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Hukum Gerak

DINAMIKA BENDA
TEGAR
• Hukum Gerak
• Momentum
• Energi
• Gerak Rotasi
• Gravitasi
Mekanika Klasik
• Menjelaskan hubungan antara gerak
benda dan gaya yang bekerja padanya

• Kondisi ketika Mekanika Klasik tidak dapat


diterapkan
– benda yang sangat kecil (< ukuran atom)
– benda bergerak mendekati kecepatan cahaya
Gaya
• Biasanya
dibayangkan
sebagai
dorongan atau
tarikan

• Besaran Vektor

• Bisa
bersentuhan
(contact forces)
atau
tak bersentuhan
(medan
gaya/field forces)
Hukum I Newton
• Jika tidak ada gaya yang bekerja pada
sebuah benda, maka keadaan gerak
benda akan sama seperti semula, kecuali
jika ada gaya eksternal yang bekerja
padanya; dengan kata lain, sebuah benda
akan selamanya diam atau terus menerus
bergerak dengan kecepatan tetap jika
tidak ada gaya eksternal yang bekerja
padanya
DINAMIKA
 HUKUM NEWTON II
 HUKUM NEWTON III
 MACAM-MACAM GAYA
• Gaya Gravitasi (Berat)
• Gaya Sentuh
- Tegangan tali
- Gaya normal
- Gaya gesekan
 DINAMIKA I (tanpa gesekan)
 DINAMIKA II (dengan gesekan)
 HUKUM NEWTON II
Sebuah benda bermassa m yang mendapat gaya sebesar F akan
memmperoleh percepatan sebanding dengan gaya tersebut dan
berbanding terbalik dengan massanya
F
a
m
Bila pada benda tersebut bekerja berbagai gaya, maka
percepatannya dapat ditentukan dari hukum Newton II :

F  ma
F = Gaya [N = newton]
m = Massa [kg]
a = Percepatan [m/s2 ]
 GAYA GRAVITASI
Semua benda yang berada dalam (dipengaruhi oleh) medan
gravitasi bumi akan ditarik ke bawah dengan percepatan gravitasi

Hukum Newton II :
F  ma
a g FW
W  mg W=mg
g = percepatan gravitasi
W = Berat benda

Bumi
 TEGANGAN TALI
Bila benda bergerak ke atas
dengan percepatan a, maka :
 F  T  W  T  mg  ma
Bila benda bergerak ke bawah
T
dengan percepatan a, maka :
 F  W  T  mg  T  ma
Bila benda diam atau bergerak ke
atas atau ke bawah dengan
kecepatan konstan (percepatan =
W 0), maka :
 F  W  T  mg  T  0  T  mg

Hukum Newton I  F = 0
 GAYA NORMAL & GAYA GESEKAN

Bidang Datar Bidang Miring

N N

f
f F

W f maksimum   N W
 = koefisien gesekan

s = koefisien gesekan statik (benda tidak bergerak)


k = koefisien gesekan kinetik (benda bergerak)
 k  s
Kombinasi berbagai gaya

Katrol

N
T

T
f
W2 > T

W1

W2
Katrol

N
T

f T

W2 < T

W1

W2
Contoh Soal 2.1 [Dinamika I Gerak Horisontal]
Tiga buah balok masing-masing bermassa 12 kg, 24 kg dan 31
kg yang berada di atas lantai horisontal dihubungkan dengan dua
buah tali dimana balok 24 kg berada ditengah. Balok 40 kg ditarik
oleh sebuah gaya sebesar 65 N. Bila lantainya licin, tentukan
percepatan dan tegangan pada kedua tali.
Jawab :

T1 T1 T2 T2
12 24 31 T3

T1  m1a  12 a
T2  T1  m 2 a  T2  m 2 a  T1  24 a  12 a  36 a
T3  T2  m 3a  65  m 3a  T2  31a  36 a  67 a
65
a  0,97 m / s 2  T2  36a  36(0,97)  34,92 N
67
T1  12a  12(0,97)  11,64 N
Contoh Soal 2.2 [Dinamika I Gerak Vertikal]
Sebuah helikopter bermassa 15000 kg mengangkat sebuah truk
bermassa 4500 kg dengan percepatan sebesar 1,4 m/ S2. Truk
dersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan kabel baja, Gaya angkat
yang diterima oleh baling-baling helikopter arahnya vertikal ke
atas. Tentukan besarnya tegangan pada kabel baja dan besarnya
gaya angkat pada baling-baling helikopter.
Jawab :
F
Hukum Newton II pada truk :

F y  T  m 2g  m 2a 2 a1  a 2  a
a
T  m 2 (g  a )  (4500)(9,8  1,4)  50400 N
T
Hukum Newton II pada helikopter :
W1

F y  F  T  m1g  m1a1 a1  a 2  a
T
F  T  m1 (g  a )
 50400(15000)(9,8  1,4)  218400 N

W2
Contoh Soal 2.5 [Dinamika II bidang datar]
Sebuah mobil bermassa 1000 kg menarik kereta gandeng yang
massanya 450 kg. Bila koefisien gesekannya 0,15 tentukan gaya
dorong minimum yang harus dimiliki oleh mobil agar dapat
menarik kereta gandeng tersebut.

Jawab : N

450 1000 F

mg

F y  N  mg  0  N  mg  1450(9,8)  14210 N
F x  F  f  0  F  f  N  0,15(14210)  2131,5 N
Contoh Soal 2.6 [Dinamika II bidang miring]
Sebuah balok bemassa 5 kg bergerak ke atas dengan kecepatan
awal Vo pada bidang miring dengan sudut 30o terhadap horisontal.
Oleh karena koefisien gesekan antara balok dan bidang miring
kecil (yaitu sebesar 0,15), maka setelah naik keatas balok
tersebut turun kembali dan sampai ditempat semula dengan
kecepatan sebesar 7,66 m/s. Tentukan kecepatan awal Vo

Jawab : L
V1 = 0 V1 = 0

Vo = ?
m = 5 kg

30o
 = 0,15
V2 = 7,66 m/s
Diagram gaya (turun) : N

F y  0  N  mg cos   0 f

F x  ma mg sin 
mg sin   f  ma
mg cos 
f  N   mg cos 
mg sin   mg cos   ma mg

a  (g sin   g cos  )
a  (9,8)(0,5)  (0,15)(9,8)(0,87)  3,62 m / s 2

L
V1 = 0
V  V  2aL
2
2 1
2

7,66 2  0
L  8,1 m
2(3,62)
V2 = 7,66 m/s
Diagram gaya (naik) : N

F y  0  N  mg cos   0
F x  ma mg sin 

 (mg sin   f )  ma f
mg cos 

N  mg cos   f  N   mg cos  mg
  mg cos   mg sin   ma  a  ( g sin   g cos  )
a  [(0,15)(9,8)(0,87)  (9,8)(0,5)]  6,18 m / s 2
L V1 = 0
V  V  2aL
1
2 2
o

0  Vo2  2(6,18)(8,1) Vo
Vo  10 m / s
30o
Contoh Soal 2.8 [Hukum Newton III]
Dua buah balok yang masing-masing bermassa 1 kg (sebelah kiri)
dan 3 kg (sebelah kanan) diletakkan berdampingan di atas lantai
horisontal dimana koefisien gesekan antara lantai dan balok 1 kg
adalah 0,2 sedangkan antara lantai dan balok 3 kg adalah 0,1.
Tentukan percepatan dari kedua balok tersebut dan gaya aksi-
reaksi bila balok 1 kg didorong ke kanan dengan gaya sebesar 12
N.
F = 12 N
1 kg 3 kg a=?

 = 0,1
 = 0,2

N1
F y  0  N1  m1g  (1)(9,8)  9,8 N

F12
F

F
f1
x  m1a  F  f1  F12  m1a  (1)a  a
m1 g 12  (0,2)(9,8)  F12  a  F12  10,04  a
F = 12 N
1 kg 3 kg a=?

 = 0,1
 = 0,2

N2
F y  0  N 2  m2g  (3)(9,8)  29,4 N

F21

F
f2
x  m 2a  F21  f 2  m 2a  (3)a  3a
m2 g F21  (0,1)(29,4)  3a  F21  3a  2,94
F12  10,04  a
F21  3a  2,94

F21  F12 3a  2,94  10,04  a


7,1
4a  10,04  2,94  7,1  a   1,775 m / s 2

4
F12  10,04  1,775  8,265 N
Kedua benda dapat dianggap sebagai
N2
satu benda (gaya aksi reaksi saling
meniadakan )
F21 N1
F21
F

f2 f1
m1 g

m2 g

F y  0  N1  N 2  m1g  m2g  9,8  29,4  39,2 N

F x  (m1  m 2 )a  F  f1  f 2  (m1  m 2 )a  4a
7,1
12  (0,2)(9,8)  (0,1)(29,4)  4a  a   1,775 m / s 2
4
Contoh Soal 2.9 [Hukum Newton III]
Sebuah balok bermassa 40 kg terletak di atas lantai licin. Diatas
balok tersebut diletakkan balok kedua yang bermassa 10 kg
dimana koefisien gesekan antara kedua balok adalah 0,4. Bila
balok kedua ditarik dengan gaya sebesar 100 N, hitung
percepatan dari kedua balok tersebut.
F=100 N 10 kg 2

1 40 kg  = 0,4

N21 3

f21 F y  0  N 21  m 2 g  (10)(9,8)  98N


F
F
x  m 2a 2  F  f 21  m 2 a 2
100  0,4f 21  10a 2
m 2g N13
F y  0  N13  m1g  N12
N13  40(9,8)  98  490
F x  m1a1  f12  m1a1  40a1
f12
a1  a 2  a f 21  f12 N12
100
100  0,4(40a )  10a  a   3,85 m / s 2
26 m1g
Contoh Soal 2.10 [Dinamika II bidang miring dan katrol]
Pada gambar di bawah ini, balok B beratnya 102 N dan balok A
beratnya 32 N. Koefisien gesekan antara balok B dan bidang
miring adalah 0,25. Hitung percepatan dari kedua balok tersebut
bila balok B sedang bergerak ke bawah.
Jawab : Katrol

N
T

f T
m1gsin
40o

m1gcos
m1 g
 Fy  0  N  m1g cos   102 cos 40o  78,132 m2 g
F x  m1g sin   T  f  m1a1
T  m 2 g  T  32  m 2 a 2
m1g sin   T   s N  m1a1
32
102 T  32  a 2  32  3,265a 2
102 sin 40o  T  0,25(78,132)  a1 9,8
9,8 46,03  10,4a  32  3,265a
65,564  T  19,533  10,4a
14,03
T  46,03  10,4a 13,665a  14,03  a   1,027 m / s 2
13,665
Linear Momentum
and Collisions
• Conservation
of Energy
• Momentum
• Impulse
• Conservation
of Momentum
• 1-D Collisions
• 2-D Collisions
• The Center of Mass

August 31, 2016


Conservation of Energy
 D E = D K + D U = 0 if conservative forces are the only
forces that do work on the system.
• The total amount of energy in the system is constant.
1 2 1 1 1
mv f  mgy f  kx2f  mvi2  mgyi  kxi2
2 2 2 2
 D E = D K + D U = -fkd if friction forces are doing work
on the system.
• The total amount of energy in the system is still
constant, but the change in mechanical energy goes
into “internal energy” or heat.
1 1  1 1 
 f k d   mv2f  mgy f  kx2f    mvi2  mgyi  kxi2 
2 2  2 2 

August 31, 2016


Linear Momentum
• This is a new fundamental quantity, like force, energy.
It is a vector quantity (points in same direction as
velocity).
• The linear momentum p of an object of mass m moving
with a velocity v is defined to be the product of the
mass and velocity:
 
p  mv
• The terms momentum and linear momentum will be
used interchangeably in the text
• Momentum depend on an object’s mass and velocity

August 31, 2016


Momentum and Energy
• Two objects with masses m1 and m2
have equal kinetic energy. How do the
magnitudes of their momenta
compare?
(A) p1 < p2
(B) p1 = p2
(C) p1 > p2
(D) Not enough information is given

August 31, 2016


Linear Momentum, cont’d
• Linear momentum is a vector quantity p  mv
– Its direction is the same as the direction of the
velocity
• The dimensions of momentum are ML/T
• The SI units of momentum are kg m / s
• Momentum can be expressed in component
form:
px = mvx py = mvy pz = mvz

August 31, 2016


Newton’s Law and Momentum
• Newton’s Second Law can be used to relate the
momentum of an object to the resultant force
acting on it  
  Dv D(mv )
Fnet  ma  m 
Dt Dt
• The change in an object’s momentum divided by
the elapsed time equals the constant net force
acting on the object

Dp change in momentum 
  Fnet
Dt time interval

August 31, 2016


Impulse
• When a single, constant force acts on the
object, there is an impulse delivered to the
object  
– I  FDt
– I is defined as the impulse
– The equality is true even if the force is not constant
– Vector quantity, the direction is the same as the
direction of the force

Dp change in momentum 
  Fnet
Dt time interval
August 31, 2016
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
• The theorem states
that the impulse
acting on a system is
equal to the change in
momentum of the
system
  
Dp  Fnet Dt  I
   
I  Dp  mv f  mvi

August 31, 2016


Calculating the Change of Momentum

Dp  pafter  pbefore
 mvafter  mvbefore
 m(vafter  vbefore )
For the teddy bear

Dp  m 0  (v)  mv
For the bouncing ball

Dp  m v  (v)  2mv
August 31, 2016
How Good Are the Bumpers?
 In a crash test, a car of mass 1.5103 kg collides with a wall and
rebounds as in figure. The initial and final velocities of the car are vi=-15
m/s and vf = 2.6 m/s, respectively. If the collision lasts for 0.15 s, find
(a) the impulse delivered to the car due to the collision
(b) the size and direction of the average force exerted on the car

August 31, 2016


How Good Are the Bumpers?
 In a crash test, a car of mass 1.5103 kg collides with a wall and
rebounds as in figure. The initial and final velocities of the car are vi=-15
m/s and vf = 2.6 m/s, respectively. If the collision lasts for 0.15 s, find
(a) the impulse delivered to the car due to the collision
(b) the size and direction of the average force exerted on the car

pi  mvi  (1.5 103 kg)(15m / s)  2.25 104 kg  m / s


p f  mv f  (1.5 103 kg)(2.6m / s)  0.39 104 kg  m / s

I  p f  pi  mv f  mvi
 (0.39 10 4 kg  m / s)  (2.25 10 4 kg  m / s)
 2.64 10 4 kg  m / s

Dp I 2.64 104 kg  m / s
Fav     1.76 105 N
Dt Dt 0.15s

August 31, 2016


Impulse-Momentum Theorem
• A child bounces a 100 g superball on the
sidewalk. The velocity of the superball
changes from 10 m/s downward to 10 m/s
upward. If the contact time with the sidewalk
is 0.1s, what is the magnitude of the
impulse imparted to the superball?
(A) 0
(B) 2 kg-m/s    
(C) 20 kg-m/s I  Dp  mv f  mvi
(D) 200 kg-m/s
(E) 2000 kg-m/s
August 31, 2016
Impulse-Momentum Theorem 2
• A child bounces a 100 g superball on the
sidewalk. The velocity of the superball
changes from 10 m/s downward to 10 m/s
upward. If the contact time with the sidewalk
is 0.1s, what is the magnitude of the force
between the sidewalk and the superball?
(A) 0
(B) 2 N    
 I D p m v  mv
(C) 20 N F  
f i

(D) 200 N Dt Dt Dt
(E) 2000 N

August 31, 2016


Conservation of Momentum
• In an isolated and closed
system, the total momentum of
the system remains constant in
time.
– Isolated system: no external forces
– Closed system: no mass enters or
leaves
– The linear momentum of each
colliding body may change
– The total momentum P of the
system cannot change.
August 31, 2016
Conservation of Momentum
• Start from impulse-momentum
theorem
  
F21Dt  m1v1 f  m1v1i
  
F12Dt  m2v2 f  m2v2i

 
• Since F21Dt   F12Dt

   
• Then m1v1 f  m1v1i  (m2v2 f  m2v2i )

   
• So m1v1i  m2v2i  m1v1 f  m2v2 f

August 31, 2016


Conservation of Momentum
• When no external forces act on a system consisting of
two objects that collide with each other, the total
momentum of the system remains constant in time
   
Fnet Dt  Dp  p f  pi
 
• When Fnet  0 then Dp  0
• For an isolated system
 
p f  pi
• Specifically, the total momentum before the collision will
equal the total momentum after the collision
   
m1v1i  m2v2i  m1v1 f  m2v2 f

August 31, 2016


The Archer
 An archer stands at rest on frictionless ice and fires a 0.5-kg arrow
horizontally at 50.0 m/s. The combined mass of the archer and bow is
60.0 kg. With what velocity does the archer move across the ice after
firing the arrow?

pi  p f
m1v1i  m2v2i  m1v1 f  m2v2 f
m1  60.0kg, m2  0.5kg, v1i  v2i  0, v2 f  50m / s, v1 f  ?

0  m1v1 f  m2v2 f
m2 0.5kg
v1 f   v2 f   (50.0m / s)  0.417m / s
m1 60.0kg

August 31, 2016


Conservation of Momentum
• A 100 kg man and 50 kg woman on ice
skates stand facing each other. If the woman
pushes the man backwards so that his final
speed is 1 m/s, at what speed does she
recoil?
(A) 0
(B) 0.5 m/s
(C) 1 m/s
(D) 1.414 m/s
(E) 2 m/s
August 31, 2016
Types of Collisions
• Momentum is conserved in any collision
• Inelastic collisions: rubber ball and hard ball
– Kinetic energy is not conserved
– Perfectly inelastic collisions occur when the objects
stick together
• Elastic collisions: billiard ball
– both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved
• Actual collisions
– Most collisions fall between elastic and perfectly
inelastic collisions

August 31, 2016


Collisions Summary
• In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic
energy are conserved
• In a non-perfect inelastic collision, momentum is
conserved but kinetic energy is not. Moreover, the
objects do not stick together
• In a perfectly inelastic collision, momentum is conserved,
kinetic energy is not, and the two objects stick together
after the collision, so their final velocities are the same
• Elastic and perfectly inelastic collisions are limiting
cases, most actual collisions fall in between these two
types
• Momentum is conserved in all collisions

August 31, 2016


More about Perfectly Inelastic
Collisions
• When two objects stick together
after the collision, they have
undergone a perfectly inelastic
collision
• Conservation of momentum
m1v1i  m2 v2 i  ( m1  m2 )v f
m1v1i  m2 v2i
vf 
m1  m2
• Kinetic energy is NOT conserved

August 31, 2016


An SUV Versus a Compact
 An SUV with mass 1.80103 kg is travelling eastbound at +15.0 m/s, while
a compact car with mass 9.00102 kg is travelling westbound at -15.0 m/s.
The cars collide head-on, becoming entangled.

(a) Find the speed of the entangled cars after


the collision.
(b) Find the change in the velocity of each
car.
(c) Find the change in the kinetic energy of
the system consisting of both cars.

August 31, 2016


An SUV Versus a Compact
(a) Find the speed of the entangled cars after
the collision. m1  1.80 103 kg, v1i  15m / s
m2  9.00 102 kg, v2i  15m / s
pi  p f

m1v1i  m2v2i  (m1  m2 )v f

m1v1i  m2v2i
vf 
m1  m2
v f  5.00m / s

August 31, 2016


An SUV Versus a Compact
(b) Find the change in the velocity of each car.
m1  1.80 103 kg, v1i  15m / s
m2  9.00 102 kg, v2i  15m / s
v f  5.00m / s
Dv1  v f  v1i  10.0m / s
Dv2  v f  v2i  20.0m / s

m1Dv1  m1 (v f  v1i )  1.8 104 kg  m / s


m2 Dv2  m2 (v f  v2i )  1.8 104 kg  m / s

m1Dv1  m2 Dv2  0

August 31, 2016


An SUV Versus a Compact
(c) Find the change in the kinetic energy of the
system consisting of both cars. m1  1.80 103 kg, v1i  15m / s
m2  9.00 102 kg, v2i  15m / s

v f  5.00m / s

1 1
KEi  m1v1i  m2v22i  3.04 105 J
2

2 2
1 1
KE f  m1v1 f  m2v22 f  3.38 104 J
2

2 2
DKE  KE f  KEi  2.70 105 J

August 31, 2016


More About Elastic Collisions
• Both momentum and kinetic energy
are conserved
m1v1i  m2 v2i  m1v1 f  m2 v2 f
1 1 1 1
m1v1i  m2 v2i  m1v1 f  m2 v22 f
2 2 2

2 2 2 2

• Typically have two unknowns


• Momentum is a vector quantity
– Direction is important
– Be sure to have the correct signs
• Solve the equations simultaneously

August 31, 2016


Elastic Collisions
• A simpler equation can be used in place of the KE
equation
1 1 1 1
m1v1i  m2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m2 v22 f
2 2 2

2 2 2 2
m1 (v12i  v12f )  m2 (v22 f  v22i )
v  v  ( v  v )
m1 (v11i i v1 f )( v21ii  v1 f )  m 21(fv2 f  v22i )(f v2 f  v2 i )
m1v1i  m 2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m 2 v2 f m1 (v1i  v1 f )  m2 (v2 f  v2 i )

v1i  v1 f  v2 f  v2 i
m1v1i  m 2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m 2 v2 f

August 31, 2016


Summary of Types of Collisions
• In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic
energy are conserved
v1i  v1 f  v2 f  v2 i m1v1i  m 2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m 2 v2 f

• In an inelastic collision, momentum is conserved but


kinetic energy is not
m1v1i  m 2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m 2 v2 f

• In a perfectly inelastic collision, momentum is conserved,


kinetic energy is not, and the two objects stick together
after the collision, so their final velocities are the same
m1v1i  m2 v2 i  ( m1  m2 )v f

August 31, 2016


Conservation of Momentum
• An object of mass m moves to the right with a
speed v. It collides head-on with an object of
mass 3m moving with speed v/3 in the opposite
direction. If the two objects stick together, what is
the speed of the combined object, of mass 4m,
after the collision?
(A) 0
(B) v/2
(C) v
(D) 2v
(E) 4v

August 31, 2016


Problem Solving for 1D Collisions,
• Coordinates: Set up a
coordinate axis and define
the velocities with respect
to this axis
– It is convenient to make your
axis coincide with one of the
initial velocities
• Diagram: In your sketch,
draw all the velocity
vectors and label the
velocities and the masses

August 31, 2016


Problem Solving for 1D Collisions
• Conservation of
Momentum: Write a
general expression for the
total momentum of the
system before and after
the collision
– Equate the two total
momentum expressions
– Fill in the known values
m1v1i  m 2 v2 i  m1v1 f  m 2 v2 f

August 31, 2016


Problem Solving for 1D Collisions
• Conservation of Energy:
If the collision is elastic,
write a second equation for
conservation of KE, or the
alternative equation
– This only applies to perfectly
elastic collisions
v1i  v1 f  v2 f  v2 i

• Solve: the resulting


equations simultaneously

August 31, 2016


One-Dimension vs Two-Dimension

August 31, 2016


Two-Dimensional Collisions
• For a general collision of two objects in two-
dimensional space, the conservation of momentum
principle implies that the total momentum of the
system in each direction is conserved
m1v1ix  m2 v2ix  m1v1 fx  m2 v2 fx
m1v1iy  m2 v2iy  m1v1 fy  m2 v2 fy

August 31, 2016


Two-Dimensional Collisions
• The momentum is conserved in all directions
• Use subscripts for m1v1ix  m2 v2ix  m1v1 fx  m2 v2 fx
– Identifying the object m1v1iy  m2 v2iy  m1v1 fy  m2 v2 fy
– Indicating initial or final values
– The velocity components
• If the collision is elastic, use conservation of
kinetic energy as a second equation
– Remember, the simpler equation can only be used
for one-dimensional situations
v1i  v1 f  v2 f  v2 i

August 31, 2016


Glancing Collisions

• The “after” velocities have x and y components


• Momentum is conserved in the x direction and in the
y direction
• Apply conservation of momentum separately to each
direction mv m v mv m v
1 1ix 2 2 ix 1 1 fx 2 2 fx

m1v1iy  m2 v2iy  m1v1 fy  m2 v2 fy

August 31, 2016


2-D Collision, example
• Particle 1 is moving at
velocity v1i and
particle 2 is at rest
• In the x-direction, the
initial momentum is
m1v1i
• In the y-direction, the
initial momentum is 0

August 31, 2016


2-D Collision, example cont
• After the collision, the
momentum in the x-direction is
m1v1f cos q  m2v2f cos f
• After the collision, the
momentum in the y-direction is
m1v1f sin q  m2v2f sin f

m1v1i  0  m1v1 f cos q  m2 v2 f cos f


0  0  m1v1 f sin q  m2 v2 f sin f

• If the collision is elastic, apply the1 2 1 2 1 2


m1v1i  m1v1 f  m2 v2 f
kinetic energy equation 2 2 2

August 31, 2016


Collision at an Intersection
 A car with mass 1.5×103 kg traveling
east at a speed of 25 m/s collides at
an intersection with a 2.5×103 kg van
traveling north at a speed of 20 m/s.
Find the magnitude and direction of
the velocity of the wreckage after the
collision, assuming that the vehicles
undergo a perfectly inelastic collision
and assuming that friction between the
vehicles and the road can be
neglected.
mc  1.5 103 kg, mv  2.5 103 kg
vcix  25m / s, vviy  20m / s, v f  ?q  ?

August 31, 2016


Collision at an Intersection
mc  1.5 103 kg, mv  2.5 103 kg
vcix  25 m/s , vviy  20 m/s , v f  ?q  ?

p xi  mc vcix  mv vvix  mc vcix  3.75 104 kg  m/s

p xf  mc vcfx  mv vvfx  (mc  mv )v f cos q

3.75 104 kg  m/s  (4.00 103 kg)v f cos q

p yi  mc vciy  mv vviy  mv vviy  5.00 104 kg  m/s

p yf  mc vcfy  mv vvfy  (mc  mv )v f sin q

5.00 104 kg  m/s  (4.00 103 kg)v f sin q

August 31, 2016


Collision at an Intersection
mc  1.5 103 kg, mv  2.5 103 kg
vcix  25m / s, vviy  20m / s, v f  ?q  ?

5.00 104 kg  m/s  (4.00 103 kg)v f sin q


3.75 104 kg  m/s  (4.00 103 kg)v f cos q

5.00 104 kg  m / s
tan q   1.33
3.75 10 kg  m / s
4

q  tan 1 (1.33)  53.1

5.00 104 kg  m/s


vf   15.6 m/s
(4.00 10 kg) sin 53.1
3 

August 31, 2016