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HKDSE CHEMISTRY – A Modern View

(Chemistry)
Coursebook 2
Suggested answers

Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis Page


Number
 Class Practice 1

 Chapter Exercise 3

Chapter 15 Concentration of solutions

 Class Practice 6

 Chapter Exercise 9

Chapter 16 Indicators and pH

 Class Practice 12

 Chapter Exercise 13

Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis

 Class Practice 15

 Chapter Exercise 16

Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization

 Class Practice 18

 Chapter Exercise 21

Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis

 Class Practice 26

 Chapter Exercise 30

 Part Exercise 36

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Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels

 Class Practice 39

 Chapter Exercise 40

Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels

 Class Practice 41

 Chapter Exercise 42

Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of


carbon compounds
 Class Practice 44

 Chapter Exercise 46

Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes

 Class Practice 48

 Chapter Exercise 49

Chapter 24 Addition polymers

 Class Practice 51

 Chapter Exercise 53

 Part Exercise 55

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis

Class Practice

A14.1
1. Zinc granules sink to the bottom.
2. Zinc granules dissolve to give a colourless solution.
3. Effervescence occurs./Colourless gas bubbles evolve.
4. The test tube becomes warm as heat is given out.
5. Hissing sound is heard.

A14.2
1. (a) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
(b) ZnO(s) + H2SO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(c) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  FeCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(d) CuCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq)  CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(e) Ca(HCO3)2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
2. (a) Magnesium dissolves./Effervescence occurs. (Colourless gas bubbles
evolve.)/The solution becomes warm./The resultant solution is colourless.
(b) Zinc oxide dissolves./The resultant solution is colourless.
(c) Iron(II) hydroxide dissolves./The resultant solution is green.
(d) Copper(II) carbonate dissolves./Effervescence occurs. (Colourless gas
bubbles evolve.)/The resultant solution is blue.
(e) Calcium hydrogencarbonate dissolves. /Effervescence occurs. (Colourless
gas bubbles evolve.)/The resultant solution is colourless.

A14.3
(a) Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq)  Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
(b) ZnO(s) + H2SO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l)
(c) 2KHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  K2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
HCO3(aq) + H+(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l)

A14.4
1. Magnesium reacts with the hydrogen ions (from ascorbic acid) to give hydrogen
gas.
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq)  Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
2. (a) There is no colour change to the litmus paper.
When there is no water, liquid ethanoic acid (pure) cannot ionize to give H +
(aq) and thus cannot exhibit acidic properties.
(b) The blue litmus paper turns red.
In the presence of water, ethanoic acid ionizes to give H+(aq) and thus can
exhibit acidic properties.
3. Fizzy drink tablets or powder should be stored in a cool and dry place.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
A14.5
(a) 1 (monobasic), HCOOH ⇌ HCOO + H+
(b) 2 (dibasic), (COOH)2 ⇌ (COO)2 + 2H+

A14.6
(a) 2KOH(aq) + CO2(g)  K2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)
(b) (NH4)2SO4(aq) + Ca(OH)2(s)  CaSO4(s) + 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l)

A14.7
Magnesium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide, zinc hydroxide and lead(II) hydroxide

A14.8
1. (a) (i) Potassium hydroxide
(ii) OH(aq) + H+(aq)  H2O(l)
(b) (i) Magnesium oxide, zinc hydroxide and copper(II) oxide
(ii) MgO(s) + 2H+(aq)  Mg2+(aq) + H2O(l)
Zn(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
CuO(s) + 2H+(aq)  Cu2+(aq) + H2O(l)
2. (a) (i) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Pb(OH)2(s) + Ca(NO3)2(aq)
(ii) Pb2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Pb(OH)2(s)
(b) (i) CuSO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq)  Cu(OH)2(s) + K2SO4(aq)
(ii) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Cu(OH)2(s)

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 2


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 14 Introduction to acids and alkalis

Chapter Exercise

1. sour, red, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, salts, water


2. H+(aq)
3. water, water, hydrogen, H+
4. dibasic, monobasic
5. salt, water, metal oxides, ammonia, alkali
6. limewater, carbon dioxide
7. bitter, blue, salts, water, carbonates, water, salts, ammonia, water, metal
hydroxides
8. hydroxide, OH
9. H+(aq), oxidizing, oxidizing, dehydrating
10. Concentrated
11. B
12. B
13. C
14. C
15. D
16. B
17. D
18. D
19. B
20. B
21. B
22. C
23. B
24. D
25. D
26. C
27. A
28. B
29. C
30. B

31. (a) Hydrochloric acid


(b) Citric acid/ascorbic acid
(c) Hydrochloric acid
(d) Sulphuric acid

32. (a) Ethanoic acid


(b) 1 (Monobasic)
(c) (i) Effervescence occurs./Magnesium ribbon dissolves./A colourless
solution is formed./The solution becomes warm./A hissing sound is
heard. (Any FOUR)
(ii) 2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s)  (CH3COO)2Mg(aq) + H2(g)
(d) (i) Carbon dioxide is formed.
(ii) Na2CO3(aq) + 2CH3COOH(aq)  2CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) +
H2O(l)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
33. (a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Gas Y can turn limewater milky. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium
hydroxide to form the insoluble white solid of calcium carbonate.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g)  CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
(c) In the presence of water, the solid acid ionizes to give H+(aq) which reacts
with sodium hydrogencarbonate to give carbon dioxide.
(d) H+(aq) + HCO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(e) 2NaHCO3  Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

34. (a) (i) Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq)  FeSO4(aq) + H2(g)


(ii) Fe(s) + 2H+(aq)  Fe2+(aq) + H2(g)
(b) (i) No reaction
(ii) No reaction
(c) (i) ZnO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
(ii) ZnO(s) + 2H+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + H2O(l)
(d) (i) CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(ii) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(e) (i) KHCO3(aq) + HNO3(aq)  KNO3(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(ii) HCO3(aq) + H+(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l)

35. (a) Monobasic acid is the acid that gives one hydrogen ion per molecule in
aqueous solution. Dibasic acid is the acid that gives two hydrogen ions per
molecule in aqueous solution.
(b) (i) 2HA(aq) + Zn(s)  ZnA2(aq) + H2(g)
(ii) H2B(aq) + Zn(s)  ZnB(aq) + H2(g)
(iii) 2HA(aq) + CuO(s)  CuA2(aq) + H2O(l)
(iv) H2B(aq) + CaCO3(s)  CaB(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(v) HA(aq) + NaHCO3(aq)  NaA(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

36. (a) Fe2+(aq) and Cu2+(aq)


Iron(II) hydroxide – dirty green
Copper(II) hydroxide – pale blue
(b) Mg2+(aq)
Mg2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Mg(OH)2(s)
(c) OH(aq)
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)
(d) As an active ingredient in window cleaners.

37. (a) Stir solid calcium hydroxide with water for a long time, then filter the
suspension to get the clear filtrate.
(b) Hydroxide ion
(c) 2NH4NO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2NH3(g) + 2H2O(l)
(d) (i) A white precipitate is formed.
Ca2+(aq) + CO32(aq)  CaCO3(s)
(ii) A pale blue precipitate is formed.
Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(aq)  Cu(OH)2(s)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
38. (a) A: Concentrated hydrochloric acid
B: Concentrated sulphuric acid
C: Concentrated nitric acid
(b) Corrosive
(c) Light speeds up the decomposition of concentrated nitric acid to give the
brown gas NO2.
The gas dissolves in water to form a yellow solution.
4HNO3(aq)  2H2O(l) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
(d) Wash the affected area with plenty of water.

39.  Dissolve some pure vitamin C in distilled/deionized water to get a dilute


solution.
 Add some zinc granules to the vitamin C solution. Colourless gas bubbles
are evolved from the surface of the granules. When the gas is collected and
tested with a burning splint, it will give a ‘pop’ sound, indicating that the
gas is hydrogen.
 Add a few sodium hydroxide pellets to the vitamin C solution and stir. The
colourless mixture becomes warm because neutralization reaction is
exothermic.
 Add one spatula measure of potassium carbonate solid to the vitamin C
solution. Colourless gas bubbles are given off. The gas can turn limewater
milky, indicating that it is carbon dioxide.

40.  Concentrated hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulphuric acid are three
common concentrated acids found in the school laboratory. They would
‘eat away’ other substances such as metals, clothes, paper and the skin.
 Concentrated hydrochloric acid is highly corrosive because of its high
concentration of hydrogen ions.
 The corrosive nature of concentrated nitric acid is mainly due to its
oxidizing property.
 Concentrated sulphuric acid is also highly corrosive because of its
dehydrating and oxidizing properties. It is even more corrosive than
concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It quickly dehydrates the
skin, causing severe burns.
 Concentrated sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions are
common concentrated alkalis found in the school laboratory. They are very
corrosive especially when they are hot.
 They attack the skin readily and stain it yellow or even black.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 5


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 15 Concentrations of solutions

Class Practice

A15.1
(a) No. of moles of K2SO4 = 0.15 mol
0.15 mol
Molarity of the solution = 500 dm 3 = 0.30 mol dm3 (or M)
1000
(b) Molar mass of K2SO4 = 39.1  2 + 32.1 + 16.0  4 g mol1 = 174.3 g mol1
Concentration of the solution = 0.30 mol dm3  174.3 g mol1 = 52.3 g dm3

A15.2
10 g
(a) (i) Concentration in g dm3 = = 20 g dm3
0.5 dm3
(ii) Molar mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol1 = 56.1 g mol1
10 g
No. of moles of KOH = = 0.178 mol
56.1 g mol1
0.178 mol
Molarity of the solution (mol dm3) = = 0.356 mol dm3 (or M)
0.5 dm 3
1000
(b) (i) Volume of the solution in dm3 = dm3 = 1.0 dm3
1000
10 g
Concentration in g dm3 = 3 = 10 g dm
3
1.0 dm
(ii) Molar mass of KOH = 39.1 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol1 = 56.1 g mol1
10 g
No. of moles of KOH = =0.178mol
56.1 g mol1
0.178 mol
Molarity of the solution (mol dm3) = =0.178 mol dm3 (or M)
1.0 dm 3
250
(c) (i) Volume of the solution in dm3 = dm3 = 0.25 dm3
1000
3g
Concentration in g dm3 = = 12 g dm3
0.25 dm 3
(ii) Molar mass of NaNO3 = 23.0 + 14.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 85.0 g mol1
3g
No. of moles of NaNO3 = 85.0 g mol 1 = 0.0353 mol
0.0353 mol
Molarity of the solution (mol dm3) = = 0.141 mol dm3 (or M)
0.25 dm 3
5.3 g
(d) (i) Concentration in g dm3 = = 2.65 g dm3
2 dm3
(ii) Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 106 g mol1
5.3 g
No. of moles of Na2CO3 = 106 g mol 1 = 0.0500 mol
0.0500 mol
Molarity of the solution (mol dm3) = = 0.0250 mol dm3 (or
2 dm 3
M)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
100
(e) (i) Volume of the solution in dm3 = dm3 = 0.100 dm3
1000
9.8 g
Concentration in g dm3 = 3 = 98.0 g dm
3
0.10 dm
(ii) Molar mass of H2SO4 = 1.0  2 + 32.1 + 16.0  4 g mol1 = 98.1 g mol1
9.8 g
No. of moles of H2SO4 = = 0.100 mol
98.1 g mol1
0.100 mol
Molarity of the solution (mol dm3) = = 1.00 mol dm3 (or M)
0.10 dm 3

A15.3
50.0
No. of moles of Na2SO4 = 0.40 mol dm3  dm3 = 0.0200 mol
1000

A15.4
0.80 mol
Volume of NaOH solution = = 1.6 dm3
0.50 mol dm 3

A15.5
(a) No. of moles of Na2SO4 in 500.0 cm3 of solution
500.0
= 0.50 mol dm3  dm3 = 0.250 mol
1000
Mass of Na2SO4 = 0.250 mol  (23.0  2 + 32.1 + 16.0  4) g mol1 = 35.5 g
(b) No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 0.25 dm3 of solution
= 0.15 mol dm3  0.25 dm3 = 0.0375 mol
Mass of Na2CO3 = 0.0375 mol  (23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3) g mol1 = 3.98 g

A15.6
1. 1 mole of Al2(SO4)3 contains 2 moles of Al3+ ions and 3 moles of SO42 ions.
 molarity of Al3+ ions = 0.50 M  2 = 1.0 M (or 1.0 mol dm3)
Molarity of SO42 ions = 0.50 M  3 = 1.5 M (or 1.5 mol dm3)
25.0
2. No. of moles of K2CO3 = 0.20 mol dm3  dm3 = 0.0050 mol
1000
1 mole of K2CO3 contains 2 moles of K+ ions and 1 mole of CO32 ions.
 number of moles of K+ ions = 0.0050 mol  2 =0.010 mol
Number of moles of CO32 ions = 0.0050 mol

A15.7
1. (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
25.0 250.0
0.1  =M
1000 1000
M = 0.01
Molar concentration of diluted NaOH(aq) = 0.01 M

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
0.5
2. After diluting ten times, the molarity of the diluted solution will be M =
10
0.05 M
(MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
25.0 V
0.5  = 0.05 
1000 1000
V = 250
Volume of distilled water to be added = (250 – 25) cm3 = 225 cm3

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 8


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 15 Concentrations of solutions

Chapter Exercise

1. moles, per dm3


2. moles, volume
3. molarity, volume
4. A
5. C
6. D
7. C
8. D
9. D
10. D
11. A
12. C
13. D
14. A
15. C
16. B
17. C
18. D
19. C
20. B
21. B
22. B
23. B
24. B

25. mol dm3 or M

0.35 mol
26. (a) Molarity of K2CO3 = 250.0 dm 3 = 1.40 M
1000
(b) Molar mass of K2CO3 = 39.1  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1= 138.2 g mol1
Concentration of K2CO3 in g dm3 = 1.40 mol dm3  138.2 g mol1
= 193 g dm3

27. Molar mass of (COOH)22H2O


= (12.0 + 16.0  2 + 1.0)  2 + 2  (1.0  2 + 16.0) g mol1 = 126 g mol1
14.5 g
No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O used = 126 g mol 1 = 0.115 mol
0.115 mol
Molarity of the solution = 500.0 = 0.230 M
dm 3
1000

125.0
28. (a) No. of moles of Mg(NO3)2 present = 1.5 mol dm3  dm3
1000
= 0.1875 mol

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

(b) Molar mass of Mg(NO3)2 = 24.3 + (14.0 + 16.0  3)  2 g mol1


= 148.3 g mol1
Mass of Mg(NO3)2 used = 0.1875 mol  148.3 g mol1 = 27.81 g

29. Molar mass of NaOH = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol1 = 40.0 g mol1
4g
No. of moles of NaOH used = 40.0 g mol 1 = 0.100 mol
0.100 mol 3 3
Volume of solution prepared =  3 = 0.833 dm (or 833 cm )
0.12 mol dm

30. Molar mass of Na2CO310H2O


= 23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 + 10  (1.0  2 + 16.0) g mol1 = 286 g mol1
25.0 g
286 g mol 1
Molarity of Na2CO3 = = 0.350 M
250.0
dm 3
1000
1 mol of Na2CO3 contains 2 moles of Na+ ions and 1 mole of CO32 ions.
 molarity of Na+ ions = 0.350 M  2 = 0.700 M
Molarity of CO32 ions = 0.350 M

31. (a) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution


25.0 (25.0  25.0)
11.0  =M
1000 1000
M = 5.50
Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 5.50 M
(b) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
50.0 (50.0  75.0)
5.50  =M
1000 1000
M = 2.20
Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 2.20 M
(c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
125 (125  100)
2.20  =M
1000 1000
M = 1.22
Molarity of diluted HCl(aq) = 1.22 M

32. (a) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution


45.0 V
0.65  = 0.45 
1000 1000
V = 65.0
Volume of distilled water needed = 65.0 – 45.0 cm3 = 20.0 cm3
(b) (MV)before evaporation = (MV)after evaporation
65.0 30.0
0.45  =M
1000 1000
M = 0.975
Molarity of HNO3 after evaporation = 0.975 M

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
34
33. (a) Mass of NH3 in 1 cm3 of the solution = 0.68 g cm3   1 cm3 = 0.231
1000
g
Mass of NH3 in 1 dm3 of the solution is 0.231 g  1000 = 231 g
231 g
(b) Molarity of NH3 solution = (14.0  1.0  3)g mol 1 = 13.6 M
1 dm 3

(c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution


13.6  1 = 1  V
V = 13.6
Volume of distilled water = 13.6 – 1 dm3 = 12.6 dm3

34. (a) No. of moles of oxalic acid


1.8 g
= = 0.0143
12.0  16.0  2  1.0  2  2  (1.0  2  16.0) g mol
1

mol
0.0143 mol
(b) Molarity of oxalic acid = 25.0 dm 3 = 0.572 M
1000
(c) (MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
25.0 250.0
0.572  =M
1000 1000
M = 0.0572
Molarity of the diluted oxalic acid = 0.0572 M

35.
Molar Molarity
Formula of Mass of Volume of Concentration of
mass
solute solute (g) solution solution cation anion solution (in g dm3)
(g mol1)
(a) NaCl 58.5 117 2.00 dm3 1.00 M 1.00 M 1.00 M 58.5

(b) AgNO3 170 17.0 1.00 dm3 0.100 M 0.100 M 0.100 M 17.0

(c) Na2CO3 106 2.65 500 cm3 0.050 M 0.100 M 0.050 M 5.30

(d) MgCl2 95.3 29.4 1.50 dm3 0.206 M 0.206 M 0.412 M 19.6

(e) C6H12O6 180 0.36 12.0 cm3 0.167 M   30.0

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 16 Indicators and pH

Class Practice

A16.1
(a) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (1.000) = 0
(b) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (0.100) = 1
(c) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (0.010) = 2
(d) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (0.001) = 3

A16.2
1. A: weakly acidic
B: strongly acidic
C: weakly alkaline
D: neutral
2. (a) The pH of the solution would increase. Magnesium reacts with the
hydrogen ions in aqueous solution to give hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq)  Mg2+(aq) + H2(g)
When H+(aq) ions are removed, [H+(aq)] decreases and the pH of the
solution increases.
(b) The pH of the solution would decrease. Hydrogen chloride gas dissolves in
water and ionizes completely to give H+(aq) ions. When H+(aq) ions are
formed, [H+(aq)] increases and the pH of the solution decreases.

A16.3
B: Incorrect conclusion. When the litmus is blue, the pH of solution must be greater
than 8 which is alkaline.
C: Incorrect conclusion. Phenolphthalein is colourless when the pH of the solution
is below 8.3. This solution can be acidic, neutral or weakly alkaline.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 12


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 16 Indicators and pH

Chapter Exercise

1. (a) higher
(b) equal
(c) lower
2. H+(aq), pH, pH
3. [H+(aq)]
4. higher, [H+(aq)]
5. colour, ethyl orange, itmus, henolphthalein
6. Universal, Universal, pH
7. pH meter
8. B
9. A
10. C
11. A
12. A
13. A
14. A
15. D
16. B
17. A
18. C
19. A
20. A
21. C
22. B
23. A

24. (a) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (1.8  105) = (4.7) = 4.7


Since the pH < 7, this solution is acidic.
(b) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (7.2  109) = (8.1) = 8.1
Since the pH > 7, this solution is alkaline.
(c) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (0.02) = (1.7) = 1.7
Since the pH < 7, this solution is acidic.

25. (a) Using the equation, pH = log [H+(aq)]


5.2 = log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 6.3  106 M
(b) 8.4 = log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 4.0  109 M
(c) 3.68 = log [H+(aq)]
[H+(aq)] = 2.09  104 M

26. Refer to Coursebook 2 Page 54 Figure 16.3.

27. (a) Use pH paper/universal indicator/pH meter/data-logger with pH electrode.


(Any TWO)
(b) Oven cleaner, distilled water, orange juice
(c) Orange juice

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
28. (a) pH meter
(b) Lightweight/compact/waterproof/extremely easy to use/quick to obtain
accurate readings (Any TWO)

29.  One way to determine the pH of an aqueous solution is to use acid-base


indicators. An acid-base indicator is a special dye added to the solution to
be tested. Its colour changes with different pH values of the solution.
 Some common acid-base indicators are litmus, methyl orange and
phenolphthalein.
 However, these indicators cannot tell accurately the pH of a solution. They
can only give a rough idea of the acidity or alkalinity.
 Another way to measure pH value of a solution is to use universal
indicator. It is a mixture of several indicators which gives different colours
in different pH ranges. Universal indicator paper is also called pH paper.
 The most accurate way to tell the pH of a solution is to use pH meter or
data-logger. Both involve the dipping of a pH electrode into the testing
solution.
 The pH of a solution is simply read from the display of the meter.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 14


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis

Class Practice

A17.1
(a) OH(aq)/hydrated hydroxide ion
(b) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)
(c) NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali than NH3(aq). (Being a stronger alkali, NaOH(aq)
can dissociate to a greater extent to give a high concentration of mobile ions (Na +
(aq) and OH(aq)) in aqueous solution. This explains the higher electrical
conductivity of 0.1 M NaOH(aq).)
(d) As NaOH(aq) is a stronger alkali than NH3(aq), 0.1 M NaOH(aq) is more alkaline
than 0.1 M NH3(aq). Thus, the former has a higher pH.

A17.2
(a) Sulphuric acid molecules
(b) Water molecules, hydrogen ions, nitrate ions, hydroxide ions
(c) Water molecules, citric acid molecules, hydrogen ions, citrate ions, hydroxide
ions
(d) Water molecules, ammonia molecules, ammonium ions, hydroxide ions,
hydrogen ions

A17.3
Put equal volumes (about 80.0 cm3) of 0.1 M HCl(aq) and 0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) into
two 100 cm3 beakers separately. Use the electronic balance to weigh equal masses
(about 0.4 g) of lumps of calcium carbonate and put them into the two acids. Observe
and compare the rates of evolution of gas bubbles from the two reaction mixtures.
The acid that has a higher rate of evolution of gas should be the stronger acid ―
HCl(aq) in this case. It can be explained that the stronger acid can ionize more
completely to give a higher concentration of hydrogen ions and its reaction with
calcium carbonate will be faster.

A17.4
1. (a) concentrated/weak
(b) dilute/weak
(c) dilute/strong
(d) concentrated/strong
2. (a) H2SO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
2H+(aq) + CO32(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(b) CH3COOH(aq) + KHCO3(aq)  CH3COOK(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
CH3COOH(aq) + HCO3(aq)  CH3COO(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
or H+(aq) + HCO3(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l)

A17.5
(a) The statement is wrong. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid which can ionize in
water completely. It has such a high pH (5) because it is only a dilute solution. It
should be noted that pH is a measure of [H+(aq)] but not a measure of strength of
acid or alkali.
(b) The statement is wrong. Ethanoic acid is only a weak acid whatever its
concentration is.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 15


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 17 Strength of acids and alkalis

Chapter Exercise

1. (a) completely, highly, ydrochloric


(b) slightly, thanoic
2. (a) completetly, odium hydroxide
(b) slightly, mmonia
3. (a) higher
(b) lower
(c) higher
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. A
8. C
9. B
10. B
11. A
12. A

13. In the presence of water, NH 3(aq) reacts with water to give OH (aq) ions which
make the solution alkaline.
NH3(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)

Red litmus turns blue in the alkaline solution.

14. (a) Ethanoic acid is a weak acid while hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.
(b) A strong acid is one which completely/highly ionizes in water.
A weak acid is one which only slightly/incompletely/partially ionizes in
water.
(c) Since hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid than ethanoic acid, the former
ionizes more completely than the latter. For the same molar concentration of
the two acids, hydrochloric acid has a higher molar concentration of
hydrogen ions. Thus, it has a lower pH.
(d) By using pH meter
(e) 1. Put a known volume of 1.1 M hydrochloric acid into the container and
record the brightness of the light bulb.
2. Repeat step 1 using the same volume of 1.1 M ethanoic acid.
3. Compare the brightness of the light bulb in steps 1 and 2.
4. The brightness of the light bulb indicates the strength of the acid. The
brighter the light bulb, the stronger the acid is.

15. (a) HA(aq) ⇌ H+(aq) + A (aq)


(b) H+(aq), OH(aq), HA(aq), A(aq)

16. (a) HCl(aq) is a strong acid. 0.1 M HCl will ionize completely to give 0.1 M
[H+(aq)].
(b) pH = log [H+(aq)] = log (0.1) = 1

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 16


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

(c) CH3COOH(aq) is a weak acid, so it ionizes only slightly to give a small


amount of H+(aq).
0.1 M CH3COOH(aq) gives H+(aq) ions with concentration lower than 0.1
M. Hence, the pH of 0.1 M CH3COOH is not 1 but higher than 1.

17.  The statement of the S4 student is wrong.


 The pH value is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration.
 The higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the lower is the pH value.
 A weak acid ionizes only very slightly in water giving a low concentration
of hydrogen ions. The resultant acid solution can have a pH of 5.
 However, this can also occur for a strong acid. Although a strong acid
ionizes completely in water, if the solution is a very dilute one, the
concentration of hydrogen ions will not be too high. Thus, a dilute solution
of a strong acid can also have a pH of 5.

18.  When a piece of blue litmus paper is dipped in some solid citric acid, there
is no colour change of the litmus paper. When some solid citric acid is
dissolved in some deionized water, the aqueous solution turns the blue
litmus paper red.
 When a magnesium ribbon is put in some solid citric acid, there is no gas
formed. When a magnesium ribbon is put into an aqueous solution of citric
acid, colourless gas bubbles (H2(g)) are evolved.
 When sodium carbonate powder is mixed with solid citric acid, there is no
sign of gas formed. When some sodium carbonate powder is dissolved in
aqueous solution of citric acid, colourless gas bubbles (CO2(g)) are evolved.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 17


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization

Class Practice

A18.1
(a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
OH(aq) + H+(aq)  H2O(l)
(b) CH3COOH(aq) + KOH(aq)  CH3COOK(aq) + H2O(l)
CH3COOH(aq) + OH(aq)  CH3COO(aq) + H2O(l)
or H+(aq) + OH(aq)  H2O(l)
(c) Fe2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq)  2FeCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Fe2O3(s) + 6H+(aq)  2Fe3+(aq) + 3H2O(l)

A18.2
(a) 20 cm3
(b) (i) Alkaline
(ii) For equal concentrations of NaOH(aq) and HCl(aq), equal volumes would
neutralize each other. As there is 30 cm 3 alkali added, it is in excess. Thus,
the resultant solution is alkaline.
(c) Neutralization is an exothermic reaction. No more heat is given out when the
neutralization is complete. Addition of excess alkali will cool down the mixture.
Thus, the temperature drops.
(d) The temperature change will be more or less the same as the change when 20.0
cm3 of 2 M HCl is used. Although the volumes of the two solutions are doubled,
the numbers of moles of H+(aq) and OH(aq) ions reacting are also doubled.
Twice as much heat is given out, but this is used to heat up twice the volume of
the solution. For this reason, both experiments have the same rise in temperature.

A18.3
1. (a) Soluble
(b) Insoluble
(c) Soluble
(d) Soluble
(e) Insoluble
(f) Insoluble
(g) Soluble
(h) Soluble
2. (a) NaNO3
(b) KNO3
(c) CuSO4
(d) PbSO4/PbCl2
(e) MgCO3
(f) AgCl
(g) BaSO4

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 18


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
A18.4
1. (a) Magnesium oxide/magnesium hydroxide/magnesium carbonate (Any
TWO)
Dilute hydrochloric acid
(b) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) ……………………….….(1)
Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) ……………………….(2)
MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) ……………..(3)
(c) Comparing (1) and (2):
(i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a
little warm.
(ii) None
Comparing (2) and (3):
(i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a
little warm.
(ii) In (2), there are no gas bubbles evolved. In (3), effervescence (CO 2(g)
is given off) occurs.
Comparing (1) and (3):
(i) Both solids dissolve to give a colourless solution./Test tubes become a
little warm.
(ii) In (1), there are no gas bubbles evolved. In (3), effervescence (CO 2(g)
is given off) occurs.
2. (a) CaCO3 + H2SO4  CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
(b) Calcium sulphate is only slightly soluble. The undissolved salt forms a
protective layer on the unchanged calcium carbonate, preventing further
reaction.

A18.5
(a) Yes. HNO3(aq) and NaOH(aq)
(b) Yes. HCl(aq) and NH3(aq)
(c) No. Mg(OH)2 is insoluble in water, so no standard solution can be prepared for
titration.
(d) No. Pb(OH)2 is insoluble in water, so no standard solution can be prepared for
titration.

A18.6
1. (a) (i) AgNO3(aq) + NaBr(aq)  AgBr(s) + NaNO3(aq)
(ii) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)  MgCO3(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
(b) (i) Ag+(aq) + Br(aq)  AgBr(s)
(ii) Mg2+(aq) + CO32(aq)  MgCO3(s)
2. (a) Impracticable. All salts are soluble. They cannot be separated by
crystallization.
(b) Practicable.
(c) Impracticable. PbSO4 is insoluble. Pb2+ ions in the solid cannot combine
with the Cl ions in the aqueous solution.

A18.7
1. (a) Copper(II) chloride, hydrochloric acid
(b) Iron(III) sulphate, sulphuric acid
(c) Zinc nitrate, nitric acid
2. (a) (CH3COO)2Ca
(b) Pb(NO3)2
(c) (NH4)2SO4
© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 19
HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
A18.8
1. (a) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(b) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
2. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive.
A18.9
(a) (i) Sodium hydrogencarbonate, magnesium hydroxide and aluminium
hydroxide
(ii) NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Al(OH)3(s) + 3HCl(aq)  AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
(b) Calcium oxide: it reacts with acid and water producing a lot of heat which causes
chemical burns.
Sodium hydroxide: it is irritating and corrosive, so it will cause serious burns in
the mouth and oesophagus.
Ammonia: it is a toxic gas with an irritating smell.
A18.10
(a) Na2CO3 + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
(b) 2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 20


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 18 Salts and neutralization

Chapter Exercise
1. hydrogen, H+, hydroxide, OH, oxide, O2, water
2. given out, liberated, exothermic
3. soluble, insoluble
4. (a) metal, base, carbonate
(a) (i) metal, hydrogen
(a) (ii) base, water
(a) (iii) carbonate, carbon dioxide, water, filtration, crystallization
(b) alkali, carbonate, alkali, water, crystallization
5. precipitation, precipitate
6. ionizable, metallic, ammonium
7. (a) pH
(b) acid
(c) waste
(d) fertilizers
8. C
9. B
10. C
11. A
12. C
13. D
14. C
15. A
16. C
17. C
18. D
19. D
20. D
21. A
22. B
23. B
24. B
25. D
26. A
27. C
28. A
29. B
30. D

31. (a) Neutralization


(b) H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(c) H+(aq) + OH (aq)  H2O(l)
(d) The temperature of the reaction mixture would increase because
neutralization is an exothermic reaction.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 21


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
32. (a)

era
mp

C
era
tur
mp

// C
Te

tur
Te

ee
oo

Volume of NaOH added/cm3

(b) Temperature rises because the reaction between an acid and an alkali is
exothermic.
(c) When all the acid has just been reacted completely, no more neutralization
occurs. This means that no more heat is given out. Thus, the rise in
temperature stops and a maximum point is established.
(d) As neutralization has completed, no more heat is given out. Addition of
excess alkali will cool down the mixture. Thus, the temperature drops.
(e) H+(aq) + OH(aq)  H2O(l)
(f) (i) 40.00 cm3
(ii) Same/more or less the same. Although the amount of heat released is
doubled, the volume of the solution to be heated is also doubled.

33. (a) (i) Sodium ethanoate


CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)  CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)
(ii) Copper(II) nitrate
2HNO3(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)  Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(iii) Zinc sulphate
H2SO4(aq) + ZnO(s)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(iv) Calcium chloride
2HCl(aq) + CaO(s)  CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
(b) Water/H2O

34. (a) Silver iodide/silver carbonate/lead(II) iodide/lead(II) carbonate/lead(II)


sulphate/barium carbonate/barium sulphate (Any THREE)
(b) Ag+(aq) + I(aq)  AgI(s)
2Ag+(aq) + CO32(aq)  Ag2CO3(s)
Pb2+(aq) + 2I(aq)  PbI2(s)
Pb2+(aq) + CO32(aq)  PbCO3(s)
Pb2+(aq) + SO42(aq)  PbSO4(s)
Ba2+(aq) + CO32(aq)  BaCO3(s)
Ba2+(aq) + SO42(aq)  BaSO4(s)
(Any THREE)

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 22


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
35. (a) Magnesium, magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium
carbonate
(b) Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq)  MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)
MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq)  MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
Mg(OH)2(s) + H2SO4(aq)  MgSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
MgCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq)  MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

36. (a) Zinc nitrate


(b) ZnCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  Zn(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(c) Effervescence stopped./Insoluble solid Smithsonite can be seen.
(d) To make sure that all the nitric acid has been used up.
(e)
filter paper inside
excess powdered Smithsonite
filter funnel

filtrate (Zn(NO3)2(aq))

100.0
(f) No. of moles of HNO3 used = 1.0  mol = 0.100
1000
mol
0.100
No. of moles of Zn(NO3)2 produced = mol = 0.0500 mol
2
Formula mass of Zn(NO3)2
= 65.4 + (14.0 + 16.0  3)  2 g mol1 = 189.4 g mol1
Theoretical mass of Zn(NO3)2 = 0.0500 mol  189.4 g mol1 = 9.47 g

37. (a) Titration


(b) Acid X: Sulphuric acid
Alkali Y: Sodium hydroxide
(c) At this point, just enough acid X has been added to neutralize the alkali Y.
(d)  Add a little activated charcoal to the coloured solution. Warm and then
filter the mixture. The filtrate would be a colourless solution of sodium
sulphate.
OR
 Repeat the experiment with exactly the same volumes of acid and alkali
needed for neutralization. However, do not add methyl orange indicator at
the start this time.
(e) Crystallization

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 23


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
38.
Cation
K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Cu2+ NH4+ Ag+ Ba2+
Anion
NO3

HCO3

CO32 CaCO3 MgCO3 ZnCO3 FeCO3 PbCO3 CuCO3 Ag2CO3 BaCO3



Cl PbCl2 AgCl
Br PbBr2 AgBr

I PbI2 AgI
SO42 *CaSO4 PbSO4 BaSO4
*CaSO4 is only sparingly soluble.

39.
Salt Parent acid Parent base/alkali
Ca(NO3)2 HNO3 CaO/Ca(OH)2
NH4Cl HCl NH3
Fe2(SO4)3 H2SO4 Fe2O3/Fe(OH)3
CH3COOK CH3COOH KOH

40. (a) Calcium hydroxide


(b) CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)
limestone
CaO(s) + H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(s)
quicklime slaked lime
(c) To neutralize acids in soil.
(d) To neutralize acidic liquid waste before disposal.
(e) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

41. (a) Most plants cannot grow well in soils which are too acidic. To decrease the
acidity of the soils, farmers often add slaked lime to neutralize acids in soil.
Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(b) ‘Milk of Magnesia’ neutralizes the excess acid in the stomach which causes
stomach pain.
Mg(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq)  Mg2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 24


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
42.  Add copper(II) oxide a little at a time to dilute sulphuric acid with stirring
and warming until some excess copper(II) oxide remains undissolved. This
is to ensure that all the sulphuric acid has reacted completely.
 Filter off the excess copper(II) oxide using filter paper and filter funnel.
The filtrate is the copper(II) sulphate solution.
 Boil the solution to concentrate the filtrate. Then cool the hot concentrated
solution slowly to room temperature to separate out the hydrated copper(II)
sulphate crystals.
 Finally, filter, wash and dry the hydrated copper(II) sulphate with some
filter paper.

43.  Use a pipette to transfer 25.0 cm3 of dilute nitric acid to a clean conical
flask. Add two drops of phenolphthalein indicator to give a colourless
solution.
 Run dilute sodium hydroxide solution from a burette into the flask until
the solution just turns to pink colour. The resultant solution is a sodium
nitrate solution together with the phenolphthalein indicator.
 Sodium salt can be obtained as follows:
Add a little activated charcoal to the above pink solution to absorb the
phenolphthalein indicator. Then remove the charcoal by filtration. The
filtrate should be a colourless solution of sodium nitrate. (OR Repeat the
experiment with exactly the same volumes of nitric acid and sodium
hydroxide needed for neutralization (as found by the above experiment).
But, this time do not add phenolphthalein indicator at the start. A solution
of sodium nitrate is formed.)
 Boil to concentrate the sodium nitrate solution. Then cool the hot
concentrated solution slowly to room temperature to separate out the
sodium nitrate crystals.
 Finally, filter, wash and dry the sodium nitrate crystals with some filter
paper.

44.  Farmers often add powdered limestone (a natural form of calcium


carbonate) or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) to neutralize the acidic soil.
This is called the liming of soil which can adjust the soil pH suitable for
plant growth.
 A suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water is called ‘Milk of
Magnesia’ which can be used as antacid to neutralize the excess acid in
the stomach and help to relieve stomach pain.
 Liquid wastes from the electroplating and dyeing industries are usually
acidic which will cause serious water pollution and kill water life. Slaked
lime or sodium carbonate are usually used to neutralize the liquid wastes.
 Many common fertilizers are made by neutralization. For example,
ammonium nitrate is produced by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia.
After crystallization, ammonium nitrate crystals are packed and sold to
farmers.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 25


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis

Class Practice

A19.1
1. (a) Beaker
(b) Volumetric flask
(c) Pipette filler
(d) Electronic balance
(e) Pipette
2. (a) Pipette (25.0 cm3 type)
(b) Measuring cylinder
(c) Electronic balance
(d) Volumetric flask (250.0 cm3 type)

A19.2
500.0
(a) No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O(s) required = 0.1  mol = 0.0500 mol
1000
Mass of (COOH)22H2O(s) required
= 0.05  (12.0 + 16.0  2 + 1.0)  2 + 2  (1.0  2 + 16.0) g = 6.30 g
6.45
126
(b) Molarity = M = 0.102 M
500.0
1000
(c) Yes. This is because the accurate molarity of the solution is known.
(d) No. of moles of (COOH)22H2O(s) remains unchanged on dilution.
(MV)before dilution = (MV)after dilution
V 250.0
0.102  = 0.0150 
1000 1000
V = 36.8
Thus, the volume of 0.102 M ethanedioic acid solution required is 36.8 cm3.

A19.3
(a) After washing the burette, some distilled water (a few drops) may be left inside
the burette. When the given standard hydrochloric acid fills the burette, it is
diluted and the molarity of the acid is no longer known. The given hydrochloric
acid is not a standard solution any more.
(b) The burette should be washed one or two times with the given standard
hydrochloric acid, i.e. the solution it is to deliver.
(c) Pipette

A19.4
(a) H+(aq) + OH(aq)  H2O(l)
(b) Pipette
(c) Yellow to orange
(d) Methyl orange

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 26


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
A19.5
(a) NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq)  NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
25.0
No. of moles of NaOH(aq) present = 0.100  mol = 0.0250 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : HCl = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of HCl(aq) needed = 0.0250 mol
0.0250
Volume of 0.100 M HCl(aq) needed = dm3 = 0.250 dm3 = 25.0 cm3
0.1
(b) Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
20.0
No. of moles of Na2CO3(aq) present = 0.050  mol = 0.00100 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 : HCl = 1 : 2.
 no. of moles of HCl(aq) needed = 0.00100  2 mol = 0.00200 mol
0.00200
Volume of 0.1 M HCl(aq) needed = dm3 = 0.0200 dm3 = 20.0 cm3
0.1

A19.6
2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
2.65 g
250.0 cm3
26.30 cm3 (25.0 cm3 used)
?M
Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 106 g mol1
2.65
No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 250.0 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.0250 mol
106
25.0
No. of moles of Na2CO3 in 25.0 cm3 of solution = 0.0250  mol = 2.50  103
250.0
mol
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl : Na2CO3 = 2 : 1.
 no. of moles of HCl in 26.30 cm3 = 2.50  103  2 mol = 5.00  103 mol
5.00  10 3
Molarity of HCl solution = 26.30 M = 0.190 M
1000

A19.7
(a) Molar mass of sodium hydroxide = 23.0 + 16.0 + 1.0 g mol1 = 40.0 g mol1
20.0
No. of moles of sodium hydroxide present = mol = 0.500 mol
40.0
0.500
Molarity of solution = 250.0 M = 2.00 M
1000
18.0
(b) No. of moles of HnA present = mol = 0.200 mol
90.0
0.200
Molarity of solution = 100.0 M = 2.00 M
1000
50.0
(c) (i) No. of moles of NaOH = 2.00  mol = 0.100 mol
1000.0
25.0
(ii) No. of moles of HnA = 2.00  mol = 0.0500 mol
1000.0
(iii) 2 mol

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(iv) 2
(v) H2A(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)  Na2A(aq) + 2H2O(l)

A19.8
(a) 2NaOH(aq) + H2X(aq)  Na2X(aq) + 2H2O(l)
25.0 cm3 30.00 cm3
0.120 M ?M
25.0
No. of moles of NaOH present = 0.120  mol = 3.00  103 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : H2X = 2 : 1.
3.00  10 3
 no. of moles of H2X needed = mol = 1.50  103 mol
2
1.50  10 3
Molarity of H2X(aq) = 30.00 M = 0.05 M
1000
(b) Since 1 dm3 H2X contains 6.30 g or 0.05 mol of the solute,
6.3
molar mass of H2X = g mol-1 = 126 g mol1
0.05

A19.9
H2AnH2O(s) + 2KOH(aq)  K2A(aq) + (n+2)H2O(l)
1.26 g
0.126 g (25.0 cm3 used) 0.100 M
n=? 20.00 cm3
Molar mass of H2AnH2O = (90.0 + 18.0n) g mol1
20.00
No. of moles of KOH needed = 0.100  mol = 2.00  103 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of H2AnH2O : KOH = 1 : 2.
2.00  10 3
 no. of moles of H2AnH2O present = mol = 1.00  103 mol
2
mass of H2 A  nH2O
No. of moles of H2AnH2O =
molar mass of H2 A  nH2O
0.126
1.00  103 =
90.0  18.0n
n=2
There are 2 molecules of water of crystallization per molecule of the hydrated acid.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 28


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
A19.10
K2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2KCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
5.00 g 2.00 M
(with impurity) 34.20 cm3
? % by mass
No. of moles of hydrochloric acid used to react with K2CO3
34.20
= 2.00  mol = 0.0684 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of K2CO3 : HCl = 1 : 2.
0.0684
 no. of moles of K2CO3 in the sample = mol = 0.0342 mol
2
Molar mass of K2CO3 = 39.1  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 138.2 g mol1
Mass of K2CO3 in the sample = 0.0342 mol  138.2 g mol1 = 4.73 g
4.73
Percentage purity of the K2CO3 sample =  100% = 94.6%
5.00

A19.11
(a) About 6.5 g of sodium carbonate solid was weighed accurately using an
electronic balance.
(b) The solution was transferred to a 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask using a filter funnel.
(c) 2 or 3 drops of methyl orange indicator solution were added to the conical flask.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 29


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 19 Volumetric analysis involving acids and alkalis

Chapter Exercise

1. volumes
2. molarity, solid, concentrated
3. volumetric
4. pipette, pipette
5. burette
6. water, hold/deliver, conical flask, water
7. burette, conical flask, end point, endpoint, indicator, conical flask
8. end point
9. strength
(a) methyl orange, phenolphthalein
(b) methyl orange
(c) phenolphthalein
10. molarity, standard
11. past, third, passive, grammatical
12. B
13. D
14. B
15. D
16. D
17. D
18. D
19. A
20. B
21. A
22. C
23. A
24. B
25. C
26. B
27. B
28. B
29. C
30. B
31. B
32. A
33. B

34. (a) A standard solution is a solution of accurately known molar


concentration/molarity.
(b) Volumetric flask
(c) High purity/chemically stable/easily dissolved in water/involatile/not
hygroscopic (Any THREE)
(d) (1) Dissolve all the solid in a beaker with about 100 cm3 of distilled water.
(2) Pour the solution completely (include all washings) into a 250.0 cm 3
volumetric flask.
(3) Fill the volumetric flask with distilled water until the bottom of the
meniscus reaches the graduation mark.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(4) Stopper the flask and invert the flask several times to mix the contents
thoroughly.
(e) Molar mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate
= 23.0  2 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 106 g mol1
10.6
No. of moles of solute used = mol = 0.100 mol
106
0.100
Molarity of solution = 250.0 M = 0.400 M
1000

35. (a) (i) Burette


(ii) Wash the burette with distilled water and then with the sulphuric acid.
Fill the burette with sulphuric acid and make sure no bubbles are
trapped in the jet.
(b) (i) Although a little water would remain in the conical flask, this will not
change the amount of solute present.
(ii) Its conical shape allows it to be swirled gently without spilling out the
content.
(c) Methyl orange
(d) To indicate that the reaction of the two solutions (sodium carbonate and
sulphuric acid) has completed.
(e) A white background allows the detection of colour change to be easier and
more accurate.
(f) No. of moles of sodium carbonate solution used
25.0
= 0.0527  mol = 0.00132 mol
1000
Na2CO3 + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
From the equation, mole ratio of Na2CO3 : H2SO4 = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of sulphuric acid in 25.80 cm3 of solution = 0.00132 mol
0.00132
Molarity of sulphuric acid = 25.80 M = 0.0512 M
1000

36. (a) CO32(aq) + 2H+(aq)  CO2(g) + H2O(l)


(b) Methyl orange; yellow to orange
2.65
(c) No. of moles of Na2CO3 used = mol = 0.0250 mol
23.0  2  12.0  16.0  3
0
Molarity of Na2CO3 prepared = 250.0 M = 0.100 M
1000
25.0
(d) (i) No. of moles of Na2CO3 = 0.100  mol = 0.00250 mol
1000
(OR Since 25.0 cm3 is withdrawn from 250.0 cm3 of solution i.e. one-
tenth of the original solution is withdrawn.
0.0250
 no. of moles of Na2CO3 used = mol = 0.00250 mol)
10

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(ii) From the equation in (a), mole ratio of CO3 : H+ = 1 : 2.
2

 no. of moles of HCl in 20.0 cm3 of solution


= 0.00250  2 mol = 0.00500 mol

00500
Molarity of the acid = 20.00 M = 0.250 M
1000

37. (a) Volumetric flask


(b) (i) Pipette
(ii) Wash with distilled water and then with the solution it is to deliver i.e.
the acid solution.
(iii) Pipette filler
 22.10  22.00  21.90 3
(c) A reasonable average volume = cm = 22.00 cm3
3
The volumes of 1.50 M KOH delivered in titrations 1,2,3 and 4 are 22.90
cm3, 22.10 cm3, 22.00 cm3 and 21.90 cm3 respectively. The value 22.90 cm3
obviously deviates a lot from all the others and may be discarded.
(d) No. of moles of KOH required to neutralize 25.0 cm3 of the excess acid
22.00
= 1.50  mol = 0.0330 mol
1000
10.80
No. of moles of acid in 250.0 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.110 mol
98.0
No. of moles of acid in 25.0 cm3 of solution
25.0
= 0.110  mol = 0.0110 mol
250.0
Let HnA be the formula of the acid, where n is the number of ionizable
hydrogen atoms.
Then equation for the neutralization is:
HnA(aq) + nKOH(aq)  KnA(aq) + nH2O(l)
no. of moles of KOH n
=
no. of moles of HnA 1
0.0330 n
=
0.0110 1
n=3
Thus, the basicity of the acid is 3, i.e. the acid is tribasic.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
38. H3X(aq) + 3NaOH(aq)  Na3X(aq) + 3H2O(l)
18.00
No. of moles of NaOH used =  0.5 mol = 0.00900 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of H3X : NaOH = 1 : 3.
 no. of moles of H3X in 25.0 cm3 of diluted solution
0.00900
= mol = 0.00300 mol
3
No. of moles of H3X in 250.0 cm3 of diluted solution
250.0
= 0.00300  mol = 0.0300 mol
25.0
3.89
Molar mass of H3X = g mol1 = 130 g mol1
0.0300

39. X(s) + H2SO4(aq)  XSO4(aq) + H2O(l)


45.00
No. of moles of H2SO4 used = 0.5  mol = 0.0225 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of X : H2SO4 = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of X present = 0.0225 mol
1.47
Molar mass of X = g mol1 = 65.3 g mol1
0.0225
The relative atomic mass of X is 65.3.

40.00
40. No. of moles of NaOH used = 0.11  mol = 4.40  103 mol
1000
The equation of the reaction is:
FeSO4nH2O(s) + 2NaOH(aq)  Fe(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) + nH2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of FeSO4nH2O : 2NaOH = 1 : 2.
4.40 x 10 3
 no. of moles of FeSO4nH2O present = mol = 2.20  103 mol
2
mass
No. of moles =
molar mass
0.611
2.20  103 = (55.8  32.1  16.0  4  18n)
n=7

41. (a) CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


(b) Colourless to pale pink
20.00
(c) (i) No. of moles of NaOH used = 0.40  mol = 0.00800 mol
1000
HNO3(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of HNO3 : NaOH = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of excess HNO3 = 0.00800 mol

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(ii) Total no. of moles of HNO3 used in the experiment
50.00
= 0.50  mol = 0.0250 mol
1000
No. of moles of HNO3 that reacted with CaCO3
= (0.0250 – 0.00800) mol = 0.0170 mol
From the equation in (a), mole ratio of CaCO3 : HNO3 = 1 : 2.
 no. of moles of CaCO3 present in the sample of limestone
0.0170
= mol = 0.00850 mol
2
(iii) Molar mass of CaCO3 = 40.1 + 12.0 + 16.0  3 g mol1 = 100.1 g mol1
Mass of CaCO3 in the sample = 0.00850  100.1 g = 0.851 g
0.851
% by mass of CaCO3 in the sample =  100% = 66.5%
1.28

42. (a) In step (1): A 25.0 cm3 type pipette should be used to transfer 25.0 cm 3 of
the drain cleaner sample to the volumetric flask.
In step (2): Add distilled water to volumetric flask until the bottom of the
meniscus reaches the graduation mark.
In step (4): The burette should be washed with the standard hydrochloric
acid right before the titration.
In step (5): A 25.0 cm3 type pipette should be used to transfer 25.0 cm 3 of
the diluted drain cleaner sample to a conical flask but not a beaker. Also, it
is not necessary to use 1–2 cm3 methyl orange indicator, 1–3 drops of
methyl orange indicator will be enough to allow the end point to be
detected.
In step (6): The colour change of the indicator at the end point should be
from yellow to orange; otherwise, the end point may have passed.
(b) (1) 25.0 cm3 of the drain cleaner sample were transferred to a 250.0 cm 3
volumetric flask by using a pipette.
(2) The flask was filled with distilled water until the bottom of the
meniscus reached the graduation mark.
(3) The flask was stoppered and inverted several times.

43. To prepare a standard solution, the solid should:


 be available in a highly pure state, so no impurities should be present in the
solution.
 be stable in air, that is, no oxidation occurs.
 be easily soluble in water which ensures the molarity calculated will be
accurate.
 have a high molar mass. This will reduce the percentage error during
weighing.
 undergo complete and rapid reaction when the solution is used in
volumetric analysis.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
44.  The pipette must be cleaned using deionized water and then the solution it
is going to hold or deliver. The main idea is that we should never affect the
molarity of any given solutions: the standard solution and the solution of
unknown molarity.
 Use the pipette properly to deliver a correct volume of solution to the
conical flask. For example, the bottom of meniscus of the solution should
be on the graduation mark.
 The solution should be kept at room temperature. Too hot or too cold a
solution will lead to errors of volume delivered.
 The last drop of solution staying in the pipette should not be blown out.
Otherwise, the volume of solution delivered is more than that stated on the
pipette.

45.  The burette should be cleaned using deionized water and then the solution
it is going to hold or deliver. The main idea is that we should never affect
the molarity of any given solutions: the standard solution and the solution
of unknown molarity.
 The burette cannot hold too hot or too cold solutions because the volume
of the burette will change under these conditions.
 When the burette is filled, make sure that the jet is filled completely, i.e. no
air bubbles are trapped inside the jet.
 During the titration, the burette should be clamped upright. This reduces
the error when taking readings on the burette.
 When we take readings on the burette, we should keep our eyes at the
same level as the meniscus.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 35


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Part IV Acids and bases

Part Exercise

1. A
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. B
9. C
10. A
11. C

12. (a) Zinc carbonate reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid to give carbon dioxide.

ZnCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  ZnCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)


3.2
(b) No. of moles of carbon dioxide formed = mol = 0.0727 mol
12.0  16.0  2
From the equation, mole ratio of ZnCO3 : CO2 = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of ZnCO3 present = 0.0727 mol
Mass of ZnCO3 present
= 0.0727 mol  (65.4 + 12.0 + 16.0  3) g mol1 = 9.12 g
9.12
Percentage by mass of ZnCO3 in the sample =  100% = 91.2%
10.0

13. (a)

(b) A weak acid is an acid which incompletely/slightly/partially ionizes in


water.
(c) Molar mass of ascorbic acid
= 12.0  6 + 1.0  8 + 16.0  6 g mol1 = 176 g mol1
33
No. of moles of ascorbic acid in 100 cm3 of solution = mol = 0.188
176
mol
0.188
Molarity of the acid solution = 100 M = 1.88 M
1000
(d) The acid decomposed before boiling.
(e) pH = log [H+(aq)]
3 = log [H+(aq)]
© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 36
HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
[H+(aq)] = 0.001 M
14. (a) A worker misused a bottle of concentrated ammonia solution to clean the
stairs in a building in the Western District. A large amount of ammonia gas
was evolved. As a result, eight people were sent to hospital after breathing
in the gas.
(b) We should take necessary safety measures when we handle chemicals.
(c) Concentrated ammonia solution should be kept in a glass container, with
hazard warning labels.
(d) Dilute ammonia solution can be used as a cleaner. Ammonia is commonly
used in the dyeing industry and as a refrigerant.
(e) Ammonia gas attacks human mucous membranes, stinging the eyes, nose
and throat, and can cause nausea and vomiting. Breathing in a high
concentration of ammonia for several hours could kill.

15. (a) Methyl orange was added as an indicator to mark the end point of the strong
acid-weak alkali titration. The colour would change from yellow to orange.
(b) 3HCl(aq) + Al(OH)3(s)  AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
26.80
(c) No. of moles of HCl used = 0.806  mol = 0.0216 mol
1000
From the equation, mole ratio of HCl : Al(OH)3 = 3 : 1.
0.0216
 no. of moles of Al(OH)3 in one tablet of Y = mol = 0.00720 mol
3
Molar mass of Al(OH)3 = 27.0 + (16.0 + 1.0)  3 g mol1 = 78.0 g mol1
Mass of Al(OH)3 in one tablet of Y = 0.00720  78.0 g = 0.562 g
$0.80
(d) For X, price per gram of Al(OH)3 = = $1.82
0.440
$1.00
For Y, price per gram of Al(OH)3 = = $1.78
0.562
Hence, Y is the better buy.

16. (a) HSO4(aq)  H+(aq) + SO42(aq)


(b) Harpic reacts with calcium carbonate to form soluble products:
CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
lime scale (from Harpic)
(c) When the two types of cleaners mix together, heat is released. It is because
the reaction is a neutralization reaction which is exothermic.
NaHSO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(d) Wash the affected area with plenty of water/under running tap water.

17. (a) Calcium carbonate


(b) The effervescence was due to the formation of carbon dioxide; calcium
chloride solution was colourless.
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(c) A layer of insoluble CaSO4 was formed which prevented the CaCO 3 from
further reaction.
(d) On heating, the CaCO3 in eggshell gave CO2 which turned limewater milky.

CaCO3(s)  CaO(s)


heat + CO2(g)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
delivery tube
(e)

test tube

eggshell limewater

heat

(f) Always wear safety spectacles in doing experiments, especially during


heating.
Remove the glass tubing from limewater before stopping heating. This is to
prevent sucking back of cold limewater which would crack the hot glass.

18. (a) The black copper(II) oxide dissolved.


The colourless solution turned blue.
(b) CuO(s) + H2SO4(aq)  CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
(c) No. of moles of sodium hydroxide used to neutralize the excess acid
28.50
= 0.54  mol = 0.0154 mol
1000
2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq)  Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)
From the equation, mole ratio of NaOH : H2SO4 = 2 : 1.
0.0154
 no. of moles of excess sulphuric acid = mol = 0.00770 mol
2
50.0
Total no. of moles of sulphuric acid used = 0.55  mol = 0.0275 mol
1000
No. of moles of sulphuric acid reacted with copper(II) oxide
= (0.0275 – 0.00770) mol = 0.0198 mol
Volume of sulphuric acid reacted with copper(II) oxide
0.0198
= dm3 = 0.0360 dm3 (or 36.0 cm3)
0.55
(d) From the equation in (b), mole ratio of CuO : H2SO4 = 1 : 1.
 no. of moles of copper(II) oxide present = 0.0198 mol
Mass of copper(II) oxide present
= 0.0198 mol  (63.5 + 16.0) g mol1 = 1.57 g
1.57
% by mass of copper(II) oxide in the original sample =  100% =
2.35
66.8%

19. (a) Ammonia


(b) Characteristic pungent smell
(c) (i) A pale blue (gelatinous) precipitate was formed.
(ii) The precipitate dissolved and a deep blue solution was formed.
(d) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH (aq)  Cu(OH)2(s)

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 38


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels

Class Practice

A20.1
This is due to the movements of the Earth’s crust.

A20.2
There is physical separation but no chemical decomposition.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 39


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 20 Hydrocarbons from fossil fuels

Chapter Exercise

1. fossil, plants, animals


2. plants, power stations, electricity
3. carbon
4. sea, uels, hemicals, fuel
5. hydrocarbons
6. hydrocarbons, methane
7. fractions, ractional distillation, efining
8. heavy, higher, otter
9. efinery Fuel, raw materials for chemicals
etrol Motor car fuel
aphtha Raw material for town gas and chemicals
erosene Jet plane fuel, household fuel
as Diesel fuel for buses, trucks and factories
uel Fuels for big ships, burnt to generate electricity in power stations
ubricating Lubricating oils, candles
itumen To cover roads and roofs
10. C
11. B
12. B
13. A
14. D
15. A
16. C

17. (a) Fractional distillation


(b) Fraction 4 contains hydrocarbons with larger molecules while fraction 1
contains hydrocarbons with smaller molecules. The van der Waals’ forces
are greater between larger molecules. Therefore, fraction 4 has a higher
boiling point range.
(c) Fraction 4
(d) Fraction 1
(e) Fraction 1. This is because it is easier to burn and it burns with a cleaner
and less sooty flame.

18. (a) The liquid alkanes in crude oil act as a solvent to dissolve the solid alkanes.
(b) The difference in boiling points among the hydrocarbons
(c) Fraction 1
(d) Fraction 1: Refinery gas
Fraction 2: Petrol and naphtha
Fraction 3: Kerosene
Fraction 4: Gas oil
(e) As fuel oil/lubricating oils and waxes/bitumen
(f) It is a liquid. It has lower density than water and is immiscible with water.
Thus, it floats on the water surface and prevents the mosquito larvae from
getting enough oxygen supply.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels

Class Practice

A21.1
(a) No. Electricity is an important source of energy, but not a fuel. Electricity is a flow
of electrons, not a substance that can be burnt to give out heat.
(b) Yes. It can be burnt to give out heat.
2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g)  8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l)

A21.2
Carbon monoxide, formed by the incomplete combustion of fuel, will build up to
dangerous levels in an enclosed space. It may cause death.

A21.3
1. No. This is because many pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbons) are colourless gases.
2. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide),
hydrocarbons, and suspended particulates (e.g. lead, lead(II) compounds, smoke,
soot)
3. Sulphur dioxide/nitrogen oxides/carbon monoxide (Any TWO)

A21.4
1. Both statements are correct, but the second one does not explain the first one.
Actually, the low pH of acid rain is caused by the dissolved sulphur dioxide and
nitrogen dioxide.
2. Probably at that time, many factories in the Kwun Tong industrial district used
fuels of high sulphur content. A large amount of sulphur dioxide was produced
which caused acid rain.

A21.5
1. Burning fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide. More fossil fuels are burnt in
winter to keep warm. Less fossil fuels are burnt in summer.
2. (a) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
(b) SO2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ H2SO3(aq)
4NO(g) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) ⇌ 4HNO2(aq)
2NO2(g) + H2O(l)  HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)
(c) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(d) Sulphur dioxide: burn fuels of lower sulphur content.
Nitrogen oxides: burn less fuels.

A21.6
(a) No
(b) Nuclear power is very clean, since it produces no air pollutants such as sulphur
dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.

A21.7
(c) It is a cheap, clean and renewable source of energy.
(d) Many countries have neither sufficient rainfall nor high grounds to make
hydroelectricity possible.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 21 Consequences of using fossil fuels

Chapter Exercise

1. gives out
2. takes in
3. ossil
y y
4. x+ ,x,
4 2
5. Carbon monoxide, oxic, olourless, dourless
6. leakage, as
7. Safety
8. Air pollution
9. arbon monoxide, ulphur dioxide, itrogen oxides, ydrocarbons, particulates
10. oxic, nitrogen oxides, respiratory
11. 5.6
12. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides
13. lants, water, building
14. unleaded, catalytic converter
15. low sulphur, crubbers
16. ilters, lectrostatic precipitators
17. nfrared radiation, arbon dioxide, warm
18. rise, lobal warming
19. pollutants, spillage
20. save, alternative
21. olar, ydroelectric, idal, ind, nuclear, iomass, non-renewable
22. C
23. D
24. D
25. B
26. D
27. D
28. B
29. D
30. D

31. (a) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (nitrogen dioxide)


(b) SO2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ H2SO3(aq)
2NO2(g) + H2O(l)  HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)
(c) CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq)  Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
(d) Use scrubbers to remove sulphur dioxide in the waste gases before they
come out of the chimneys.
Fit catalytic converters to motor vehicles which convert nitrogen monoxide
to nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen dioxide will not form.

32. (a) Nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons


(b) Nitrogen dioxide initiates a chain of chemical reactions to form ozone. The
ozone produced then oxidizes hydrocarbons in the air to produce
photochemical smog.
(c) Photochemical smog irritates our eyes and attacks our respiratory system.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
33. (a) This is because carbon dioxide can trap infrared radiation (heat) in the
atmosphere and keep the Earth warm.
(b) There will be a rise in the Earth’s surface temperature.
(c) Melting of ice at the North Pole and South Pole/climate change/wildlife in
danger (Any TWO)
(d) Reduce the use of fossil fuels/stop deforestation/plant more trees/prevent
and put out forest fires (Any TWO)

34. (a) Wind power is a renewable energy source.


(b) Strong wind drives the turbines of the windmill which can then drive the
generator to produce electricity.
(c) It does not cause pollution problems./The supply of wind is unlimited. (Any
ONE)
(d) Wind does not always blow and sometimes blows too hard./Hundreds of
windmills have to be built. (Any ONE)
(e) Nuclear power/solar power/hydroelectric power/tidal power/geothermal
power/power from biomass (Any FIVE)

35. (a) Naphtha. Alkanes with 5 to 10 carbon atoms are found in naphtha.
(b) Hydrogen and methane
(c) PbO(s) + CO(g)  Pb(s) + CO2(g)
PbO(s) + H2(g)  Pb(s) + H2O(l)
(d) Carbon monoxide
(e) Town gas contains hydrogen. It forms a mixture with air. The mixture is
explosive. A spark can ignite the mixture, causing an explosion.

36. Formation of acid rain:


 Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are two major air pollutants
responsible for acid rain.
 Sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater to form sulphurous acid:
SO2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ H2SO3(aq)
 Nitrogen dioxide dissolves in rainwater to form nitric acid and nitrous acid:
2NO2(g) + H2O(l)  HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)
Environmental impacts of acid rain:
 It makes soils acidic, so it damages plants and destroys forests.
 It makes some lakes and rivers acidic, so fish and water plants cannot
survive.
 It speeds up the corrosion of metals and building materials e.g. limestone,
marble, sandstone, cement and concrete.
Possible ways to control acid rain:
 Cut down pollutants from burning of fuels.
 Burn less fossil fuels.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 43


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of
carbon compounds

Class Practice

A22.1
CO, CO2, Na2CO3, KHCO3, H2O, NH3, KOH, HCl, HNO3, NaCl (or other acceptable
answers)

A22.2
(a)

(b)

(c)

A22.3
(a) Put n = 5 in CnH2n+2. The molecular formula is C5H12.
(b) Put n = 11 in CnH2n+2. The molecular formula is C11H24.

A22.4
(a) A and B; alkanoic acid series.
(b)

A22.5
(a) Yes. This is because they have the same functional group (OH).
(b) A < B < C < D. Van der Waals’ forces are greater between larger molecules.

A22.6
1. (a) Hexyl group
(b) Octyl group
2. (a) CH3(CH2)3CH2
(b) CH3(CH2)5CH2

A22.7
(a) 2-methylpropane
(b) 2,3-dimethylbutane
(c) 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

A22.8
(a) 2-methylbut-2-ene
(b) Propene

A22.9
(a) Butan-1-ol
(b) Pentan-2-ol

A22.10
(a) 3-methylbutanoic acid
(b) 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid

A22.11
(a)

(b)

(c)

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 22 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of
carbon compounds

Chapter Exercise

1. carbon
2. organisms
3. hydrogen
4. slow, carbon dioxide; water
5. saturated, unsaturated
6. functional group
7. general formula, CH2, physical, chemical
8. alkane, alkenel alkanol, alkanoic acid
9. IUPAC
10. Alkyl; hydrogen
11. hydroxyl; carboxylic
12. C
13. D
14. B
15. C
16. A
17. B

18. (a) 2, 4
(b) Four
(c)

19. (a) Alkanes/alkane series


(b) Methane, ethane and propane
(c) No. They only have similar chemical properties.
(d) No, they have different physical properties. This is because their molecular
sizes are different, thus the van der Waals’ forces between molecules are
also different.

20. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

21. (a) 2-methylpropene (or methylpropene)


(b) 2-methylpropanoic acid (or methylpropanoic acid)
(c) Butanoic acid
(d) 2-methylbutane

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 47


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes

Class Practice

A23.1
2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g)  8CO2(g) + 10H2O(l)

A23.2
Chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and
hydrogen chloride.

A23.3
More and more petrol is required as fuel for the ever-increasing number of motor
vehicles.

A23.4
(a) An oil fraction
(b) The first few cm3 of gas is mainly air expelled from inside the apparatus.
(c) The delivery tube should be removed from water before stopping heating. This is
to prevent sucking back of water which may crack the hot reaction tube.

A23.5
Ethene can decolorize purple acidified potassium permanganate solution, but ethane
cannot. OR
In the dark, ethene can decolorize the red-orange bromine solution, but ethane cannot.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 23 Alkanes and alkenes

Chapter Exercise

1. CnH2n+2
2. homologous, increase, similar
3. alogens, xygen
4. substitution
5. initiation, propagation, termination, Free radicals
6. petrochemical
7. cracking, alkene
8. petrol, alkenes
9. , nsaturated, addition
10. two, more, single
11. C
12. D
13. B
14. B
15. A
16. C
17. B

18. (a) 2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g)  4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)


(b) The gaseous product can be collected and pumped through limewater.
Limewater turns milky if carbon dioxide is present.
Ca(OH)2(aq) + CO2(g)  CaCO3(s) + H2O(l)
(c) During incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide, unburnt carbon particles
and hydrocarbon may be produced.
Unburnt carbon particles: irritate the respiratory system.
Carbon monoxide: causes breathing problem and decreases the oxygen
carrying ability of blood.
Unburnt hydrocarbon: causes cancer.

19. (a)

(b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon


(c) Thermal cracking and catalytic cracking
(d) C10H22(l)  C8H18(l) + C2H4(g)

20. (a) This is to avoid the paraffin vaporizing too quickly without being cracked.
(b) High temperature, absence of air and presence of catalyst.
(c) This is to avoid sucking back of water, which can crack the combustion
tube. (When the burner is removed, the combustion tube is cooled down and
then the air inside contracts. As the air pressure inside the tube is lower,
water is sucked up. The cool water will lead to a sudden contraction of the
tube that may crack the tube.)
(d) The bromine water will be decolorized. The gas may be ethene.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

(e) This is because under high temperatures, air inside the combustion tube
expands. The gas collected by the first test tube thus usually contains a lot
of air, which will not be used for testing.

21. (a) Carbon-carbon double bond


(b) (i) Bromine is decolorized.
(ii) Acidified potassium permanganate solution is decolorized.
(c) (i)

(ii)

(d) (i) Carbon dioxide and water


(ii) C2H4(g) + 3O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)

22.  Crude oil can be distilled into different useful fractions.


 Supply of petrol, kerosene and gas oil cannot meet their great demand.
 Heavy fractions (e.g. heavy oils) are not good fuels and are in less demand.
 Cracking allows the breaking down of large molecules from heavy
fractions into smaller ones.
 Heavy fractions can be cracked to produce extra petrol and kerosene
which are in greater demand.
 Alkenes are also obtained from the cracking of oil fractions, which can be
used to make many useful organic chemicals, such as plastics.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 24 Addition polymers

Class Practice

A24.1
Computer keyboard/mouse/CD case/pen(s)/antenna shield of mobile phone (Any
FOUR)

A24.2
1. Yes. They are made from chemicals derived from petroleum.
2. (a) Yes
(b) No

A24.3
(a) (i) and (iii) can undergo addition polymerization.
(i)

(iii)

(b) Propene
(c) Polypropene

A24.4
(a) (i) Polyethene/polythene
(ii) Polypropene/polypropylene
(iii) Polyvinyl chloride
(b) (i) Ethene
(ii) Propene
(iii) Chloroethene/vinyl chloride
(c) (i) Flexible and good insulator of electricity.
(ii) Resistant to many chemical solvents, alkalis and acids.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

A24.5

 

 

 

 

 

A24.6
(a) Weak intermolecular forces
(b) The polymer chains vibrate vigorously when heated. The intermolecular forces
are overcome, and the chains can slide over one another easily. The plastic bottle
thus softens and deforms.
(c) Thermoplastic
(d) (i) The bottle softens and melts.
(ii) The bottle burns.
(e) (i) The melting point of polypropene is low. The milk feeding bottles may
soften when they are sterilized by hot water or steam.
(ii) PVC is poisonous.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Chapter 24 Addition polymers

Chapter Exercise

1. Petroleum
2. ethane, aphtha, as oil
3. polymers
4. ight, unreactive, heat, electricity
5. Polyethene
6. Polymerization, polymers
7. addition
8. monomer, polymer, small,
9. repeating unit
10. natural
11. incinerators
12. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, biodegradable
13. D
14. A
15. D
16. C
17. C
18. C

19. (a) C
Repeating unit:

(b) The monomer contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond.

20. (a) (i) Plastic C. This is because plastic C is flexible.


(ii) Non-poisonous
(b) Plastic D. This is because plastic D can be used at high temperatures (up to
1350C) and does not burn.
(c) Plastic A. This is because plastic A has excellent transparency.
(d) (i) Perspex
(ii) Perspex does not break as easily as glass.
(iii) PVC is cheaper and more resistant to weathering than rubber.
(iv) Expanded polystyrene is more rigid than waxed paper.
(v) Glass
(vi) Polyethene is lighter than glass.

21. (a) (i)

(ii)

(iii) Addition polymerization


(b) (i)
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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2

(ii)

(iii) Addition polymerization


(c) (i)

(ii)

(iii) Addition polymerization

22. (a)

(b)

(c) Tetrafluoroethene
(d) It is non-toxic, heat and chemical resistant. Besides, it has a smooth and
slippery surface.

23. Problems associated with the disposal of plastic wastes:


 Plastics are non-biodegradable. They remain in the environment almost
forever.
 Putting plastics into landfills would lead to land wastage and cause
pollution of underground water.
 Burning plastic waste in incinerators would lead to air pollution.
Solving plastic disposal problems:
 Reduce the use of plastics.
 Reuse plastic articles.
 Recycle plastic waste: thermoplastic waste can be recycled.
 Make biodegradable plastics.

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 54


HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
Part V Fossil fuels and carbon compounds

Part Exercise

1. B
2. B
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. C
7. B
8. B
9. D
10. B

11. (a)
thermometer (0360C)

oil fraction
rocksil soaked with crude oil

water

heat

(b) 1. Wear safety spectacles.


2. Beware of burns.
(c) Fraction C
(d) Fraction B
(e) Fraction B
(f) B < D < A < C

12. (a) COOH group


(b) CnH2n+1COOH
(c) 1. Each of them differs from the next one by a –CH2– group.
2. They have similar chemical properties.
3. Their boiling points increase with the number of carbon atoms in the
molecules. (Any TWO)
(d) Molecular formula: C6H12O2
Name of compound: hexanoic acid

13. (a) Volume of one mole of a gas at room conditions = 24 dm3 mol1
 molar mass of gas Q = 1.75 g dm3  24 dm3 mol1= 42 g mol1
 relative molecular mass of gas Q = 42

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(b) Q can decolorize Br2 (in organic solvent) and KMnO4/H+(aq), and is
therefore an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Since Q has a molecular mass of 42,
it would be propene, CH3CH=CH2.
(c) To provide a hot catalytic surface for reaction that produces Q to occur.
(d) Two possible addition products are formed:

14. (a)

(b) No. This is because alkanes do not contain carbon-carbon double bond.
(c) For ethane, there is no observable change. For ethene, the bromine water is
decolorized.
(d) There is no observable change. It is because polyethene does not contain
any carbon-carbon double bond.
(e) (i) Plastic bags/wrapping film for food/food boxes/flexible cold water
pipes/kitchen wares (Any ONE)
(ii) Polyethene is light and flexible.

15. (a) Addition polymerization


(b) (i) For polymer A:

For polymer B:

(b) (ii) For polymer A:

For polymer B:

(c) All of them are thermoplastics because they all consist of chain-like giant
molecules which are attracted by weak intermolecular forces.
Heat the sample gently on a hot plate. It softens or melts because it is a
thermoplastic.

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HKDSE CHEMISTRY  A Modern View (Chemistry) Coursebook 2
(d) Shake a little of each of the solutions with Br 2 (in organic solvent). The
solution is decolorized only by the monomer solution because the following
addition reaction takes place.

16.  Coal contains sulphur. Sulphur dioxide is formed when coal is burnt in a
power station.
 S(s) + O2(g)  SO2(g)
 Suspended particulates are carbon particles present in the flue gas
generated in the power station.
 Nitrogen oxides are formed when fuels are burnt at very high temperatures
in a power station.
 N2(g) + O2(g)  2NO(g) and 2NO(g) + O2(g)  2NO2(g)
Possible ways to reduce the emission of air pollutants:
 Sulphur dioxide: installation of scrubbers/use coal of lower sulphur
content
 Suspended particulates: installation of electrostatic precipitator

© Aristo Educational Press Ltd. 2009 57