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New Diseases

1. 1960 Contraceptive Birth Control


Ancient Egyptian women started the birth control trend with acacia a natural spermicide
and it is even referred in the Bible and Koran as coitus interruptus (the withdrawal
method). In the 1920s it word birth control is coined by Margaret Sanger (who opened
the first birth control clinic) who started the American Birth Control League (Planned
Parenthood). By the 1950s the race was on to create the first working birth control.
1954 is the start of the first human trials on 50 women but it had serious side effects at
first because doctors didn’t know that different women need different amounts of
hormones. In 1960 the pill is approved for contraceptive use and after 2 years 1.2
million women in the US are on the pill. Controversy to the pill comes in the late 60s and
70s and sales drop 24% in 1979 because of the listed risks: blood clots, heart attack,
stroke, depression, weight gain and loss of libido. The birth control pill was a huge step
in the direction of women’s health and their rights medically and gave women the
choice of pregnancy instead of the “duty” of having a child.

2. 1964 US Rubella Outbreak:

Rubella, also called German measles or 3 day measles it’s a contagious viral infection
known by its red rash. Rubella causes a mild fever, enlarged lymph nodes, red eyes, pink
rash, and aching joints. Congenital Rubella Syndrome is a disorder acquired by a fetus in
the first trimester. CRS can cause deafness, blindness, cerebral palsy, heart problems,
etc. Scientists believe that Rubella can stay dormant in children with CRS and then
attack their nervous systems later in life. In 1964 50,000 women in vulnerable stages of
their pregnancies were infected with rubella during the outbreak, leading to thousands
of miscarriages and even more children being born with severe damage. At least 8,000
were born deaf, 3,500 deaf and blind; the total number of congenital rubella syndrome
cases reached 20,000. Over the course of the outbreak the country tallied
approximately 12.5 million cases of rubella and more than 2,000 deaths. Resulting
medical costs reached the billions. It was an important disease and outbreak because it
made people more cautious about disease and also still impacts those today who got it
before they were born. Now we get a MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) shot to
prevent an outbreak like the one in 1964.

3. 1965 Hep B was discovered:


Worldwide hep b and c cause 80% of liver cancer. Hep B virus was discovered in 1965
by Dr. Baruch Blumberg (he won Nobel Peace Prize) He called it the Australia Antigen
because it was named for an Australian aborigine’s blood sample that reacted with the
antibody in the serum of an American hemophilia patient. Four years later Dr. Blumberg
and Irving Millman developed the first hep b vaccine. This discovery helped scientists
and liver cancer patients understand what is causing liver cancer and can help others
from getting this virus

4. 1967 American Vaccine for Mumps:


Before the U.S. mumps vaccination program started in 1967, mumps was a universal
disease of childhood. Since the pre-vaccine era, there has been a more than 99%
decrease in mumps cases in the United States. Mumps is a contagious disease that is
caused by a virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, and loss
of appetite as well as puffy cheeks and a swollen jaw. The first measles vaccine became
available in 1963, mumps vaccine in 1967, and the first vaccine in 1969 which were all
combined in 1971 creating the MMR vaccine. The creation of the mumps vaccine was
important for treating a common virus that everyone got as child and instead made the
virus uncommon, treatable, and helped others not get/spread the virus.
5. 1976 Legionnaires Disease:
Legionella was discovered after an outbreak in 1976 among people who went to a
Philadelphia convention of the American Legion aka Legionnaires. They got a type of
pneumonia that came to be Legionnaires’ disease. Many public health professions at the
time were on the race to find the origin of the outbreak. The first cases occurred in 1968
in Pontiac, Michigan so it was previously called Pontiac fever but it wasn’t until the 1976
outbreak in Philadelphia that public health officials were able to prove that the same
bacteria causes both diseases. Legionella is a type of bacteria found in freshwater
environments and can become a health concern when it gets into human-made water
systems (hot tubs, fountains, showers). It usually spreads by getting into a building
water systems and then that water spreads in droplets small enough for people to
breathe in.

6. 1973 Lead Poisoning:


Since 1970 the understanding of lead poisoning has significantly changed. In the mid-
1960s a level above 60ug/dL was considered toxic and now a 30ug/dL is considered to
be very toxic. In 1973 a bill was passed to carry out the lead-based paint poisoning
prevention programs until 1974. In 1973 lead poisoning was starting to pose a threat
especially to children since they absorb more lead than adults. Lead Poisoning is
particularly harmful to the developing brain and nervous system of fetuses and young
children.

7. 1976 Discovery of Ebola:


Ebola is rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus species.
You can get Ebola with direct contact to blood or body fluids of someone who is
previously sick, infected fruit bats or primates, and possibly from contact with semen
from a man who had just recovered from Ebola. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near
the Ebola River in Congo. A Belgian scientist names Peter Piot wanted to help find out
why so many people were dying in Congo. The story is that Peter Piot received a blue
thermos flask from another Belgian doctor based in Congo that was filled with vials of
blood and note saying he couldn’t figure out how a nun from Belgium fell ill to a
mysterious disease. The vials were examined and they found gigantic worm like
structures, they had found something never found before! So Piot went to investigate in
Congo near the Ebola River where he had matched the blood from the nun to the same
virus in the Ebola River.

8. 1977 First Vaccine for Pneumonia:


A vaccine to protect again bacterial pneumonia was first developed in 1977 and it was
originally called the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). Unfortunately the
vaccine only protected against a limited number of Streptococcal serotypes. The first
vaccine for pneumonia paved the way for a second vaccine to make in 2000 that offered
a wider protection against the bacteria. Also without the first vaccine for Pneumonia,
AIDS patients could suffer from opportunistic disease and bacteria and die. The first
vaccine for Pneumonia was big step in medical/microbial science for its time in 1977 and
has helped us ever since.
Music
1960s
1. 1962 The British Invasion (Beatles, rolling stones, David bowie, Abba)
The "British Invasion" is the period of time in the early 1960's, where many British rock
bands and pop artists found mainstream success and popularity in the United States and
worldwide. The British Invasion is mainly attributed to The Beatles, who started in the
scene in 1963, but really became popular in 1964 after appearing on the Ed Sullivan
Show. The Beatles dominated worldwide charts from that point in time until they broke
up in 1970. The phenomenon that surrounded them was known as Beatlemania and
many up and coming music acts emulated their "Liverpool Sound". The band holds many
musical records to this day reflecting album sales and number one singles and they're
music remains some of the most popular of all time. They can be easily described as the
most influential group of the 1960's. Some other notable British Invasion acts include
The Rolling Stones and The Who.

2. 1969 Woodstock (Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix):


The Woodstock Music and Art Fair of 1969 represents one of the most iconic events of
the sixties and is thought of as the social revolution in the 60s. It was a free concert that
lasted for three days and had some of the most iconic musicians of the time. It is
thought to have exemplified the popularity of the hippie counter-culture with an
estimated 500,000 attendees reveling in free love, peace and rock music. Woodstock
had a community of people who accepted everyone in a time where acceptance from
society was seldom found. Woodstock brought together the hippie generation of the
60s.

3. Rock N Roll ( The Who, Janis Joplin, Rolling Stones)


Rock music dominated the popular music scene during the 60s and as the genre grew
and changed, many new subgenres emerged, all tied to original rock but each with their
own unique style. These specific subgenres also had varying levels of popularity
throughout the decade and many are still popular today. Quite a few rock bands and
musicians changed between these genres depending on what was popular. Some of the
rock subgenres are surf, psychedelic, roots, and hard rock. The 60s were basically a time
where rock and roll music expanded from the 50s. The 60s were a time of
experimentation and freedom of expression. It was a time where being different was
cool and exciting.
4. Motown/R & B (Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin)
The "Motown Sound" and popular R&B music had a major role in the Civil Rights
movement during the sixties. Motown started as a Detroit-based record label in the late
fifties and early sixties, but transformed into its own once it got popular. Motown music
was mainly African-American groups, singers, songwriters and management. The
musical and business success broke down some barriers of segregation. The success of
Motown also paved the way for R&B singers and groups who weren’t part of the
movement to also become popular. Some other popular Motown and 60's R&B artists
include The Temptations, Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, and Aretha Franklin
5. Surf Rock/ Psychedelic Rock ( The Beach Boys, The Doors, The Grateful Dead)
Surf rock began in Southern California as dance music that was mostly instrumental and
became extremely popular until the start of the British Invasion. Songs are usually about
surfing, girls, cars, teenage stereotypes. The most popular group to come out of surf
rock were The Beach Boys… they basically embodied surf rock. Psychedelic rock was
popular during the late 60s and reached its peak in 1969. Psychedelic music was
associated with the hippie counter-culture and made LSD or other mind-altering
substances sound enhanced. The lyrics were often made reference to drugs and bands
would often use unusual instruments, like the sitar, harpsichord and organ. Many
popular rock bands experimented with this genre, including The Beatles, The Doors, The
Jimi Hendrix Experience, Jefferson Airplane, Cream, Pink Floyd, and The Yardbirds.
6. Folk Rock/ Protest Music (Bob Dylan, Simon and Garfunkel, The Mamas and The Papas)
Folk rock was a popular genre in the 60s and came out of the protest movements that
were active during the 60s. Folk rock and protest music were influenced by the folk
musicians of the 1930s. Bob Dylan became one of the most popular songwriters of the
60s who was recognized by his unusual voice. The difference between folk rock and
protest music was that protest music always had a message while folk rock did not
necessarily have to have a message. Protest music was often a reaction to social
injustice, cultural changes, and news events bringing awareness to the younger
generation making movements bigger and bigger. Protest music was used also used to
address the Vietnam War and its intricacies causing an anti-war movement with protest
music as an anthem. Folk music and protest music were connected to the hippie
movement and were influenced by the feelings of freedom, love and peace. Some
examples of folk rock and protest musicians from the 1960s include, Simon and
Garfunkel, Bob Dylan, and The Mamas and The Papas.
1970s
1. Disco/Club ( ABBA, The Bee Gees, Diana Ross):
Disco was the definition of the 70s and had a huge influence in the fashion at the time
as well. The first disco song made was by Van McCoy called “The Hustle”. Disco and
dance music became so popular that many artists received fame and praise but after a
while people started to notice the commercialization of the genre and how it lacked
meaningful lyrics. Some very prominent leaders in disco were ABBA, The Bee Gees, and
Diana Ross.

2. Progressive Rock ( Pink Floyd, Queen):


Progressive rock was usually rock music mixed with opera or something unusual to
make a very specific genre. Concept albums were popular in this genre because of all
the possibilities of progressive rock one must be original as well as consistency. Pink
Floyd for example had a concept album called “The Wall” based on “walls” people build
around themselves when lonely. Progressive rock bands include Pink Floyd, Queen, and
Rush.

3. Punk Rock/ New Wave (The Ramones, Sex Pistols, Talking Heads):
The punk rock genre bloomed in the 70s with the intent to continue the rock n roll
legacy of the 60s. The Ramones are considered the first punk band who’s most popular
song was called I Wanna Be Sedated. Punk rock was an outlet for the youths of the
generation who were experiencing teen angst and anger towards the condition of
society. The Sex Pistols were also a punk rock band but created rebellion with their song
“God Save the Queen” across the US and UK. New wave was extremely similar to punk
rock except in the way that new wave is radio friendly and more electronic. Popular
punk rock/new wave artists/bands of the 70s include Talking Heads, The Ramones, and
Sex Pistols.

4. Funk and Soul ( Kool & The Gang, Earth Wind and Fire):
Funk music was born out of R&B, soul, and Jazz with an addition of psychedelic flare.
Funk was easy to dance to and had meaningful lyrics. Artists like Kool & the Gang and
James Brown were extremely popular funk artists. Earth Wind and Fire added their own
spin on the genre by adding disco elements. Funk and soul is a genre that will never go
out of style.