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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.

,LTD RO elements technical manual

Table of Contents
1 Introduction of company ..………………………………………………………3

2 Characteristic of RO membrane elements in Chanitex ……..5

3 Catalogue and parameter


3.1 Model and naming rule ..…………………………………………………………….6
3.2 Summary table for quick access to product ..………………………………..8
3.3 Choice of membrane component ..………………………………………………10
3.4 Details of product ..……………………………………………………………………12
3.5 Specification of parts ..……………………………..……………………………….41
3.6 Packing information ..…………………………………………………………………42

4 Introduction of separation and reverse osmosis of membrane


4.1 Principle of filtration and separation ..…………………………………………44
4.2 Common filtration technology ..………………………………………………….45
4.3 Principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis ..………………………………….46
4.4 Structure of reverse osmosis and working method ………………………48
4.5 Main guide- line of reverse osmosis’s performance ………………………50
4.6 Main factor of reverse osmosis’s performance ……………………………..51

5 Pretreatment of reverse osmosis system


5.1 Definition …………………………………………………………………………………58
5.2 Pretreatment of reverse osmosis ………………………………………………..64

6 Design of reverse osmosis


6.1 Main target of reverse osmosis’s design ………………………………………77
6.2 Gist of reverse osmosis system …………………………………………………..77
6.3 Basic process of reverse osmosis system …………………………………….77
6.4 Post treatment of reverse osmosis system …………………………………..82
6.5 Common equipment of reverse osmosis system …………………………..83
6.6 Clean system of reverse osmosis system …………………………………….84
6.7 Common instrument of reverse osmosis system …………………………..85
6.8 Control of reverse osmosis system ……………………………………………..86

7 Daily run and maintenance of reverse osmosis system


7.1 Initial start-up of reverse osmosis system …………………………………… 87
7.2 Automatic start-up and stop of reverse osmosis system ………………..89
7.3 Daily maintenance of reverse osmosis system ……………………………..89
7.4 The stop and the maintenance for use of the RO system ………………91

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8 Clean of RO membrane element


8.1 Clean condition ………………………………………………………………………..93
8.2 Judgment of pollutants ……………………………………………………………..93
8.3 Clean of RO membrane’s components ………………………………………..96

9 Guarantee of Chanitex RO membrane element


9.1 Quality assure of Chanitex RO membrane components ………………..102
9.2 procedure of return product ………………………………………………………104

10 Frequently ask questions


10.1 How long does membrane last? ………………………………………………..106
10.2 What is the suitable condition to store membrane? …………………….106
10.3 What are the components of membrane’s protection liquid ………….106
10.4 How do pressure and temperature influence on water production
……………………………….106
10.5 How do pressure, temperature, and feed water TDS influence on
desalination? …………………………………………………………………………..106
10.6 What is water hammer and how does influence on membrane? ……107
10.7 Why does the PH value of water from the RO system low down? ….108
10.8 Why is the TDS value of initial water high when restart the
equipment? ……………………………………………………………………………..108
10.9 How is the structure of RO membrane? ………………………………………108
10.10 What are the malfunctions of RO system? …………………………………..109
10.11 What is the effect of the feed water’s rigidity to RO system? …………110

11 Quality authentication
11.1 NSF Certification ………………………………………………………………………111
11.2 ISO 14000 Environmental system certification …………………………….112
11.3 ISO9000 Quality system certification ………………………………………….113

12 Addenda
12.1 Unit conversion …………………………………………………………………………..114
12.2 Common formula ………………………………………………………………………..115
12.3 The conversion of conductivity and salinity …………………………………….116

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

1 Introduction of company

Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment CO., LTD is engaging in design,


manufacture, sales and service of pure water field.

We dedicate ourselves to the water treatment technology, the renovation and


appliance of materials, and supply the solutions of water treatment technology to
customers. Through our effects, we hope that we can supply the better products
and services to our customers around the world, improving human’s living
environment and the life quality of consumers.

Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment CO., LTD lays in MinHang district of
shanghai, close to traffic center of HongQiao, with an area of 33000square meters.

Our products cover all kinds of pure water equipments, filters and relative
components, including RO membrane, pump, filter, switch and solenoid. At
present, Chanitex has more than 150 professional and technical stuffs, distributed
in R&D, manufacture, QC, after-sales service and so on.

Chanitex pays much attention to product development through the ages. Every
year the expense on product development covers about 3% of sale and the
number of patent applications is for many years in the forefront of the country. We
own 66 items patents now, among which 12 items are invention patents, 25 items
are applied new pattern patents and 29 are appearance patents.

Chanitex was rated as shanghai high-tech enterprise in 2007 and its products are
certified by NSF, ROHS, CE, the ministry of health, UL, 3C and so on.

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Chanitex (shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co., LTD was founded in 2002 and
becomes one of the enterprises engaged in the manufacture of the reverse
osmosis membrane and relative products.

We have totally produced all kinds of more than 2 million sets RO membrane since
the first piece of membrane was produced and the numbers are top among the
nation. We produced 600,000 pieces of RO membranes in 2007 and the number is
top in China. At present, about 100 workers engage in membrane manufacture.

The yield of 4 inches membrane is 10,000 each month, 8 inches membrane 1,000,
household membrane 100,000, and the total yield is top among China.

The “number one” and” best of all of Chanitex

The first enterprise of applying patent in membrane’s rolling field in China.


The output of RO membrane is top one in china.
The export of RO membrane is top one in china.
The total amount of RO membrane is top one in China.
The number of applied patent is top one in China’s water purifier manufacture.

Our aims
Better RO membrane

More flexible and pragmatic management method

More professional technology support

Better after-sales service

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2 The characteristic of RO membrane in Chanitex


2.1 Imported raw materials
The RO membrane comes from USA and Japan’s manufactures whose repute are
great, and other key raw materials are also from them, so its quality and stability
can be guaranteed to great degree. Chanitex has built good cooperation
relationship with famous RO membrane supplier with perseverance and the spirit
of strictest attitude to quality over the years so as to produce the top ranking RO
membrane.

2.2 Advanced technology


The most advanced technology of arithmetical spiral is adopted to produce the 8
inch and 4 inch spiral membrane, so as to keep the quality the same with the other
and we are the first enterprise to master this technology in China. Over the years,
the pass rate of our products is more than 99.98% and reaches the tiptop standard
of this field, so our products are 100% qualified.

2.3 Special technology of “non-integer membrane”


The 2 inches and big flux household membrane adopts the technology of world’s
special “non-integer”. Chanitex applied for patent (Patent number:
ZL200520039773.7), and this patent has become the first patent of Chinese
people in field of membrane rolling. At present, the company owns 3 patents of RO
elements.

2.4 100% finished product test and strict quality standard


Each membrane of Chanitex is tested strictly to insure its rejection and water flow
within the scope of standard. Whatever specification of the membrane, each owns
the only serial number and the relative test report is kept in company’s data-base,
and every test report of the membrane can be supplied by company.

2.4 Flexible manufacture technology


Chanitex owns the technology and equipment of membrane manufacture design
team of product integrality. We also own the ability of 3D sculpt design, mould
process and plastic injection, so we can process special size of membrane and its
relative components. We have processed all kinds of specification membrane for
customers at home and abroad, and the details are as follow:

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3 Catalogue and parameter


3.1 Model and naming rule
3.1.1 Naming rule of 4 inches RO membrane elements

BW- 4040

Dimension: 4040 -- diameter is 4.0 inch and length 40 inch

4021 -- diameter is 4 inch and length is 21 inch

2540 -- diameter is 2.5 inch and length 40 inch

2521 -- diameter is 2.5 inch and length 21 inch

Series:BW Series Brackish Water Series

(Test pressure 1.55Mpa)

LP Series Low Pressure Brackish Water series

(Ttest pressure 1.05MPa)

TW Series Tap Water Desalination Series

(Test pressure 0.77MPa)

XLE Series Extrem Low Pressure Desalination Series

(Test pressure 0.70MPa)

ECO Series Economical Membrane Series

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3.1.2 Naming rule of 8 inches RO membrane elements

BW - 8 365

Active Membrane Area: 365 square inch

400 square inch

440 square meter

Diameter of Element: 8 inches

Series: The same as 4 inch

3.3.1.3 Naming rule of household RO membrane

TFC - 1812- 50

Water Flow: Unit GPD

Specification: 1812 -- diameter is 1.8 inch and length is 12 inch

2012 -- diameter is 2.0 inch and length is 12 inch

2512 -- diameter is 2.5 inch and length is 12 inch

3012 -- diameter is 3.0 inch and length is 12 inch

Series: TFC Thin Film Composed Polyamide RO Membrane

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

3.2 Summary table for quick access to product


Antitheses table of part component
Chanitex F XXX T XXX H XXX
model model model model
BW-2540 TW/BW-2540 / /
BW-4021 TW/BW-4021 / /
BW-4040 TW/BW-4040 TM710 CPA2-4040
BW-8365 BW30-365 TM720-370 CPA2-8040
BW-8400 BW30-400 TM720-400 CPA3-8040
LP-2540 LP-2540 / /
LP-4021 LP-4021 / /
LP-4040 LP-4040 TMG10 ESPA2-4040
LP-8365 / / /
LP-8400 LE-400 TMG720-400 ESPA2-8040
TW-2514 / / /
TW-2521 / / /
TW-2540 / / /
TW-4021 / / /
TW-4040 / TMH10 ESPA3-4040
TW-8365 / TMH720-370 /
TW-8400 / TMH720-400 ESPA3-8040
XLE-2514 / / /
XLE-2521 XLE-2521 / /
XLE-2540 XLE-2540 / /
XLE-4021 XLE-4021 / /
XLE-4040 XLE-4040 / ESPA4-4040
XLE-8365 / / /
XLE-8400 XLE-440 / ESPA4-8040
ECO1-4040 / / ESPA2-4040
ECO2-4040 / / ESPA1-4040
ECO3-4040 / / /
Notice: As the actual performance of membrane element is influenced by many factors, the

data is just for reference and doesn’t mean that it is completely same as the actual

performance when use

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Performance datasheet of part membrane


Product Rejection Permeate Flow Test Pressuer
Series Model
Code % GPD T/D L/min L/H Psi MPa Kg/cm3
400801 BW-4021 99.2 900 3.4 2.4 142
Brackish
400802 BW-4040 99.5 2500 9.5 6.6 394
desalination 225.0 1.55 15.5
400833 BW-8365 99.5 10000 37.9 26.3 1577
series
401023 BW-8400 99.5 11000 41.6 28.9 1735
400807 Low pressure LP-4021 99.0 1000 3.8 2.6 158
400808 brackish LP-4040 99.5 2500 9.5 6.6 394
150.0 1.05 10.5
400809 desalination LP-8365 99.5 10000 37.9 26.3 1577
401024 series LP-8400 99.5 11000 41.6 28.9 1735
400814 TW-4021 99.0 1000 3.8 2.6 158
TW tap water
400815 TW-4040 99.0 2600 9.8 6.8 410
desalination 110.0 0.77 7.7
401025 TW-8365 99.0 10000 37.9 26.3 1577
series
401026 TW-8400 99.0 11000 41.6 28.9 1735
400819 XLE-4021 99.0 1300 4.9 3.4 205
400820 Extram low XLE-4040 99.0 2800 10.6 7.3 441
100.0 0.69 6.9
401027 pressure series XLE-8365 99.0 11000 41.6 28.9 1735
401028 XLE-8400 99.0 12100 45.8 31.8 1908
401029 ECO ECO2-4040 99.5 2300 8.7 6.0 362
150.0 1.05 10.5
401030 economical ECO3-4040 99.0 2700 10.2 7.1 425
400805 series ECO4-4040 98.0 2100 7.9 5.5 331 75.0 0.52 5.2

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3.3 How to choose the membrane element


BW brackish water membrane: Average rejection is more than 99.5% with stable

performance, applying for brackish desalination;

LP low pressure brackish membrane: The pressure and energy consumption low down
40% with the same desalination rate;

TW tap water membrane: The best balance between high desalination and

higher permeate water flow, especially for

municipal water treatment;

XLE extreme low energy membrane: The water output is 10% more while the pressure
low down 30%. The perfect connection of low

energy consumption and high water output;

ECO low pressure membrane: The most economical 4 inch membrane with best

quality and low price;

FS-TFC membrane: The most complete specification of household

membrane brand;

Characteristic of product
1) RO membrane sheet of well-known manufacturer is adopted to
guarantee the quality of product;
2) With multi series and complete specification, the membrane can meet
all kinds of requirement;
3) With high quality and low price, it reduce the expense of investment
and maintenance;
4) With strong ability of development, we can provide tailor service of
membrane for customer;
5) We can provide OEM service of membrane for customer;

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

3.3.1 The comparison of water output and desalination of membrane produced by

Chanitex

3.3.2 The comparison of energy consumption and desalination rate of membrane

produced by Chanitex

3.3.3 The applied TDS value of membrane produced by Chanitex

Note: The above chart shows the different performance of membrane. And doesn’t mean that

the actual data is the same as the dates listed on the chart, the chart is just for reference

when choose membrane

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

3.4 The details of product

BW Brackish Water Desalination


2.5 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics BW brackish water membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
sheets , and are combined with the experience we got over the years, so we
can have a treatment of desalination brackish water whose TDS is less than
8000mg/L, surface water, ground water, and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High and owns perfect performance in wiping off SiO2. It can also reduce
the energy consumption and maintenance expense of resin, EDI and other
devices.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The Diameter
is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length is divided
into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need of
different requirement on water output. We can also make special
dimension and specification of membrane as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

BW-2514 8(0.7) 225(1.55) 220(0.8) 99.0 8


BW-2521 13(1.2) 225(1.55) 350(1.3) 99.0 15
BW-2540 28(2.6) 225(1.55) 750(2.8) 99.3 15
Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.5%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………6GPM(1.4M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 2.5 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
2514 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2521 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2540 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter) before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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BW Brackish Water Desalination


4.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics BW brackish water membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
sheets , and are combined with the experience we got over the years, so we
can have a treatment of desalination brackish water whose TDS is less than
8000mg/L, surface water, ground water, and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High and owns perfect performance in wiping off SiO2. It can also reduce
the energy consumption and maintenance expense of resin, EDI and other
devices.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The Diameter
is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length is divided
into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need of
different requirement on water output. We can also make special
dimension and specification of membrane as customer require.

Performance parameters
Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery
Model
Ft2(m2) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m3/d) (%) (%)
BW-4014 22(2.0) 225(1.55) 550(2.1) 99.3 8

BW-4021 36(3.3) 225(1.55) 900(3.4) 99.3 8

BW-4040 78(7.5) 225(1.55) 2500(9.5) 99.5 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 99.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………14GPM(3.2M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 4.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
4014 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4021 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4040 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter) before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

BW Brackish Water Desalination


8.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics BW brackish water membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
sheets , and are combined with the experience we got over the years, so we
can have a treatment of desalination brackish water whose TDS is less than
8000mg/L, surface water, ground water, and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High and owns perfect performance in wiping off SiO2. It can also reduce
the energy consumption and maintenance expense of resin, EDI and other
devices.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The Diameter
is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length is divided
into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need of
different requirement on water output. We can also make special
dimension and specification of membrane as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

BW-8365 365(34) 225(1.55) 10000(38) 99.5 15


BW-8400 400(37) 225(1.55) 11000(41) 99.5 15
Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 99.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………80GPM(18M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 8.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C
8365/8400 1016.0(40.0) 29.0(1.1) 201(7.9)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter) before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

LP Low Pressure Brackish Water Desalination


2.5 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics LP brackish water membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
sheets , and are combined with the experience we got over the years, so we
can have a treatment of desalination brackish water whose TDS is less than
5000mg/L, surface water, ground water, and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High desalination rate, and big flow ,the running pressure lows down
30% more than the common brackish membrane. It can reduce the
energy consumption, the quality requirement of pump, pressure vessel,
pipe line, and save the expense of investment and maintenance.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The
Diameter is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length
is divided into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need
of different requirement on water output. We can also make special
dimension and specification of membrane as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

LP-2514 8(0.7) 150(1.05) 220(0.8) 99.0 8


LP-2521 13(1.2) 150(1.05) 370(1.4) 99.0 15

LP-2540 28(2.6) 150(1.05) 800(3.0) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………6GPM(1.4M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 18 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 2.5 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
2514 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2521 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2540 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 19 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

LP Low Pressure Brackish Water Desalination


4.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics LP brackish water membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
sheets , and are combined with the experience we got over the years, so we
can have a treatment of desalination brackish water whose TDS is less than
5000mg/L, surface water, ground water, and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High desalination rate, and big flow ,the running pressure lows down
30% more than the common brackish membrane. It can reduce the
energy consumption, the quality requirement of pump, pressure vessel,
pipeline, and save the expense of investment and maintenance.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The
Diameter is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length
is divided into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need
of different requirement on water output. We can also make special
dimension and specification of membranes as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

LP-4014 22(2.0) 150(1.05) 750(2.9) 99.0 8


LP-4021 36(3.3) 150(1.05) 1000(3.8) 99.0 8

LP-4040 78(7.5) 150(1.05) 2500(9.5) 99.5 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 99.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………14GPM(3.2M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 20 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 4.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
4014 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4021 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4040 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1. 05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 21 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

LP Low Pressure Brackish Water Desalination


8.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics LP series brackish desalination membrane of Chanitex adopt the most
advanced technology of polyamide complex, and combine the experience
we got over the years, so we can have a treatment of desalination
brackish water whose salinity is less than 5000mg/L,surface water,
ground water ,and other source water.
The characteristics of the membrane are as follows:
● High desalination rate, and big flow ,the running pressure lows down
30% more than the common brackish membrane. It can reduce the
energy consumption, the quality requirement of pump, pressure
vessel, pipeline, and save the expense of investment and
maintenance.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts
the design of wide page and short film. This series of film owns the
high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification to meet
the need of different requirement on water output. We can also make
special dimension and specification of membrane as customer
require.
Performance paremeter

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

LP-8365 365(34) 150(1.05) 10000(38) 99.5 15


LP-8400 400(37) 150(1.05) 11000(40) 99.5 15

LP-8440 440(41) 150(1.05) 12000(45) 99.5 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 2000mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 99.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ……………………………………………600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 22 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 8.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C
8365/8400/8440 1016.0(40.0) 29.0(1.1) 201(7.9)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 23 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

TW Series Ultra Low Pressure Tap Water


2.5 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitax corporation TW series super low pressure tap water 2.5 inches
salty rejection reverse osmosis elements are made of super low
composite polyamide membrane combining with long term experience
in manufacturing reverse osmosis .It deals with the tap water with salt
lower than 2000mg/L and especially fits for the production of all the
drinking water .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● High rejection .They give high rejection in treating with pesticides, by
product of disinfection often seen from the tap water.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts
the design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of
film owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The
Diameter is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the
length is divided into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to
meet the need of different requirement on water output. We can also
make special dimension and specification of membrane as customer
require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

TW-2514 8(0.7) 110(0.76) 250(0.9) 98.5 5


TW-2521 13(1.2) 110(0.76) 350(1.3) 98.5 8

TW-2540 28(2.6) 110(0.76) 800(3.0) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 1500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………6GPM(1.4M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 24 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 2.5 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
2514 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2521 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2540 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 25 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

TW Series Ultra Low Pressure Tap Water


4.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitax corporation TW series super low pressure tap water 4.0 inches
salty rejection reverse osmosis elements are made of super low
composite polyamide membrane combining with long term experience
in manufacturing reverse osmosis .It deals with the tap water with salt
lower than 2000mg/L and especially fits for the production of all the
drinking water .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● High rejection .They give high rejection in treating with pesticides, by
product of disinfection often seen from the tap water.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts
the design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of
film owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The
Diameter is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the
length is divided into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to
meet the need of different requirement on water output. We can also
make special dimension and specification of membrane as customer
require.

Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

TW-4014 22(2.0) 110(0.76) 700(2.6) 99.0 8


TW-4021 36(3.3) 110(0.76) 1000(3.8) 99.0 8

TW-4040 78(7.5) 110(0.76) 2600(9.8) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 1500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:

Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃

Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5


Max feed water flux …………………………………………………14GPM(3.2M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 26 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 4.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
4014 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4021 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4040 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament ,having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean ,refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 27 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

TW Series Ultra Low Pressure Tap Water


8.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitax corporation TW series super low pressure tap water 2.5 inches
salty rejection reverse osmosis elements are made of super low
composite polyamide membrane combining with long term experience
in manufacturing reverse osmosis .It deals with the tap water with salt
lower than 2000mg/L and especially fits for the production of all the
drinking water .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● High rejection .They give high rejection in treating with pesticides, by
product of disinfection often seen from the tap water .
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts
the design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series
of film owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The
Diameter is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the
length is divided into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to
meet the need of different requirement on water output. We can also
make special dimension and specification of membrane as customer
require.

Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

TW-8365 365(34) 110(0.76) 10000(38) 99.0 15


TW-8400 400(37) 110(0.76) 11000(42) 99.0 15

TW-8440 440(41) 110(0.76) 12000(45) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 1500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate
and pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ……………………………………………600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 28 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 8.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C
8365/8400/8440 1016.0(40.0) 29.0(1.1) 201(7.9)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 29 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

XLE Series Extreme Low Energy


2.5 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitex XLE series extreme low energy reverse osmosis membrane elements are
made of the largest productive composite polyamide membrane It deals with the
tap water with salt lower than 2000mg/L .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● Super large productive .It can provide higher productive when the operational
pressure is 100 psi, which the flow is more than 10% compared with other
same products under the same pressure. It can also reduce investment costs
of pressure pump, pipe and pressure vessel.
● Effectively reducing the operating cost and design difficulties. When the feed
SDI is lower than3,it helps to reduce the quantity of pressure vessel , the
system investment and later operation and maintenance costs.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film owns
the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The Diameter is
divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length is divided into 14
inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need of different
requirement on water output. We can also make special dimension and
specification of membrane as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

XEL-2514 8(0.7) 100(0.69) 400 (1.5) 98.5 8


XEL-2521 13(1.2) 100(0.69) 500 (1.9) 98.5 15

XEL-2540 28(2.6) 100(0.69) 1100(4.2) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate and
pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited condition:

Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃

Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5


Max feed water flux …………………………………………………6GPM(1.4M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

Email: membrane@chanitex-sh.com Page 30 of 116 2008 Version


Chanitex (Shanghai) Pure Water Equipment Co.,LTD RO elements technical manual

Dimension Criterion
Diameter 2.5 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
2514 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2521 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)
2540 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 61.0(2.40)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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XLE Series Extreme Low Energy


4.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitex XLE series extreme low energy reverse osmosis membrane elements
are made of the largest productive composite polyamide membrane It deals with
the tap water with salt lower than 2000mg/L .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● Super large productive .It can provide higher productive when the
operational pressure is 100 psi, which the flow is more than 10% compared
with other same products under the same pressure. It can also reduce
investment costs of pressure pump, pipe and pressure vessel.
● Effectively reducing the operating cost and design difficulties. When the
feed SDI is lower than3,it helps to reduce the quantity of pressure vessel ,
the system investment and later operation and maintenance costs.
● With high stability and optimization structure. The membrane adopts the
design of wide feed net and short membrane leaves. This series of film
owns the high stability and can be cleaned.
● We supply wide scope of choice and complete specification. The Diameter
is divided into 2.5 inches, 4.0 inches, 8.0 inches and the length is divided
into 14 inches, 21 inches and 40 inches, so as to meet the need of different
requirement on water output. We can also make special dimension and
specification of membrane as customer require.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

XEL-4014 22(2.0) 100(0.69) 800 (3.0) 99.0 8


XEL-4021 36(3.3) 100(0.69) 1300 (4.9) 99.0 8

XEL-4040 78(7.5) 100(0.69) 2800(10.6) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate and
pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:

Max operation pressure …………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃

Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5


Max feed water flux …………………………………………………14GPM(3.2M3/h)

Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 4.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
4014 356.0(14.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4021 533.4(21.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)
4040 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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XLE Series Extreme Low Energy


8.0 Inches RO Membrane Element

Product characteristics Chanitex XLE series extreme low energy & large productive reverse osmosis
membrane elements are made of the largest productive composite polyamide
membrane It deals with the tap water with salt lower than 2000mg/L .
The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● Super large productive .It can provide higher productive when the
operational pressure is 100 psi, which the flow is more than 10%
compared with other same products under the same pressure. It can also
reduce investment costs of pressure pump, pipe and pressure vessel.
● Effectively reducing the operating cost and design difficulties. When the
feed SDI is lower than3,it helps to reduce the quantity of pressure vessel ,
the system investment and later operation and maintenance costs.
● Excellent stability , optimized element structure ,wide flow path and short
membrane leaf design ,XLE series of elements is provided with the super
reliable operation and most effective cleaning .
● Wide range and complete sets of products .There is 2.5 inches and 4.0
inches and 8.0 inches in diameter ,14 inches ,21 inches and 40 inches in
length that can meet different system demands about productive .Also,
we can design various sizes and specifications membrane elements
according to the clients’ needs.

Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model
Ft2(m2) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m3/d) (%) (%)

XEL-8365 365(34) 100(0.69) 11000 (41) 99.0 15


XEL-8400 400(37) 100(0.69) 12000 (45) 99.0 15

XEL-8440 440(41) 100(0.69) 13200(50) 99.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate and
pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure …………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ………………………………………45℃


Max feed water SDI ………………………………………………….5
Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 8.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C
8365/8400/8440 1016.0(40.0) 29.0(1.1) 201(7.9)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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ECO Series Low Pressure


4.0 inches RO Membrane Elements
Product characteristics Chanitax ECO series low pressure reverse osmosis membrane elements are
made of the most high-tech super low pressure composite polyamide
membrane in the world .It deals with the tap water with salt lower than
5000mg/L .The membrane has its characteristics as follows:
● High rejection and large productivity. The operational pressure is more
than 30% lower compared with common brackish membrane .ECO series
of elements can decrease your operation and maintenance costs a lot by
lowering the requirement of pumps, pressure vessels, pipe and other
components.
● Excellent stability , optimized element structure ,wide flow path and short
membrane leaf design .On the condition of ensuring adequate area of the
membrane ,wider flow path is helpful to drain contaminants of feed water,
The stress –tolerant required of pretreatment and quality required of feed
water will be relatively higher when working on off-normal condition .It
has more effective cleaning than normal ones. It can maintain a relatively
low pressure drop and prolong the life span of membrane element when
the quality of feed water is not good.
● So far ,there is only 4040 specification provided. One model is high
rejection type and the other is lager productive one. We will also develop
other specifications in the future.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model 2 2 3
Ft (m ) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m /d) (%) (%)

ECO1-4040 75(7.3) 225(0.53) 2000 (7.9) 99.5 15

ECO2-4040 75(7.3) 150(0.69) 2300 (8.7) 99.5 15

ECO3-4040 75(7.3) 150(0.69) 2700(10.2) 99.0 15

ECO4-4040 85(8.3) 75 (0.53) 2100(7.9) 98.0 15


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate and
pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 98.0%;

Limited conditions:
Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)
Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃
Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5
Max feed water flux …………………………………………………14GPM(3.2M3/h)
Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L
Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10
Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11
Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension Criterion
Diameter 4.0 inches series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D
4040 1016.0(40.0) 26.7(1.05) 19.1(0.75) 100.1(3.94)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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FS-TFC Household RO Membrane Elements

Production characteristics FS-TFC household RO membrane elements adopt the most advanced polyamide
RO membrane sheets and combine with many of the years of experience in the
process of rolling –made membrane, which can treat with various tap water
from the municipal.
The features are as follows:
● TFC-1812-50GPD membrane has got the certification of NSF (ANSI/NSF
Standard 58);
● Outstanding performance ,high stability and reasonable price
● FS-TFC is a residential membrane brand with the most complete mode and
specification in the world, with the four Diameters of 1.8inches ,2.0
inches, 2.5inches and 3.0 inches ,pure water flux from 50 GPD to 300GDP.
The 400 GPD&500GDP will be developed in 2007.
Performance parameters

Active area Test pressure Permeate water Rejection Recovery


Model
Ft2(m2) Psi(MPa) flow GPD(m3/d) (%) (%)

TFC-1812-50 4 (0.4) 65(0.45) 60(204) 97.0 15


TFC-1812-75 4 (0.4) 65(0.45) 75 (283) 97.0 15
TFC-1812-90 4 (0.4) 65(0.45) 90(340) 97.0 15

TFC-2012-100 5 (0.5) 65(0.45) 100(378) 97.0 15

TFC-2012-125 5 (0.5 65(0.45) 125(473) 97.0 15

TFC-2512-200 10(1.0) 65(0.45) 200(757) 97.0 15

TFC-2512-250 12(1.2) 65(0.45) 250(947) 97.0 15

TFC-3012-200 10(1.0) 65(0.45) 200(757) 97.0 10

TFC-3012-250 12(1.2) 65(0.45) 250(947) 97.0 10

TFC-3012-300 14(1.4) 65(0.45) 300(1135) 97.0 10


Notice: test conditions
1. The test is under water temperature 25℃, NaCl 500mg/L, pH 7.5 and the standard recycle rate and
pressure;
2. The water output deviation of single membrane is between ±15% of mean value;
3. The lowest desalination rate is 95.0%;

Limited conditions:

Max operation pressure ………………………………………….600psi(4.2MPa)

Max feed water temperature ……………………………………45℃

Max feed water SDI ……………………………………………….5


Max free chlorine in feed water …………………………………<0.1mg/L

Range of feed water PH value of constant run………………3~10

Range of feed water PH value of chemical cleaning……….2~11

Max pressure drop of single membrane……………………….15Psi(0.1Mpa)

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Dimension criterion
Household reverse osmosis series unit mm (inch)

Model A B C D E F
1812 298(11.7) 20.0(0.8) 19.1(0.75) 45.0(1.8) 264.8(10.4) 53.5(2.1)
2012 298(11.7) 20.0(0.8) 19.1(0.75) 48.0(1.9) 264.8(10.4) 53.5(2.1)
2512 298(11.7) 20.0(0.8) 19.1(0.75) 62.0(2.5) 264.8(10.4) 71.5(2.8)
3012 298(11.7) 20.0(0.8) 19.1(0.75) 81.0(3.2) 264.8(10.4) 81.5(3.2)

Important information and notice:


1 More information about design parameters, you can read the new version of manual, design direction and
other relative data, or have a consultation with technologist. If user doesn’t obey the manual offered by us,
we will not take responsibility for what happen.
2 All the membranes are tested strictly and treated with 1.0% NaHSO3 for storage (propylene glycol antifreeze is
added in winter)before shipped .We adopt vacuum packaging and the hard cardboard is used for packaging.
To prevent the growing of microbial in short-term storage and transport. The protect liquid of 1.0%NaHSO3 is
promoted (confected with RO pure water) to marinate components
3 It is suggested that the first hour of pure water be drain
4 Any chemical medicament, having a bad effect on membrane’s performance, is bidden to add in the period
of storage, installation and normal function. When install, please use pure water or glycerin if lube is needed.
When clean, refer to the cleaning method and the chemical medicament of complex offered by us .If you
use other chemical medicament, we will not take any responsibility of what happens
5 FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics) is adopted for 4040 and 8040 and the limited pressure is 15
Psi .Adhesive tape wrap is adopted for household membrane, and pyrocondensation film is added for other
dimension of membrane.
6 All the membrane produced by Chanitex adopt the universal standards of international size, and can
interconvert with all types of membrane presently.25 series adopt the pressure vessel whose Diameter is 2.5
inches,40 series 4.0 inches and 80 series 8.0 inches.

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The table of temperature regulate index


Temp. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
5 2.160 2.151 2.142 2.134 2.125 2.117 2.108 2.100 2.091 2.083
6 2.075 2.066 2.058 2.050 2.042 2.034 1.025 2.017 2.009 2.001
7 1.993 1.986 1.978 1.970 1.962 1.954 1.946 1.939 1.931 1.923
8 1.916 1.908 1.901 1.893 1.886 1.878 1.871 1.863 1.856 1.849
9 1.841 1.834 1.827 1.820 1.813 1.805 1.798 1.791 1.784 1.777
10 1.770 1.763 1.756 1.750 1.743 1.736 1.729 1.722 1.716 1.709
11 1.702 1.696 1.689 1.682 1.676 1.669 1.663 1.656 1.650 1.643
12 1.637 1.631 1.624 1.618 1.612 1.605 1.599 1.593 1.587 1.581
13 1.575 1.568 1.562 1.556 1.550 1.544 1.538 1.532 1.527 1.521
14 1.515 1.509 1.503 1.497 1.492 1.486 1.480 1.474 1.469 1.463
15 1.457 1.452 1.446 1.441 1.435 1.430 1.424 1.419 1.413 1.408
16 1.403 1.397 1.392 1.387 1.381 1.376 1.371 1.366 1.360 1.355
17 1.350 1.345 1.340 1.335 1.330 1.325 1.320 1.315 1.310 1.305
18 1.300 1.295 1.290 1.285 1.280 1.275 1.270 1.266 1.261 1.256
19 1.251 1.247 1.242 1.237 1.232 1.228 1.223 1.219 1.214 1.209
20 1.205 1.200 1.196 1.191 1.187 1.182 1.178 1.174 1.169 1.165
21 1.160 1.156 1.152 1.147 1.143 1.139 1.135 1.130 1.126 1.122
22 1.118 1.114 1.110 1.105 1.101 1.097 1.093 1.089 1.085 1.081
23 1.077 1.073 1.069 1.065 1.061 1.057 1.053 1.049 1.045 1.042
24 1.038 1.034 1.030 1.026 1.022 1.019 1.015 1.011 1.007 1.004
25 1.000 0.997 0.995 0.992 0.989 0.987 0.984 0.982 0.979 0.976
26 0.974 0.971 0.969 0.966 0.963 0.961 0.958 0.956 0.953 0.951
27 0.948 0.946 0.943 0.941 0.938 0.936 1.933 0.931 0.928 0.926
28 0.924 0.921 0.919 0.916 0.914 0.912 0.909 0.907 0.904 0.902
29 0.900 0.897 0.895 0.893 0.890 0.888 0.886 0.883 0.881 0.879
30 0.877 0.874 0.872 0.870 0.868 0.865 0.863 0.861 0.859 0.856
31 0.854 0.852 0.850 0.848 0.845 0.843 0.841 0.839 0.837 0.835
32 0.832 0.830 0.828 0.826 0.824 0.822 0.820 0.818 0.816 0.813
33 0.811 0.809 0.807 0.805 0.803 0.801 0.799 0.797 0.795 0.793
34 0.791 0.789 0.787 0.785 0.783 0.781 0.779 0.777 0.775 0.773
35 0.771 0.769 0.767 0.765 0.763 0.761 0.760 0.758 0.756 0.754
36 0.752 0.750 0.748 0.746 0.744 0.743 0.741 0.739 0.373 0.735
37 0.733 0.731 0.730 0.728 0.726 0.724 0.722 0.721 0.719 0.717
38 0.715 0.713 0.712 0.710 0.708 0.706 0.705 0.703 0.701 0.699
39 0.698 0.696 0.694 0.693 0.691 0.689 0.687 0.686 0.684 0.682
40 0.681 0.679 0.677 0.676 0.674 0.672 0.671 0.669 0.667 0.666

Flow @ 25℃ = Actual Flow × Regulate Index

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3.5 The specification of the parts


3.5.1 4040 and 8040 connectors of the membrane elements

4040 element connector code: 42317 8040 element connector code: 40708

The specification of the sealed ring

Used O ring of the membrane element

Specification
Name Code
d1 22

Residential membrane 40601 2.5 17.8

4040membrane connector 40608 3.5 18.5

8040 membrane connector 40604 2.8 24.0

Used Y ring of the membrane element

Specification
Name Code
d1 d2 S1 S2 h

2.5 inch Y ring 40503 49.0 50.5 4.3 5.75 5.1

4.0 inch Y ring 40505 87.0 88.0 7.3 5.5 6.5

8.0 inch Y ring 40509 184.8 185.8 8.0 7.0 8.0

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Package information
3.6.1 The package information of commercial and industrial elements

Gross Net Quantity A B C


Specification
(kg) (kg) ( Price/carton) (cm) (cm) (cm)

2514 0.6 0.4 1 57 12 12

2521 1.0 0.8 1 57 12 12

2540 2.4 1.8 1 110 12 12

4014 1.8 1.5 1 57 12 12

4021 2.5 2.1 1 57 12 12

4040 4.3 3.6 1 110 12 12

8365 19 17.5 1 110 28 28

8400 21 19.5 1 110 28 28

Note: The gross and the net weight are calculated by the wet membrane .The deviation between
actual weight and the average is +5%

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3.6.2 The package information of residential elements

Gross Net Quantity A B C


Specification
(kg) (kg) ( Price/carton) (cm) (cm) (cm)

1812 7.9 7.0 25 32 32 31

2012 8.9 8.0 25 32 32 31

2512-200 10.0 9.0 16 32 32 32

2512-250 12.0 11.0 16 32 32 32

3012-200 9.7 8.7 16 32 32 32

3012-250 11.0 10.0 16 32 32 32

3012-300 12.6 11.6 16 32 32 32

Note: 1812 membrane include: TFc-1812-36/50/60/70/75/80/90 GPD


2012 membrane include: TFc-2012-100/125/150 GDP
The gross and the net weight is calculated by the wet membrane .The deviation between
actual weight and the average is +5%

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4 The Brief Introduction of Separation and Reverse Osmosis


4.1 The Principle of Filter and Separation

Filter refers to removing many or a certain substance in the gas or liquid and makes the gas and
liquid pass the hole with multi-hole medium on the effect of out force, and then impurity is left
on the filter medium to achieve the operation of separation.

1 The multi-hole medium is called filter medium. The usual filter medium contains filter bag,
filter core, filter membrane and filter material .The treated gas or liquid is called original liquid.
In the original liquid, the impurity left by filter medium, this is called filter sediment. The liquid
passed the filter mediums called filter liquid.

2 The force that make the liquid pass the filter medium include gravity, pressure, centrifugal
force or other drive force;

3 The purpose of filter may be to get more purified gas or liquid product. or to gain the certain
substance contained in the gas or liquid .(that is condensation or purification)

The usual liquid filter separation include: machinery filter, traditional filter, micro-filtration
Ultra-filtration, Nano-filtration reverse osmosis, electric permeating separation. They are
different in accuracy. The above chart is several separated accuracy and the operating pressure
range. From the chart we can see the filtration accuracy of the reverse osmosis is the highest. It
can remove almost all the impurity in the water including ion, organism microbes. However, the
range of corresponding operational pressure is higher, usual 100-1000psi. Other filters have the
regularity of operational pressure is lower as the filter accuracy does.

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4.2 Usual Filtration


4.2.1 Crossing Flow Filter
Crossing flow filter refers to the flow direction of the filter liquid is different from that of pure
water. As the under chart shows: the row water enters from left along horizontal direction and
the condensed water is out from right, but the permeated water / pure water direction has some
angle. The filter format which feed water / concentrated water and pure water have different
direction is called crossing flow filter. The usual crossing flow filter includes: reverse osmosis,
nano-filtration, Ultra-filter and permeated separation.

The best advantage of the crossing flow filter is: the excellent function of anti-pollution. For
most impurity left by filter membrane is taken by condensed water except a little left on the
surface. Meanwhile, the feed water often washes out the surface of the membrane to ensure the
long time and stable operation.

The worst disadvantage is: the emission of waste water. Because it needs the condensed water
to take the impurity out, which will cause the condensed water and drain the waste water. The
crossing flow filter must cause the waste water for the structure character of the filter
membrane .Once we stop the emission of the waste water, much impurity will leave on the
surface of the membrane so that the filter membrane will be covered with the impurity and lose
the filtering function.

4.2.2 Full Filtration


Full filter refers to a filter skill that the entire filter liquid will pass the filter medium. When the
filter liquid passes the medium, all or part impurity will be left on the surface or change into
other substance to make the filter liquid pure.

It is the most common filter with wide range of use, such as machinery filter, quartz sand filter,
active carbon filter, manganese sand filter. ion exchanging filter , micro-filter , ultra-filtration and
bag filter .

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Advantage: large amount, low energy-consumption, little waste water:


Disadvantage: lower filter accuracy, almost no filtering the ion impurity, easy polluted medium
which needs regularly cleaning and even changing.

4.3 The principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis

In the 17 centaury, people discovered the osmosis phenomenon .At that time if people put the
distilled water into the bladder of the pig and then dipped it into the salty water, the distilled
water would permeate the pig bladder and enter the salty water, and also the density would
decease. The phenomenon that solvent passes the semi-trans-membrane and permeates from
the low part to the high one is called osmosis. If we do the experiment with salty solvent and
water, the water molecule will pass the semi-trans-membrane to permeate from the low TDS to
the high TDS. The reverse osmosis phenomenon refers to the solvent pass the
semi-trans-membrane and permeates from the high density t to the low one that is water
molecule permeates from the high TDS to the low part, which is equal to extract the fresh water
from the salty water. Two conditions must be needed to produce the reverse osmosis
phenomenon that is the input of outer energy and proper semi-trans membrane.

It is impossible that reverse osmosis phenomenon will happen without outer force .we will take
salty water for example to compare the phenomenon between osmosis and reverse osmosis:

The normal osmosis:

Now the permeated pressure is larger than the pressure drop of the two sides of the
semi-trans-membrane .With the force of the permeated pressure, the water molecule
continuously passes the semi-trans membrane to enter the higher salty density to make the
liquid of the side higher and higher, and the salt keeps moving from the side of high density to
that of low one.

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The balance of osmosis:

As the water molecule will move to the high salty density with the force of permeated pressure
to make the liquid surface higher and higher, the pressure drop of the two sides is larger and
larger. It will balance when the pressure drop is equal to the permeated pressure.
Now the water molecule will permeate to the two sides together .Although the permeating speed
is the same, the salt keeps moving from the high density to the low one.

The reverse osmosis:

If the liquid in the high density is given the outer force, which is larger than permeated pressure,
the water molecule will permeate reversely with the outer force, that is, to permeate from the
high density to the low one, which is called reverse osmosis. As the water molecule continuously
permeates to the other side, the density of high salty side will become higher and higher till the
permeated pressure is equal to the outer force. Then the osmosis phenomenon becomes
balanced again.

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The salt keeps moving from the side of high density to that of low one.

There mainly are several philosophies about the process of the reverse osmosis in the theory
and model

Phenomenon model
Solution-diffusion model
Priority absorption-thin hole model
The H key theory

None of the theory can explain the theory of the RO phenomenon perfectly .Although the quality
of the RO phenomenon isn’t discovered ,people can make good use of it to produce the RO
membrane to gain the benefit .

4.4 Structure and principle of RO membrane


4.4.1 Reverse osmosis membrane structure

Since the 20th century, People began to study electro dialysis, porous membrane, the early ultra
filtration, reverse osmosis; research potential is electro dialysis membrane electrode and the
foundation, and the early artificial kidney research. Since the 1950s, the study of film, electro
dialysis, porous and blood dialysis process, such as separation technology has begun to enter
industrial applications.

The 1960s, the development of the high rate of desalination, water penetration capability of
high-asymmetric cellulose acetate of reverse osmosis membranes, reverse osmosis technology
into industrial applications, to the 1980s, aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membrane there.

There are two major reverse osmosis membrane material, cellulose acetate and aromatic
polyamide, the early reverse osmosis membranes are cellulose acetate, until the 1970s, reverse
osmosis polyamide successfully developed and gradually replace the acetate Cellulose film to
become the market mainstream products. The following table is two different comparative
advantages of film material:

Endurance Temp.
Material Rejection Production Flow Power pH Range
of chlorine Range
CA Low Low High Good 5~35℃ 1~12
PA High High Low Poor 5~45℃ 3~12

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The main structure of reverse osmosis membranes are hollow fiber and composite film two:

Hollow fiber membrane cross-section Three-tier structure of PA membranes

Common use of reverse osmosis membranes of the non-symmetrical structure, from three
different material from the polymer composite materials, the bottom thickness of 80 microns is
about the non-woven fabrics, the middle is about the thickness of 40 microns, from the
transformation polysulfone 10% of the porous support layer, the top are from chloride and
stupid amine polymer from the interface of the desalination of polyamide, such multi-storey
composite structure with good compression, water production, desalination rate characteristics.

4.4.2 Reverse osmosis membrane component structure


Reverse osmosis membrane structure of the main components of a hollow fiber, spiral roll, Flat.
At present the most commonly used is the spiral roll, this structure is filled with large capacity,
installation is simple, reliable structures, and pressure is good and so on. Spiral roll reverse
osmosis membrane mainly by: reverse osmosis membrane, the water every other network,
water every other network, the center-water pipes, sealing glue, tape and the outer ring a dense
water, there are some film components at both ends - Cover (also known as anti-stress) steel
and glass shell. Under the plan is the structure of the film components:

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4.5 Key indicators to measure the performance of RO membranes

4.5.1 Desalination rate


Is that the rate of reverse osmosis desalination membrane on the removal of impurities in the
water capacity. Usually expressed as a percentage. Formula is as follows:

Reverse osmosis membrane component of the removal of different substances are also different,
the whole of the following:
z The removal rate of polyvalent higher than monovalent ion;
z The removal rate of complex higher than simple ion;
z Organic matter molecular weight below 100 is lower removal;
z The nitrogen group and its compounds the removal rate lower;

Substance Molecular Rejection(%) Substance Molecular Rejection(%)

NaF 42 99 NaCN 49 97

NaCl 58 99 SiO2 60 98

NaHCO3 84 99 NaNO3 85 97

MgCl 95 99 CaCl2 111 99

MgSO4 120 >99 NiSO4 155 >99

CuSO4 160 >99 Formaldehyde 30 40

Methanol 32 30 Alcohol 46 70

Isopropanol 60 90 Carbamide 60 70
Lactic acid
90 99 Dextrose 180 98
pH5
Sucrose 342 99 Insecticide / >99

Desalination rate is divided into the apparent desalination rate and the actual rate of
desalination.

Permeate TDS
Apparent Rejection =(1- )×100%
Feed TDS

2×Permeate TDS
Actual Rejection=(1- )×100%
(Feed TDS + Concentrated TDS)× A

A---- Concentration Polarization(1.1~1.2)


Reverse osmosis membrane components are the data provided by the actual rate of desalination,
the formula is relatively complex, and the apparent rate of desalination is our common target,

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the formula did not consider surface water enrichment and the concentration polarization
pHenomenon The apparent desalination rate was slightly lower than the actual rate of
desalination.

4.5.2 Production and water flux


Production of reverse osmosis membranes that water is a certain test conditions, the unit time
the water volume targets. Its units are GPD (gallons per day) and LPH (liters per hour).

Throughput refers to the unit area of reverse osmosis membrane in the unit of time can produce
the volume of water that the number, the unit normally used GFD (gallons / square feet × days)
and m3/m2 × D (cu m / m 2 × days ).
Film production components of water flux × = effective membrane area

4.5.3 Recovery
Recovery is that reverse osmosis membrane components or reverse osmosis system energy
efficiency a key indicator used to enter the water in the membrane component of the number of
products into the water, their formula is as follows:

Recovery = × 100%
Product water flow
Recovery = × 100%
Inlet water flow

4.6 Main factors Impacting of reverse osmosis membranes


In actual use, the performance of reverse osmosis membrane components by many outside
factors, mainly water temperature, pressure, pH value, and so on. Therefore, in the reverse
osmosis system design and operation and maintenance, rational use of these environmental
factors, the reverse osmosis system can run at a relatively stable and prevent fluctuations in the
follow-up performance of the impact.

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4.6.1 Water temperature

As shown below, with the water temperature rises, decreasing the viscosity of water molecules,
and the speed increase, reverse osmosis membranes will increase water production,
desalination rate declined slightly. Under normal circumstances, reverse osmosis membrane of
the water temperature range is 5 ~ 45 ℃, the low temperature system would increase the risk
of freezing ice and water production is too low, relatively poor economic performance, it is not
recommended in water temperature below 5 ℃ when activated reverse osmosis system, while
more than 45 ℃, reverse osmosis membrane of the heavy water production, but also the risk of
pollution.

Desalination rate affected by temperature changes, due to temperature rise, increasing at a rate
of molecular movement, there will be more soluble ions penetrate into the salt water,
desalination rate of decline. Under normal circumstances, changes in the rate of desalination is
generally not more than 2%.

The flow of reverse osmosis membranes strongly influenced by water temperature, according to
industry practice, the film component of the flow is in accordance with the water temperature at
25 ℃ test drawn, and each temperature dropped 1 ℃, membrane components of the water
production will drop 3 to 3.5 percent . Due to the increasing temperature, the viscosity of water
molecules and reduce the speed increase, making it easier for water molecules through the
membrane.

Take LP4040 film components as an example, the table below is different when the water
temperature of the water production changes:

Temp(℃) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Pressure(Psi) 150 150 150 150 150 150 150
Flow(L/min) 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.8 7.0 8.0 9.1
Flow(GPD) 1250 1520 1850 2240 2700 3070 3500

Film on different components of production water temperature at 25 ℃ and the standard flow
calculation, please refer to the "membrane component temperature ---- flow correction factor"
section.

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4.6.2 Inlet water pressure

Reverse osmosis system is the water pressure affected the performance of the main parameters
of reverse osmosis membranes and water desalination production rate will be increased with the
increasing pressure, especially the increase in water production is particularly obvious.

Under normal circumstances, after the completion of the production of reverse osmosis
membranes, effective membrane area and patch on the permeability coefficient have been
identified, therefore, in other water conditions remain unchanged, the middle membrane
components only by water pressure on the net impact of pressure on the net With pump
pressure, so membrane components of water production and increased water pressure is linear
relationship.

Desalination of water pressure also by the impact of the one hand, reverse osmosis membrane
permeability of salt is a constant rate, the formula is as follows:
Salt both sides of membrane permeability = poor concentration × temperature correction factor
B × × patch of salt infiltration coefficient of effective membrane area

On the other hand, the increase in pressure caused by increasing water production, thereby
diluting the salt through the so-reduced water salinity and improve the rate of desalination. Take
LP4040 film components as an example, the table below is different under the pressure of the
water production and water desalination:

Feed water Feed water Salty Passage production TDS Rejection


GPD
pressure Psi TDS mg/L mg/min L/min mg/L %
75 2000 105 3.5 30 1340 98.5
100 2000 105 4.5 25 1730 99.0
150 2000 105 7.0 15 2700 99.4
200 2000 105 9.5 11 3650 99.6
300 2000 105 13.5 7.5 5190 99.75

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4.6.3 TDS of inlet water

Water salinity will affect the performance of membrane components. As water salinity different,
the osmotic pressure is also different, indirect impact on the net pressure on the system, a direct
result of decreased water production, but compared to the pressure on the impact of water
production, water salinity of the water-less . In addition to seawater desalination membrane,
under normal circumstances water salinity increases every 200 mg / L, water production
declined about 1 percent;

Water salinity increases will make the reverse osmosis salt on both sides of the poor increased,
and will further increase the concentration polarization pHenomenon, made up of salt through,
desalination rate has dropped. Under normal conditions, water salinity to double production to
increase to the water salinity of the original concentration of 2.5 to 3 times the rate of
desalination by about 0.2 to 0.5 percent.

Take NaCl as an example:


Permeate pressure (psi) = concentration (mg / L) × 0.01

Take LP4040 element as an example, the table below is different when the middle class into the
water salinity changes:

Permeate Net Permeate Permeate Permeate


Feed water Feed water Rejection
Pressure Pressure Water Flow Water TDS Water Flow
Pressure Psi TDS mg/L %
Psi Psi L/min mg/L GPD
150 200 2 148 7.9 1.0 3000 99.7
150 400 4 146 7.8 2.5 3000 99.7
150 1000 10 140 7.5 6 2850 99.6
150 2000 20 130 7.0 11 2700 99.5
150 4000 40 110 5.9 30 2270 99.2

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4.6.4 PH value of inlet water

Influent pH on the impact of reverse osmosis membranes in the main performance and capacity
for desalination of water on the TDS. Nature of a carbon dioxide dissolved in water are, dissolved
in the water after the reaction will occur as follows:

CO2+H2O HCO3- + H+ CO32- + 2H+

Acidic conditions, H + increase, the reaction to the left, the water main to the gas form of carbon
dioxide dissolved in water, basic conditions, the right response, mainly carbon dioxide carbonate
ions in the form of the neutral conditions, Both gaseous carbon dioxide, there will be bicarbonate
ions and carbonate ions exist. pH value of 4.4 or lower, with a presence of carbon dioxide; pH
value of 8.2, there is no carbon dioxide, all of bicarbonate. The pH value of 8.2 to 9.6, carbonate
and bicarbonate solution mutual balance. pH value of 9.6, there is no carbon dioxide and
bicarbonate, all of the carbonate alkalinity.

The characteristics of reverse osmosis membranes, for ions, and organic particles in the high
removal rate, but the gas is almost no removal rate, and plasma, the ion complex, high-priced
than the removal of the ion to In addition to high rates. Therefore, pH value is low, the water
through reverse osmosis membrane of carbon dioxide into the water production, neutral or
alkaline conditions, the water of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions and carbonate ions, which
in this reverse osmosis membranes The removal of two-high, resulting in the removal of reverse
osmosis membranes with the increase of pH value increased, but the pH value of more than 9.5,
the hydrogen and oxygen ions in water will increase significantly, reverse osmosis membranes
Removal rate will drop slightly.

In order to increase the rate of reverse osmosis desalination membrane, can be an appropriate
increase the pH value of water, but attention should be paid to prevent the pH value increased
after scaling a tendency to rise. For example, in between the two reverse osmosis water
production increased level of pH, can effectively raise the reverse osmosis desalination
second-class rate

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4.6.5 Recovery

Acidic conditions, H + increase, the reaction to the left, the water main to the gas form of carbon
dioxide dissolved in water, basic conditions, the right response, mainly carbon dioxide carbonate
ions in the form of the neutral conditions, Both gaseous carbon dioxide, there will be bicarbonate
ions and carbonate ions exist. pH value of 4.4 or lower, with a presence of carbon dioxide; pH
value of 8.2, there is no carbon dioxide, all of bicarbonate. The pH value of 8.2 to 9.6, carbonate
and bicarbonate solution mutual balance. pH value of 9.6, there is no carbon dioxide and
bicarbonate, all of the carbonate alkalinity.

The characteristics of reverse osmosis membranes, for ions, and organic particles in the high
removal rate, but the gas is almost no removal rate, and plasma, the ion complex, high-priced
than the removal of the ion to In addition to high rates. Therefore, pH value is low, the water
through reverse osmosis membrane of carbon dioxide into the water production, neutral or
alkaline conditions, the water of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions and carbonate ions, which
in this reverse osmosis membranes The removal of two-high, resulting in the recovery of reverse
osmosis membranes also by changing the water and dense water salinity indirectly affect the
middle membrane components of the water and desalination. As the concentration of reverse
osmosis membranes, the higher recovery rate, concentrated the higher water salinity, the
greater osmotic pressure, and water desalination production rate will decline.

Concentrated water salinity = water salinity ÷ (1 - recoveries)


Average water salinity = concentration polarization factor × (+ dense water salinity water
salinity) ÷ 2

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The following table recovery rate for different conditions, water salinity and concentration of
water salinity values:

Recovery 15% 33% 50% 75%


Inlet Water TDS(mg/L) 1000 1000 1000 1000
Concentrated water TDS(mg/L) 1176 1500 2000 4000
Average water TDS (mg/L) 1229 1412 1695 2825
Average permeate pressure(Psi) 12 14 17 28
Net pressure (Psi) 138 136 133 122
Note: In accordance with 150 Psi water pressure and concentration polarization coefficient of
1.13 calculated

Membrane component recovery (or system recovery) will directly affect the average water
salinity, thus affecting the pressure and salt through the net amount, resulting in water
production and capacity for water TDS changes. The higher recovery rate, the smaller the
production of water, producing water TDS greater value.

Note: This sections of the film icon that only components of changing trends and does not
represent the actual use of specific data

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5. Reverse osmosis system pretreatment


5.1 Definition

5.1.1 The type of water


Life is the main source of drinking water Surface water and ground water two kinds, including
the use of fresh water is the main type of water.

1.Surface water
Surface water is rain and snow, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and marine water, these are the
characteristics of the water with them is closely related to the formation process

2. Rain and snow


Rain and snow in the landing process of a solution are a certain number of impurities, such as
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, etc., may also be mixed with industrial cities in emissions, dust
and other harmful gases. This part of the whole surface water impurities and less low salt
content, the average salinity of only about 40 milligrams per liter, the hardness is also very low,
only an average of about 2.5 mg per liter, a soft water.

3. River water
River water through surface runoff from the pool, it contacts the weathering of rocks and soil,
into some salts, the salt content higher than rain and snow. China's river water, the average salt
concentration is 166 mg/L. Because of its river water also washed away, with a large number of
volumes of silt, clay and other suspended material, the water contains high suspended solids
and colloid, high water turbidity. River water by the geographical environment and the impact of
climate conditions vary with the seasons and fluctuations, but also the hydrological and
meteorological conditions of the impact of changes in water easily, unstable and more
vulnerable to agricultural and industrial wastewater, sewage and other pollution.

4. Lakes and reservoirs of water


Lakes and reservoirs because water lake wide, slow flows, long-term natural precipitation to the
suspension of water smaller. If the inflow and water from the lake are greater, so the lake's
relatively small amount of evaporation, thereby maintaining a lower salinity and a fresh water
lake, otherwise, if most of the inflow of water evaporation, water and enrichment Salinity
increased, it turned into lagoons, or salt lakes, and lakes due to the light of the mobility of the
small, and is conducive to microbial growth and reproduction of algae, thus the higher the water
content of humus, and also easier to be man-made pollution.

5. Ocean water
Ocean water evaporation of the annual 40 × 10000 km 3, from the dissolved salts into the river
each year are 3.85 × 10 (9) 1986, and accumulated over many years of evaporation, the salt
content in sea water concentrations as high as about 35,000 mg per liter . Sea salts in the weight
ratio of basic stability, a high chloride content, chloride ion of about 55 percent of the total,
followed by sodium ions, about 30 percent, and other salts is mainly potassium ions, calcium,

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Sulfate ions, re-carbonate ions, ion bromine, there are trace elements, such as dissolved gases
and organic matter. Ocean water only in exceptional circumstances were not used as domestic
water sources of water

6.Groundwater
Groundwater is rainwater through the soil strata and the penetration of mobile formed by water,
in its lengthy process and extensive contacts, into more soluble minerals, thus the hardness of
underground water, salt content, usually higher than that of iron High groundwater. On the
other hand, groundwater and soil formation due to the layers of filtering, colloidal suspension of
the content and very little water clear and transparent, low turbidity. As groundwater dissolved
oxygen is very low, not even bacteria can not survive. The price of ferrous ions and stability can
exist in water, groundwater and air contacts when the price of iron oxide into a quick three
highest bidders iron, and forming a flock of precipitation.

Overall, the quality of groundwater is superior to surface water quality, as long as the
appropriate treatment can be as drinking water, but with the ground pollutants and increase air
pollution, will be on the shallow groundwater pollution, should be in use Attention.

7.Tap water
Tap water is purified through the water treatment plants, produced after disinfection of drinking
water in line with national standards for people's lives, production use of water. It is mainly
through the Waterworks water pumping stations and underground water from rivers and lakes
(that is, these two types of water), and the precipitation, disinfection and filtration process, with
final adoption of pump stations transported to various users. Pump through the water by
pipeline transmission and distribution of water supply users. Must meet the national drinking
water health standards.

5.1.2 Reverse osmosis water chemistry


Color non-precision test parameters, based on different color from organic matter the size,
color can be said that the size of the water content of organic compounds and the use of
platinum as a standard APHA units.

Conductivity of the water soluble ions that are conductive capability of indicators, in units of
micro-Siemens / cm (us / cm), it is relatively intuitive reaction of the ion content in the water;

TDS (total dissolved solids) is filtered and colloidal suspension of evaporation and water out
all the remaining minerals, in units of mg / L; it is relatively intuitive reaction of the salinity of the
water; water through the TDS Conductivity converted out, a rough method is: the reference to
sodium chloride solution, every 1 mg / L TDS value of the corresponding 2 us / cm conductivity;

BOD (biological oxygen demand) that the water degradable organic matter content of
oxygen to the MG / L value of units;

TOC (TOC) is the carbon MG / L value of unit testing and integration of organic carbon in the

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total; organic matter does not include carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate, carbon
compounds. The typical natural organic matter, including negatively charged colloidal, SS,
tannic acid, lignin, the decay of plant-generated water-soluble humus acid mixture, decomposed
plant generated organic acid, and so on. RO systems can effectively remove the organic matter,
the molecular weight of more than 200 organic compounds can be removed more than 99
percent, less than 200 according to the molecular weight, shape, charged different, their
removal is also different;

COD (chemical oxygen demand) for the determination of biodegradable and


non-degradable organic matter content;

Alkalinity mainly refers to carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxides. Alkalinity
(especially for the boiler water chemistry) can be expressed as P M alkalinity and alkalinity. M
alkalinity refers to the calcium carbonate of Mg / L values that the total alkalinity of the water; P
alkalinity measurements bicarbonate, carbonate hydroxide and the volume;

Turbidity of the water difficult to precipitate the tiny colloidal suspension of testing indicators to
NTU as a unit; RO membrane components in the regular operating limits: the largest water
turbidity to 1.0 NTU.

SDI (pollution index) is a membrane system for testing the water to the suspension of
colloidal particles with the blockage of the 0.45-micron filter paper aperture speed of test data.
RO typical components of the use of the water requirements of the 15-minute maximum value of
4.0 SDI if the blockage 而使 SDI test because only five or 10 minutes, that water pollution of the
RO system will be very serious. Slightly treatment or no pretreatment circumstances, deep well
water the SDI value is equal to or less than 3, turbidity is less than 1. For surface water, to meet
the requirements of SDI and turbidity, to be used to remove pre-treatment And the suspension
of colloidal particles.

Brackish water, RO areas in the bitter and salty water can be defined as: TDS value in the salt
content in the low-level (up to 10000-15000 Mg / L), and can use the largest water pressure of
600 psi RO membrane to bitter and salty water The reverse osmosis water treatment

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5.1.3 Pollution density index SDI's determination


SDI pollution density index value of reverse osmosis system is characterized an important
indicator of water quality.
SDI value of the original is the basic measurement in the 2.1 bar (30PSI) under the pressure of
water supply by 0.45 µ m membrane filters a certain amount of raw water by the time required.

5.1.3.1 The assembly and test equipment


1) Click an assembly of test devices.
2) Test device connected to the water pipes into the
RO system tube sampling point.
3) Membrane will be installed in water pressure
regulator to 30PSI. In the actual test, they should use
the new the membrane. To obtain accurate test
results;

Special attention should be paid the following:


z Ensure that the O-ring intact and install the proper
cleaning;
z Hand to avoid touching the membrane;
z Washed prior testing devices, removing theλ
pollutants in the system

5.1.3.2 Test steps


1. Temperature record test. During the trial start to the end of the test of time, Figure 1 SDI test
setup

2. Temperature changes of not more than 1 ℃;

3. Excluded pool filter the air pressure. According to the type of filter, the water supply valve to
open in the circumstances, or open at the top of the filter exhaust valve, or screw-thread filter
jacket, full vent or exhaust valve closed after fastening the filter jacket thread ;

4. Using a scale of 500 ml graduated cylinder access filtering water through membranes to
measure the volume of water;

5. Full ball valve, measured from the valve full access to over 100 ml and 500 ml of water
samples and record the time required;

6. 5 minutes after the re-measurement collected 100 ml and 500 ml of water kind of time, 10
minutes and 15 minutes respectively after the same measurement;

7. If access 100 ml water sample the time required for more than 60 seconds, it means that

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about 90% of the membrane filter area was blocked, this time has no longer need to carry out
experiments;

8. The end of the experiment and open the filter, will be the best preserved of the membrane,
and to prepare for future reference

5.1.3.3 Formula

SDI=P30/Tt=100×(1-Ti/Tf)/ Tt
SDI - pollution density index

P30 - In the water under the pressure of 30 psi plug the percentage of the membrane
Tt - The test of time, in units of minutes. Tt is usually for 15 minutes, but if within 15 minutes
that 75% of the membrane area was blocked on the need to shorten the test time
Tf - 15 minutes (or less) after the sampling time
Ti - The first time sampling

Description:
Access 500 ml water samples around the time required to access the necessary time to 100 ml of
water five times. If access for 500 ml
Time far greater than five times, in the calculation of SDI, access should be adopted by 100 ml of
time.

In order to accurately measure SDI value, P30 should not exceed 75 percent, if the P30 more
than 75 percent should be re-test in a relatively short period of time and access to Tf value.

5.1.4 RO pollutants
Film is being dealt with pollution from particulates in solution, colloidal particles or solute
interaction with the membrane, or because of the concentration polarization on the surface of
certain substances in concentrations exceeding its solubility caused by these substances in the
water channel, or membrane surface Hole absorption, sediment, causing water channels or
channel smaller or blockage of the phenomenon.

Types of pollutants
Different sources, different types of pollutants; different types of pollutants, nor the method of
cleaning up the same.

1. Suspended solids
Suspended solids commonly found in surface water, particle diameter> 1 µ m, such as sand,
mud Nien, SiO2 particles, water in the state can stop sediment down. It is very easy to set up a
system of reverse osmosis filter or fine sand filter medium filtered, after pretreatment, must
meet the following indicators: turbidity <1 NTU, 15 分钟 SDI value of <5.

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2. Colloidal pollutants
Colloid of commonly found in surface water, mainly aluminum type of clay, such as silicate
compounds, Fe-Al oxides, sulfides, tannic acid, humus, such colloidal particle size in the range
0.3-1.0 µ m, with negative charge , Single-use filters can not be removed, the use of pool, filter
or a DC coagulation ways in which colloidal particles increased to 10-20 µ m filter removed.
When the SS, colloidal too much content, the need to unite, to clarify, filters.

3. Organic pollution
Organic pollution of the film is a complex, the main type of humic acid substances, clarification
and cohesion are only activated carbon filters to remove part of organic matter; ultrafiltration
can also be used to remove organic matter.

4. Biological pollution
Such pollutants usually bacteria, biofilm, algae and fungi. Bacteria will be cellulose acetate for
food and thus vulnerable to bacterial acetate film erosion of the membrane, is not susceptible to
bacteria against, but the bacteria will cause mucosal membranes of the sewage blocked. A
reverse osmosis system design technology, to control biological activity, the bacterial content of
water in the 10000 cfu / cm above, we must consider measures to remove.

Fouling usually mixed, and pollutants are more of the mixture.

General pollution from the thick film components of the net at the water surface sampling and
analysis of pollutants ingredients. Dense network of water at low velocity areas most vulnerable
to larger deposition of pollutants, including CaCO3 grain, bio-film, mesh organic film,
particulates, colloids and coagulant. These pollutants will lead to increased pressure on the
system and reduce water production. Film on the surface of the pollutants are usually close
attachment to the silicate compounds, sulphate, polymers, organic compounds, metal oxides
and hydroxides, and other pollutants. These lead to blocked sewage water production and
reduce the rate of decline in the rate of desalination

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5.2 RO pretreatment system

All the water they contained a certain concentration of suspended solids and dissolved
substances. Suspensions are the main mineral, colloidal and micro-organisms, algae and other
biological particles. Soluble material is soluble salt (such as chloride) and the insoluble salts
(such as carbonate, sulfate and silicate) metal oxide, acid and alkali, and so on. In the reverse
osmosis process, the reduction in the volume of water, suspended particles and the
concentration of dissolved substances on the increase. Suspended particles will be deposited in
the film, plugged into the flow, and increase frictional resistance (pressure drop).

Insoluble salt in more than a total saturation limit, from the thick sediment from the water,
formed on the surface scaling, reducing the RO membrane flux, increasing pressure on the
operation of the pressure drop, and lead to deterioration of water quality, in this surface On the
formation of sediment into the phenomenon known as fouling, fouling system performance is
the result of the deterioration. The need of raw water into the system prior to the reverse
osmosis membrane pretreatment, reverse osmosis membranes to remove possible pollution of
suspended solids, dissolved organic matter and excessive salt insoluble components, reducing
fouling tendencies. Pretreatment of the water objective is to improve water quality so that the
RO membrane access to reliable guarantee for the operation.

Pretreatment of the raw water to reflect the effect of TSS, TOC, COD, BOD, LSI and iron,
manganese, aluminum, silicon, barium, strontium and other pollutants reduce the absolute
value of the water quality objectives. Characterization fouling tendency another important
indicator is the quality of SDI. In addition to the above through the pretreatment indicators of
reverse osmosis membranes to reduce the water requirements of the context, there are
important point is to minimize the SDI, the ideal SDI (15 minutes) is less than 3.

Suitable for the programmed depends on the pretreatment water, raw water composition and
application conditions, and mainly depends on the raw water sources, such as the well water,
surface water and municipal wastewater to be treated differently. Under normal conditions,
water quality and stability, the possibility of low-pollution, just a simple pretreatment, such as
acid or set up and increase inhibitors and 5 µ m filter to security. On the contrary, surface water
is a directly affected by the seasonal effects of water; microorganisms and colloid have occurred
both the possibility of a high degree of pollution. The pretreatment than well water complex and
require other steps, including the pretreatment chlorine disinfection, Flocculation / condensate
help to clarify, multi-media filter, dechlorination, and acid or increase scale agent. Industrial and
municipal wastewater containing more complex organic and inorganic elements, some
organisms may seriously affect RO membrane; caused a serious decline in water production or
degradation of the membrane, thus there must be more comprehensive design of the
pretreatment.

Once identified by the optional water sources, must conduct a comprehensive and accurate
analysis of all the raw water. It is establish appropriate programmers and RO pretreatment
system are the basis for the design of the most critical.

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5.2.1 The raw water quality analysis

A water sample performance of a specific water quality in a given time. Therefore, through a
water sample and can not fully understand the entire operation of the time, can affect the
operation of the system trends or changes. In addition to a number of water samples collected
to get a better understanding of water resources, but also the reasons for the changes in water
quality analysis. Understanding of an existing or potential sources of water of the correct
distribution profile is a reverse osmosis system design and operation of the essential elements.

A suitable container to collect samples of water to ensure accurate analysis of the key. Must be
considered because of pollution caused by containers. Regular use of plastic or glass containers
with samples. Sample container must be cleaned before use, so as to avoid contamination
samples. Sulfuric acid or bottles dichromate cleaning solution, to avoid this solution on the bottle
of organic pollution particularly effective. Plastic containers can be used laboratory or scrub with
detergent concentrated hydrochloric acid rinse, and then spent deionizer water to wash. The
containers used for sampling the need for disinfection.
Brackish water treatment system is the main constraints of nature, namely, calcium carbonate or
calcium sulfate compounds because of water constantly being concentrated, when more than its
solubility plot, the film will surface in precipitation, or scaling; industrial or municipal Wastewater
treatment system there are a lot organics, inorganic, viruses and microorganisms such as
bacteria and algae, such constraints is not just its physical and chemical factors, microbial index,
a film with a pro-reaction and the organic carbon or biological degradable Dissolved organic
carbon. Brackish water in a very wide scope, in order to put a better process design, the need for
full analysis of water quality.

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Figure 1:Water quality analysis of the entire log sheet


Register table of water quality analysis
Sampling company Sampling date
Source type Testing date
Analyst ` Auditing
Temperature SDI

Cation Anion
Item Unit Testing value Item Unit Testing value
Na+(Sodium) ppm CO3 2-(Carbonate ion) ppm
K+(Potassium) ppm HCO3 -(Bicarbonate ion) ppm
Ca2+(Calcium) ppm SO4 2-(Sulfate) ppm
Mg2+(Magnesium) ppm Cl-(Chloride) ppm
Total Fe(Iron) ppm NO3 -(Nitrate) ppm
Mn2+(Manganese) ppm F -(Flouride) ppm
Ba2+(Barium) ppm PO4 3-(Phosphate) ppm
Sr2+(Strontium) ppm
Cu2+(Copper) ppm
Al3+(Aluminun) ppm
Zn2+(Zinc) ppm

Others
Item Unit Testing value Item Unit Testing value
PH Hardness
DDS Alkalinity
TDS H2S(Sulfide)
Turbidity Colloid
SiO2(Silica)
Chroma Active
Total plate count CO2(Carbondioxide)
COD Free chlorine(FCR)
TOC BOD
The integrated evaluation of water quality:
Common seal
Date

5.2.2 Remove suspended solids and colloid


5.2.2.1 Reverse osmosis water turbidity of the requirements
Reverse osmosis water control devices solid particles in one of the indicators is turbidity, the
general roll components require water turbidity is less than 1 NTU, the best to 0.2 NTU.
Pretreatment system in the design, consideration should be given not to let more than 5 µ m
particles into the high-pressure pumps and reverse osmosis devices, high-pressure pump to
avoid scratches leaves, to prevent these particles accelerated by the high-pressure pump
breakdown after the film components. General roll module requirements SDI <4.

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5.2.2.2 Depth commonly used method of removing suspended


In order to meet the installation of reverse osmosis water turbidity and SDI value of the request,
often in the pretreatment system set up multi-media filter, fine sand filters, micro-filter and the
filter, such as ultra-depth filtration devices. Multi-media filter also known as multi-media filter,
quartz sand and anthracite used by the composition of the two-tier media filter; fine sand filters
generally used for 0.3-0.5 mm diameter quartz sand, high layer for 800 -- 1000mm; filter also
known as micro-porous filters, safety filter, aperture range 0.01-350 µ m; ultra-filter filtration
accuracy by withholding molecular weight, its value in the general 500-500000 Dalton, similar to
the corresponding aperture (20-1000 ) × 10-10m.

The traditional reverse osmosis system design, common aperture 5 µ m micro-filter (commonly
known as 5 µ filter), as a pretreatment system in the final steps in the reverse osmosis unit from
the security role, it also called the security filter. With the rise of ultra filtration technology, the
pretreatment system in the last processes tends to UF. Ultra filtration water SDI <2, the water
quality is better than micro-filter.

5.2.3 Microbial control


Reverse osmosis water treatment sector has yet to micro-organisms in water for specific
provisions. Generally believe that, SDI includes micro-particle pollution with comprehensive
features, often focused on the pretreatment on SDI. However, at present, China's reverse
osmosis membrane of the microorganisms increasingly serious pollution problems, SDI qualified
reverse osmosis system is not operational security, the same will of scale arising from the
non-fault. These failures, the problem of micro-organisms most serious.

5.2.3.1 Microbial contamination


All raw water microorganisms such as bacteria, alga, spore, viruses, and higher organisms. The
typical size of bacteria is about 1~3µm. Microorganisms can be regard as colloidal matter and
removed during pretreatment as discussed in Colloidal and Particulate Fouling Prevention. The
difference between microorganisms and non-living particles, however, is the ability of
microorganisms to reproduce and form a biofilm under favorable conditions.

Microorganisms entering a RO system find a large membrane surface where dissolved nutrients
from the water are enriched due to concentration polarization, thus creating an ideal
environment for the formation of a biological fouling of the membranes may seriously pressure
from feed to concentrate, finally leading to telescoping and mechanical damage of in membrane
element, and a decline in membrane flux. Sometimes, biogouling develops even on the
permeate side, thus contaminating the product water.

5.2.3.2 Microbiological hazards


A biofilm is difficult to remove because it protects its microorganisms against in action of shear
forces and biocides chemicals. In addition, if not completely removed, remaining parts of a
biofilm lead to rapid regrowth. Biological fouling prevention is therefore a major objective of the
pretreatment process. The control of microbiological activity is also part of system design in the

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system operation, in the sanitization of system and in the preservation of system.

5.2.3.3 microbial control methods


Methods to prevent and control biological fouling are: coagulation, activated carbon adsorption,
sterilization, ultra filtration, ultraviolet disinfection, electronic sterilization, disinfected regularly.

1, Coagulation. Microorganisms can be seen as colloidal, negatively charged, using


conventional methods such as the pretreatment coagulation, to clarify and filter can remove
most, but must be removed, is very difficult.

2, Activated carbon adsorption. Organic matter in water with activated carbon adsorption,
reducing microbial source of nutrition. However, the activated carbon adsorption organic
nutritional adequacy has become an ideal breeding places of microorganisms.

3. Sterilization. Microbial control with fungicides very effective, it is the most commonly used
method, but also control of anti-microbial systems the last barriers. Fungicides commonly used
as a capacity of the compounds, such as Cl2, NaClO, H2O2, O3, and so on and KmnO4.
Fungicide-point increase as much as possible in the higher processes, so that the contact time is
sufficient so that the water entering the film installations completed before the disinfection
process.

4. Ultra filtration (UF)。UF can remove microorganisms and especially algae that are sometimes
very difficult to remove by standard techniques. The UF membranes should be made from a
chlorine-resistant material to withstand periodic treatment with biocides. UF membranes ,
however, do not remove the low molecular weight fractions of organic matter and other
compounds that are nutrients for microorganisms. Pretreatment with UF membranes helps to
retard and to control the onset of bio-fouling, but it is no safeguard by itself.

5. UV Irradiation。 Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation at 254nm is known to have a germicidal effect.


Its application ahs come into use especially for small-scale plant. No chemicals are added, and
the equipment needs little attention other than periodic cleanings or replacement of the mercury
vapor lamps. UV treatment is limited; however, to relatively clan waters because colloids and
organics matter reduce the penetration of the radiation.

6, Electronic sterilization. E-Sterilization is actually a low-pressure cell, the treated water


through the cell, the negatively charged cathode to attract bacteria, the bacterial cell and
electrode between the electron transfer reactions in reducing the oxygen activity. Because the
ultraviolet light disinfection and sterilization of electronic sterilization n no residual capacity,
reverse osmosis system in general rarely used.

7, Regular sterilization. Even with these means of sterilization, a small amount of bacteria will
survive. Microbial breeding fast, so these bacteria survive in those who do not have the ability to
sterilization large number of breeding places again, there is a need for these places disinfected
regularly. For example, the box regularly to the Anti-Water chlorination.

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5.2.4 Remove organic matter


5.2.4.1 Organic hazards
Organic food is not only the micro-organisms, but also when its concentration to a certain extent,
the film can be dissolved organic material, the film performance degradation. A wide range of
organic matter in water, reverse osmosis membranes of different organic compounds the harm
is not, therefore reverse osmosis pretreatment system design, it is difficult to give a quantitative
indicators, but if the water total organic carbon (TOC) of the level over the 2 mg / l, , Should be
cause enough attention.

5.2.4.2 Remove organic methods


Remove the organic methods to increase oxidants, such as Cl2, NaClO, H2O2, O3 and KmnO4 of
organic matter, organic matter or activated carbon adsorption.

Can be activated carbon adsorption many impurities in the water, with the exception of residual
chlorine, there are suspended solids, organic matter, such as oil.

5.2.5 prevent the deposition of iron and manganese


5.2.5.1 major hazard
Fe and Mn transition metals, such as reverse osmosis system on the harm is: 1, blocking
formation of sewage. Colloidal iron-manganese compounds (such as hydrogen manganese
oxide and iron oxide) from surface water channel and blocking the sewage. 2, 2000 for iron
bacteria feed, breeding of mud stick. 3 hours, sometimes as oxidation catalyst, they exist, will
speed up the oxidation and aging of the film. 4, 2000 inhibitors reduce efficacy.

5.2.5.2 method to remove iron-manganese


Should try to reduce the reverse osmosis water installations in the concentration of iron and
manganese. Rail to allow the PH value and the concentration of dissolved oxygen content vary,
usually 0.05-0.1 mg / l.

For surface water, the chlorination, clarification, filtration, the water of iron and manganese
content in general is qualified; for groundwater, particularly of iron and manganese-rich
groundwater, should take measures to remove the iron-manganese. For example: aerated water,
iron generated Fe (OH) 3 precipitation, and then using contacts to get rid of filtration; increase
Na2SO3 remove dissolved oxygen, to prevent the oxidation of iron and manganese to maintain
the dissolved state

5.2.6 Scale Control


Scaling of RO/NF membranes may occur when sparingly soluble salts are concentrated within
the element beyond their solubility limit. For example, if a reverse osmosis plant is operated at
50% recovery, the concentration in the concentrate stream will be almost double the
concentration in the feed stream. As the recovery of a plant is increased, so is the risk of scaling.

Due to water scarcity and environmental concern, adding a brine (RO concentrate) recovery

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system to increase recovery has become more popular. To minimize precipitation and scaling, it
is important to establish well-designed scale control measures and avoid exceeding the solubility
limits of sparingly solute salts. In an RO/NF system, the most common sparingly soluble salts
encountered are CaSO4, CaCO3, and silica. Other salts creasing a potential scaling problem are
CaF2, BaSO4, SrSO4, and Ca3
(PO4)2. Solubility products of sparingly soluble inorganic compounds are listed in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1 Solubility products of sparingly soluble inorganic compounds.


Substance Formula Temp. ºC Solubility Product Ksp − Log Ksp
Aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 25 3 x 10–34 33.5
Aluminum phosphate AlPO4 25 9.84 x 10–21 20
Barium carbonate BaCO3 25 2.58 x 10–9 8.6
Barium sulfate BaSO4 25 1.1 x 10–10 10
Calcium carbonate CaCO3 25 3.36 x 10–9 8.5
Calcium fluoride CaF2 25 3.45 x 10–11 10.5
Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 25 2.07 x 10–33 32.7
Calcium sulfate CaSO4 25 4.93 x 10–5 4.3
Iron (II) hydroxide Fe(OH)2 25 4.87 x 10–17 16.3
Iron(II) sulfide FeS 25 8 x 10–19 18.1
Iron (III) hydroxide Fe(OH)3 25 2.79 x 10–39 38.6
Iron (III) phosphate
FePO4·2H2O 25 9.91 x 10–16 15
hydrate
Lead carbonate PbCO3 25 7.4 x 10–14 13.1
Lead fluoride PbF2 25 3.3 x 10–8 7.5
Lead sulfate PbSO4 25 2.53 x 10–8 7.6
Magnesium ammonium
MgNH4PO4 25 2.5 x 10–13 12.6
phosphate
12 2.6 x 10–5 4.58
Magnesium carbonate MgCO3
25 6.82 x10–6 5.17
18 7.1 x 10–9 8.15
Magnesium fluoride MgF2
25 5.16 x 10–11 10.3
18 1.2 x 10–11 10.9
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2
25 5.61 x 10–12 11.25
Magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2 25 1.04 x 10–24 24
18 4.0 x 10–14 13.4
Manganese hydroxide Mn(OH)2
25 2 x 10–13 12.7
Strontium carbonate SrCO3 25 5.6 x 10–10 9.25
Strontium sulfate SrSO4 17.4 3.8 x 10–7 6.42
Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 25 1.46 x 10–10 9.84

In order to prevent the membrane surface in inorganic salt scaling, should adopt the following
measures:

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5.2.6.1 Acid add


Most natural surface and ground waters are almost saturated with CaCO3. The solubility of
CaCO3 depends on the pH, as can be seen from the following equation:

Ca2+ + HCO3- –- H+ + CaCO32-

By adding H+ as acid, the equilibrium can be shifted to the left side to keep calcium carbonate
dissolved. Use food –grade quality acid.

Sulfuric acid is easier to handle and in many countries more readily available than hydrochloric
acid, however, additional sulfate is added to the feed stream, potentially causing sulfate scaling.

CaCO3 tends to dissolve in the concentrate stream rather than precipitate. This tendency can be
expressed by the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) for brackish waters ad the Siff & Davis
Stability Index(S&DSI) for sea waters. At the PH of saturation (PH5), the water is in equilibrium
with CaCO3.

The definitions of LSI and S&DSI are:


LSI = pH – pHs (TDS ≤ 10,000 mg/L)
S&DSI = pH – pHs (TDS > 10,000 mg/L)

To control calcium carbonate scaling by acid addition lone, the LSI or S&DSI in the concentrate
stream must be negative. Acid addition is useful to control carbonate scale only.

5.2.6.2 Anti scalelants


Scale inhibitors ( antiscalants can be used to control carbonate scaling, sulfate scaling sulfate
scaling, and calcium fluorde scaling. There are generally three different types of scale
inhibitors: sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), organ phonates and polyacrylates.

SHMP is inexpensive but unstable compared to polymeric organic scale inhibitors. Minor amount
adsorb to the surface of microcrystal, preventing further growth and precipitation of the crystals.
Food-grade quality SHMP should be used. Care must be taken to avoid hydrolysis of SHMP in the
dosing feed tank. Hydrolysis will not only decrease the case inhibition efficiency, but also create
a calcium phosphate scaling risk. Therefore, SHMP is generally not recommended.

Organophosphonates are more effective and stable than SHMP. They act as antifoulants for
insoluble aluminum and iron, keeping them is solution

5.2.6.3 Strong acid-softening resins


Can use the Na+ ion exchange to remove the water and fouling cation such as Ca2+, Ba2+ and
Sr2+. After the exchange of saturated ion-exchange resins used NaCl regeneration, a process
known as the softening of raw water treatment. In this process, water pH will not change.
Therefore, do not need to take degassing operation, but the raw water can be dissolved CO2 gas
products through the membrane into the side, caused the increase in conductivity, the operator

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can still soften the water by adding a certain amount NaOH (until pH8.2) to Will be residual CO2
into the water re-carbonate, to be re-carbonate film by the removal, reverse osmosis water
conductivity lower middle class.

If timely regeneration, the use of strong acid cation exchange for softening the tree that is very
effective and insurance scale, but mainly for small and medium-sized bitter and salty water
system. The main shortcoming of this process is very high NaCl consumption, the existence of
environmental problems, not economic.

5.2.6.4 Resin from weak acid-alkalinity


A weak acid cation exchange resin from alkalinity is large brackish water treatment system, it
can achieve some softening of regeneration to achieve the purpose of conservation. In this
process, and only re-carbonate hardness of the same amount of time being in the Ca2 +, Ba2 +
and Sr2 + H +, etc. have been replaced by a removed, so the pH value of raw water will be
reduced to 4 to 5. As the acid resin for the carboxyl group, when the pH reached 4.2, no longer
dissociation, ion exchange process would stop. Therefore, only to achieve some softening, and
re-integration of the carbonate scaling cation can be removed. Therefore this process to
re-carbonate high content of the water better, re-carbonate can also be converted into CO2

H2O + CO2 ↔ HCO3-+ H+ ↔ CO32+ + 2 H+

In most cases, there does not want to yield water CO2, then can the original water or
water-degassing to achieve, but when the existence of biological contamination when the
suspect (surface water, high or high TOC colony total), water from the middle Gas more
appropriate. Membrane system in the higher CO2 concentration can inhibit the growth of
bacteria, when the hope that the system is running at a high rate of desalination, water use
degassing more appropriate, the removal of CO2 will cause the pH increased influent pH> 6, the
membrane system Removal of water than the rate of pH <5 should be high.

A weak acid alkalinity from the advantages are as follows:


z Regeneration of the acid required by not more than 105 percent of the acid consumption
theory, this would reduce operating costs and the impact on the environment;
z Through the removal of heavy carbonate, the water to reduce the TDS, this middle and
lower water TDS;
The shortcomings of this law are:
z Residual hardness

If you need completely softened, and can be created strong acid-sodium exchange resin process,
or even weak acid resin can be placed on the same exchange column, so the consumption of
renewable still than the separate use of strong acid resin at the low, but a higher initial
investment, a Only when the combination of large capacity when meaningful.

Another way to overcome this shortcoming in the alkalinity of the water from Canada inhibitors,
although so far, people used on their own weak acid-base from that tree, also unprecedented in

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scale, but we still strongly recommend You calculate the solubility of salt residue insoluble, and
take corresponding measures.

The water treatment process will change in pH

Due to the saturation level of resin in the run-time changes, the weak acid from alkali treatment
of effluents from its pH value will be 3.5 to 6.5 within the framework of changes, such cyclical
changes in pH, the rate of the desalination plant becomes very difficult to control. When the pH
<4.2, inorganic acid will be covered by the film, may increase the production of water TDS,
therefore, we recommend that users of a parallel increase in weak acid to soften, control at
different times for regeneration, in order to deal with the water evenly weak acid pH, to prevent
other very The low pH of the water is removal of CO2 by adding NaOH or weak acid to soften
after adjusting the pH of the water.

5.2.6.5 Preventive cleansing


In some cases, the film can carry out preventive cleansing to control scaling problems, this
system can and does not require chemicals or softening scale. Such systems usually run the
recovery rate is very low, about 25 percent, and 1 to 2 years to consider the replacement of
membrane components. These systems usually tap water or sea water for water, drinking water
production unit is not important pieces of small systems, the simplest way is to open clean water
valve for strong low-pressure washing, cleaning set intervals shorter than the model of a long
pattern Effective, such as the common run every 30 minutes of low pressure washing 30
seconds. Can also be used in wastewater treatment similar to the approved mode of operation,
that is, in each operation after cleaning a membrane component. Cleaning steps, cleaning
chemicals and cleaning frequency of the need for case management and optimization. Special
attention should be paid to take measures to prevent the scale of the operation of the extension
of further aggravated.

5.2.6.6 Adjusted operating parameters


When other control measures scaling does not work, we must adjust the system operating
parameters, to prevent a scaling problem, because the guarantee that the water insoluble salt
concentration below the solubility product, it will not appear precipitation, which need to reduce
system recovery To reduce the rate of the dense concentration of the water.

Solubility also depend on temperature and pH, the water containing silicon, raising the
temperature and pH can increase its solubility, silica is often the only consideration for the need
to adjust these operating parameters to prevent scaling reasons, because the regulation of
these parameters, there are some Shortcomings, such as energy consumption or other
high-scaling of risk (such as high pH of precipitation-prone CaCO3).

For small systems, the low recovery rate and choice of preventive cleaning mode of operation is
to control the scaling one of the most convenient means

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5.2.7 Prevent scaling


5.2.7.1 The prevention of calcium carbonate scaling
The concentration of water salinity TDS ≤ 10000 mg / L of the bitter and salty water, Langgelier
index (LSIC) as CaCO3 said the possibility of scaling indicators
LSIC=pHC-pHS
pHC as dense as water pH value pHS CaCO3 saturated when the pH value
When LSIC ≥ 0, there will be CaCO3 scale.

LSIC Regulation
Most natural water without treatment, LSIC will be positive, in order to prevent CaCO3 scale,
unless the water system in the film adding inhibitors on the front or take preventive measures to
clean, or else the need to ensure LSIC was negative.

CaCO3 control of the conditions for scaling:


LSIC <0, do not need to increase inhibitors;
LSIC ≤ 1.8 ~ 2.0, adding a separate scale use of chemical agents or completely softened
LSIC> 1.8 ~ 2.0, and acid to LSIC of 1.8 to 2.0,

And then adding inhibitors; full use of chemical or softening.

Most of the high salinity of natural water without treatment, S & DSIC is generally positive, in
order to prevent CaCO3 scale, it is necessary to increase the S & DSIC acid into a negative, if by
adding inhibitors to prevent precipitation of CaCO3, S & DSIC value for Positive, the maximum
allowed S & DSIC value and scale of the required dosage, please refer inhibitors manufacturer's
technological information.

5.2.7.2 the prevention of calcium sulfate scaling


Regarding CaCO3, we can achieve a higher recovery rate of reverse osmosis by one of the
following measures,:
z strong acid-softening resins or weak acid-base resin in addition, can be calcium removal
of all or part;
z lime or lime - soda to soften and reduce the concentration of water Ca2 +;
z inhibitors providers under the provisions of the water in the vote plus inhibitors,
z reduce system recovery.

5.2.7.3 the prevention of barium sulfate scaling


Barium sulfate is all in the alkaline earth metal salts dissolved the lowest, when the water in the
barium sulfate, will cause a lot of precipitation phenomenon, it is because of its calcium sulfate
and strontium sulfate scale promote the formation.

Most natural water, the barium content will lead to concentration of barium sulfate in water
sedimentation, the limit concentration of barium in brackish water is less than 5µg/L, when
adding the current face of sulphuric acid, it should be less than 2µg/L.
Preventive measures and preventive measures calcium sulfate the same

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5.2.7.4 SrSO4 scalen prevention


The preventive measures are as same as CaCO3

5.2.7.5 CaF2 scale prevention


When the concentration of calcium is very higher, as long as fluoride contains in the water reach
0.1 µ g / L, it may form the CaF2 sediment.
The Prevention measures are as the same as CaSO4’s

5.2.7.6 Silicon scale prevention


Most water’s solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is in the range of 1 ~ 100 mg / L. Supersaturating of
silicon dioxide (SiO2)can automatically polymerize into insoluble colloidal silicon or silicon jelly, and
cause the contamination of membrane. The maximum concentration of SiO2 in the water depends on
the SiO2 solubility degrees.

The process of silicon scale formation in the Concentrated water is different from the feed water,
because the pH Value of the concentrated water are changing as the increased concentration of
SiO2, so the calculation of SiO2 scale should be according to the feed water quality analysis and
reverse osmosis operating parameters.

If a certain amount of metal appears, such as Al3+, it might change the SiO2 solubility through the
formation of metal silicate. The existence of aluminum or iron in the water is the main reason of
silicon Scale formation. Therefore, if the existence of silicon, it should ensure that there is no
aluminum or iron, and it’s better to use the 1 µ m security filter, meanwhile take the preventive
measures such as acid washing.

In order to increase the recovery rate, when taking the lime - Soda softening pretreatment, some
amount of aluminum or magnesium should be added into the water to reduce the solubility of SiO2,
meanwhile, the effective operation of the softening process is very important to prevent the
appearance of insoluble metal silicate in the reverse osmosis system;

Because the pH value lower than 7the or higher than 7.8 can increase the solubility of silicon,
regarding to the prevention of silicon scale formation, add the acid or alkaline in the water can
increase the recycling rate, but in the high pH conditions, it should avoid the formation of CaCO3
sediment; regarding to the silica scale, when use a heat exchanger to increase water temperature, it
can significantly increase the water recycling rate, but the maximum temperature of the membrane
system allowable is 45 ℃; polymer resin of polypropylene acid inhibitors can be used to increase the
solubility of silica.

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5.2.7.7 The summary of pretreatment methods


Chart5-1 the treatment list of membrane contamination factors
Pre-treatment

CaCO3

CaSO4

BaSO4

SrSO4

SiO2

CaF2

SDI

Fe

Al

Bacteriu

Oxidant

Organics
Add acid 1 1 1 1 1
Anti-scalelant 2 2 2 2 2 2
softening 2 2 2 2 2
Ion exchange 2 2 2 2 2
From base
Lime softening 1
Preventive 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
cleaning
Adjustment of 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
recovery
Multi-media filter 3 1 1 1
Oxidation - filter 1 2
Online flocculation 1 1 1
MF/ UF 2 2 2 2 2
Cartridge filtration 3 1 1
chlorination 1 2
Remove-Chlorine 2
Sterilization 2
GAC Filtration 2 2
Notes: 1. Likely to be effective, 2. Very effective, 3. Combination of several methods can be used
together, blank is void.

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6 The reverse osmosis system design


6.1 The main tasks of reverse osmosis system design

Reverse osmosis system design is based on the raw data such as the feed water quality, the
requirement of output water quality and amount, the requirement of water discharge amount
and the venue situation, choose a reasonable water treatment process, choose the appropriate
membrane components, determine the number of membrane elements and the arrangement of
their components, use high-pressure pump, and so on; reduce the operating pressure and the
costs of membrane components, and increase the recovery rate as much as possible, reduce
contamination speed of the system so as to extend its cleaning cycle, reduce the frequency of
cleaning system, increase its the long-term stability, reduce the maintenance costs of cleaning ,
so the design work is an important part of the water treatment system construction, it often
plays a decisive role in controlling of the quality, investment and water producing cost.

6.2 The basis of reverse osmosis system design

The feed water quality is an important basis for the reverse osmosis system design, it determine
the type of membrane and pre-treatment system required by the reverse osmosis system; in
reverse osmosis system design process, we not only need the right analysis data of feed water
quality, but also need to select the proper model of reverse osmosis desalination membrane,
design the arrangement of components and after-treatment system according to the changing
trend data of the source water quality.

6.3 The basic processes of reverse osmosis system

The basic processes of reverse osmosis system include three stages: pretreatment, reverse
osmosis and post-treatment.

Pretreatment usually adopt the sterilization, coagulation settlement, multi-media filters,


activated carbon filtration, micro filtration and so on technology. The contaminated materials in
the feed water will be reduced or controlled through pretreatment and up to the requirements
that the reverse osmosis membrane components to feed water of water. Reverse osmosis device
is the core part of the reverse osmosis desalination process, most of the salt in the feed water
will be removed as well as the organic matter, bacteria, and so on.

The after-treatment processes need to be set based on their own need for use, such as remove
CO2, ion-exchange desalination, electrode ionization desalting (EDI), and so on.

6.3.1 The pretreatment programmer reverse osmosis water conditioning


determines the pretreatment programmer (the contents of the pretreatment, as detailed in
Chapter 5) according to the feed water quality and characteristics. The water quality should up
to the requirements that the reverse osmosis membrane components to the feed water through
the pretreatment. The inlet water quality requirements as shown in Table 6-1.

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Table 6-1 the feed water quality requirements:


Feed water quality CA membrane PA membrane
PH value 5.0~6.0 3.0~11.0
temperature 5~30 1~45
Turbidity < 0.3 < 1.0
Silt density index <4 <5
TOC <3 <3
Free chlorine content 0.2~1 < 0.1
Iron content < 0.05 < 0.05
COD < 1.5 < 1.5

6.3.2 Reverse Osmosis Design


6.3.2.1 the process of reverse osmosis device design
The general procedure of reverse osmosis device designed:
Determine the type of membrane elements according to the feed water quality;
z Determine the number and the arrangement of membrane elements, as well as the
recovery rate of reverse osmosis devices according to water production amount and their
quality,
z Choose the proper high-pressure pump according to the calculated pressure that the
membrane components needed;
z Choose targeting instruments, valves and other accessories;
z Select pressure pipelines;
z Determine the type of controlling system, choose the electrical components that the system
need.

Selection of reverse osmosis membranes


Every kind of membrane components must be put into pressure containers before using.
Because each membrane has its own size, so they need the suitable pressure containers with
different size accordingly. The diameter of common pressure container includes 2.5 in, 4in, 8in,
and other types, but each of the pressure containers has the basically same structure.

In each pressure container, which can install a membrane component, and also can install
several membrane components, usually, each pressure container can be installed in one to
seven membrane components.

In choosing the pressure specifications of pressure container, it should meet the water supply
pressure requirements which come from systematic calculation, and take the pressure that need
to be increased due to the contamination from the operating process into account.

The pressure vessel’s material has two kinds: one is made of stainless steel and another one is
made of glass steel (FRP), you should try to choose the FRP membrane housing, especially the
8-inch element. Because there are many differences in precision of the Stainless steel pressure
container processing, so it often leak slightly, and lead to hydropower higher. In addition, the
stainless steel housing has many defects as well, first, the concentricity can’t up to the

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requirement; Second, if the water content of chlorine root is too high, it is likely to cause the
pitting perforated, and lead to the leakage of membrane housing.

When use of the longer stainless steel membrane tube, you must ensure the fulcrum distribute
evenly, and ensure the fulcrum‘s same level and coaxial, avoid the bending of the membrane
tube; if there are some incorrect in welding the interface of the inner membrane tube, it always
has a flow accompanied, even the V-shaped ring emerge phenomenon will appear, in this time,
place the seam side down will be better. Regarding to the lubricant choosing, not only need to
ensure no contamination to the membrane components, but also should differentiate it
according to the V-ring edge, the thinner edge the better sealed, but if the membrane tube’s
round is not perfect(vertical diameter larger than the level) ,the welding interface isn’t handled
properly (weld seam upward),it maybe cause the V-ring prone to come out; if the edge thicker,
using of the glycerin and other water-soluble lubricant to seal is not very well, in some
circumstances (such as treatment of wastewater),it will speed up the seal ring’s aging rate, if the
water temperature is lower, you can smear a small amount of Vaseline Medical as well; generally,
the above-mentioned problems arise less in use of glass steel membrane tube.

The number of components in each pressure container is directly proportional to the system
recovery. Typically, single-membrane component’s recovery rate is in the range of 8% to 15%,
6 series-one sector’ system-recovery rate will be up to 50 percent, two sector’s system recovery
rate maybe up to about 75%, the three sector’s system recovery will up to 85%, as the following
table:
The number of series The sector number of 6
System recovery (%)
components including pressure Vessel
40~60 6 1
70~80 12 2
85~90 18 3

6.3.2.3 The selection of reverse osmosis membrane elements


Reverse osmosis system can be applicable for a variety of source water, Apply to different areas
and up to their purpose. The manufacturers often have various types of membrane elements, so
they can choose the most appropriate model according to the quality of source water and their
own functions. Whether correct or not in choosing membrane elements is one of the most
important factors to the success of reverse osmosis system design. The membrane elements
have different diameter and length, the standard diameter include 2.5 inches, 4.0-inch and
8-inch, the standard length include 40 inches,60 inches, and so on.

Choosing membrane elements should according to the following principles:


1. According to the desalination rate;
2. According to salinity TDS of the feed water;
3. According to the source water;
4. According to the pressure required by the inlet water;
5. According to water flow;

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In general, choosing the membrane elements which the diameter is less than 2.5 inch if the
water output is lower than 0.2 m3 / h; choosing the 4 inch membrane elements if the water
output is lower than 3.0 m3 / h; choosing the 8 inch membrane elements if the water output is
higher than 3m3 / h (if the recovery rate is too low, you can choose the 4 in membrane
elements).

Determine the booster pump models by the final inlet water flow which is calculated according to
different characteristics of inlet water that choose a suitable water output and the recovery that
the system required.

The following table is the range of water output when the membrane elements under different
feed water conditions:
SDI<1 SDI<3 SDI<3 SDI<5 SDI<3 SDI<3
Type of feed water RO water Deep well Feed The surface Ocean Waste
output water water water water water
The flow rate of
30 25 20 18 15 15
water output (GFD)
The max recovery of
30 20 20 15 10 10
the elements
2540 elements 840 700 560 504 420 420
G
4040 elements 2400 2000 1600 1440 1200 1200
P
8365 elements 10950 9125 7200 6570 5500 5500
D
8400 elements 12000 10000 8000 7200 6000 6000

At the same time, in order to prevent excessive water inlet which may cause the Pressure
difference’s highly increase and lead to the "telescope phenomenon", so we have developed the
max inlet water flow according to different sizes of the membrane elements; in order to ensure
the low recovery rate of the membrane, we must limit the minimum flow of the concentration
water, the scale appears easily if the system‘s flow lower than the minimum concentration water
flow. The following table is the recommended maximum and minimum concentration water flow
of 2.5-inch, 4-inch and 8-inch membrane elements:

8 inch element 4 inch element 2.5 inch element


The max inlet water flow(m3/h) 1.8~17.0 3.6 1.0
The minimum inlet water flow(m3/h) 3.6~4.1 0.95~1.36 0.25

6.3.2.4 The formation of reverse osmosis membrane elements


According to production needs, we can arrange the several membrane into one level, two level
or even multi-level, each level of the membrane can be arranged into one sector, two sector or
even more. The so-called one level means the inlet liquid is separated by a reverse osmosis
pressure; the two level means the inlet liquid is separated by a second reverse osmosis pressure,
then following by the same analogy; in the same stage ,

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6.2.4.5 The element which have the same arrangement form a section.
The choosing and arranging of the membrane should not only comply with the design guidelines
of the suppliers, but also take the quality of source water, the water output requirements of the
users and the recovery rate and other factors into account

1 Arrangement of one pass and several stages

This form is a multi-stage concentrated system, the first section’s concentrated water as the
second section’s inlet water, and the second section’s concentrated water will be as the next
section’s inlet water, at this time, the water through every section will directly outflow, so as the
section increase, the recovery rate will increase as well. The flow of the Concentrated water will
decrease as the section increase, in order to keep the same flow speed of the every section of
membrane surface, we can gradually reduce the number of parallel membrane elements, and
ensure the same inlet water flow into the every elements, this is the common arrangement in
water treatment, this process applies to the large needed and higher recovery occasion, and
widely used in the industrial desalination application.

Characteristics of the multi-pass system:


1) It will improve the system’s recovery, but within the recovery limitation of a single membrane
elements.
2) Generally, the recovery rate of the container which include six membrane elements can reach
75 percent; the three sections may be higher. If three elements within the containers, it should
increase a corresponding section to achieve the same effect.

Concentrated

Feed

Permeate

One Pass Multi-Stage

The typical ratio is 2:1 (ratio of the number of above to bellow containers).

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2 Multi-pass arrangement
Multi-pass reverse osmosis system is that the RO water output from the first pass as the water supply
of the second pass, the water output from the second stage as the water supply of the next stage, It
will produce high-purity fresh water by the several after-diluted.

Feed

Concentrated

Permeate

Two- Pass One Stage

Multi-stage reverse osmosis system is adopted under the following situation:


1 Requirement of a higher water quality;
2 Can’t use the ion exchange as a post-treatment;
3 Require an efficiently removal of the bacteria, heat and organic (such as Chinese medicine
water);
4 Requires a higher reliability.

6.4 The reverse osmosis post-treatment

We called the water treatment process of one stage a reverse osmosis system as the
post-treatment, so the two stage reverse osmosis can belong to the range of reverse osmosis
post-treatment according to this concept.

The reverse osmosis post-treatment system generally is a combination of various water


treatment technologies which mainly including desalination, disinfection, filtration, degassing
and drugs adding. With a higher requirements of salt content (such as high pressure boiler
water), it is necessary to take the further desalination measures. When there is a special
restrictions on microbiological (such as Chinese medicine water), disinfection is needed; when
with a strict requirements on tiny particles (such as integrated circuits water, fiber water), it
needs to take ultra filtration, porous filters, and other measures. When with a requirements of
controlling the dissolved CO2, O2 and other gases (such as water EDI), it should increase the
decarburization equipment, etc; for drinking water, it need alkaline adding to increase the PH
value, or mineralization treatment.

The arrangement of reverse osmosis post-treatment technology is related not only to the user’s
requirement, but also to the fresh water salinity and the source water.

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6.5 The usual equipment of reverse osmosis systems

The RO system engineering is a combination of reverse osmosis equipment, tube, valves and
other devices, and form a complete sets of equipment. This equipment include not only the
reverse osmosis membrane elements, but also the pressure container, high-pressure pump,
security filters, metering pump inhibitors, valves, Instruments and other related equipment.

1. The RO framework
This is the reverse osmosis framework that assembling the reverse osmosis membrane elements,
pressure container, bulk piping, valves, locally-operated equipment and instrumentation, and
other equipment in a Sliding shelf. Generally, the framework is made up of A3 steel materials, its
surface has antirust Paint, and small devices also can use stainless steel materials.

Pressure container generally has 2-3 force strong points, so you should design the proper
reverse osmosis framework according to different sizes of the pressure tank. The framework
should also consider the earthquake intensity of the local scene.

1. Security filter
Security filter is placed on the inlet of the reverse osmosis system in order to prevent the
impurities from the pretreatment water and avoid the mechanical damage to high-pressure
pump and the membrane elements. Usually, security filters adopt the 5 µ m filter which material
is polyethylene or polypropylene. To avoid corrosion, filter body should be used stainless steel or
plastic materials.

Security filters not only can hold back the impurities particles, but also can remove the turbidity
and colloidal iron in a certain degree, reduce the SDI. In system design, security filters only can
prevent the impurities from pretreatment enter into the high-pressure pumps and reverse
osmosis membrane elements, and can’t be using in reducing the SDI or removing the
impurities , so the inlet water which will enter into security Filter must comply with the inlet
water standards of the membrane elements.

2. High-pressure pump
High-pressure pump is one of the core equipment of the reverse osmosis system. It supply the
inlet water with sufficient pressure in order to reduce the osmotic pressure and running
resistance to meet the flow volume of the device; and the flow volume should be established by
the calculation software.

High-pressure pump’s performance will have a direct impact on the desalination effect and the
economy, so you should choose the stable performance, highly efficient, noise small and
anti-wear high-pressure pump.

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In order to ensure the safe operation of high-pressure pump, the water outlet should be
installed check valves, high and low voltage protection switch to prevent the high-pressure
continually running under the condition of water shortage.
3. Dosing pump
Pretreatment system needs the dosing pump to increase acid, inhibitors, fungicides, reducing
agent, pharmaceutical flocculent and so on. Generally, we use the piston pump and diaphragm
pump to meet the requirements of small flow, accurate measurement and adjustable flow.

Regardless of what form will be adopted, the flowing materials of the dosing pump must meet
the requirements to the corrosion of Tran-sportive media.

5. The selection of valve materials


All the corrosion problems of the flowing part should be considered, including filters, pumps,
water tanks, pipes, valves, meters interface
And so on, you must choose a suitable material to prevent the contaminations caused by
corrosion.

The water tubes and valves of the tank and low pressure switch parts should adopt the
corrosion-resistant PVC, U-PVC, ABS engineering plastics, glass or stainless steel materials.
The water tubes and valves of security filters, high pressure pumps and high pressure switch
parts should adopt different kinds of stainless steel according to the different salinity of source
water.

In addition, in the course of designing and producing, should prevent the formation of stagnant
water in the pipeline, stainless steel tubes should adopt the inert gas to protect the welding; you
should take the protective measures such as pickling or aestivation after the completion of pipe
manufacturing.

6.6 The cleaning system of reverse osmosis

Even if the design and operation of reverse osmosis pretreatment system comply with the
standard, the membrane still can be contaminated, generally, you should clean reverse osmosis
equipment every six months or a year. Therefore, it should be considered to design a special
cleaning system.

Generally, the cleaning system if composed of washing pump, pHarmaceutical preparation , 5 µ


m security filter, related valves, tubes, and other controlling instruments.

1. Pharmacy prepared box


The materials: polypropylene, glass fiber reinforced plastic, polyvinyl chloride and steel cans
with rubber inline should be available.

2. Cleansing pump
the glass steel or stainless steel pumps should be available, the resistance range of the security

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filters and reverse osmosis device and pipelines that the 扬程 can overcome is from 0.3 to 0.5
MPa.

3. Cleansing tube
the cleaning tube should adopt the Lining Plastic , ABS or UPVC pipe

4. Micro-pore filtration
Its function is to remove the machinery impurities from the cleaning process and the insoluble
falling off from the reverse osmosis device.

6.7 Instrument monitoring of the reverse osmosis system

In order to ensure the reverse osmosis device’s operation and supervision normally, help us to
discover the problems and failures timely, so it should be installed the necessary instrument and
control equipment.

1. Pretreatment system
The most important monitoring project of pretreatment system (RO water supply) water output
is SDI. It is important parameters to judge whether the water quality is up to the standard.

Other monitoring projects include the amount of coagulant added, multi-media filters, activated
carbon filters different operating pressure, COD, the concentration of free chlorine, the amount
of anti-scale preparation added, the PH value of acid system, the pressure of security filter.

2. Reverse osmosis equipment


Flow, pressure, temperature and conductivity should be monitored by the on-line instruments, it
is better to have a automatically records.

The flow volume includes reverse osmosis water inlet, condensed water, and the water output
flow, because the ratio of these flows determine the recovery rate of reverse osmosis equipment,
and the too high or too low recovery rate will have an adverse consequences on its
performance, so ensure the accuracy of the monitoring instrument is particularly important.

The pressure includes reverse osmosis inlet water, the inlet water of every section, condensed
water, and water output pressure and so on. Under constant pressure and temperature
condition, the decline of water output represent the membrane is being contaminated.

Conductivity includes reverse osmosis inlet and outlet water conductivity, the level of electrical
conductivity reflect the salinity level in the water, and reflect the change of output water quality.

Temperature, pressure, flow is three interrelated parameters, which are combined with the PH
value and the conductivity ,then you can detect whether the reverse osmosis system operate
normally through standardization, whether there is contamination or scale, whether need to
clean, so it is an important parameters to judge the operation of the reverse osmosis.

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6.8 The control of the reverse osmosis system

The reverse osmosis system usually adopts the way of auto-control, the content of which should
include the following aspects:

The control of booster pump. When the feed water pressure is lower or higher than the designed
value, the pump will stop automatically; concerning the Large-scale advanced reverse osmosis
system, the booster pump needs to adopt the frequency conversion control to control the
pump’s outlet water pressure by adjusting its operating frequency.

The procedures start and stop of the reverse osmosis equipment. The reverse osmosis
equipment should complete automatically the start and stop including the pump with medicine,
booster pump, and electrical slowly opening door and so on. The reverse osmosis equipment
and the water level of the tank are connected; the procedure will stop when the water level is
high but start when the water level is low.

The surface low pressure flushing on the condition of the reverse osmosis’s started and stops.
When the reverse osmosis equipment starts or stops, it will automatically open the electrically
flushing water drainage valve, operating the low-pressure flushing for the membrane’s surface
and drawing off the concentrated water inside the membrane elements.

The supervision and warning on the unusual working status. In the equipment’ s working
process, the control system will supervise automatically the working status of various
equipments such as booster pump, the pump with medicine, electrical valve and so on and show
an alarm warning. Meanwhile it also can supervise the executed parameters like temperature,
water flow, pressure, water level, conductivity, red ox potential, PH value and so on, and will
show the corresponding alarm signal , and then decide whether to stop the working or not
according to different conditions.

The automatically control and adjustment of adding medicine. The electric current signal or the
impulse signal offered to the water flow of tube way, redox potential, PH value tester by the
reverse osmosis adjust automatically the amount of medicine addition,finishing proportionally
automatic adjustment of the amount of adding medicine.

With unceasing enhancement of the automatic control level, the enterprises also have enhanced
their requirements for the control level of the water purifier equipments, there are even many
companies who request that the water purifier equipments could work without person’s
supervision.

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7 The operation guide line of the reverse osmosis system


7.1 The initial start of the reverse osmosis system

7.1.1 The needed preparation for the initial start


Before the initial start of the reverse osmosis system, you must make enough preparation as
follows:
1. Pre-treatment system must have experienced proper adjustment and testing before the
equipment’s start, the water flow of the inlet water quality should meet the operation
requirements of the reverse osmosis equipment. The pre-treatment system should be in the
status of supplying water.

2. Before connecting the reverse osmosis equipment with the tube ways, you should blow and
clean the tube ways ( including the reverse osmosis inlet water tube)

3. Check all the tube ways which should be connected according to technological requirement,
every valve’s on-off performance should be good.

4. Check all the measuring appliances to confirm that they have been equipped and tested
correctly.

5. Confirm that the booster pump and slowly electrical opening should be in the condition of
immediate operation and the water inlet of the pump should be in the condition of being
opened.

6. Confirm that interconnection, warning, control parameters and connectors have been
equipped correctly.

7. Confirm that every medicine case should have more than 2/3 liquid level which has been
stirred evenly, the measurement amount and system of adding medicine all should be in the
normal status for use.

8. Prepare all the needed reagents and measuring appliances for operation supervision.

9. Conform that the unqualified water outlet (water outlet valve) should be opened.

10. The concentrated water control valve should be placed at suitable start position.

7.1.2 The initial start of the reverse osmosis system

The reverse osmosis operation methods: the selection switch “Manual-Stop-Auto” should be
placed at the manual location.

1. Put every measuring appliance into operation according to your need.

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2. Put every unit measurement pump of adding medicine into operation (initially to adjust it in
manual way).

3. Open the flushing valve, open the manual adjusting valve of the booster pump (1/3), start
the slowly electrical opening, letting the water flow into the reverse osmosis equipment on
the condition of low pressure and small amount of water flow offered by the pretreatment
system in order to release the air inside the system (about 5min for air releasing while 3min
above for flushing), meanwhile the protection liquid in the new membrane also could be
flushed out.

4. Check the system to confirm there is no leakage. After which air releasing and low pressure
flushing come to an end.

5. Close the slowly electrical opening and the flushing water outlet, open the concentrated
water outlet valve (the concentrated water outlet valve could be opened fully while the
flushing outlet valve could only be opened slightly, about 1/3) .

6. Start the booster pump and the slowly electrical opening, if there is no the latter one, you
should adjust manually the manual adjusting valve of the booster pump, the increase rate of
the feed water pressure of the membrane must be lower than 10psi every second, which
makes the inlet water will keep flushing the equipment when the water pressure is lower
than 50% until the protection liquid in the water drainage has been discharged completely
(the flushing time is 30min at least).

7. Confirm that the unit measurement pump of adding medicine should work smoothly.

8. Slowly increase the strength of opening the water outlet manual adjusting valve of the
booster pump, meanwhile keep adjusting the strength of the concentrated water outlet
adjusting valve without stop until it could meet the flow and return rate of the feed water,
then adjust various medicament amount of adding medicine for its stability.

9. When the system has reached the designed condition, check the pressure of sections, total
water flow, fresh water flow, concentrated water flow and its LSI.

10. After the system’s stable operation (about one hour), record all the executed parameters.
Close the unqualified water drainage valve for normal tendency, ensuring the equipment’s
normal water making.

11. Check the product conductivity of every pressure vessel and analyze the happened or the
possible malfunction.

12. After operating for 24 -48 hours, record all the operation data( inlet water pressure,
pressure difference, water flow, return rate, electrical conductivity and so on), do remember
to retain the data record of the initial operation and extract the relative sample of the inlet

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water and concentrated water to test their contents, to compare and confirm the
characteristics of the system.

13. When the reverse osmosis equipment’s operation is stopped by manual way, first of all, the
slowly electric opening is closed after which the booster pump’s operation stops.

7.2 The automatic start and stop of the reverse osmosis system

The automatic start of the system is completed by the operation on the central control board.
Since finishing all the preparation before start and completing the initial start successfully, the
pretreatment system has been supplying water; the reverse osmosis equipment could do
automatic operation.

1. The reverse osmosis equipment operation methods: the selection switch


“Manual-Stop-Auto” should be placed at the location of “Auto”.

2. Put various measuring appliances into operation and open the water inlet and outlet of the
measurement pump of adding medicine.

3. Check the interconnection, warning and measuring appliance to ensure their normal
working.

4. Press down the button of “The reverse osmosis start”, at the time, the automatic procedure
will start automatically the measurement pump, booster pump, the slowly electrical opening,
after which the system will enter into the operation period of salt rejection and water
making.

5. If you need to stop the equipment’s operation, press down the button of “the reverse
osmosis stop”, the automatic procedure will automatically close the slowly electric opening,
stopping the operation of the booster pump and the measurement pump.

6. After every stop of the reverse osmosis equipment, there must be a low pressure flushing.

7.3 The daily maintenance of the reverse osmosis system

1. The total amount of the inlet water (namely the sum of the pure water and the concentrated
water) should be controlled by the RO feed water adjusting valve, if there is no change
concerning the amount of feed water, do not adjust the valve arbitrarily, complete opening
and closing are forbidden; RO adjusting valve for the concentrated water drainage is used to
adjust the return rate, if there is no change concerning the return rate, do not adjust the
valve arbitrarily, complete opening and closing are forbidden absolutely.

2. When the reverse osmosis equipment shows the warnings of HP and LP, first of all, you
should check that whether the manual valve strength between the security filters and the

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booster pump is too small, then check that whether the RO feed water adjusting valve and
the drainage valve of the concentrated water are working normally, after which you should
press down the reset button of the warnings of HP or LP pressure to restart the equipment.

3. Control strictly the feed water quality, confirm that the equipment should be operated
complying with the standard requirements of the feed water.

4. The pressure control operation should take the lowest pressure value under the premise of
meeting the water amount and water quality, which is good for the decrease of the
depression of the water flux and the membrane’s replacing rate.

5. The control of the feed water temperature, take the lowest temperature of the critical
pressure that can not meet the requirement for the water yield and water quality as the feed
water temperature in this period according to the actual water consumption, which can
reduce the possibility of membrane’s depression.

6. The control of the drainage, due to the variation of water temperature and operation
pressure, the amount of water making also has the corresponding variation, in this situation,
you should adjust the drain amount, and otherwise it will have an effect on the equipment’s
salt rejection.

1) The operation methods to high water temperature in summer:


① On the premise of confirming the post-treatment’s requirement for the feed water salt
content, reduce the operation pressure and execute the operation of reducing
pressure. The countermeasure is an optimal one.
② According to the requirement of water supply, start and stop the reverse osmosis in
turns, but the time should be no more than 24 hours (in summer), otherwise, it may
lead to the bacteria multiplication of the membrane’s surface, increasing the possibility
of pressure drop
2) The equipment could not be stopped for a long time; it should be used at least 2 hours every
day. If you plan to stop the equipment’s operation for more than 72 hours, you should clean
the equipment with chemical cleaning equipment and fill the components with 1% sodium
bisulfite and 18% glycerin to protect the equipment.
3) The reverse osmosis equipment should be flushed for 10 minute on the condition that the
feed water pressure is lower than 0.4Mpa before its every start and stop.
4) The operators should record the executed parameters every hour; the main content of the
record should include the follows:

Feed water: pH value, conductivity, pressure, SDI, water temperature


Permeate water: conductivity, water flow, pH value
Concentrated water: water flow, pressure and the feed water pressure of sections

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7.4 The stop and the maintenance for use of the RO system
7.4.1 The membrane elements maintenance before equipping the reverse
osmosis system
The membrane elements are all packed in the vacuum plastic bag with protection liquid after
being produced. In the proceed of storage and transport before being equipped and used, the
membrane elements should be preserved in a dry environment, the preserved temperature
should be between 20 and 30℃; Do not put the membrane elements at the place under the
direct sunlight or nearby oxidized gas.

7.4.2 The short-term preservation of the reverse membrane elements equipped in


the pressure vessel
The way of short-term preservation is suitable for the reverse osmosis system stopped between
5 days and 30 days, during which the membrane elements are still equipped in the pressure
vessel of the RO system, the concrete steps are as follows:

1) Flush the reverse osmosis system with feed water; meanwhile do eliminate the gas from
the system completely;
2) The system should be operated for 1 hour or 2 hours every day, close the relative valves in
order to avoid the gas’s penetration;

7.4.3 The long-term preservation of the reverse osmosis membrane elements


equipped in the pressure vessel:
The long-term preservation is suitable for the reverse osmosis system stopped for 30 days above
during which the membrane elements, however, are still be equipped in the pressure vessel. The
concrete steps of the protection operation are as follows:

1) Clean the membrane elements equipped in the system;


2) The specially configured sterilization fluid (using 1% sodium bisulfate) for the reverse
osmosis pure water should be retained in the system and confirm that the system should
be full of the fluid.
3) If the system temperature is lower than 27℃, you should replace the sterilization fluid
every other 30 days and then do the above operation; if the system temperature is higher
than 27℃, you should replace the protection liquid (sterilization liquid)every other 15
days.
4) Before using the system anew, you should flush the system for one hour with low pressure
water, before the recovery of the system normal operation, check and confirm that the
product shouldn’t include any disinfectant.

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7.4.4 The disinfection of the reverse osmosis membrane


The speed of the sterilization medicament(could remove 999.9999% bacteria under the
temperature of 20℃)

Disinfectant using time


2% formaldehyde liquid 12 hours
0.2% Hydrogen peroxide liquid 25 hours
5% hydrogen peroxide liquid 2-3 hours
10% hydrogen peroxide liquid 1-2 hours
1% hydrogen peroxide and 400mg/L practice acid liquid 0.5-1 hour

The compound membrane elements disinfectant


■ Formaldehyde
Dosage: 0.1-1.0%
In American, the medicament is considered to be virulent
As to new membranes, they couldn’t be used until they have been operated for 24 hours;
otherwise it may lead to unrecoverable water flux loss

Could be used as the disinfectant of long-term preservation

■ Isothiazolinones,
Dosage: 15-25mg/L
The “kathon”of the Rohm&Hass or the “ Simicide C-68” of the Betz company
Could be used as the disinfectant of long-term preservation

■ Sodium bisulfate
Dosage: 500mg/L, could be used for 30min-60min
1.0% liquid could be applied to long-term preservation

■ Hydrogen peroxide/ peracetic acid


Dosage: 0.2% (the total amount of the two kind of compound)
1.0% liquid could be applied to long-term preservation
PH value: 3-4(high PH value may lead to the membrane’s oxidation)
Temperature: 25℃(the highest)
■ The existence of iron or excessive metals may cause the oxidation of some membranes
recycle for 20-30min/be soaked for 2-4 hours/ flushing is followed
Destructing biology mucous membrane may need the using time of 4 hours
Be efficient and rapid oxidant or disinfectant
Could effectively destruct biology mucous membrane
This kind of disinfectant is not suitable for the long-term preservation

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8 The cleaning of the reverse osmosis membrane elements


8.1 Cleaning condition

Due to the fact that the pretreatment couldn’t completely remove the pollutant such as inorganic
salt filthy ,microorganism, colloid pellet, insoluble organic matter, after the period of normal
operation, the diaphragms of the membrane elements may be polluted under the function of the
reverse osmosis concentration, which will lead to the depression of the membrane elements’
function. The membrane elements should be cleaned on the following conditions:

z The standard amount of making water has decreased 10% above since the last cleaning
z The standard salt rejection has increased 5% above
z The standard pressure difference between feed water and concentrated water has
increased 15% above since the last cleaning
z Before long-term operation stop
z As daily maintenance

8.2 Pollutant judgment


8.2.1 Eyes testing

First of all, disassemble the two membrane elements of feed water inlet and water outlet from
the membrane housing and watch their appearances to judge that whether the follow situations
have happened:

Check the housing of the membrane elements to ensure its perfect, in some systems, if there is
the phenomenon of water hammer or membrane elements’ blockage which may increase the
pressure difference between water inlet and water outlet of the membrane elements, leading to
the breakage of the glass fiber reinforced plastic coverings of the membrane elements.

Concerning the explanation for water hammer, please refer to page 105 of the manual “10.6
what is the water hammer? What is the damage to membrane elements caused by the water
hammer?”

1. Confirm that the membrane elements housing and bottle cap of the water inlet should not
be attached with any substance like sand, in some reverse osmosis systems that couldn't be
designed well, the float of the feed water couldn’t be eliminated, so it will enter into the
membrane elements along with water current, as the figure below, if this situation happened, in
the surface pretreatment, the particles rejection rate couldn’t reach the feed water requirements;

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2. Check the feed water end surface of the feed water membrane elements to make sure that
there are no sundry substances such as large particles, activated carbon and so on, as the follow
figure:

The existence of particulate substances on the water inlet end surface indicates that the
pretreatment’s function of eliminating particles couldn’t reach the feed water requirement of the
reverse osmosis system, please test SDI value, meanwhile check the security filters and replace
filters

3. Check the concentrated water end of the


membrane elements to make sure that the separation
net hasn’t been flushed out, as the follow figure:

The phenomenon indicates that the pressure


difference of the two ends of water inlet and water
outlet, which may lead to the phenomenon of
telescope, this phenomenon mans the gravity of the
membrane elements pollution, please replace them
immediately.

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4. Check the concentrated water


end of the membrane elements to
make sure that whether there is any
settling or not, as the follow figure:

5. If there is obvious white


granulated settling, we can judge it
as inorganic salt structure pollution
which means that the LSI standard of
feed water is larger than 0, or the
cleaning medicament are not enough
to prevent the inorganic salt
structure , the system has the risk of
scaling.

8.2.2 Weight comparative


Place the disassembled membrane elements vertically, drop the water inside, then weight, after
which compare it with the weight of the elements that have not been used to judge the pollution
type of the membrane.

As to the weight of the elements that have not been used, please refer to the sixth section of the
third chapter of the manual: the net weight of membrane elements in “packing information”.

8.2.3 Cleaning flow


Cleaning flow means the cleaning medicament flow of entering into the pressure vessel in the
cleaning process; the cleaning flow is different according to the pressure vessels with different
diameter.

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8.3 The cleaning of the reverse osmosis membrane elements


8.3.1 Carbonate settling
Common group: Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr – the carbonate settling of metallic ion
Pollution cause: The addition system of cleaning medicament and dispersing medicament can't
work smoothly;
The PH adjusting system of adding the acid can’t work smoothly;
The regeneration of the ion exchange resin is not prompt;
Excessive high returns- ratio;

The symptom: The decrease of the salt rejection rate and water making
The increase of system pressure drop,
There is settling on the concentrated water end surface of the elements,
The weight of membrane elements has increased by 50% above

Cleaning medicament : ① 2% lemon acid liquid, the PH value of ammonia water is 4.0, the
temperature is 40℃;
② you can also use 2.0% Hydrochloric acid peroxide solution with PH
value of 2~3 to clean

Cleaning procedures:
The first step: you should better use the reverse osmosis water to clean; good infiltration
water is also feasible (do not use the feed water including special chemical material which may
response with the cleaning liquid).

The second step: you should use the cleaning liquid specially configured by the reverse
osmosis water, to measure it correctly and mix it evenly to make sure that the PH value and the
medicament content of the cleaning liquid should comply with the relative standards.

The third step: input the cleaning liquid to the reverse osmosis system by using usual
cleaning flow and the pressure of 20Psi, the backwater in the early beginning should be drained,
avoiding the liquid’s being dilution. Then let the cleaning liquid recycled in the tube way for
15min, watch the opacity and PH value of the backwater, if the water has been obviously
polluted or its PH value has exceeded 0.5, you should add cleaning medicament again to make
the cleaning liquid meet the cleaning requirements.

The fourth step: stop cleaning the circulating pump, watch the pollution situation of the main
elements, the membrane elements should be soaked in the cleaning liquid for about one
hour(two hours at best). During the period you could start the circulating pump with
intermittence to keep constant cleaning temperature (25~30℃).

The fifth step: enlarge the water flow to the 1.5 times of its normal flow to clean, during the
period, the pressure shouldn’t be too high, taking the pressure of the system without water or
little water as limitation. The circulating time should be 15 minutes.

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The sixth step: use the qualified pretreatment yielding water to flush the system for 20-30
minutes, the pressure should be lower than 20Psi, the lowest temperature is 10℃ in order to
avoid settling, flowing the cleaning liquid out without retention. Start the system operation to
check the flushing result; do not use the yielding water.

8.3.2 Sulfate settling


Common group: Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr –the infusibility sulfate of metallic ion
Pollution cause: The addition system of cleaning medicament and dispersing medicament
can't work smoothly;
The PH adjusting system of adding the acid can’t work smoothly;
The regeneration of the ion exchange resin couldn’t is not prompt;
Excessive high returns- ratio;
The symptom: The decrease of the salt rejection rate and water making
The increase of system pressure drop,
There is settling on the concentrated water end surface of the elements,
The weight of membrane elements has increased by 50% above
Cleaning medicament: ① 0.1% Sodium hydroxide, 1.0% EDTA four sodium cleaning, PH value
of 12, and temperature of 30℃;
② also could use 0.1% Sodium hydroxide, 0.5% EDTA four sodium
cleaning, 0.5% Sodium tripolyphosphate cleaning, PH value of 12,
temperature of 30℃;
Cleaning procedures:
The first step: you should better use the reverse osmosis water to clean; good infiltration
water is also feasible (do not use the feed water including special chemical material which may
response with the cleaning liquid).

The second step: you should use the cleaning liquid specially configured by the reverse
osmosis, to measure it correctly and mix it evenly to make sure that the PH value and the
medicament content of the cleaning liquid should comply with the relative standards.

The third step: input the cleaning liquid to the reverse osmosis system by using usual
cleaning flow and the pressure of 20Psi, the backwater in the early beginning should be drained,
avoiding the liquid’s being dilution. Then let the cleaning liquid recycled in the tube way for 3 to
5 minutes, watch the opacity and PH value of the backwater, if the water has been obviously
polluted or its PH value has exceeded 0.5, you should add cleaning medicament again to make
the cleaning liquid meet the cleaning requirements.

The fourth step: after using the cleaning liquid to clean the circulating pump for one hour, stop
cleaning the circulating pump, if the pollution of the sulfate happened, the main membrane
elements should be soaked in the cleaning liquid for 24 hours. During the period you could start
the circulating pump with intermittence to keep constant cleaning temperature (25~30℃).

The fifth step: after being soaked for 24 hours, enlarge the water flow to the 1.5 times of its

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normal flow to clean, during the period, the pressure shouldn’t be too high, taking the pressure
of the system without water or little water as limitation. The circulating time should be between
30 and 60 minutes.

The sixth step: use the qualified pretreatment yielding water to flush the system for 20-30
minutes, the pressure should be lower than 20Psi, the lowest temperature is 10℃ in order to
avoid settling, flowing the cleaning liquid out without retention. Start the system operation to
check the flushing result; do not use the yielding water.

As to the appearance of the inorganic salt pollution, you could make cleaning in terms of
carbonate pollution, if the performance change of the membrane elements is not obvious after
or before flushing, you can judge it as sulfate pollution or other inorganic salt pollution. The
former is the kind of pollution that can hardly be cleaned; the membrane elements performance
often has little change after being cleaned.

8.3.3 Other inorganic salt settling


Common group: The Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr –the infusibility sulfate, such as Fluoride, phosphate,
silicate and so on
Pollution cause: The addition system of cleaning medicament and dispersing medicament
can't work smoothly;
The PH adjusting system of adding the acid can’t work smoothly;
The regeneration of the ion exchange resin is not prompt
Excessive high returns- ratio;
The symptom: Refer to the symptom of the Phosphate pollution
Cleaning medicament: Refer to the cleaning methods of the Phosphate pollution
Cleaning procedures: Refer to the cleaning procedures of the Phosphate pollution

The cleaning result of some inorganic salt pollution is not obvious, such as silicate, Fluoride and
Silicon-fluoride and so on, concerning the feed water with high content of those substances, the
corresponding equipment must be designed in the system of the pretreatment, such as softener,
adding anti-scalelent and so on, avoiding membrane elements pollution.

8.3.4 Metal oxide compound / hydroxide pollution


Common group: Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn -- oxide compound or hydroxide pollution
Pollution cause: The corrosion of the equipped tube ways and vessels;
The oxidized metallic ion, chlorine, ozone, potassium, permanganate
Use iron or the aluminum coagulant aids in the filter system of pretreatment
Symptom: The decrease of the salt rejection and water yield,
The increase of the system pressure drop
There is red settling at the water inlet and outlet end of the membrane
elements
The weight of the membrane elements has an increase of 30% above
Cleaning medicament: 3% Sodium bisulfite, the PH value of ammonia water is 4.0, the
temperature is 40℃;

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You can also use 2.0% Hydrochloric acid peroxide solution of PH2-3 to clean
Cleaning procedure: refer to the cleaning methods and procedures of the Carbonate pollution

8.3.5 Colloid pollution


Symptom: The change of salt rejection is inconspicuous.
Permeated water flow descends obviously.
There’s ropy contamination at the inlet end.
Weight raises more than 20%.
Chemic liquid for clean: ①Adjust H2SO4 to PH 10.0, 2% Na5P3O10 solution,
temperature: 40℃;
②Sometimes, it can be cleaned by NaOH liquor which PH less than 10
when the temperature is 40℃;
Clean Step: Please take the steps of cleaning sulfate pollution as reference.

8.3.6 Organic substance and microbe pollution


Normal type: Humus, organic acid etc.
Symptom: The change of salt rejection is inconspicuous.
Permeated water flow descends obviously.
There’s ropy contamination at the inlet end.
Weight raises more than 20%.
Chemic liquid for clean: ①2% Na5P3O10 solution of PH10.0, 0.8%EDTA Na4(change to 0.25%
R-C6H4-SO3Na (R=C10-C13) when situation is serious) temperature:40℃;
②Sometimes, it can be cleaned by NaOH liquor which PH less than 10
when the temperature is 40℃;
Clean Step: Please take the steps of cleaning sulfate pollution as reference.

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8.3.7 Oxid oxidants membrane element


Normal type: NaClO, chlorine, ozone and KMnO4 etc.
Pollution cause: The bactericide in inlet water was not removed in
pretreatment.
Symptom: The salt rejection descends inconspicuously.
Permeated water flow rises obviously.
Weight rises inconspicuously.
Chemic liquid for clean: Nothing, please just change the membrane element.
Clean Step: Nothing, please just change the membrane element.

Oxide oxidants membrane element is the most serious phenomena of membrane pollution.
Because oxide damages the rejection layer of membrane surface directly, it breaks -CO-NH- and
disables semi permeable membrane. Besides, membrane element oxidation is irreversible, once it
happens, membrane can not be cleaned nor resume to its function, the unique way is change to new
membrane element. So, during pretreatment, it’s necessary to adopt activated carbon reducer to
remove various oxides in water.

Notice:
1. Membrane element must be cleaned by specialist. Please be
advised to consult supplier or manufacture before cleaning.

2. During chemic cleaning, it’s necessary for manipulator to defend


themselves by wearing defend glasses, defend gloves and exposure
suit etc. Especially when using some chemical of strong causticity,
if touch it immodestly, please do according to the MSDS given by
chemical supplier.

3. The cleaning calculation sample just as reference, during cleaning,


it’s prohibited to use any chemical which has bad function to
membrane element.

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8.3.8 Membrane element cleaning chart:

Contamination Normal character Cleaning liquid

Salt rejection descends 2% Ctric acid, ammonia of PH 4.0 and


Inorganic Salt obviously, pressure drop temperature 40℃;HCl solution of pH2~3
Sediment raise, permeated water
(0.5%)also can be used
flow descends a little.

Salt rejection descends


Oxid/Hydroxide( obviously, pressure drop Ammonia of pH 4.0, 2% Citric acid, 2% Citric
Fe, Ni, and Cu raise obviously, acid; HCl solution of pH2~3(0.5%)also can be
etc) permeated water flow used
descends obviously.

Salt rejection descends a


Various colloid(Fe.
little, pressure drop raise H2SO4 solution of pH 10.0, Na5P3O10 STTP
Organic
gradually, permeated solution; some times, to use NaOH liquor of
Substance and
water flow descends pH ﹤10
Silica gel)
gradually

Salt rejection descends 2% Na5P3O10 solution of pH 10.0, 0.8%EDTA


obviously, pressure drop Na4(change to 0.25% C18H29SO3Na when
calcium sulfate raise a little, permeated situation is serious), the temperature is 40℃
water flow descends a
little some times, to use NaOH liquor of pH ﹤10

Salt rejection might


descend, pressure drop 2% Na5P3O10 solution of pH 10.0, 0.8%EDTA
Organic substance
raise gradually, Na4(change to 0.25% C18H29SO3Na when
sediment
permeated water flow situation is serious), the temperature is 40℃
descends gradually

2% Na5P3O10 solution of pH 10.0, 0.8%EDTA


Salt rejection might Na4(change to 0.25% C18H29SO3Na Na-DDBS
descend, pressure drop when situation is serious), the temperature is
Bacteria pollution raise obviously, 40℃
permeated water flow
descends obviously 0.1%NaOH and 0.03% C18H29SO3Na SDS,
PH=11.5

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9 Three years warranty for Reverse Osmosis membrane element


9.1 Chanitex RO membrane element warranty

Chanitex(Shanghai)Pure-Water Equipment Co.,Ltd.( hereinafter Chanitex) gives guarantee for


roled reverse osmosis membrane element, manufactured by Chanitex company, as following:

9.1.1 Technology and material guarantee

When the membrane element is right used and of maintenance according to Chanitex
membrane element technology swatch and technology document, if there’s problem caused by
manufacture technology and material Chanitex will give guarantee for the product in 36 months
since the purchasing day. If the products really has quality problem tested according to this
article, Chanitex will guarantee to keep it in good repair or replace it.

9.1.2 Performance guarantee

9.1.2.1 Based on the specified test condition of Chanitex product manual,membrane


element have the specified initial lowest salt rejection and pure water flux of
Chanitex product manual.

9.1.2.2 Within initial three years movement period,based on the specified test condition of
Chanitex product manual,salt rejection does not surpass the product sample rating
3 times,the lowest permeated water flow is not lower than the product sample rating
70%.

9.1.2.3 From the date of membrane element first time use or six months from the factory

delivers goods(take arrives the time first as),Chanitex guarantee three years

membrane element performance.

9.1.2.4 The condition of guarantee

The membrane element must operates on the condition of which in Chanitex company's manual,

technological manual, and design guide stipulated。If any condition below is not to be able to

satisfy,The above three years guarantee is invalid.

a. Feed water of membrane element does not include oil, fat or other harmful module organic

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and inorganic material,strong oxidant;

b. Should not implement negative pressure to any membrane element at anytime.

c. The membrane element should carry on the maintenance under the suggested cleaning
condition and without pollution of granule, sediment, suspended solid or microorganism.

d. The membrane system design parameter, the membrane element arrangement, the
recovery as well as the measuring appliance and other spare parts must conform to the
reliable project experience。

e. The buyer has the responsibility to provide handbook of reasonable system operation and

maintenance instructions, the operator and superintendent's training to the users, to

insure the users have ability to clean and system diagnoses and restore on some

sharp-edged situations;

f. The user must retain the membrane system all operating records since start, including

breakdown handling, the routine maintenance management and so on, and reorganize

these data by standard form, the data is convenient for analysis and search breakdown

reason, it must provide the operating record data to Chanitex company when call for

compensation.

9.1.3 Maintenance responsibility

9.1.3.1 During the first three years of operation of the element(s), Chanitex warrants that
minimum permeate flow, when operated under standard conditions published by
chanitex, shall be at least 70 percent of the specified initial average flow. Chanitex
further warrants that maximum salt passage, when an element is operated under
standard test conditions published by Chanitex and pressure required to give the
initial rated flow, will not exceed 1.35x the specified maximum value. Chanitex will,
on confirmation of loss of performance during the warranty period, credit 1/36 of the
original purchase price of the element for each unused month of the warranty period
toward the purchase of a replacement element at the current prevailing price.

9.1.3.2 If element is not used in permission storage time, the membrane element is
considered outside the use permission storage period.

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9.1.3.3 The membrane element which is returned with non-guarantees reason must not be
used, and maintains the original factory packing。It will not be accepted or gather
the extra cost when the returned membrane element is not conform to the above
standards.

9.1.4. Warranty statement

Chanitex has no warrant responsibility for the accident, the economic loss and other aftereffect

which is caused by causal, accidental, especially or the malicious damage, or the damage of

membrane created by the third party not necessary and other reasons.

9.2 Return procedure

9.2.1 Approval of Chanitex company post-sale service department must be obtained before

exchanges or return goods。

9.2.2 When returns the membrane element, the user needs to assist following provision:

z Provides the detailed product breakdown description

z Provides the complete data of returned membrane element(salt rejection,temperature,

pressure,feed water TDS,water flow and so on)

z Insures the membrane element be sealed in the bag, and puts in the carton to avoid

mechanical damage, simultaneously guards against damp and exposes to the sun.

z In order to avoid the change of membrane element performance caused by excessively long

time of storage, the user should send off membrane element as soon as obtain return

notice.

9.2.3 If Chanitex quality testing department discovered returned goods already being

damaged (the reason including inappropriate use, storing, transportation and arbitrarily

transform membrane element), Chanitex has no responsibility for exchange and ship

goods back to the user, user undertakes the transport expense.

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9.2.4 All returned goods which is not used must of the original factory packing.

9.2.5 Regarding membrane element in warranty period, if the examination result prove the
problem of membrane element is caused by membrane material or membrane
production process, Chanitex will undertake the complete expense; and compensate
user membrane element which conform to the technological standard. Otherwise,user
undertake the complete expense。

9.2.6 If membrane element surpasses the warranty period, the user undertake the complete
expense (including the examination expense, the fitting replacement expense as well as
the transport expense.)

9.2.7 If it is the user’s mistake, the user undertake returned goods expense; If it is Chanitex's
mistake, Chanitex undertake transport expense。

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10 Frequently asked questions

10.1 How many years can the membrane element use generally?

The membrane service life is decided by the membrane chemical stability, the element pHysical
stability, cleanability, feed water, the pretreatment, the clean frequency, the operation
management level and so on. Under the reasonable operation can uses for 3 years。

What is the suitable environmental condition of storing membrane element?

z Suitable temperature range is 0~45℃, the suggestion store temperature is 25℃。


z Avoid expose to the temperature lower than freezing point, if the membrane element
carelessly ices up , must let its melting slowly before use, and
z the situation no longer conform to the guarantee item。
z The membrane element even in the original package box does not allow to expose to
insolation ; Suggested deposits it in room, and avoids long time sunlight illumination

10.3 What is the protection fluid ingredient of the membrane element?

It is generally 1%(W)food grade NaHSO3 solution. Might add 10% propanediol as antifreeze
in winter。

10.4 What is influence of pressure, temperature to the permeated water flow?

The pressure, the temperature are higher, the permeated water flow is higher, vice versa, works
under the high temperature condition, should lower the working pressure, makes the water flux
maintenance invariable, vice versa. Membrane element withstanding high pressure high
temperature ability. The water flux change refers to temperature and membrane flux formula
computation in the appendix.

10.5 What is influence of pressure, temperature,feed water TDS to salt rejection?

The temperature and feed water TDS are higher, salt rejection is lower, the permeated water
flow is smaller。

The salt rejection rate increases along with the pressure, but the salt rejection rate no longer
increase when surpasses certain pressure, , certain saline matter and water molecule will
penetrate the reverse osmosis membrane element。

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10.6 What is water hammer and its harm?


Water hammer is refers the phenomenon that waters flow, speed and pressure rapid raises or
reduces in extremely short time and certain space. Water hammer is easy to appear during the
Reverse Osmosis system initial and end time.

Water hammer can make stress damage to membrane element, for example the end cover
bursts, the connector damage, the FRP enclosures bursts, even the internal membrane sheet
and obstruct net bursts. Water hammer results in the membrane element abandonment directly.
Therefore it must design corresponding protective device in the Reverse Osmosis system to
prevent water hammer.

The above drawing shows, when RO system start, water pressure distributed tendency in
membrane housing. If water hammer is too big, it can directly cause fast raise of the pressure
difference of membrane element FRP cover two sides, finally causes the FRP enclosures to burst.
Picrue below shows membrane element damaged by water hammer.

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10.7 Why dose the Reverse Osmosis permeate water pH decrease?

CO2+H2O HCO3- + H+ CO32- + 2H+


In the ordinary circumstances, water can dissolve some carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide react
with water, forms the carbonic acid balance, its equation as follows
CO2+H2O HCO3- + H+ CO32- + 2H+
Reverse osmosis membrane element cannot remove gas in the water, but can remove various
ions, therefore each kind of ion density in pure water lower than feed water, but carbon dioxide
density do not change, then this response balance is broken, reaction towards right, forms more
hydrogen ions, causes the water pH value to reduce。

10.8 Why does the initial period produces the water TDS be very high during the

reverse osmosis membrane system restarts after stops?

Because the salinity osmosis does not need ambient pressure, even if system stop, the salinity
osmosis also work, feed water TDS is higher than the pure water, the salinity can osmosis to
pure water; But there’s no ambient pressure, pure water pipeline is installed the check valve, the
water osmosis stopped, in this case, the pure water salinity could be higher and higher, until
both salinity are equal. This is the reason.

10.9 What is the structure of reverse osmosis membrane element?

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10.10 What are the reverse osmosis system main troubles?


z Reverse osmosis system mainly has following three kinds troubles:
z Permeated water flow decrease after standardization
z Salt rejection decrease after standardization
z Pressure drop increases after standardization
z See the detailed discussion in the table below:
Main Characterization Reason Test item Solution

The colloid dirt Feed water Silt Density Clean membrane element

block Index(fouling index) Improve pretreatment

The metal oxide Whether does Fe,Al,H2S


Salt Pressure Clean membrane element
Permeated water flow decrease

compound dirt parts in feed water


rejection drop Improve pretreatment
stop corrode
decrease increase
Whether membrane
Clean membrane element
Scaling element increases
Control scaling
obviously

membrane Feed water pressure, Replace membrane


Salt Pressure
pressure density temperature element
rejection drop
Whether pretreatment is Clean membrane element
increase equal Organic pollution
normal Improve pretreatment

Permeate Whether O-ring is


Pressure O-ring leak Replace O-ring
water flow normal
drop
Salt rejection decrease

equal or Membrane Membrane element air Replace membrane


equal
increase surface damage leakage speed element

Membrane Examine feed water Replace element


Permeated Pressure
oxidation oxide compound Improve pretreatment
water flow drop
Whether feed water or Replace membrane
increase equal Leak concentrated water
enters in pure water element
Scaling or
Pressure drop

Permeated Salt
biological dirt Whether there is biology
increase

Clean membrane element


water flow rejection block the feed pollution evidence in
water grid flow membrane Improve pretreatment
decrease equal
channel

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10.11 What does the feed water hardness affect reverse osmosis membrane

system?

Feed water hardness rise to increase the membrane element scaling tendency when feed
water TDS invariable, the reverse osmosis membrane easily appear the inorganic salt scaling,
block the membrane element,the direct consequence of is: permeated water flux decrease,
permeated water TDS rise, the two sides pressure difference increases. Feed water hardness
raise will not pollute the membrane element immediately, but with the membrane surface is
polluted along with the inorganic salt scaling, the membrane element performance will of
obvious change。

For the reason of the reverse osmosis membrane inspissations, when feed water hardness
increases, possibly causes salty(difficult to dissolve in concentrated water) density to surpass
its saturated solubility, this salt can crystallize from concentrated water,deposits on membrane
element surface and forms the inorganic salt scale.

The principle of reverse osmosis membrane system feed water is not to occur scaling even after
inspissations, so suggest to soften or to add the anti-scalelent during pretreatment for feed
water, please get the concrete information in other chapters of this handbook。

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11 Quality Certification
11.1 NSF certification

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11.2 ISO14000 Environment System Certification

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11.3 ISO9000 Quality System Certification

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12 Appendix

12.1 Units conversion

  Lengh :

1 inch(in)=25.4millimeter(mm) ; 1micron meter(µm)=10-6meter(m);

  1 Angstrom (A)=10-10meter ; 1(mil)=10-3inch(in)

  Pressure:

1bar=0.1MPa =15psi ; 1MPa=144.93 psi ;

1 psi=0.0069 MPa ; 1MPa=103KPa=106Pa≈10Kgf/cm2

  Volume:

1L=10-3m3=0.035square inches(ft3)= 0.22(lmp.gal)= 0.26(U.S.gal)

1 British gallon(lmp.gal)= 4.546 L= 1.20095 US gallon(U.S.gal)

1 US gallon(U.S.gal)= 3.785 L

  Flux:

1GPM(Gallon/ Minute)=3.785LPM(Liter/Minute)

1LPM(Liter/Minute)=0.26 GPM(Gallon/ Minute)

Concentration:

  1mg/L=1mg/L=103ppb=103µg/L

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12.2 Commonly used formula

Membrane Flux and Permeated Water Flow:

Permeated Water Flow (gpd)= Membrane Flux (gfd) ×(Membrane active surface).

Salt Rejection(%)=(Permeated Water TDS/Feed WaterTDS)×100%

Conductivity and electronic receptivity relations:

{Conductivity=(1µs/cm) }×{ Receptivity (MΩ.cm)}≈1

Recovery and flow restrict relations:

Flow Restrict =Concentrated Water Flow/Permeated Water Flow

Recovery =(Permeated Water Flow /Feed Water Flow)×100%=1/(1+ Flow Restrict)

×100%

Salt rejection and salt passing rate relations:

Apparent Salt Rejection =(1-Permeated Water Salinity/Feed Water Salinity)×100%

Real Salt Rejection =1-【Permeated Water Salinity /(【Feed Water Salinity +Concentrated

Water Salinity】/2×A)】×100%

A---- Concentration Polarization Coefficient

Salt Passing Rate=(1- Salt Rejection)×100%

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Temperature and membrane flux relations:

Standard Membrane Flux =Test Membrane Flux*Temperature Coefficient

Temperature Coefficient Tcoff:

Tcoff=EXP{2640×1/(273.15+25)-1/(273.15+T)} T≤25℃

Tcoff=EXP{3020×1/(273.15+25)-1/(273.15+T)} T≥25℃

12.3 Calculate conversion of conductivity and salinity

TDS = K × EC25
The unit of TDS is mg/L, which is ppm.
EC25 is the conductivity when temperature is 25℃,the unit isµs/cm
EC25 treat all salt as NaCl and don’t considerate the permeability of CO2.

Chart Caculate conversion coefficient of conductivity and salinity

Solution Conductivity EC25(µs/cm) K

Permeated Water 0~300 0.50

300~4000 0.55
Brackish Water
4000~20000 0.67

Sea Water 40000~60000 0.70

Concentrated Water 60000~85000 0.75

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