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CHEMICAL & GREEN PROCESS ENGINEERING

Dosen Pengampu:
NADYA NISSAULYA, ST., M.Sc

Main Text Book:


1. Callister W.D., Material Science and Engineering: An
Introduction, 7th edition.
2. Sperling L. H., Introduction to Physical Polymer Science,
4th edition.
(Please also read other text books for additional references)

2 Kredit (SKS), NILAI: - 2 Kuis (10%)


- Homework & presentation (30%)
- UTS/ MIDTERM EXAM (30%)
- UAS/ FINAL EXAM (30%) 1
SILABUS SEMESTER GENAP
pertemuan I
Kompetensi:
Mahasiswa mampu memahami dasar-dasar
bahan konstruksi pabrik kimia dan korosi, serta
mampu memilih bahan konstruksi untuk industri
kimia sesuai dengan keperluannya.
What is materials science and engineering?

“materials science”
• investigating the relationships
that exist between the
structures and properties of
materials

“materials engineering”
• basis of these structure–
property correlations, designing
or engineering the structure of a
material to produce a
predetermined set of properties
Bahan/ material adalah benda yang memiliki sifat yang khas yang bisa
dimanfaatkan untuk bangunan, mesin, peralatan atau produk.
Termasuk didalamnya : logam, keramik, semi konduktor, polimer,gelas,
dielektrik, serat, kayu, pasir, batu, berbagai komposit.

Kehandalan suatu konstruksi atau mesin tergantung pada kehandalan


komponen terlemah, yaitu yang gagal terdahulu.
Kegagalan dapat disebabkan oleh :
- ketidak mampuan menentukan harga saing
- salah dalam pengukuran
- ketidak mampuan menilai pengaruh lingkungan
- kurangnya pengetahuan tentang pengaruh suhu dan material
- teknik pembuatan yang lemah/ kurang tepat.
GOAL: Select correct material at lowest cost.

Materials selection based on:


1. Operating temperature
2. Operating pressure
3. Substance within process
4. External environment
5. Compatibility with other materials in process
6. Corrosion
7. Ease of fabrication, i.e. construction
8. Others

Economics impacted by:


1. Cost of raw materials
2. Installation cost
3. Service life
4. Maintenance costs
5. Repair costs
6. Downtime costs
7. Safety / environmental issues
8. Others
CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINEERING
MATERIALS

Metals
Ceramics
Polymers
Composites
Metals/Logam
• Metals are materials which composed of one or more
metallic elements
• For example: iron,aluminum, copper, titanium, gold, and
nickel), and often also nonmetallic elements (for example,
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively small amounts.

(alumunium) (copper) (titanium)


Characteristic of metals

• relatively stiff and strong


• resistant to fracture (tidak gampang patah)
• Ductile/ lentur (i.e., capable of large amounts of deformation
without fracture)
• Metals are extremely good conductors of electricity and heat
• not transparent to visible light
Ceramics
• Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic
elements. For example: aluminum oxide (or alumina,Al2O3),
silicon dioxide (or silica, SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), silicon
nitride (Si3N4)
Characteristic of ceramics
• relatively stiff and strong
• extremely brittle (tingkat kelenturan kecil)
• highly susceptible to fracture (gampang patah)
• low electrical conductivities
• more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments
than metals and polymers
• transparent, translucent (tembus cahaya), or opaque (buram)
Polymers
• Polymers include the familiar plastic and rubber materials.
Many of them are organic compounds that are chemically
based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements
(viz.O,N, and Si).
• makromolekul (molekul raksasa) yang tersusun dari
monomer yang merupakan molekul yang kecil dan
sederhana.
Characteristic of Polymers
• have very large molecular structures
• have low densities (e.g. are polyethylene (PE), nylon,
poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene
(PS), and silicone rubber)
• not as stiff nor as strong as other material types
• extremely ductile and pliable/ sangat lentur dan lunak (i.e.,
plastic)
• relatively inert chemically (tahan terhadap reaksi kimia) and
unreactive in a large number of environments (cenderung
tahan terhadap kondisi lingkungan yang berubah-ubah)
Composites
• Komposit adalah material yang tersusun atas campuran dua atau
lebih material dengan sifat kimia dan fisika berbeda, dan
menghasilkan sebuah material baru yang memiliki sifat-sifat
berbeda dengan material-material pengusunnya.
• For example, some of the common composites are fiberglass (glass
fiber-reinforced polymer), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP),
textiles, vehicle tires, wood, etc

tires
fiberglass textiles
Table 1. Examples of representative, applications & properties of each type of
materials
Advanced Materials
• Advanced materials are materials that are utilized in high-technology
(or high-tech) applications.
• These advanced materials are typically traditional materials whose
properties have been enhanced, and, also newly developed, high-
performance materials.
• Examples : liquid crystal displays (LCDs), fiber optics

Semico Semikonduktor adalah sebuah bahan dengan


nductor
s konduktivitas listrik yang berada di antara
insulator (isolator) dan konduktor

Advanced
Materials

Biomaterials are employed in components


implanted into the human body for
Biomate
replacement of diseased or damaged body
rials parts
TUGAS 1
Presentasikan pengaplikasi material logam (metal),
keramik, komposit, polimer atau advanced material pada
kehidupan sehari-hari

1. jelaskan alasan pemilihan material yang diaplikasikan.


2. Sertakan dengan video proses pembuatan produk
tersebut.
3. Pengajuan topik/bahan yang akan dipilih untuk
dipresentasikan paling lambat hari Kamis jam 12.00
WIB.
4. Presentasikan minggu depan tanggal 11 April 2017.