time of creation and it is stored in .VMX file. If
the packet doesn't match with the MAC address as same as in the .VMX file , it does not allow incoming traffic to the
VM by setting this option as reject.

If it is set as Accept,ESX accepts requests to change the effective MAC address to other than the MAC address save
din the .VMX file.

What is Forged Transmits ?

Which is same as the Mac Address changes setting but it worked for the outgoing traffic but the MAC address
changes setting is for incoming traffic.

What is a VLAN ?

A VLAN is the Virtual LAN which is used to broke down the Broadcast traffic into many logical groups. Basically, one
physical switch comprise of one broadcast domain. VLAN used to separate the one broadcast domain into many
small pieces to separate the networks within the broadcast domain.

What are the types of VLAN tagging in Vsphere?

There are 3 types of VLAN tagging available in Vsphere.

1.Virtual Switch Tagging (VST)


2.External Switch Tagging (EST)
3.Virtual Guest Tagging (VGT)

What is VST , EST & VGT?

Please refer my blog post on VST , EST & VGT .

What are the Traffic Shaping policies available in the Vswitch?

Traffic shaping policies are disabled by default. There are 3 different traffic shaping policy setting

Average Bandwidth
Peak Bandwidth
Burst Size

Average Bandwidth is defined in KBPS


Peak bandwidth is defined in KBPS
Burst Size is defined in Kilobytes
What are the Load balancing policies available in vswitch?

Route based on the originating virtual switch port ID


Route based on source MAC hash
Route based on IP hash

Route based on the originating virtual switch port ID - Chooses an uplink based on the virtual port where the
traffic entered the virtual switch. The traffic will be always send with that same uplink until that particular uplink is
failed and failed over to another NIC.

Route based on source MAC hash - Choose an uplink based on a hash of the source Ethernet MAC address.The
traffic will be always send with that same uplink until that particular uplink is failed and failed over to another NIC.

Route based on IP hash - Choose an uplink based on a hash of the source and destination IP addresses of each
packet.

What are the types for Network Failover Detection settings?

Link Status only


Beacon Probing

Link Status only - Relies solely on the link status provided by the network adapter. This detects failures, such as
cable pulls and physical switch power failures, but it cannot detect configuration errors, such as a physical switch port
being blocked by spanning tree or misconfigured to the wrong VLAN or cable pulls on the other side of a physical
switch.

Beacon Probing - Sends out and listens for beacon probes — Ethernet broadcast frames sent by physical adapters
to detect upstream network connection failures — on all physical Ethernet adapters in the team. In addition to link
status, to determine link failure. This detects many of the failures which are not detected by Link Status.
What is the command to check the IP address along with the detailed network cards assigned to the esx
server?

Ifconfig -a

Output appears like this


========================================================================

lo Link encap:Local Loopback


inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:9365 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:9365 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:8127714 (7.7 MiB) TX bytes:8127714 (7.7 MiB)

vmnic0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:76


UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:100772 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:5103 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:35475848 (33.8 MiB) TX bytes:402120 (392.6 KiB)
Interrupt:145

vmnic1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:80


UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:105895 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:35894203 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
Interrupt:129

vmnic2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:8A


UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:105908 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:35895750 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)
Interrupt:137

vmnic3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:94


UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:105690 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:228 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:35883279 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:13680 (13.3 KiB)
Interrupt:145

vswif0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:4D:69:D1


inet addr:192.168.0.75 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:14893 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:2575 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:966513 (943.8 KiB) TX bytes:230028 (224.6 KiB)

vswif1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:4F:45:B1


BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:11042 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:30 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:717158 (700.3 KiB) TX bytes:1260 (1.2 KiB)

=========================================================================

You can use "ip addr" command also to view the ip information

=========================================================================

[root@ESXTEST1 etc]# ip addr


1: lo: mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
2: vmnic0: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:76 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
3: vmnic1: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:80 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
4: vmnic2: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:8a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
5: vmnic3: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000
link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:94 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
6: vswif0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000
link/ether 00:50:56:4d:69:d1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.0.75/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global vswif0
7: vswif1: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000
link/ether 00:50:56:4f:45:b1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
9: vswif2: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000
link/ether 00:50:56:43:92:be brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.0.96/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global vswif2

=========================================================================

what is the command to check the ESX vswitch details, port group and its ip address?

Esxcfg-vswitch -l
Outuput will appear like this:
=========================================================================
[root@ESXTEST1 ~]# esxcfg-vswitch -l
Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks
vSwitch0 32 4 32 1500 vmnic0

PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks


Service Console 0 1 vmnic0
VMkernel 0 1 vmnic0

Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks
vSwitch1 64 3 64 1500 vmnic2,vmnic1

PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks


VM-10.0.0 subnet 0 0 vmnic2,vmnic1
VM-192.168.0 subnet 0 0 vmnic2,vmnic1

Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks
vSwitch2 64 4 64 1500 vmnic3

PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks


Service Console 2 0 1 vmnic3
Vmotion 0 1 vmnic3
=========================================================================
From the above output,
we come to know that we have 3 virtual switches named vSwitch0,vSwitch1 and vSwitch2.
4 uplinks (physical nics in our esx server) Vmnic0,vmnic1,vmnic2,vmnic3.
vswitch0 constains 2 port group (Service Console & VMKernel), vSwitch1 contains 2 virtual machine port group (VM-
10.0.0 subnet & VM-192.168.0 subnet) and Vswitch2 contains 2 port group (Service Console 2 & Vmotion) port
group.
What is command to get the information about Service console ports and its IP address assigned to it?

esxcfg-vswif -l

Output will appear like this:

=========================================================================
[root@ESXTEST1 ~]# esxcfg-vswif -l
Name Port Group/DVPort IP Family IP
Address Netmask Broadcast Enabled TYPE
vswif0 Service
Console IPv4 192.168.0.75 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 true STATIC
vswif1 Service Console
2 IPv4 192.168.0.78 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 false STATIC
=========================================================================

what is the command to get the information about vmkernel ports and its ip address?
esxcfg-vmknic -l

Output will appear like this:

=========================================================================
[root@ESXTEST1 ~]# esxcfg-vmknic -l
Interface Port Group/DVPort IP Family IP Address Netmask Broadcast MAC
Address MTU TSO MSS Enabled Type
vmk0 VMkernel IPv4 192.168.0.110 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:78:7e:73
1500 65535 true STATIC
vmk1 Vmotion IPv4 192.168.0.77 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:76:42:df
1500 65535 true S
=========================================================================

what is the command to get the information about physical nics installed on ESX server?
esxcfg-vmknic -l

Output will appear like this:


=========================================================================
[root@ESXTEST1 sbin]# esxcfg-nics -l
Name PCI Driver Link Speed Duplex MAC Address MTU Description
vmnic0 02:00.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:76 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit
Ethernet Controller (Copper)
vmnic1 02:02.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:80 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit
Ethernet Controller (Copper)
vmnic2 02:03.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:8a 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit
Ethernet Controller (Copper)
vmnic3 02:04.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:94 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit
Ethernet Controller (Copper)
========================================================================

What is command to add the new virtual switch named (vswitch3) to our ESX server?

[root@ESXTEST1 sbin]# esxcfg-vswitch -a vswitch3

Now vswitch3 is created without any port group.

======================================================================

Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks
vswitch3 64 1 64 1500

PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks


========================================================================

What is command to add the new port group named (mgmt)to vswitch (vswitch 3) ?

[root@ESXTEST1 sbin]# esxcfg-vswitch -A mgmt vswitch3

now port group "mgmt" is added.

=========================================================================
Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks
vswitch3 64 1 64 1500

PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks


mgmt 0 0
=========================================================================

How to add the service console port (vswif2) to our newly created port group "mgmt" with the ip addr
192.168.0.79 ?

[root@ESXTEST1 sbin]# esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -i 192.168.0.79 -n 255.255.255.0 -p "mgmt"


where i is the ip address, n is subnet mask p is to mentione the port group name
=========================================================================
vswif2 mgmt IPv4 192.168.0.79 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 true
STATIC
=========================================================================

How to add the vmkernal port (vmk2) to our newly created port group "mgmt" with the ip addr 192.168.0.83?

[root@ESXTEST1 sbin]# esxcfg-vmknic -a -i 192.168.0.83 -n 255.255.255.0 -p "mgmt"

=========================================================================
vmk2 mgmt IPv4 192.168.0.83 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:7b:bd:36
1500 65535 true STATIC
=========================================================================

How to change the ip addresss of the existing service console "vswif2"?


nano /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-vswif2.

Edit the file with your new id address " 192.168.0.255" then save and exit.
======================================================
DEVICE=vswif2
HOTPLUG=yes
MACADDR=00:50:56:43:92:be
ONBOOT=yes
PORTGROUP=mgmt
BOOTPROTO=static
BROADCAST=192.168.0.255
DHCPV6C=no
IPADDR=192.168.0.96
IPV6INIT=no
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
======================================================
restart the network service for ip change to take effect:

[root@ESXTEST1 sysconfig]# service network restart


Shutting down interface vswif0: [ OK ]
Shutting down interface vswif2: [ OK ]
Shutting down loopback interface: [ OK ]
Bringing up loopback interface: [ OK ]
Bringing up interface vswif0: [ OK ]
Another way is to connect to the console of the ESX server and at the shell prompt type in :esxcfg-vswif -d vswif2

This will delete the existing vswif0 and it will give the message about "nothing to flush".

then type the below command

esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -p mgmt -i 192.168.0.97 -n 255.255.255.0


=========================================================================
[root@ESXTEST1 etc]# esxcfg-vswif -d vswif2
Nothing to flush.
[root@ESXTEST1 etc]# esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -p mgmt -i 192.168.0.97 -n 255.255.255.0
[2011-09-17 19:35:46 'Vnic' warning] Generated New MAC address, 00:50:56:43:92:be for vswif2
Nothing to flush.
=========================================================================

How to change the ESX host name and default gateway?

edit the below file:

nano /etc/sysconfig/network
======================================
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=ESXTEST1.lab.com
GATEWAY=192.168.0.20
GATEWAYDEV=vswif0
IPV6_AUTOCONF=no
NETWORKING_IPV6=no
======================================
restart the network service for ip change to take effect:

[root@ESXTEST1 sysconfig]# service network restart

How to edit the ESX host file ?

nano /etc/hosts

Edit the file to make entry to your host file.


==========================================
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost
192.168.0.75 ESXTEST1.lab.com ESXTEST1
==========================================

How to edit the DNS entry of your ESX server?

nano /etc/resolv.conf

Edit the file to make changes or to make new entry of dns for your ESX server
========================
name server 192.168.0.20
search lab.com
=======================

what is the command to query the firewall ports ?

esxcfg-firewall - q

How to open the port in firewall (port no 8877, tcp, incoming , name: test3 ?

esxcfg-firewall -o 8877,tcp,in,test3

If you are looking for more VMware interview questions Please click I

Keep reading for More Interview questions and answers !!!!


You might also like:

ESXi5 Command Line Reference - Networking Part1

ESX Server Networks!!!! Networks!!!!! Networks!!!!!! in ...

ESXi5 Command Line Reference - Netw

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESX 3.5 AND ESX 4.0


13:30 MOHAMMED RAFFIC
Here is the Post with the Difference between ESX 3.5 & ESX 4. I believe this would be the one of the definite
questions in interview. Will working towards to bring the differences between all editions of ESX version.

If you looking for Difference between vSphere 4.1 and vSphere 5. Please refer my blogpost on "Difference between
vSphere 4.1 and vSphere 5"
-->
Features ESX 3.5 ESX 4
Linked Mode Supportis introduced in
Linked Mode No Linked Mode Support vSphere 4.0
Host Profiles is Introduced in
Host Profiles No Host Profiles vSphere 4.0
Require dedicated License License can be managed within
Centralized License server vCenter server
Performance chart Yes Lot More enhancements
Events and Alarms Yes Lot More enhancements
Fault tolerance Not Available Available from vSphere 4.0
SVMotion available only with
Storage VMotion CLI SVMotion available in GUI
VMotion Yes Yes
Virtual CPUs per host 192 512
Virtual Machines per host 170 320
Logical processors per host 32 64
RAM per host 256 GB 1 TB
Maximum Service console
Memory 800 MB 800 MB
DRS Yes Yes
Backup using VCB (VMware VMware Data Recovery and VCB
VMware Data Recovery Consolidated backup) support
Enhanced VMotion
Compatibility (EVC) No EVC EVC is introduced in vSphere 4.0
Admission Control is improved to
VMware HA Admission Yes but without options to provide more flexible configuration
Control reserve failover capacity options to reserve failover capacity.
High Availability Clustering
with Windows Server 2000,
2003, 2008 Not Available Available in vSphere 4.0
Available to support MSCS on win
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) Not Available 2008
Hosts per storage volume 32 64
Fiber Channel paths to LUN 32 16
NFS Datastores 32 64
Hardware iSCSI initiators
per host 2 4
Virtual Machine Hot Add
Support NO Yes
Number of virtual CPUs
per virtual machine 4 8
Virtual Hardware version 4 7
RAM per virtual machine 64 GB 255 GB
virtual machine swap file
Size 65532MB 255GB
VMDirectPath for Virtual
Machines NO Yes
Vmkernel 32 Bit 64 bit
Service Console 32 Bit 64 bit
Concurrent remote console
sessions 10 40
Virtual Disk Thin Thin Provisioning introduced in
Provisioning No Thin Provisioning vSphere 4.0
High-performance storage adapters
that offer greater throughput and
VMware Paravirtualized lower CPU utilization for virtual
SCSI (PVSCSI Not available machines
Only Via VCLI using
Hot Extend for Virtual Disks vmkfstools Available via GUI
Hot plug support for virtual
devices No Yes
VMXNET Generation 3 Not Available Yes

Available from vSphere with


vNetwork Distributed Switch Not Available Enterprise Plus License
Private VLAN Support Not Available Available with DVSwitch
Network Vmotion Not Available Available with DVSwitch
3rd Party Distributed Switch We can use Cisco Nexus 1000v with
Support Not Available DVSwitch
IPv6 Support Yes Yes
NICs per VM 4 10
Standard vSwitches per host 127 248
Virtual NICs per standard
vSwitch 1016 4088
8 way SMP No Only 4 way Yes
Update Manager Yes Yes
Fully supported with PMI and iLO
DPM Experimental Remote Power On
VMware Infrastructure
Foundation VMware vSphere Essentials vSphere
Infrastructure Standard Essentials Plus vSphere Standard
VMware Infrastructure vSphere Advanced vSphere
License Types Enterprise Enterprise vSphere Enterprise Plus
Posted in: Comparisions and Differences, ESX Version Comparisions, Interview questions

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VSPHERE 4.1 AND VSPHERE 5


I am getting lot of request from email to post the difference between the vSphere 4.0 and vSphere 5.0. Here the post
for the requests and I believe this could be the definite questions in interviews and this post helps you to just quickly
review the difference between the features of this 2 vSphere Releases.

If you are looking for Difference between ESX 3.5 and ESX 4.0. Please refer my Blogpost "Difference between ESX
3.5 and ESX 4.0"

Features vSphere 4.1 vSphere 5.0


Hypervisor ESX & ESXi Only ESXi
VMA Yes VMA 4.1 Yes VMA 5
AAM
Automatic Availability FDM
HA Agent Manager Fault Domain Manager
HA Host Approach Primary & Secondary Master & Slave
Management N/W and Storage
HA Failure Detection Management N/W communication
HA Log File /etc/opt/vmware/AAM /etc/opt/vmware/FDM
DNS Dependent on DNS Yes NO
boot systems from hard drives,
Host UEFI boot support NO CD/DVD drives, or USB media
Storage DRS Not Available Yes
VM Affinity & Anti-
Affinity Available Available
VMDK Affinity & Anti-
Affinity Not Available Available
Profile driven storage Not Available Available
VMFS version VMFS-3 VMFS-5
VSphere Storage Appliance Not Available Available
Configure dependent
hardware iSCSI and software
iSCSI adapters along with the
network configurations and
Can be only done via Cli port binding in a single dialog
Iscsi Port Binding using ESXCLI box using the vSphere Client.
Storage I/O control for
NFS Fiber Channel Fiber Channel & NFS
VM with Snapshot cannot
Storage Vmotion Snapshot be migrated using Storage VM with Snapshot can be
support vMotion migrated using Storage vMotion
Swap to SSD NO Yes
Network I/O control Yes Yes with enhancement
ESXi firewall Not Available Yes
vCenter Linux Support Not Available vCenter Virtual Appliance
vSphere Full Client Yes Yes
vSphere Web Client Yes yes with lot of improvements
VM Hardware Version 7 8
Virtual CPU per VM 8 vCpu 32 vCpu
Virtual Machine RAM 255 GB 1 TB of vRAM
VM Swapfile size 255 GB 1 TB
Support for Client
connected USB Not Available Yes
Non Hardware Accelerated
3D grpahics support Not Available Yes
UEFI Virtual BIOS Not Available Yes
VMware Tools Version 4.1 5
Mutlicore vCpu Not Available Yes configure at VM setting
MAC OS Guest Support Not Available Apple Mac OS X Server 10.6
Smart card reader support
for VM Not Available Yes
Auto Deploy Not Available Yes
Image Builder Not Available Yes
VM's per host 320 512
Max Logical Cpu per Host 160 160
RAM per Host 1 TB 2 TB
MAX RAM for Service
Console 800 MB Not Applicable (NO SC)
LUNS per Server 256 256
Round-trip latencies of up to
Round-trip latencies of up 10 milliseconds. This provides
to better performance over
Metro Vmotion 5 milliseconds. long latency networks
Moving VM Files using Moving VM Files using I/O
moving to using dirty block mirroring with better
Storage Vmotion tracking enhancements
Yes with more enhancements
like deeper view into virtual
machine traffic through Netflow
and enhances monitoring and
troubleshooting capabilities
Virtual Distributed Switch Yes through SPAN and LLDP
USB 3.0 Support NO Yes
Host Per vCenter 1000 1000
Powered on virtual
machines
per vCenter Server 10000 10000
Vmkernel 64-bit 64-bit
Service Console 64-bit Not Applicable (NO SC)

vSphere Essentials
vSphere Essentials Plus vSphere Essentials
vSphere Standard vSphere Essentials Plus
vSphere Advanced vSphere Standard
vSphere Enterprise vSphere Enterprise
Licensing vSphere Enterprise Plus vSphere Enterprise Plus

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VMWARE ESX AND ESXI


21:08 MOHAMMED RAFFIC
It's been a long debate that everyone has been asked by what is the difference between ESX and ESXi. Most of the
admins would have asked this question during interviews and also asked by new learners of VMware virtualization. I
decided to post on the topic to give architectural difference always as to compare the different level capabilities
between ESX & ESXi.

What is VMware ESX ?

ESX (Elastic Sky X) is the VMware’s enterprise server virtualization platform. In ESX, VMkernel is the virtualization
kernel which is managed by a console operating system which is also called as Service console. Which is Linux
based and its main purpose is it to provide a Management interface for the host and lot of management agents and
other third party software agents are installed on the service console to provide the functionalists like hardware
management and monitoring of ESX
hypervisor.

What is VMware ESXi ?

ESXi (Elastic sky X Integrated) is also the VMware’s enterprise server virtualization platform. In ESXi, Service
console is removed. All the VMware related agents and third party agents such as management and monitoring
agents can also run directly on the VMkernel. ESXi is ultra-thin architecture which is highly reliable and its small
code-base allows it to be more secure with less codes to patch. ESXi uses Direct Console User Interface (DCUI)
instead of a service console to perform management of ESXi server. ESXi installation will happen very quickly as
compared to ESX installation.
Difference between ESX and ESXi

ESX 4.1 is the last version availability of ESX server. After vSphere 5, only ESXi is available. This comparison
based out of the VMware Article

Capability ESX ESXi


Service Console Present Removed

Troubleshooting performed via Service Console ESXi Shell

Active Director Authentication Enabled Enabled

Secure Syslog Not Supported Supported

Management Network Service Console Interface VMKernel Interface

Jumbo Frames Supported Supported

3 rd Party agents installed in


Hardware Montioring Via CIM Providers
Service console

Boot from SAN Supported in ESX Supported in ESXi

Needed as smilar to linux Few pacthes because of small footprint and more
Software patches and updates
operation system secure

vSphere web Access Only experimental Full managenet capability via vSPhere web client

Present . Lockdown mode prevents remote users to


Locked Down Mode Not present
login to the host

Scripted Installtion Supported Supported

vMA Support Yes Yes

Major Administration
esxcfg- esxcli
command-line Command

Rapid deployment via Auto


Not supported Supported
Deploy

Custom Image creation Not supported Supported

vMotion,Fault Management Network , vMotion, Fault Tolarance,


VMkernel Network Used for
Tolarance,Stoarge Connectivity Stoarge Connectivity, ISCSI port binding

You might also like:

VMWare interview questions and answers -Networking

ESXi5 Command Line Reference - Networking Part1


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VMFS 3 AND VMFS 5
This post explains you the major difference between VMFS 3 and VMFS 5. VMFS 5 is available as part of vSphere 5.
VMFS 5 is introduced with lot of performance enhancements. Newly installed ESXi 5 will be formatted with VMFS 5
version but if you have upgraded the ESX 4 or ESX 4.1 to ESXi 5, then datastore version will be VMFS 3 only. You
will able to upgrade the VMFS 3 to VMFS 5 via vSphere client once ESXi upgrade is Complete. This posts tells you
some major differences between VMFS 3 and VMFS 5

Capability VMFS 3 VMFS 5


Maximum single Extend
size 2 TB less 512 bytes 64 TB
GPT (GUID Partition
Partition Style MBR (Master Boot Record) style Table)
Available Block Size 1 MB/2MB/4MB/8MB only 1 MB
Maximum size of RDM
in
Virtual Compatibiltiy 2 TB less 512 bytes 2 TB less 512 bytes
Maximum size of RDM
in
Phsical Compatibiltiy 2 TB less 512 bytes 64 TB
Supported Hosts versions ESX/ESX 3.X, 4.X & 5.x Only ESXi 5 is supported
64 TB (32 extends with max 64 TB (32 extends with
Spanned Volume size size of extent is 2 TB) any size combination)
Latest Version. NO
upgarde
Upgrade path VMFS 3 to VMFS 5 available yet.
File Limit 30,000 100,000
Sub-Block size 64 KB 8 KB
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UPGRADED VMFS 5 AND NEWLY
CREATED VMFS 5
00:29 MOHAMMED RAFFIC

This post explains you the major difference between VMFS 5 datastore upgrade from VMFS 3 and newly created
VMFS 5 datastore. VMFS 5 is available as part of vSphere 5. VMFS 5 is introduced with lot of performance
enhancements. Newly installed ESXi 5 will be formatted with VMFS 5 version but if you have upgraded the ESX 4 or
ESX 4.1 to ESXi 5, then datastore version will be VMFS 3 only. You will able to upgrade the VMFS 3 to VMFS 5 via
vSphere client once ESXi upgrade is Complete. Even though the upgraded datastore will be with VMFS 5
version but there are many technical difference between upgraded VMFS 5 and newly created VMFS 5. This posts
tells you some major differences between upgraded VMFS 5 and newly created VMFS 5.

Capabilities Upgraded VMFS 5 Newly Created VMFS 5


Max datastore size 64 TB 64 TB
Maximum size of RDM in
Physical Compatibility 64 TB 64 TB
Continuous to use the previous
block size
which may be 1MB/2MB/4MB/8
Block Size MB only 1 MB block size
Sub-block size 64 KB sub-blocks 8 KB sub-blocks
File limit 30,000 100,000
Partition Style MBR (Master Boot Record) style GPT (GUID Partition Table)
partition starting on sector
Partition Sector partition starting on sector 128 2,048
Maximum size of RDM in
Virtual Compatibility 2 TB less 512 bytes 2 TB less 512 bytes
Max size of file 2 TB less 512 bytes 2 TB less 512 bytes

VMWARE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS :


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLONE AND TEMPLATE
I have been asked by many of my friends, colleagues and also during interviews "What is the difference between
Clone and Template?". Many times I was searching for the resource or content to answer the question raised by
others. So Now, I decided to put some posts on this topic which i have understood to help the people to answer this
particular question during their interviews.

Clone Template
Clone creates an exact copy of a running Template acts as a baseline image with
Virtual Machine at the time of cloning the predefined configuration as per
process organization standards
Cloning a virtual machine creates a exact Create a template to create a master
duplicate copy of the virtual machine with the image of a
same configuration and installed software virtual machine from which you can
without performing any additional settings. deploy multiple virtual machines
You can create a clone of existing installed You can create a template by converting a
and Configured running virtual machine by virtual machine
right clicking the VM and Clone. to a template, cloning a virtual machine
to a template, or cloning another
template
VM clones are best suited in test and Templates are best suited for production
development environments where you want environments where you want the mass
to create, test and work with exact copies of deployment of virtual machines along
production servers without disturbing with the installed OS and basic software,
production servers by creating clone of the configured policy as per the security
production virtual machine. policy of your organization as a base
Machine. Once template is deployed, you
can install software depend on the role of
the server like IIS,Database
VM Clones are not suited for mass Templates are best suited for Mass
deployment of Virtual Machines Deployment of Virtual
Machines
We Cannot Convert back the Cloned Machine You can convert the template back to
virtual machine to update the base
template with the latest released patches
and updates and to install or upgrade any
software and again convert back to
template to be used for deployment of
virtual machines with latest patches.

Cloned Virtual Machine Can be powered on Templates cannot be powered on

You cannot Clone a Virtual Machine if you You cannot create a template of a Virtual
have connected directly to ESX/ESXi host Machine if you have connected directly
using vSphere Client to ESX/ESXi host using vSphere Client

You can customize the guest operating You can also Customize the guest
system of the clone to change the virtual operating system while deploying from
machine name, network settings, and other template
properties. This prevents conflicts that can
occur if a virtual machine and a clone with
identical guest operating system settings are
deployed simultaneously.
Clone of a virtual machine can be created Convert virtual Machine to template
when the virtual machine is powered on cannot be performed, when Virtual
machine is powered on. Only Clone to
Template can be performed when VM is
powered on

VMWARE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS - HA (HIGH


AVAILABILITY)
23:03 MOHAMMED RAFFIC

What is VMware HA?

As per VMware Definition,


VMware® High Availability (HA) provides easy to use, cost effective high availability for applications running in virtual
machines. In the event of server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted on
other production servers with spare capacity

What is AAM in HA?

AAM is the Legato automated availability management. Prior to vSphere 4.1, VMware's HA is actually re engineered
to work with VM's with the help of Legato's Automated Availability Manager (AAM) software.
VMware's vCenter agent (vpxa) interfaces with the VMware HA agent which acts as an intermediary to the AAM
software. From vSphere 5.0, it uses an agent called ―FDM‖ (Fault Domain Manager).

What are pre-requites for HA to work?

1.Shared storage for the VMs running in HA cluster


2.Essentials plus, standard, Advanced, Enterprise and Enterprise Plus Licensing
3.Create VMHA enabled Cluster
4.Management network redundancy to avoid frequent isolation response in case of temporary network issues
(preferred not a requirement)

What is maximum number of primary HA hosts in vSphere 4.1?

Maximum number of primary HA host is 5. VMware HA cluster chooses the first 5 hosts that joins the cluster as
primary nodes and all others hosts are automatically selected as secondar nodes.

How to see the list of Primary nodes in HA cluster?

View the log file named "aam_config_util_listnodes.log" under /var/log/vmware/aam using the below command

cat /var/log/vmware/aam/aam_config_util_listnodes.log

What is the command to restart /Start/Stop HA agent in the ESX host?

service vmware-aam restart

service vmware-aam stop

service vmware-aam start

Where to located HA related logs in case of troubleshooting?

/Var/log/vmware/aam

What the basic troubleshooting steps in case of HA agent install failed on hosts in HA cluster?

Below steps are are taken from my blog posts Troubleshooting HA


1. Check for some network issues

2. Check the DNS is configured properly

3. Check the vmware HA agent status in ESX host by using below commands

service vmware-aam status

4. Check the networks are properly configured and named exactly as other hosts in the cluster. otherwise, you will
get the below errors while installing or reconfiguring HA agent.

5. Check HA related ports are open in firewall to allow for the communication

Incoming port: TCP/UDP 8042-8045


Outgoing port: TCP/UDP 2050-2250

6. First try to restart /stop/start the vmware HA agent on the affected host using the below commands. In
addition u can also try to restart vpxa and management agent in the Host.

service vmware-aam restart

service vmware-aam stop

service vmware-aam start

7. Right Click the affected host and click on "Reconfigure for VMWare HA" to re-install the HA agent that particular
host.

8. Remove the affected host from the cluster. Removing ESX host from the cluster will not be allowed untill that host
is put into maintenance mode.

9.Alternative solution for 3 step is, Goto cluster settings and uncheck the vmware HA in to turnoff the HA in that
cluster and re-enable the vmware HA to get the agent installed.

10. For further troubleshooting , review the HA logs under /Var/log/vmware/aam directory.

What is the maximum number of hosts per HA cluster?

Maximum number of hosts in the HA cluster is 32


What is Host Isolation?

VMware HA has a mechanism to detect a host is isolated from rest of hosts in the cluster. When the ESX host loses
its ability to exchange heartbeat via management network between the other hosts in the HA cluster, that ESX host
will be considered as a Isolated.

How Host Isolation is detected?

In HA cluster, ESX hosts uses heartbeats to communicate among other hosts in the cluster.By default, Heartbeat will
be sent every 1 second.

If a ESX host in the cluster didn't received heartbeat for for 13 seconds from any other hosts in the cluster, The host
considered it as isolated and host will ping the configured isolation address(default gateway by default). If the ping
fails, VMware HA will execute the Host isolation response

What are the different types isolation response available in HA?

Power off – All the VMs are powered off , when the HA detects that the network isolation occurs

Shut down – All VMs running on that host are shut down with the help of VMware Tools, when the HA detects that
the network isolation occurs.If the shutdown via VMWare tools not happened within 5 minutes, VM's
power off operation will be executed. This behavior can be changed with the help of HA advanced options. Please
refer my Post on HA Advanced configuration

Leave powered on – The VM's state remain powered on or remain unchanged, when the HA detects that the
network isolation occurs.

How to add additional isolation address for redundancy?

By default, VMWare HA use to ping default gateway as the isolation address if it stops receiving heartbeat.We can
add an additional values in case if we are using redundant service console both belongs to different subnet.Let's say
we can add the default gateway of SC1 as first value and gateway of SC2 as the additional one using the below value
1. Right Click your HA cluster

2. Goto to advanced options of HA

3. Add the line "das.isolationaddress1 = 192.168.0.1"

4. Add the line "das.isolationaddress2 = 192.168.1.1" as the additional isolation address

To know more about the Advanced HA Options

What is HA Admission control?

As per "VMware Availability Guide",

VCenter Server uses admission control to ensure that sufficient resources are available in a cluster to provide failover
protection and to ensure that virtual machine resource reservations are respected.

What are the 2 types of settings available for admission control?

Enable: Do not power on VMs that violate availability constraints

Disable: Power on VMs that violate availability constraints

What are the different types of Admission control policy available with VMware HA?

There are 3 different types of Admission control policy available.


Host failures cluster tolerates
Percentage of cluster resources reserved as fail over spare capacity
Specify a fail over host

How the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy works?

Select the maximum number of host failures that you can afford for or to guarantee fail over. Prior vSphere 4.1,
Minimum is 1 and the maximum is 4.

In the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy , we can define the specific number of hosts that can
fail in the cluster and also it ensures that the sufficient resources remain to fail over all the virtual machines from that
failed hosts to the other hosts in cluster. VMware High Availability(HA) uses a mechanism called slots to calculate
both the available and required resources in the cluster for a failing over virtual machines from a failed host to other
hosts in the cluster.

What is SLOT?

As per VMWare's Definition,

"A slot is a logical representation of the memory and CPU resources that satisfy the requirements for any powered-on
virtual machine in the cluster."

If you have configured reservations at VM level, It influence the HA slot calculation. Highest memory reservation and
highest CPU reservation of the VM in your cluster determines the slot size for the cluster.

How the HA Slots are Calculated?


I have written a post about how the HA slots are calculated.

How to Check the HA Slot information from vSphere Client?

Click on Cluster Summary Tab and Click on "Advanced Runtime Info" to see the the detailed HA slots information.

What is use of Host Monitoring status in HA cluster?

Let's take an example, you are performing network maintenance activity on your switches which connects your one
of th ESX host in HA cluster.

what will happen if the switch connected to the ESX host in HA cluster is down?

It will not receive heartbeat and also ping to the isolation address also failed. so, host will think itself as isolated and
HA will initiate the reboot of virtual machines on the host to other hosts in the cluster. Why do you need this unwanted
situation while performing scheduled maintenance window.

To avoid the above situation when performing scheduled activity which may cause ESX host to isolate, remove the
check box in " Enable Host Monitoring" until you are done with the network maintenance activity.
How to Manually define the HA Slot size?

By default, HA slot size is determined by the Virtual machine Highest CPU and memory reservation. If no reservation
is specified at the VM level, default slot size of 256 MHZ for CPU and 0 MB + memory overhead for RAM will be
taken as slot size. We can control the HA slot size manually by using the following values.

There are 4 options we can configure at HA advanced options related to slot size

das.slotMemInMB - Maximum Bound value for HA memory slot size


das.slotCpuInMHz - Maximum Bound value for HA CPU slot Size
das.vmMemoryMinMB - Minimum Bound value for HA memory slot size
das.vmCpuMinMHz - Minimum Bound value for HA CPU slot size

How the "Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity" admission control policy
works?

In the Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity admission control policy, We can define
the specific percentage of total cluster resources are reserved for failover.In contrast to the "Host Failures cluster
tolerates admission control policy", It will not use slots. Instead This policy calculates the in the way below

1.It calculates the Total resource requirement for all Powered-on Virtual Machines in the cluster and also calculates
the total resource available in host for virtual machines.
2.It calculates the current CPU and Memory Failover capacity for the capacity.
3.If the current CPU and Memory Failover capacity for the cluster < configured failover capacity (ex 25 %)
4.Admission control will not allow to power on the virtual machine which violates the availability constraints.

How the "Specify a failover host" admission control policy works?


In the Specify a failover host" admission control policy, We can define a specific host as a dedicated failover host.
Whenisolation response is detected, HA attempts to restart the virtual machines on the specified failover host.In this
Approach, dedicated failover hist will be sitting idle without actively involving or not participating in DRS load
balancing.DRS will not migrate or power on placement of virtual machines on the defined failover host.

What is VM Monitoring status?

HA will usually monitors ESX hosts and reboot the virtual machine in the failed hosts in the other host in the cluster in
case of host isolation but i need the HA to monitors for Virtual machine failures also. here the feature called VM
monitoring status as part of HA settings.VM monitoring restarts the virtual machine if the vmware tools heartbeat
didn't received with the specified time using Monitoring sensitivity.

If you are looking for more VMware interview questions Please click Interview Questions.

Thanks For Reading!!! All the Best...


Posted in: High Availability, Interview questions

VMWare HA Advanced Options

VMWare HA Slots Calculation

VMware Interview Questions & Answers -VMware Fault Tolerance


VMWARE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS -VMWARE
FAULT TOLERANCE
17:33 MOHAMMED RAFFIC
What is VMware Fault Tolerance?

VMware Fault Tolerance is a component of VMware vSphere and it provides continuous availability to applications by
preventing downtime and data loss of Virtual machines in the event of ESX server failures.

What is the name of the technology used by VMware FT?

VMware FT using a technology called vLockstep technology

What are requirements and Limitattions for ESX hosts & infrastructure components to run FT protected
virtual machines in Vsphere 4 & 4.1?

Please refer my blog post on ESX Host -Infrastrcuture Requirements & Limitations for VMware Fault Tolerance to see
the ESX requirements for VMware FT.

What are Requirements and Limitations for Virtual Machine to Enable FT ?

Please refer my blog post on Virtual Machine Requirements for VMware Fault Tolerance

How do i check my host for FT compatibility from vSphere client?

One way from vSphere client is to run the cluster complaince check from profile compliance tab of your cluster. The
below checks as specified below will be performed as part of the compliance check.

Validate that Fault Tolerancelogging NIC speed is at least 1000 Mbps.


Validate that power management is supported on the host
Validate that Fault Tolerance logging is enabled.
Validate that VMotion NIC speed is at least 1000 Mbps.
Validate that all the hosts in the cluster have the same build for Fault Tolerance
Validate that the host hardware supports Fault Tolerance.
Validate that VMotion is enabled.
Validate that at least one shared datastore exists
Another way is to check the summary tab of the ESX/ESXi host, "Host Configured for FT" yes or NO.

If " Host Configured for FT" is No. It will display the items required for that particular ESX for FT to work.

What is FT Logging Traffic?

FT logging is the one of option in VMkernel port setting which is similar to enable vmotion option in the vmkernel port.
when FT is enabled for the virtual machine, all the inputs (disk read.. wirte,etc..) of the primary virtual machine are
recorded and sent to the secondary VM over via FT logging enabled VMkernel port.

How to Enable FT Logging in VMkernel Port?

GO the ESX host -> Configuration-> Networking -> Properties of Virtual switch with the VMkernel portgroup
configured

Click on VMkernel Port -> click on Edit -> General tab -> select the Fault Tolerance Logging -> click on OK.
How do you configure or enable FT for the virtual machine ?

FT can be enabled only per virtual machine basis not at the cluster or ESX level.

Right-click the virtual Machine -> Fault Tolerance -> Turn on Fault Tolerance

How does the FT enabled virtual machine will be differentiated with non FT VM's in vSphere client?

FT Enabled Virtual machine will appear in Dark Blue colour as compared to non-protected virtual machines.
By default, Only Primary virtual machine will appear under the cluster and ESX host. To take a look at the secondary
VM , Go to Virtual Machines tab of the Cluster or Host.

How Does VMware Fault Tolerance Work?

When you enable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine, a secondary virtual machine will be created to work with
the primary virtual machine in which you have enabled FT. The primary and secondary virtual machine resides on a
different ESX hosts in the cluster. Whatever the events or actions performed by the primary VM will be transmitted
via gigabit Ethernet network to be replayed by the secondary virtual machine using VLockstep technology.
Eventhough both the primary and secondary virtual machines appear as a single entity and access a common disk,
both running with the single IP address, MAc address but writes are only performed by the primary virtual
machine.The primary and secondary virtual machines sends heartbeat between each other frequently with
millisecond intervals to the check for the availability. If either of the virtual machine loses the heartbeat, other
virtual machine will take over the primary virtual machine role immediately.
Graphics Thanks toVMware.com

What happens when you enabled Fault Tolerance for your virtual machine?

When you enable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine, a secondary virtual machine (live shadow image of the
primary) will be created to work with the primary virtual machine in which you have enabled FT. The primary and
secondary virtual machine resides on a different ESX hosts in the cluster.

What will happen when the ESX host of primary VM failed?

When a failure is detected on the primary VM's ESX host, the secondary virtual machine which is running on the
another ESX server in the same cluster will takes the place of the first one with the least possible interruption of
service.

If vCenter is down, will the FT work?


vCenter server is only required to enable FT on the virtual machine.once it is configured, vCenter is not required to be
in online for FT to work. FT failover between primary and secondary will occure even if the vCenter is down.

How does Vmware FT differs from VMware HA?


1.VMware HA is enabled per cluster basis but FT is enabled per VM basis.

2. In case of ESX host failure, virtual machines in the failed host are restarted and powered-on on the other active
hosts in HA cluster. So the restart duration of the virtual machine is the downtime for the virtual machine in HA
cluster. But in FT enabled virtual machine, there is no downtime. In case of host failure, secondary VM will become
primary and continuing the execution from the exact point where the primary VM is left off or failed. It happens
automatically without data loss, without downtime and with a little delay. Users will not see any interruption.

How do you see the summary status of the FT enabled virtual machines in the ESX host from vsphere client?

Click on Summary tab of the ESX host -> Fault tolerance information and VM counts will be displayed

If you are looking for more VMware interview questions Please take look at Interview Questions.

All the best and Thanks for Reading!!!!


Posted in: Interview questions, VMware FT
Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook
You might also like:
 Virtual Machine Requirements & Limitations for VMware Fault Tolerance
 ESX Host -Infrastrcuture Requirements & Limitations for VMware Fault Tolerance
 Fault Tolerance - VMware Site Survey
LinkWithin

Newer PostOlder PostHome


1. VMWare Kernel is a Proprietary Kenral and is not based on any of the UNIX operating systems, it's a
kernel developed by VMWare Company.

2. The VMKernel can't boot it by itself, so that it takes the help of the 3rd party operating system. In
VMWare case the kernel is booted by RedHat Linux operating system which is known as service
console.

3. The service console is developed based up on Redhat Linux Operating system, it is used to manage
the VMKernel

4. To restart webaccess service on vmware


service vmware-webaccess restart – this will restart apache tomcat app

5. To restart ssh service on vmware


service sshd restart

6. To restart host agent(vmware-hostd) on vmware esx server


service mgmt-vmware restart
7. Path for the struts-config.xml
/usr/lib/vmware/webAccess/tomcat/apache-tomcat-5.5.17/webapps/ui/WEB-INF/ - See more at:
http://www.01world.in/p/vmware-admin-interview-questions.html#sthash.hRKU2TEE.dpuf

8. To start the scripted install the command is


esx ks=nfs:111.222.333.444:/data/KS.config ksdevice=eth0
location device name

9. Virtual Network in Simple……………….

Virtual Nic(s) on Virtual Machine(s) ----->

Physical Nic on the ESX Server (Virtual Switch - 56 Ports) ----->

Physical Switch Port Should be trunked with all the VLANS to which the VM's need access

All the ESX servers should be configured with Same number of Physical Nics (vSwitches) and
Connectivity also should be same, So that vMotion succeeds
All the Virtual Machines are connected to one vSwitch with Different VLANS, this means the Physical
Nic(vSwitch) needs to be trunked with the same VLANS on the Physical Switch Port
- See more at: http://www.01world.in/p/vmware-admin-interview-questions.html#sthash.hRKU2TEE.dpuf
10 What are the three port groups present in ESX server networking
1. Virtual Machine Port Group - Used for Virtual Machine Network
2. Service Console Port Group - Used for Service Console Communications
3. VMKernel Port Group - Used for VMotion, iSCSI, NFS Communications

11. What is the use of a Port Group?


The port group segregates the type of communication.

12. What are the type of communications which requires an IP address for sure ?
Service Console and VMKernel (VMotion and iSCSI), these communications does not happen without
an ip address (Whether it is a single or dedicated)

13. In the ESX Server licensing features VMotion License is showing as Not used, why?
Even though the license box is selected, it shows as "License Not Used" until, you enable the VMotion
option for specific vSwitch

14. How the Virtual Machineort group communication works ?


All the vm's which are configured in VM Port Group are able to connect to the physical machines on
the network. So this port group enables communication between vSwitch and Physical Switch to connect
vm's to Physical Machine's

15. what is vlan ?

A vlan is logical configuration of group of segment

16. Does the vSwitches support VLAN Tagging? Why?


Yes, The vSwitches support VLAN Tagging, otherwise if the virtual machines in an esx host are
connected to different VLANS, we need to install a separate physical nic (vSwitch) for every VLAN. That
is the reason vmware included the VLANtagging for vSwitches. So every vSwitch supports upto 1016
ports, and BTW they can support 1016 VLANS if needed, but an ESX server doesn’t support that many
VM’s. :)

17. What is Promiscuous Mode on vSwitch ? What happens if it sets to Accept?


If the promiscuous mode set to Accept, all the communication is visible to all the virtual machines, in
other words all the packets are sent to all the ports on vSwitch
If the promiscuous mode set to Reject, the packets are sent to inteded port, so that the intended virtual
machine was able to see the communication.

18. What is MAC address Changes ? What happens if it is set to Accept ?


When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine,
you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn't matches with the MAC address in the OS this
setting does not allow incoming traffic to the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will be
remains same, and the incoming traffic will be allowed to the VM.
19. What is Forged Transmits ? What happens if it is set to Accept ?
When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine,
you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn't matches with the MAC address in the OS this
setting does not allow outgoing traffic from the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will
be remains same, and the outgoing traffic will be allowed from the VM.

20. What are the core services of VC ?


VM provisioning , Task Scheduling and Event Logging

21. Can we do vMotion between two datacenters ? If possible how it will be?
Yes we can do vMotion between two datacenters, but the mandatory requirement is the VM should be
powered off.

22. What is VC agent? and what service it is corresponded to? What are the minimum req's for VC
agent installation ?
VC agent is an agent installed on ESX server which enables communication between VC and ESX
server.
The daemon associated with it is called vmware-hostd , and the service which corresponds to it is called
as mgmt-vmware, in the event of VC agent failure just restart the service by typing the following command
at the service console

" service mgmt-vmware restart "


VC agent installed on the ESX server when we add it to the VC, so at the time of installtion if you are
getting an error like " VC Agent service failed to install ", check the /Opt size whether it is sufficient or not.

23. How can you edit VI Client Settings and VC Server Settings ?
Click Edit Menu on VC and Select Client Settings to change VI settings
Click Administration Menu on VC and Select VC Management Server Configuration to Change VC
Settings

24. What are the files that make a Virtual Machine ?


.vmx - Virtual Machine Configuration File
.nvram - Virtual Machine BIOS
.vmdk - Virtual Machine Disk file
.vswp - Virtual Machine Swap File
.vmsd - Virtual MAchine Snapshot Database
.vmsn - Virtual Machine Snapshot file
.vmss - Virtual Machine Suspended State file
.vmware.log - Current Log File
.vmware-#.log - Old Log file

25. What are the devices that can be added while the virtual Machine running
In VI 3.5 we can add Hard Disk and NIC's while the machine running.

In vSphere 4.0 we can add Memory and Processor along with HDD and NIC's while the machine running

26. How to set the time delay for BIOS screen for a Virtual Machine?
Right Click on VM, select edit settings, choose options tab and select boot option, set the delay how
much you want.
27. What is a template ?
We can convert a VM into Template, and it cannot be powered on once its changed to template. This is
used to quick provisioning of VM's.

23. What to do to customize the windows virtual machine clone,?


copy the sysprep files to Virtual center directory on the server, so that the wizard will take the advantage
of it.

24. What to do to customize the linux/unix virtual machine clone,?


VC itself includes the customization tools, as these operating systems are available as open source.

25. Does cloning from template happens between two datacenters ?


Yes.. it can, if the template in one datacenter, we can deploy the vm from that template in another
datacenter without any problem.

26. What are the common issues with snapshots? What stops from taking a snapshot and how to
fix it ?
If you configure the VM with Mapped LUN's, then the snapshot failed. If it is mapped as virtual then we
can take a snapshot of it.
If you configure the VM with Mapped LUN's as physical, you need to remove it to take a snapshot.

27. What are the settings that are taken into to consideration when we initiate a snapshot ?
Virtual Machine Configuration (What hardware is attached to it)
State of the Virtual Machine Hard Disk file ( To revert back if needed)
State of the Virtual Machine Memory (if it is powered on)

28. What are the requirements for Converting a Physical machine to VM ?


An agent needs to be installed on the Physical machine
VI client needs to be installed with Converter Plug-in
A server to import/export virtual machines

29. What is VMWare consolidated backup ?


It is a backup framework, that supports 3rd party utilities to take backups of ESX servers and Virtual
Machines. Its not a backup service.

30. To open the guided consolidation tool, what are the user requirements ?
The user must be member of administrator, The user should have "Logon as service" privileges - To give
a user these privileges ,open local sec policy, select Logon as service policy and add the user the user
should have read access to AD to send queries