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Chew On This

by Eric Schlosser and Charles Wilson

Name: _____________________________________________________

Book #_________________

8th Grade Literature

MOD
PRACTICE: CHAPTER 2-5 VOCABULARY
Match each vocabulary word to its correct definition.
Chapter 2: “The Pioneers”
radical (adj.) corporate (adj.) entrepreneurs (n.) franchise (n.)
p. 22 p. 24 p. 26 p. 32

1. Authorization granted to someone to sell or distribute a


company’s goods or services.
2. People who organize, operate, and assume the risks of starting
a business.
3. united or combined into one; collective
4. departing from the usual; extreme

Chapter 3: “The Youngster Business


manipulate (v.) tactics (n.) wield (v.) embodiment (n.)
p. 39 p. 40 p. 40 p. 42

5. To influence, manage, or control


6. A way to achieve a desired goal
7. A tangible or visible form of an idea, quality, or feeling
8. To exercise (for example, authority) effectively

Chapter 4: “McJobs”
confectionery appealed (v.) solidarity (n.)
(n.) p. 89 p.90
p. 64

9. a store where candy is sold


10. made a formal request to a higher authority requesting a
change in or confirmation of a decision
11. mutual agreement and support; harmony of interests and
responsibilities among individuals in a group

Chapter 5: “The Secret of the Fries”


sacrosanct additives (n.) vast (adj.) extract (n.)
(adj.) p.103 p.104 p.121
p.92

12. very great in size


13. something (usually manmade) added to something else to alter
or improve it in some way, e.g. to change the color or texture
of food
14. a concentrated or purified substance obtained by first using a
solvent to dissolve this substance when present in a mixture

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and then evaporating the solvent
15. very holy and sacred; not to be criticized or tampered with

APPLICATION: CHAPTER 2-5 VOCABULARY


Due: __________________________
Use the following vocabulary words from Ch 2-5 to complete the sentences.
additives (n.) entrepreneurs (n.) vast (adj.)
corporate (adj.) extract (n.)
embodiment (n.) sacrosanct (adj.)

1. A law that was once considered _________________________ may no longer be so sacred


with the election of a new governor.

2. Lindsey has to carefully check the ingredients on many foods she eats since they may
contain ________________________ to which she is allergic.

3. There was such a(n) ___________________ amount of shoes to choose from that Carrie had
a difficult time deciding which to wear.

4. Some believe that breathing in the concentrated scent of almond


_______________________ can help relieve pain.

5. The team was the_________________________ of good sportsmanship as they waited to


shake hands with the winning team.

6. We've worked with large _________________________ companies for many years helping
them to find people whose skills will strengthen their business.

7. Every week, hundreds of ____________________ meet their bank managers in the hope of
getting a loan to start a business.

appealed (v.) manipulate (v.) tactics(n.)

confectionery (n.) radical (adj.) wield (v.)

franchise (n.) solidarity (n.)

8. Sarah knew how to_____________________ the lights in order to get the effect she wanted.

9. I stand in _____________________ with you as we fight against the evils of the world.

10. Greg’s sandwich business was a(n) ______________________ of a popular national restaurant.

11. Her plan was to _____________________ her authority when trying to convince the team to use her idea.

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12. Bridget had a(n) _______________________ idea that would change the way the business
advertised their products.

13. The ______________________ Jeff used to sell his product were out of the ordinary.

14. Since Linda loves candy, her favorite place to visit at the mall is the
_________________________.

15. Ralph ______________________ the decision handed down by the court.

Chapter 1: “Introduction”
Eric Shlosser’s opening paragraph is designed to evoke your senses. Illustrate
what you visualize as you read his hook.

Text Structure
Read the following passage from pg 10.
“In 1970, Americans spent about $6 billion on fast food. Americans now spend more
money on fast food than on college education, personal computers, computer software, or
new cars.”
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION

After you read...


Write a connection or realization you had about yourself after reading
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this section.

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Chapter 2: “The Pioneers”

Before you read...


List two nonfiction text features How does it enhance your
in this chapter. understanding of the text?

Text Structure
Place at least 5 important dates introduced in this chapter on the
timeline.
“The Rise of Fast Food”

1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970

CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this entire chapter. the text structure?

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Chapter 3: “The Youngster Business”

Before you read...


What do you think this What do you already What are 2 things you'd like to
section will be about? know? know?

Read the following passage from pg 46.


“The original Ronald McDonald looked very different from the one you see today. Willard
Scott wore a tray holding a hamburger, a milk shake, and French fries on top of his head.
He wore another tray just like it on his belt. And he wore a McDonald’s paper cup over his
nose.
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION

After you read...


Write a one sentence sumary of main idea of this section. (who, what, when,
where, why)

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Discussion Questions:
1. What is “synergy”? Name a product today that utilizes this strategy. (pg
42).

2. Consider this quote from page 53. “It’s called brainwashing.” Is this the
opinion of the author or a fact? Explain.

3. Explain a time when a marketing campaign for a product has persuaded


you to desire or actually buy something. What was the product? What was it
about the advertisements that enticed you?

__________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4: “McJobs”
TEXT STRUCTURE: Write each effect next to its cause,
or write its cause next to its effect.
CAUSE EFFECT
“The automobile now determined (p.65):
where and how people lived” (pp64-
65).

“Whenever a new McDonald’s opens…” (p.67):


(p67).

(p.74): “The fast-food industry has changed


the way millions of Americans work and
turned restaurant kitchens into little
food factories” (p.74)

“When kids go to work…” (p.81). (p.81):

Which details do the authors use to suggest they feel McDonald’s


operates and treats its employees in an impersonal, detached way?
Details from the Text How the details show the authors feel
McDonald’s operates in an impersonal,
detached manner.
1.

2.

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Analyze the authors’ opinions. Find two opinions that you agree
with. Why do you agree with these opinions?
Opinion from Text I agree because…
1. Agree

2. Disagree

Discussion Question:
Why did the author include the closing anecdote (a short personal account of an event)
about Pascal and his fight for a union? How does the anecdote help support the authors’
overall argument?

____________

_________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________

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Chapter 5: “The Secret of the Fries”

Text Structure
Read the following passage from pgs 99-100 .
“. . . tractor-trailers arrive from the fields, carrying potatoes that have just been harvested.
The trucks dump their loads . . . the larger potatoes into the building and . . .the smaller
potatoes, dirt, and rocks fall to the ground. The plant uses streams of water to float
potatoes gently this way and that way. Conveyor belts take the wet, clean potatoes into a
machine that blasts them with steam for twelve seconds, boils the water under their skins,
and explodes the skins off. Then the potatoes are pumped into a tank and shot through a
Lamb Water Gun Knife. They emerge as shoestring fries.”
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION

Read the following passage from pg 103.


“For decades, McDonald’s cooked its French fries in a mixture of about 7 percent soybean
oil and 93 percent beef fat. The mix gave the fries their unique flavor . . . “ When doctors
and nutritionists argued that all the beef fat made the fries unhealthy, McDonald’s
responded to the criticism by switching to vegetable oil in 1990.
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION

Directions: Compare and contrast how French fries were grown, sold,
and produced initially to the process now.
French Fries Then What’s stayed the French Fries Now
same?

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Skill: Denotation and Connotation

A word’s denotation is its dictionary definition. A word can also make people feel or think
a certain way. These feelings and ideas are the connotations of a word.

Words with the same meaning can have different “shades of meaning”—that is, they can
be understood differently. Look at how the meaning for the word thin is used in the
following examples:

Neutral connotation: Being on the track team has made Alan thin.
Positive connotation: Being on the track team has made Alan slender and lean.
(attractively thin)
Negative Being on the track team has made Alan skinny and
connotation: scrawny. (unattractively thin)

A. Practice: Identifying Positive and Negative Connotations

Each pair of phrases below includes synonyms with different connotations. Put a + sign
next to the one with a positive connotation and a – sign next to the one with a negative
connotation.

Phrase Connotati Phrase Connotatio


on (+ -) n (+ -)
a dynamic leader a reckless plan
a pushy leader a daring plan
squandered his money energetic children
spent his money wild children
an aggressive attitude an easygoing friend
a hostile attitude a lazy friend

B. Practice: Connotations in Action

In the first paragraph below, circle the words that have a positive connotation. In the
second paragraph, circle the words that have a negative connotation.

Positive connotation:
Ms. Baxter has been a (valuable, costly) employee of this company for three
years. In that time, she has expressed many (militant, strong) opinions. Her
methods of solving problems are sometimes (unusual, bizarre). In short, she is a real
(leader, show-off).

Negative connotation:

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I was surprised to get a birthday gift from my Aunt Joanna. She is (an
inquisitive person, a real snoop), so she had asked many of my relatives what I
might like. I tore the (colorful, gaudy) paper off the package and found a shirt made
of (flimsy, delicate) material. It was covered with (detailed, fussy) embroidery and
(flashy, eye-catching) sequins. It certainly was a(n)(strange, exotic) present.
Connotation in Chew on This
The authors of Chew on This attempt to change readers’ opinions of the fast-food
industry. Therefore, they use specific word choices that contribute to achieving this goal.
Pay attention to these connotations as you read.
For example, in chapter 3, the following words are used when describing how the
food industry markets to children. Notice how the connotations of the words are almost all
negative and help the authors set the tone for the chapter.

Page # Word Denotation (Basic Connotati


Dictionary Definition) on

+ - =

control or influence (a person


or situation)
39 manipulate -

45 market advertise or promote =


(something)

appeared as a shadowy form,


especially one that is large or
48 loomed threatening -

making (someone) adopt


radically different beliefs by
53 brainwashi using systematic and often -
forcible pressure
ng

tempting (a person or an
animal) to do something or
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58 luring to go somewhere, especially -
by offering some form of
reward

Now let’s analyze the connotations from some of the words used in chapter 5.

Page # Word Denotation (Basic Connotati


Dictionary Definition) on

+ - =

95 profitable yielding profit or financial gain

examine or inspect closely


and thoroughly
100 scrutinize

a feeling of intense longing for


something
110 yearning

a substance added to
something in small quantities,
113 additive typically to improve or
preserve it

consciously and intentionally;


on purpose
123 deliberate
ly

How do the connotations of these words help the authors set the tone for this chapter?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

PRACTICE: CHAPTER 6-9 VOCABULARY


Match each vocabulary word to its correct definition.

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Chapter 6: “Stop the Pop”
culture (n.) exclusive (adj.) legislature (n.)
p. 129 p. 134 p. 152

1. The attitudes and behavior that characterize a


group
2. An elected body of persons that make, change, and
appeal laws
3. Not allowing something else

Chapter 7: “Meat”
condemn (v.) progressive (adj.) commodity (n.) implication (n.)
p. 160 p. 161 p. 170 p. 170

4. To express an unfavorable judgment on


5. An understood effect
6. Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or
reform
7. Something of use, advantage, or value

Chapter 8: “Big”
bittersweet (adj.) bleak (adj.) anesthesiologist (n.)
p. 203 p. 213 p. 229
8. both pleasant and painful or regretful
9. a physician who specializes in sedating patients
10. bare, desolate

Chapter 9: “Your Way”


conformity epidemic (n.) ingenious integral (adj.) sustainable
(n.) p. 244 (adj.) p. 251 (adj.)
p. 236 p. 250 p. 254

11. a rapid spread or increase in the occurrence of something


12. capable of being supported or upheld
13 characterized by cleverness or originality
14. necessary to the completeness of the whole
15. behavior that is in agreement with socially accepted
standards

CHAPTER 6-9 VOCABULARY APPLICATION


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Due: __________________________
Use the following vocabulary words from Ch 6-9 to complete the sentences.
exclusive (adj.) progressive (adj.) condemn (v.)
commodity (n.) bleak (adj.)
epidemic (n.) culture (n.)

1. Tami has a(n) __________________ way of thinking; she is always trying to improve the
way she teaches using the latest resources and technology.

2. The Spring Oaks Country Club is very ___________________________; they do not allow
everyone into their association.

3. We strongly ______________________ the cruel terrorist acts which targeted the innocent
people of the United States.

4. The hillside looked fairly ____________________, with a deep covering of fresh, new snow
covering the boulders.
5.They live in realms where food is a rare _____________________, and therefore are
constantly on the lookout for this valuable resource.

6. The increase in the amount of food-fast restaurants in the United States is a part of the
obesity ___________________.

7. They are young girls blazing a trail that will be followed by youth _____________________
for decades to come.
ingenious (adj.) integral (adj.) sustainable (adj.)
implication (n.) legislature (n.) bittersweet (adj.)
anesthesiologist (n.) conformity (n.)
8. I resent your ________________________ that I am dishonest; I would never suggest that of
you.
9. There was a(n) ____________________ feeling among fans watching the last game of the
World Series; they were happy that their team was winning, but slightly disappointed that
the baseball season was over for the year.

10. Intuition and creativity are ___________________ pieces to making his work whole and
complete.

11. Teaching the villagers how to farm and fish will allow them to create a more
__________________ society, that will be able to support itself.

12. Any legal measure passed by the _______________ has to be formally approved by the
president.

13. Andy invented a(n) _______________ machine that would complete his homework
assignments for him!
14. The________________________ told me about the effects of the drug that would be used
to sedate me before the operation.

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15. Students are expected to act in _____________________ and behave in a manner that is
socially acceptable.
Chapter 6: “Stop the Pop”

Read the following passage from pgs 136-137.


“In 1906, John Spargo’s book ‘The Bitter Cry of Children’ revealed that 2 million
schoolchildren in the United States were so poor that they frequently went hungry. Most
schools didn’t serve lunch, and kids either went home for a meal or didn’t eat. Spargo
argues that hungry children could hardly be expected to pay attention in class. A couple of
years later the first government school lunch program was started in New York City.”
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION

Should fast-food chains, junk food, and soda be in schools?


Find evidence in the text to support both sides of this argument.
Positives of fast-food chains in schools Negatives of fast-food chains in schools

Positives of junk food & soda in Negatives of junk food & soda in
vending machines vending machines

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Chapter 7: “Meat”
Before you read . . . .predict whether the quote is from
“Then” (The Jungle) OR “Now” (Chew On This).
As you read, determine where the quote is found.
Pre-reading During reading
QUOTE THEN NOW THEN NOW
1. “Slaughterhouse lagoons can be as big as
20 acres and as much as 15 feet deep, filled
with millions of gallons of really disgusting
stuff.”
2. “They worked with a furious intensity,
literally upon the run—at a pace with which
there is nothing to be compared except a
football game.”
3. “Of the butchers . . . and all those who
used knives, you could scarcely find a person
who had the use of his thumb.”
4. “What was happening there had been
going on, one way or another, for thousands
of years: the meat, the hook, the knife, men
straining to cut more off the bone.”
5. “Here and there the grease and filth have
caked solid, and the creek looks like a bed of
lava. The (meat)packers used to leave the
creek that way, till every now and then the
surface would catch on fire and burn
furiously, and the fire department would have
to come put it out.”
6. “[Residents] can’t stop thinking about the
smell, even after years. It seeps into
everything, gives them headaches, makes
them nauseous, interferes with their sleep.”

The Jungle is an example of “muckraker” journalism,


which became popular in the early twentieth century.
A “muckraker” was someone who dug up dirt — or
raked up mud — to expose social and political evils.
Journalists often exaggerated their findings to create
public outrage and cause social change.
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As you read this section, make a web of text support that could be
used as evidence to argue that Chew On This is muckraker
journalism.
Use the space below. Include at least THREE supporting details from this section.

evidence of muckraker journalism

After you read . . . .

1. Do you feel that Chew On This could be considered “muckraker journalism”? Explain your
reasoning.

2. Explain what Sinclair meant when he wrote, “I aimed for the public’s heart and by
accident I hit it in the stomach.”

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Chapter 8: “Big”
Before you read, preview the chapter.
What do you think this section will Explain the nonfiction text feature(s) that
be about? helped you make your prediction.

Text Structure
“Windows of the Soul” utilizes cause and effect to explain the
detriments of eating too much fast food. Complete the organizer
below with relevant information found on pages 215-222.

CAUSE:

EFFECTS on aorta: EFFECTS on liver:

EFFECTS on bone:

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Text Structure
Read the following passage from pgs 229-230.
“On December 19, 2004, the day before his operation, Sam wasn’t allowed to eat anything.
He didn’t sleep well that night. At quarter past four the next morning, Sam and his family
headed to Provena Mercy Medical Center. After checking in, Sam changed into a hospital
gown . . . and an anesthesiologist explained that a powerful drug would soon put him to
sleep. Before Sam realized what was happening, he lost consciousness . . . . “
CIRCLE the text structure that best What signal words helped you identify
represents this passage. the text structure?
CHRONOLOGICAL
SEQUENCE
CAUSE/EFFECT
PROBLEM/SOLUTION
COMPARE/CONTRAST
DESCRIPTION
Discussion Question:
1. Representatives of the fast-food industry say that the
responsibility for healthy choices lies with consumers. What do you
think? Is the obesity crisis due to people’s bad food choices or is the
fast-food industry to blame? Explain.

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Chapter 9: “Your Way”

As you read . . .
Most Startling
Fact
(What surprised
you?)

Most Profound
Quotation
(What quote had
the most intense
effect on your
emotions?)
Most Important
Word

EXPLAIN
(Why this is the
Most Important
Word?)

Main Idea
(who, what, when,
where, why)

Graphic
Representation
of a Fact or
Quotation
(Create a
graph . . . circle,
line, bar, etc)

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Chapter 10: “Afterword”
More From the Author . . .

What is your hope for students as a result of reading Chew on This?

ERIC SCHLOSSER: One result of a student reading Chew on This and then taking
action is being more aware of the choices they make and maybe changing their own diet,
in the simplest way, like drinking less soda. There’s a real strong link today between soda
consumption and obesity among children. That’s just one kind of an example. Kids have no
idea when they’re drinking soda what they’re really drinking, and a lot of them are stunned
when they learn that drinking a Big Gulp is like taking a big jar of sugar and just pouring it
down. There are 50 teaspoons of sugar in a 64-ounce Big Gulp. We didn’t set out to tell kids
to never have any soda, but we went beneath the surface and showed them what the
implications are. The purpose of the book ultimately is to raise awareness. And if the kids
can make changes on the basis of that, then all the better. I hope that Chew on This does
help kids make the connection between choices they make now and their future health —
make the right choices now so they don’t pay for wrong choices later on.

Discussion Question:
1. Has reading Chew On This changed the way you think about the food you
eat or buy? Explain why or why not.

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