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MECHANICAL

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
JJ 303 : MECHANICAL WORKSHOP
PRACTICE 3
NAME : SYARIFAH NUR HASANAH BINTI SYED
KAMARUDIN

METRIC NO. : 02DKM13F1031

LECTURER : EN. HAJI DAUD


INTRODUCTION OF metal INERT GAS
(mIG)
Metal inert gas welding or MIG welding is the most widely used of the arc welding
processes. It is suitable for everything from hobbies and small fabrication or
repairs through to large structures, shipbuilding and robotic welding. MIG can be
used on a broad range of materials and thicknesses, and the latest Super Pulse
technology enables MIG to give a finish that is similar to that obtained with TIG
welding yet with the speed for which MIG is renowned. The concept underlying
MIG welding is simple with the arc being struck between the tip of the reel-fed
wire as it emerges from the torch and the workplace. A shielding gas prevents
oxidation forming or the use of some flux-cored wire avoids the need for a
shielding gas. With most MIG welding sets, the users sets the wire feed speed
which determines the current then the users sets the voltage to suits that
current. Ease of use is clearly a major benefit of MIG in many applications but
speed is also important. It is far quicker to lay down weld metal with MIG then
TIG. MMA (manual metal arc or stick welding) or gas welding.
HOW WELDING IS USEFUL IN MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRIES?
Some of the industries that use the application welding machines are
aerospace, automobile, metal casting, electronics and more.

In the automotive industry. Processes like part tracking and


traceability used requires the application of welding machines.

These are the sectors that produce the metals and instruments for
the society, so it is not possible to weld a metals without the process
of welding.

THE USE OF WELDERS :


Welders are the backbone for manufacting industry because these are the
devices that used to weld the meals. Metals is what concerned about the industries
and the raw metals are not useful unless they are molded and welded well. So in
that aspect the welder and welding equipment play a vital role. Also, remember
that with the help of single welding supply it is not possible to weld all types of
metals. For each metal different welder needed. To weld steel and other non
ferrous metals, tig welder is useful similarly for other welding machines are used.
Equipment for arc welding
1.Cable

 There are two cables that bring electricity from welding machine to
work metal and back to welding machine and earth cable.
 These cable are made from small copper wire coated with strong
rubber so that you can hold it. Every cable has it own size. Size no.2
means that the cable will be able to withstand welding electricity up
to 200 amps. These cable are connected to the welding machine
through its copper end.

2.Electrode Holder.
 It is used to electricity from welding machine to work metal. It is
used to hold the electrode during the welding process. It has a
spring as its parts so that it can hold and let go off the electrode
easily. Electrode holder must be lightweight, have good rubber
coating and easy to handle for quite a long time. It has its own
size for the amount of electric current that it carries.

3. Chipping hammer

 It is made from an old punch, chisel or spring metal. Shape like a


chisel at one end and has a sharpened end at the other one.
 Its holder is made from welded soft metal. It is used commonly to
break off slag excess stringer from the surface of the work
metal.

4. Wire brush.
 It is used to clean the surface of the stringer bead after the
slag is chipped away and to remove dirt from the surface of work
metal before welding be done.

5.Playar

 Used for hold the work piece.


6. Mild steel wire

 Metal rod with a layer of coating which is used to flow of the


electric current to form the electric arc.
7.Welding Machine

 As a converter to adjust the welding voltage and current.


PROCEDURE
 Clean the surface to be welded.
 Provide a suitable space for welding.
 Before starting welding make sure the machine in a safe manner and turn
the machine.

 Adjust the current and voltage in accordance with the thickness of the
workpiece.

 Welding by pressing the start button located at the torch.


 Start welding occupies space to be welded.
 When welding make sure the angle between the torch ninety degrees to
sixty degrees.

 Turn off the switch on the MIG machine.


 Clean the workpiece using a chisel and wire brush.
Discussion
Based on discussions MIG welding process is very important in a real industry :

 With the advent of this machine welding process easier.


 The time taken to produce a connection can be cut using this machine.
 Connection is made stronger and the machine can be adjustable to the
workpiece weld thicker.
 Industry also expressed the more skilled with the machine.
CONCLUSSION
These step by step instructions have investigated just a few of the many different
types of joints possible to weld. There are many different joints and not to
mention several more forms of welding, all with different advantages and
disadvantages. Welding is a useful process that can be utilized in a variety of
different projects and can be quickly picked up by beginners. Welding takes
practices, but with time you will be able to confidently produce quality welds.
Safety
precaution
INTRODUCTION OF SAFETY AND PRECAUTION
Safety Precautions can be defined as measures taken in the workshop to avoid
accident or harm which one may encounter in the workshop. Safety is freedom
from accident which may occur in the workshop. These safety precautions are
taken to avoid the person working in the workshop from being harmed and
from harming others working in the workshop. A workshop in this context is a
building where production or repair of machines is carried out.
SOME SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN THE
WORKSHOP

There are many measures which anyone working in workshop(s) needs to take
into consideration before and during his work. Some of these measures are
discussed below and should not be treated with kid gloves.

 Oil Spillage: Oil should not be allowed to pour in this workshop as this
can cause accident. When oil spills in the workshop may be by mistake it
should be cleaned immediately. The spill of oil on the floor can cause
workshop attendant to lose any part of his body; his hand can get in
contact with sharp rotating machine. This machine can easily cut his
hand when being slipped by oil.

 Check Machine Parts: A machine is any device that enables work to be


done more easily and effectively. The bad side of machine is that it can
harm the operator if care is not taken. Machine part should be properly
checked before use in workshops. They should be properly checked to
ensure that there is no lose parts in the machine. Lose parts of
machines can operate in abnormal ways and cause accidents in
workshops.

 Avoid Playing: Workshops are places for serious “business”, so students


should not enter there and start playing with the devices found in it.
Students that come to workshop for their practical classes need to be
careful as playing in the workshop can result to one accident or the
other. Playing in workshops can make workshop teacher to get annoyed
and hit the student with any available device thereby resulting to injury.

 Clear gangway: Gangways of every workshop should be kept free from


obstacles. Gangway is the path through which workshop attendants pass
through. This is to be kept free from obstacles for easy and free
movement in the workshop. Untidy gangways can also result to “rough”
output in the workshop as things are not put in their right places.

 Wear overalls: This is the first thing to be considered before working in


any workshop and any worker without this not allowed into workshop not
to talk more of working in it. Any sensible worker does not joke with
wearing overalls before working in workshops. Ignoring wearing overalls
in the workshop is like saying to the workshop “I want you to harm me
because my life is nothing to me”. Examples of overalls are workshop
coats, safety boots and hand gloves.

 Mindful of electricity: Electricity should be handled with care in the


workshop as this can suck the whole water and blood in human body
within a second. Maximum attention should be paid to electricity when
dealing with its devices in workshops. Nobody should go near electric
current when the body is wet or soaked with water. Water is a good
conductor of electricity and should be in contact with the body of any
working in workshop. I was a victim of electric shock in a workshop
before and that is why a want to warn and write more on this heading.
Ensure that all electrical connections are switched off before closing any
workshop as sparks may occur in the odd hours and results to fire
outbreak in workshops.

 When you dealing with molten metal, do not look directly into it when
melting through heating process. It is advisable for any who melt in
furnaces or crucibles to wear eye shield before looking into them. When
you look into molten metal without covering your eyes with shield, there
is every possibility that your eyes will get harmed. In totality, ensure
your wear eye shield before looking into hot molten metal in the
workshop.

 Avoid excessive noise in workshops as this can result to fatigue. When


weakness is encountered in workshops, it results to accidents. The
person working in the workshop can feel tired and be less mindful of the
work he is doing there. Out of mistakes he may put one of his fingers in
a cutting machine or its likes and his finger becomes chopped off.

 It is not advisable to look into molten metal when working in a foundry


workshop or any that invoices molten metal. When one looks into molten
metal in furnace or crucible without eye shield, the eyes can be
affected. Also, the skin may be burnt by the heat coming out from the
furnace. This can also result to killing the cells in the part of the
worker’s face.

 It is wrong to look down when climbing far distance in the workshop. Any
who climbs height of about twenty to thirty metres should not look
down. Looking down when climbing such height can result to fear and
makes him fall from the height. Another negative effect of looking
downwards while to such height is that it makes his eyes to appear as if
it is turning around whenever he looks down. It is better to climb
straight to the height one wants to reach without looking down to avoid
“had I know” as this can make the person in question to fall from
distant height.
SAFETY PRECAUTION OF ARC WELDING...
1. Always protect your eyes from arc rays.

2. Protect your face and body from heat radiation and molten

Metal.

3. Make sure that your working place is clean and tidy.

4. Move all the flammable material off the working place or cover it up using
fireproof material.

5. Make sure that all electric connection is tight, clean and dry.

6. Make sure that all line holder, earth clip and connection placed on good
place.

7. Do not ever scratch arc on the top of gas cylinder.

8. Avoid welding cable from be in contact with hot metal, water, oil and
grease.

9. Avoid pulling the cable on top or near sharp things.

10. Turn off the welding machine when not in use.

11. Wear all safety clothing when welding.

12. All equipment such as hammer, chisel, brush and others must be well
taken care off.

13. A welder should not try to install or repair a welding machine.

14. Make sure that the welding machine is earthen.


CONCLUSION…
Safety precautions as the act of being careful and observing the rules and
guiding any particular environment have been written on. The truth of the
matter is that these safety precautions should not be treated with kids glove
because in is very important and helpful in totality. These safety precautions
are to be applied in all workshops for the lives of the workers and those who
are working with him in the workshop. Safety precautions are for the
students, instructors and teachers in the workshop. Safety precautions are
not only for students as some instructors overlook this.
Introduction of tungsten inert gas (tig)
TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding is capable of achieving the highest quality welds
and is the most versatile in terms of what can be welded and position of the welds.
However, quality comes at the expense of time and TIG is generally slower than
MIG or MMA welding. But, where weld integrity is critical, production engineers
are prepared to accept the additional process time. The applications of TIG
welding and pointers to its successful use are highlighted in the new Murex
Welding Products TIG Welding Guide.

TIG welding is an extremely versatile process. It can be used with virtually any
weld able metal, including dissimilar metals, and thickness from 0.5 mm upwards.
TIG welding machines are typically available in currents ratings from 150A to 350A
and they are capable of operating at currents as low as, typically, 3A for a 150A
machine in addition. TIG machines can be used for brazing and MMA welding, which
helps to improve the return on an investment in TIG equipment.

The most commonly used shielding gas for TIG welding is pure argon for all
materials including aluminium. For thick aluminium and copper, argon/helium would
be used for the added heat from the helium. TIG operatives do need to be aware
that the correct tungsten electrode must be used. Otherwise, problems can be
experienced with striking the arc and maintaining a stable arc.

TIG can be used either with or without a filler wire and Murex, which has been
involved with TIG welding almost since its commercialization, offers a vast array of
different filler wires to suit the wide variety of applications for which TIG is used.
Murex can be undertake welding trials on behalf of customers to help optimize the
welding parameters. Support can also be provided to ensure that the customer’s
operatives are familiar with the equipment and process.
Equipment for arc welding
1.Cable

 There are two cables that bring electricity from welding machine to work
metal and back to welding machine and earth cable.
 These cable are made from small copper wire coated with strong rubber
so that you can hold it. Every cable has it own size. Size no.2 means that
the cable will be able to withstand welding electricity up to 200 amps.
These cable are connected to the welding machine through its copper
end.

2.Electrode Holder.
 It is used to electricity from welding machine to work metal. It is
used to hold the electrode during the welding process. It has a spring
as its parts so that it can hold and let go off the electrode easily.
Electrode holder must be lightweight, have good rubber coating and
easy to handle for quite a long time. It has its own size for the amount
of electric current that it carries.

3. Chipping hammer

 It is made from an old punch, chisel or spring metal. Shape like a


chisel at one end and has a sharpened end at the other one.
 Its holder is made from welded soft metal. It is used commonly to
break off slag excess stringer from the surface of the work metal.
4. Wire brush.

 It is used to clean the surface of the stringer bead after the slag is
chipped away and to remove dirt from the surface of work metal
before welding be done.

5.Playar

 Used for hold the work piece.


6.Tungsten rod

 Used for produce arc.

7. TIG machines

 To flow the current and to adjust the heat.


8. Face shield

 To protect the face from the chips and heat.

9. Gloves

 To prevent our hand from burns


Procedures
1. Ensure the machine is correctly set up for current, voltage, wire feed and
shielding gas flow rate.
2. Ensure that other workers in this locality are protected from any UV & IR
radiation flash. Always close the UV curtain to the welding bay or erect a UV
screen.
3. Ensure the welding return cable (earth) makes firm contact to provide a good
electrical contact.
4. Ensure the workpiece has been prepared to be free of any paint, oxides or other
surface finishes ensuring a good electrical contact.
5. Strike the arc before placing the tip of the filler wire in the weld zone.
6. Regularly inspect the tungsten electrode for damage. Turn all power off before
changing the electrode.
7. Take particular care to avoid accidental UV welding flash to the skin or eyes.
8. Never leave the TIG welder running unattended.
DISCUSSION
TIG welding is a beautiful welding process and its versatile. You can weld it
autogenous you can butt weld, lap weld, and more difficult welds like fillets welds.

One of the reason the welds are so good is because your welds is “shielded” from
contaminants in the air by gas, argon gas. The argon gas is pushed through your
welding torch and this gas then shields or pushes the air from the weld you are
creating as well as it keeps your electrode from axidizing.

When you TIG weld you will strike an arc between your non-consumable electrode
and the piece of metal you are welding. As a resultthe arc creates heat and this
makes the edges of the metal you are working on to melt and combine.
CONCLUSSION
These step by step instructions have investigated just a few of the many different
types of joints possible to weld. There are many different joints, and not to
mention several more forms of welding, all with different advantages and
disadvantages. Welding is a useful process that can be utilized in a variety of
different projects and can be quickly picked up by beginners. Welding takes
practice, but with time you will be able to confidently produce quality welds.