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Judul Asli: Lui, Y - Finite Element Methods Lectures [Uni of Cincinnati]

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Course Numbers: 20-MECH-525 & 526; Winter & Spring Quarters

Click here to see some examples of the final projects from this course and other FEA applications in engineering

Course Syllabus

Lecture Notes

Notice: The lecture notes are for educational and personal use only. Files are in Acrobat PDF format. To read/print/save these

getacroreader.

notes, You will need the Acrobat Reader which can be downloaded free from gif (712 . Please report any errors or typos in

the notes to Dr. Liu (E-mail: Yijun.Liu@uc.edu)

bytes)

Chapter 1. Introduction

● Lecture 2. Review of Matrix Algebra

● Lecture 3. Stiffness Matrix for Spring Element; FE Equations

● Lecture 4. Assembly of Stiffness Matrices; Examples

● Homework Problems

file:///C|/Downloads/Book/Lui__Y_-_Finite_Element_Methods_Lectures__Uni_o...Element%20Methods%20Lectures%20[Uni%20of%20Cincinnati%201998]/FEM-525.htm (1 of 4)1/6/2007 6:38:36 PM

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

● Lecture 2. Examples

● Lecture 3. Distributed Load; Transformation of Coordinate Systems; Element Stress

● Lecture 4. Examples

● Lecture 5. Introduction to ANSYS (Computer Lab Session 1)

● Lecture 6. Beam Elements

● Lecture 7. Examples; Distributed Load

● Review

● Midterm Exam

● Lecture 8. More Examples of Beam Elements, Frame Analysis

● Lecture 9. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 2)

● Homework Problems

● Lecture 2. Stiffness Matrices for 2-D Problems; T3 Element

● Lecture 3. T6, Q4 and Q8 Elements; Example

● Lecture 4. Distributed Loads; Stress Calculation; Discussions

● Review

● Homework Problems

● Final Exam

● End of Winter Quarter

● Lecture 2. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 3)

● Lecture 3. Nature of FEA Solutions; Error, Convergence and Adaptivity

● Lecture 4. Substructures (Superelements) in FEA; Equation Solving

● Computer Lab Assignment 1

● Lecture 2. Plate Elements; Shell Theory and Shell Elements

● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 4)

● Computer Lab Assignment 2

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

● Lecture 2. 3-D Solid Elements; Element Formulation; 3-D Examples

● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 5)

● Lecture 4. Solids of Revolution; Axisymmetric Elements; Examples

● Computer Lab Assignment 3

● Lecture 2. Free Vibration (Normal Mode) Analysis

● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 6)

● Lecture 4. Damping; Modal Equations; Frequency Response Analysis

● Lecture 5. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 7 - Preview of the final projects)

● Lecture 6. Transient Response Analysis; Examples

● Computer Lab Assignment 4

● Final Project Assignment

● Presentation of the Final Project - I

● Presentation of the Final Project - II

● End of Spring Quarter

Contact Info

E-mail: Yijun.Liu@uc.edu

Tel.: (513) 556-4607 (Voice), (513) 556-3390 (Fax)

Office: 590 Rhodes Hall

S-mail: Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210072, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

© 1997-2002 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati Last updated January 02, 2002 .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

I. Basic Concepts

The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis

(FEA), is based on the idea of building a complicated object with

simple blocks, or, dividing a complicated object into small and

manageable pieces. Application of this simple idea can be found

everywhere in everyday life as well as in engineering.

Examples:

•Lego (kids’play)

•Buildings

•Approximation of the area of a circle:

“Element” Si

θi

R

1

Area of one triangle: S i = 2 R 2 sinθi

2π

N

1 2

Area of the circle: S N = ∑ Si = R N sin → π R 2 as N → ∞

i =1 2 N

where N = total number of triangles (elements).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

computer simulations

•FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation

method in engineering

•Closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications

•...

•Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering

•Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear)

•Thermal/fluid flows

•Electromagnetics

•Geomechanics

•Biomechanics

•...

Examples:

...

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

•1956 ----- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp (Stiffness)

•1960 ----- Clough (“Finite Element”, plane problems)

•1980s ----- Microcomputers, pre- and postprocessors

•1990s ----- Analysis of large structural systems

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Procedures:

•Describe the behavior of the physical quantities on each

element

•Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an

approximate system of equations for the whole structure

•Solve the system of equations involving unknown

quantities at the nodes (e.g., displacements)

•Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at

selected elements

Example:

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Computer Implementations

•FEA solver (assemble and solve the system of equations)

•Postprocessing (sort and display the results)

•SDRC/I-DEAS (Complete CAD/CAM/CAE package)

•NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on mainframes)

•ABAQUS (Nonlinear and dynamic analyses)

•COSMOS (General purpose FEA)

•ALGOR (PC and workstations)

•PATRAN (Pre/Post Processor)

•HyperMesh (Pre/Post Processor)

•Dyna-3D (Crash/impact analysis)

•...

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

•Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements

covered in this course

•Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems

•Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know

the physics of the problems)

•Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (don’t misuse the

FEM - a numerical tool)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

a 11 x1 + a 12 x 2 + ...+ a 1n x n = b1

a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ...+ a 2 n x n = b2

(1)

.......

a n1 x1 + a n 2 x 2 + ...+ a nn x n = bn

In matrix form:

Ax = b (2)

where

a11 a12 ... a1n

a ... a 2 n

[]

a22

A = aij =

21

a ... ann

n1 an2

(3)

x1 b1

x b

2 2

x = {xi }= b = {bi }=

: :

xn

bn

A is called a n×n (square) matrix, and x and b are (column)

vectors of dimension n.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

w1

v = [v1 v2 v3 ] w = w 2

w

3

For two matrices A and B, both of the same size (m×n), the

addition and subtraction are defined by

C=A + B with cij = a ij + bij

D=A− B with d ij = a ij − bij

Scalar Multiplication

λA = λa ij[ ]

Matrix Multiplication

For two matrices A (of size l×m) and B (of size m×n), the

product of AB is defined by

m

C = AB with cij = ∑ a ik bkj

k =1

Note that, in general, AB ≠ BA , but ( AB )C = A ( BC)

(associative).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Transpose of a Matrix

If A = [aij], then the transpose of A is

A T = a ji [ ]

Notice that ( AB) T = B T A T .

Symmetric Matrix

A square (n×n) matrix A is called symmetric, if

A = AT or a ij = a ji

1 0 0

...

0 1 0

...

I=

... ... ... ...

0 0 ... 1

Note that AI = A, Ix = x.

Determinant of a Matrix

The determinant of square matrix A is a scalar number

denoted by det A or |A|. For 2×2 and 3×3 matrices, their

determinants are given by

a b

det = ad − bc

c d

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 9

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

and

a11 a12 a13

det a21 a22 a23 = a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a21a32a13

a31 a32 a33

− a13a22a31 − a12a21a33 − a23a32a11

Singular Matrix

A square matrix A is singular if det A = 0, which indicates

problems in the systems (nonunique solutions, degeneracy, etc.)

Matrix Inversion

For a square and nonsingular matrix A (det A ≠ 0), its

inverse A-1 is constructed in such a way that

AA − 1 = A − 1 A = I

The cofactor matrix C of matrix A is defined by

Cij = ( − 1)i + j Mij

eliminating the ith row and jth column of A.

Thus, the inverse of A can be determined by

1

A− 1 = CT

det A

We can show that ( AB ) − 1 = B − 1A − 1 .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Examples:

−1

a b 1 d − b

(1) =

c d (ad − bc)

− c a

Checking,

−1

a b a b 1 d − b a b 1 0

c d c d (ad − bc) − c a c d = 0 1

=

−1

1 − 1 0

T

3 2 1 3 2 1

(2) − 1 2 − 1 = 2 2 1 = 2 2 1

1

(4 − 2 − 1)

0 − 1 2

1 1 1

1 1 1

Checking,

1 − 1 0 3 2 1 1 0 0

− 1 2 − 12 2 1 = 0 1 0

0 − 1 2

1 1 1

0 0 1

The solution of the linear system of equations (Eq.(1)) can be

expressed as (assuming the coefficient matrix A is nonsingular)

x = A − 1b

Thus, the main task in solving a linear system of equations is to

found the inverse of the coefficient matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

•Gauss elimination methods

•Iterative methods

A square (n×n) matrix A is said to be positive definite, if for

any nonzero vector x of dimension n,

x T Ax > 0

Note that positive definite matrices are nonsingular.

Let

[ ]

A( t ) = a ij ( t )

d da (t )

A(t ) = ij

dt dt

and the integration by

∫

∫

A(t )dt = aij (t )dt

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 13

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

“Everything important is simple.”

x

i j

fi ui uj fj

k

Two nodes: i, j

Nodal displacements: ui, uj (in, m, mm)

Nodal forces: fi, fj (lb, Newton)

Spring constant (stiffness): k (lb/in, N/m, N/mm)

Spring force-displacement relationship:

F = k∆ with ∆ = u j − ui

Linear

F Nonlinear

k

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

course.

we have

f i = − F = − k (u j − ui ) = kui − ku j

and at node j,

f j = F = k ( u j − ui ) = − kui + ku j

In matrix form,

k − k ui f i

− k =

k u j f j

or,

ku = f

where

k = (element) stiffness matrix

u = (element nodal) displacement vector

f = (element nodal) force vector

Note that k is symmetric. Is k singular or nonsingular? That is,

can we solve the equation? If not, why?

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Spring System

x

k1 k2

1 2 3

u1, F1 u2, F2 u3, F3

For element 1,

k1 − k1 u1 f 11

− k = 1

1 k1 u2 f 2

element 2,

k2 − k 2 u2 f 12

− k = 2

2 k2 u3 f 2

where f i m is the (internal) force acting on local node i of element

m (i = 1, 2).

Assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole system:

Consider the equilibrium of forces at node 1,

F1 = f 11

at node 2,

F2 = f 21 + f 12

and node 3,

F3 = f 22

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

That is,

F1 = k1u1 − k1u2

F2 = − k1u1 + ( k1 + k 2 )u2 − k 2 u3

F3 = − k 2 u2 + k 2 u3

In matrix form,

k1 − k1 0 u1 F1

− k

k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2 = F2

1

− k2 k2

0 u3 F3

or

KU = F

K is the stiffness matrix (structure matrix) for the spring system.

“Enlarging” the stiffness matrices for elements 1 and 2, we

have

k1 − k1 0u1 f 11

− k

k1 0u2 = f 21

1

0

0 0 u3 0

0 0 0 u1 0

0 k

− k 2 u2 = f 12

2

2

0 − k 2

k2 u3 f 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

k1 − k1 0 u1 f 11

− k

k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2 = f 21 + f 12

1

− k2 k2 2

0 u3 f 2

This is the same equation we derived by using the force

equilibrium concept.

Assuming, u1 = 0 and F2 = F3 = P

we have

k1 − k1 0 0 F1

− k

k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2 = P

1

− k2 k2

0 u3 P

which reduces to

k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2 P

− k =

2 k2 u3 P

and

F1 = − k1u2

Unknowns are

u2

U= and the reaction force F1 (if desired).

u3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

u2 2 P / k1

=

3

u 2 P / k 1 + P / k 2

F1 = − 2 P

•Deformed shape of the structure

•Balance of the external forces

•Order of magnitudes of the numbers

•Suitable for stiffness analysis

•Not suitable for stress analysis of the spring itself

•Can have spring elements with stiffness in the lateral

direction, spring elements for torsion, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Example 1.1

k1 k2 P k3

x

1 2 3 4

k1 = 100 N / mm, k 2 = 200 N / mm, k 3 = 100 N / mm

P = 500 N, u 1 = u4 = 0

Find: (a) the global stiffness matrix

(b) displacements of nodes 2 and 3

(c) the reaction forces at nodes 1 and 4

(d) the force in the spring 2

Solution:

(a) The element stiffness matrices are

100 − 100

k1 = (N/mm) (1)

− 100 100

200 − 200

k2 = (N/mm) (2)

− 200 200

100 − 100

k3 = (N/mm) (3)

− 100 100

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

matrix for the spring system as

u1 u2 u3 u4

100 − 100 0 0

− 100 100 + 200 − 200 0

K=

0 − 200 200 + 100 − 100

0 − 100 100

0

or

100 − 100 0 0

− 100 300 − 200 0

K=

0 − 200 300 − 100

0 − 100 100

0

which is symmetric and banded.

Equilibrium (FE) equation for the whole system is

100 − 100 0 0 u1 F1

− 100 300 − 200 0 u2 0

=

(4)

0 − 200 300 − 100u3 P

0 − 100 100

0 u4

F4

4th rows and columns, we have

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

300 − 200u2 0

− 200 300 u = P (5)

3

Solving Eq.(5), we obtain

u2 P / 250 2

= = ( mm) (6)

3

u 3 P / 500 3

(c) From the 1st and 4th equations in (4), we get the reaction forces

F1 = − 100u 2 = − 200 (N)

F4 = − 100u 3 = − 300 (N )

200 − 200ui f i

− 200 200 u = f

j j

Here i = 2, j = 3 for element 2. Thus we can calculate the spring

force as

u2

F = f j = − f i = [− 200 200]

u3

2

= [− 200 200]

3

= 200 (N)

Check the results!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Example 1.2

4 k4 F1

k1 1

2

4 1 k2 F2 k3

2 3 3 5

x

and elements, as shown above, find the global stiffness

matrix.

Solution:

First we construct the following

Element Node i (1) Node j (2)

1 4 2

2 2 3

3 3 5

4 2 1

local node numbers for each element.

Then we can write the element stiffness matrices as follows

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

u4 u2 u2 u3

k1 − k1 k2 − k2

k1 = k2 =

− k1 k1 − k 2 k2

u3 u5 u2 u1

k3 − k3 k4 − k4

k3 = k4 =

− k 3 k3 − k 4 k4

Finally, applying the superposition method, we obtain the global

stiffness matrix as follows

u1 u2 u3 u4 u5

k4 − k4 0 0 0

− k k1 + k 2 + k 4 − k2 − k1 0

4

K= 0 − k2 k2 + k 3 0 − k3

0 − k1 0 k1 0

0 0 − k3 0 k3

The matrix is symmetric, banded, but singular.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Linear Static Analysis

static problems, based on the following assumptions

1. Small deformations (loading pattern is not changed due

to the deformed shape)

2. Elastic materials (no plasticity or failures)

3. Static loads (the load is applied to the structure in a slow

or steady fashion)

the behavior of a structure, and can be a good approximation for

many analyses. It is also the bases of nonlinear analysis in most

of the cases.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

ui uj

fi i j fj

x A,E

L

L length

A cross-sectional area

E elastic modulus

u = u( x ) displacement

ε = ε( x) strain

σ = σ ( x) stress

Strain-displacement relation:

du

ε= (1)

dx

Stress-strain relation:

σ = Eε (2)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Assuming that the displacement u is varying linearly along

the axis of the bar, i.e.,

u( x ) =

x x

1 − ui + u j (3)

L L

we have

u j − ui ∆

ε= = ( ∆ = elongation) (4)

L L

E∆

σ = Eε = (5)

L

We also have

F

σ= (F = force in bar) (6)

A

Thus, (5) and (6) lead to

EA

F= ∆ = k∆ (7)

L

EA

where k = is the stiffness of the bar.

L

The bar is acting like a spring in this case and we conclude

that element stiffness matrix is

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

EA EA

k − k L −

k= = L

− k k

− EA EA

L L

or

EA 1 − 1

k= (8)

L

− 1 1

This can be verified by considering the equilibrium of the forces

at the two nodes.

Element equilibrium equation is

EA 1 − 1ui f i

= (9)

L − 1 1 u j f j

Number of components of the displacement vector at a

node.

For 1-D bar element: one dof at each node.

The jth column of k (here j = 1 or 2) represents the forces

applied to the bar to maintain a deformed shape with unit

displacement at node j and zero displacement at the other node.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

We derive the same stiffness matrix for the bar using a

formal approach which can be applied to many other more

complicated situations.

Define two linear shape functions as follows

N i (ξ) = 1 − ξ, N j (ξ) = ξ (10)

where

x

ξ= , 0 ≤ξ ≤1 (11)

L

From (3) we can write the displacement as

u( x) = u(ξ) = N i (ξ)ui + N j (ξ)u j

or

ui

u = Ni [ ]

N j = Nu (12)

u j

Strain is given by (1) and (12) as

du d

ε= = Nu = Bu (13)

dx dx

where B is the element strain-displacement matrix, which is

dξ

B=

d

dx

[

N i (ξ ) N j (ξ) =] d

dξ

[

N i (ξ) ]

N j (ξ ) •

dx

i.e., B = [− 1 / L 1 / L] (14)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

σ = Eε = EBu (15)

Consider the strain energy stored in the bar

1 1

U= σ T εdV = T

2 2

V V

(16)

1 T

2

V

∫

= u (B EB)dV u

T

where (13) and (15) have been used.

The work done by the two nodal forces is

1 1 1

W= f i ui + f j u j = u T f (17)

2 2 2

For conservative system, we state that

U =W (18)

which gives

1 T

∫

u (B EB)dV u = u T f

T 1

2 2

V

We can conclude that

V

∫

(B EB)dV u = f

T

or

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 30

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

ku = f (19)

where

k=

∫(B

V

T

EB)dV (20)

Expression (20) is a general result which can be used for

the construction of other types of elements. This expression can

also be derived using other more rigorous approaches, such as

the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy, or the Galerkin’s

Method.

Now, we evaluate (20) for the bar element by using (14)

L

− 1 / L EA 1 − 1

k=

∫

0

1 / L

E[− 1 / L 1 / L]Adx =

L

− 1 1

Note that from (16) and (20), the strain energy in the

element can be written as

1

U = u T ku (21)

2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.1

1 2A,E 2 A,E

1 2 P 3 x

L L

loaded with force P, and constrained at the two ends,

as shown in the figure.

Solution: Use two 1-D bar elements.

Element 1,

u1 u2

2 EA 1 − 1

k1 =

L

− 1 1

Element 2,

u2 u3

EA 1 − 1

k2 =

L

− 1 1

Imagine a frictionless pin at node 2, which connects the two

elements. We can assemble the global FE equation as follows,

2 − 2 0 u1 F1

EA

− 2 3 − 1u2 = F2

L

0 − 1 1

u3 F3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 = u 3 = 0, F2 = P

FE equation becomes,

2 − 2 0 0 F1

EA

− 2 3 − 1u2 = P

L

0 − 1 1

0 F3

Deleting the 1st row and column, and the 3rd row and column,

we obtain,

EA

L

[]

3 {u2 }= {P}

Thus,

PL

u2 =

3EA

and

u1 0

PL

u2 = 1

u 3EA 0

3

Stress in element 1 is

u1

σ1 = Eε1 = EB1u1 = E[− 1 / L 1 / L]

u2

u2 − u1 E PL

− 0

P

=E = =

L L 3EA 3 A

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u2

σ2 = Eε2 = EB 2 u 2 = E [

− 1 / L 1 / L ]

u3

u3 − u2 E PL P

=E = 0 − = −

L L 3EA 3A

which indicates that bar 2 is in compression.

Check the results!

Notes:

•In this case, the calculated stresses in elements 1 and 2

are exact within the linear theory for 1-D bar structures.

It will not help if we further divide element 1 or 2 into

smaller finite elements.

•For tapered bars, averaged values of the cross-sectional

areas should be used for the elements.

•We need to find the displacements first in order to find

the stresses, since we are using the displacement based

FEM.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.2

∆

1 A,E 2

1 2 P 3 x

L L

of the bar shown above, given the following,

P = 6.0 ×10 4 N , E = 2.0 ×10 4 N / mm2 ,

A = 250 mm2 , L = 150 mm, ∆=1.2 mm

Solution:

We first check to see if or not the contact of the bar with

the wall on the right will occur. To do this, we imagine the wall

on the right is removed and calculate the displacement at the

right end,

PL (6.0 ×104 )(150)

∆0 = = = 18

. mm > ∆ = 12

. mm

EA (2.0 ×10 )(250)

4

The global FE equation is found to be,

1 − 1 0 u1 F1

EA

− 1 2 − 1u2 = F2

L

0 − 1 1

u3 F3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

F2 = P = 6.0 ×10 4 N

u1 = 0, u3 = ∆ = 12

. mm

FE equation becomes,

1 − 1 0 0 F1

EA

− 1 2 − 1u2 = P

L

0 − 1 1

∆ F3

The 2nd equation gives,

EA u2

[2 − 1] ∆ = {P}

L

that is,

[2]{u2 }= P + ∆

EA EA

L L

Solving this, we obtain

u2 = . mm

1 PL

+ ∆ = 15

2 EA

and

u1 0

u2 = 15

. ( mm)

u 12

3 .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

and 3rd equations in the global FE equation.

The 1st equation gives,

u 1

EA EA

F1 = [1 − 1 0]u 2 = ( − u 2 ) = − 5.0 × 10 4 N

L u L

3

and the 3rd equation gives,

u1

EA

[0 − 1 1]u2 = ( − u2 + u3 )

EA

F3 =

L u L

3

= − 10

. ×10 4 N

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Distributed Load

i j

x

qL/2 qL/2

i j

be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2.

We verify this by considering the work done by the load q,

L 1 1

∫ ∫ ∫

1 1 qL

Wq = uqdx = u(ξ )q ( Ldξ ) = u(ξ )dξ

2 2 2

0 0 0

1

ui

∫[N (ξ ) ]

qL

= i N j (ξ ) dξ

2

0

uj

1

ui

∫[1 − ξ ξ ]dξ

qL

=

2

0

uj

1 qL qL ui

=

2 2 2 u j

qL / 2

=

1

2

ui[ uj

]

qL / 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

that is,

1 T qL / 2

Wq = u fq with f q = (22)

2 qL / 2

Thus, from the U=W concept for the element, we have

1 T 1 1

u ku = u T f + u T f q (23)

2 2 2

which yields

ku = f + f q (24)

f i + qL / 2

f + fq = (25)

f

j + qL / 2

In an assembly of bars,

1 2 3

qL/2 qL qL/2

1 2 3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

2-D Case

x

y j

Y

ui’ θ

i vi

ui

Local Global

x, y X, Y

ui' , vi' ui , vi

of the bar, within the linear theory.

Transformation

u

ui' = ui cos θ + vi sin θ = [l m] i

vi

u

vi' = − ui sin θ + vi cos θ = [− m l ] i

vi

where l = cosθ , m = sin θ .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

In matrix form,

ui' l m ui

' = (26)

vi − m l vi

or,

~

u i' = Tu i

where the transformation matrix

~ l m

T= (27)

− m l

~ ~

is orthogonal, that is, T − 1 = T T .

For the two nodes of the bar element, we have

ui' l m 0 0 ui

'

vi − m l 0 0 v i

' = (28)

uj 0 0 l m u j

v 'j 0 0 − m l v j

or,

~

T 0

u ' = Tu with T = ~ (29)

0 T

The nodal forces are transformed in the same way,

f ' = Tf (30)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

In the local coordinate system, we have

EA 1 − 1 ui f i

' '

' = '

L − 1 1 uj f j

1 0 − 1 0 ui' f i '

EA 0 0 0 0 vi' 0

' =

L − 1 0 1 0 u j f j'

0 0 0 0 v 'j 0

or,

k 'u ' = f '

Using transformations given in (29) and (30), we obtain

k ' Tu = Tf

Multiplying both sides by TT and noticing that TTT = I, we

obtain

T T k ' Tu = f (31)

Thus, the element stiffness matrix k in the global coordinate

system is

k = T T k 'T (32)

which is a 4× 4 symmetric matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Explicit form,

ui vi uj vj

l2 lm − l 2 − lm

EA lm m2 − lm − m2 (33)

k=

L − l 2 − lm l2 lm

− lm − m

2

lm m2

X j − Xi Yj − Yi

l = cosθ = , m = sin θ = (34)

L L

The structure stiffness matrix is assembled by using the element

stiffness matrices in the usual way as in the 1-D case.

Element Stress

ui

ui'

1 l m 0 0 vi

σ = Eε = EB ' = E −

1

uj L L 0 0 l m u j

v j

That is,

ui

v

E i

σ = [− l − m l m] (35)

L uj

v j

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.3

3

A simple plane truss is made

45o

of two identical bars (with E, A, and

L), and loaded as shown in the 2 P2

figure. Find

1) displacement of node 2; Y 2 P1

1

2) stress in each bar.

45o

Solution: X

1

This simple structure is used

here to demonstrate the assembly

and solution process using the bar element in 2-D space.

In local coordinate systems, we have

EA 1 − 1

k 1' = = k '

L − 2

1 1

These two matrices cannot be assembled together, because they

are in different coordinate systems. We need to convert them to

global coordinate system OXY.

Element 1:

2

θ = 45o , l = m =

2

Using formula (32) or (33), we obtain the stiffness matrix in the

global system

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 v1 u2 v2

1 1 − 1 − 1

1 1 − 1 − 1

EA

k 1 = T1T k 1' T1 =

2 L − 1 − 1 1 1

− 1 − 1 1 1

Element 2:

2 2

θ = 135o , l = − , m=

2 2

We have,

u2 v2 u3 v3

1 − 1 − 1 1

1 − 1

EA − 1 1

k 2 = T2 k 2 T2 =

T '

2 L − 1 1 1 − 1

1 − 1 − 1 1

Assemble the structure FE equation,

u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3

1 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 u1 F1 X

1 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 v1 F1Y

EA − 1 − 1 2 0 − 1 1 u2 F2 X

=

2 L − 1 − 1 0 2 1 − 1v2 F2Y

0 0 − 1 1 1 − 1u3 F3 X

0 0 1 − 1 − 1 1 3 3Y

v F

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 = v1 = u3 = v3 = 0, F2 X = P1 , F2Y = P2

Condensed FE equation,

EA 2 0u2 P1

=

2 L 0 2v2 P2

Solving this, we obtain the displacement of node 2,

u2 L P1

=

2

v EA P2

Using formula (35), we calculate the stresses in the two bars,

0

E 2 L 0 2

σ1 = [− 1 − 1 1 1] P = ( P1 + P2 )

L 2 EA 1 2 A

P2

P1

E 2 L P2 2

σ2 = [1 − 1 − 1 1] 0 = ( P1 − P2 )

L 2 EA 2 A

0

Look for the equilibrium conditions, symmetry,

antisymmetry, etc.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

y’

x’

P 3

2 2

1 Y

L

3

1 45o

X

P = 1000 kN, L = 1 m, E = 210 GPa ,

A = 6.0 ×10 − 4 m 2 for elements 1 and 2,

A = 6 2 ×10 − 4 m 2 for element 3.

Determine the displacements and reaction forces.

Solution:

We have an inclined roller at node 3, which needs special

attention in the FE solution. We first assemble the global FE

equation for the truss.

Element 1:

θ = 90 o , l = 0, m = 1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 v1 u2 v2

0 0 0 0

0 − 1

( 210 ×109 )(6.0 ×10 − 4 ) 0 1 ( N / m)

k1 =

1 0 0 0 0

0 − 1 0 1

Element 2:

θ = 0o , l = 1, m = 0

u2 v 2 u3 v 3

1 0 − 1 0

0 0 0

(210 ×10 9 )(6.0 ×10 − 4 ) 0 ( N / m)

k2 =

1 − 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

Element 3:

1 1

θ = 45o , l = , m=

2 2

u1 v1 u3 v3

0.5 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5

0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5

(210 ×10 9 )(6 2 ×10 − 4 ) 0.5

k3 =

2 − 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 0.5

− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 0.5

( N / m)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

0.5 0.5 0 0 − 0.5 − 0.5u1 F1 X

. 0 − 1 − 0.5 − 0.5v1 F1Y

15

5

1 0 − 1 0 u2 F2 X

1260 ×10 v = F

1 0 0 2 2Y

.

15 0.5 u3 F3 X

Sym. 0.5 v3 F3Y

Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u1 = v1 = v2 = 0, and v3' = 0,

F2 X = P , F3 x ' = 0.

2 2 u3 2

v3' = − = ( − u3 + v3 ) = 0,

2 2 v3 2

that is,

u3 − v3 = 0

This is a multipoint constraint (MPC).

Similarly, we have a relation for the force at node 3,

2 2 F3 X 2

F3 x ' = = ( F3 X + F3Y ) = 0,

2 2 3Y

F 2

that is,

F3 X + F3Y = 0

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

‘deleting’1st, 2nd and 4th rows and columns, we have

1 − 1 0 u2 P

1260 ×105 − 1 15

. 0.5u3 = F3 X

0 0.5 0.5

v3 F3Y

Further, from the MPC and the force relation at node 3, the

equation becomes,

1 − 1 0 u2 P

1260 ×105 − 1 15

. 0.5u3 = F3 X

u3 − F3 X

0 0.5 0.5

which is

1 − 1 P

u

1260 ×105 − 1 2 2 = F3 X

u3

1 − F

0 3X

The 3rd equation yields,

F3 X = − 1260 ×105 u3

Substituting this into the 2nd equation and rearranging, we have

1 − 1u2 P

1260 ×105 =

− 1 3 u3 0

Solving this, we obtain the displacements,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u 2 1 3 P 0.01191

= 5 = ( m)

3 2520 ×10

u P 0.003968

From the global FE equation, we can calculate the reaction

forces,

F1 X 0 − 0.5 − 0.5 − 500

F 0 − 0.5 − 0.5 u − 500

2

1Y

F2Y = 1260 ×10 0 0 u3 = 0.0 ( kN )

5

0

F − 1 15 v − 500

3X . 0.5 3

F3Y

0 0.5 0.5

500

∑ Aj u j = 0

j

components. In the FE software, such as MSC/NASTRAN,

users only need to specify this relation to the software. The

software will take care of the solution.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

3-D Case

y

x j

Y

i

z

X

Z

Local Global

x, y, z X, Y, Z

ui' , vi' , wi' ui , vi , wi

coordinate systems and then transformed into the global

coordinate system (X, Y, Z) where they are assembled.

automatically.

Input data for bar elements:

•(X, Y, Z) for each node

•E and A for each element

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

y

vi, Fi vj, Fj

i j

E,I x

θi, Mi θj, Mj

L

L length

I moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area

E elastic modulus

v = v( x ) deflection (lateral displacement) of the

neutral axis

dv

θ= rotation about the z-axis

dx

F = F ( x) shear force

M = M ( x) moment about z-axis

d 2v

EI 2 = M ( x) (36)

dx

My

σ=− (37)

I

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Direct Method

Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute

each column of the stiffness matrix.

vi θi vj θj

12 6 L − 12 6 L vi Fi

EI 6 L 4 L

2

− 6 L 2 L2

θi

M

i (38)

=

L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v j F j

6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ M

j j

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Formal Approach

Apply the formula,

L

k=

∫

0

B T EIBdx (39)

N 1 ( x ) = 1 − 3x 2 / L2 + 2 x 3 / L3

N 2 ( x) = x − 2 x 2 / L + x 3 / L2

(40)

N 3 ( x ) = 3x / L − 2 x / L

2 2 3 3

N 4 ( x) = − x 2 / L + x 3 / L2

Then, we can represent the deflection as,

v( x ) = Nu

vi

θ

i (41)

= [N 1 ( x ) N 2 ( x) N 3 ( x) N 4 ( x )]

v j

θ j

which is a cubic function. Notice that,

N1 + N 3 = 1

N2 + N3 L + N4 = x

which implies that the rigid body motion is represented by the

assumed deformed shape of the beam.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

d 2v d 2

2

= 2 Nu = Bu (42)

dx dx

where the strain-displacement matrix B is given by,

d2

[

B = 2 N = N 1" ( x ) N 2" ( x) N 3" ( x) N 4" ( x )

dx

]

(43)

=

6 12 x 4 6 x 6 12 x 2 6x

− + − + − − + 2

L

2 3 2 2 3

L L L L L L L

Strain energy stored in the beam element is

L T

My 1 My

∫ ∫∫

1 1

U= σ T εdV = − − dAdx

2 2 I E I

V 0 A

L L T

1 d 2 v d 2 v

∫ ∫

1 T 1

= M Mdx = EI 2 dx

2 EI 2 dx 2 dx

0 0

L

∫

1

= (Bu)T EI (Bu)dx

2

0

1 T

L

2

T

∫

= u B EIBdx

u

0

element is

L

k=

∫

0

B T EIBdx

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

arrive at the same stiffness matrix as given in (38).

stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element,

ui vi θi uj vj θj

EA 0 0 −

EA

0 0

L L

12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI

0 0 −

L3 L2 L3 L2

0 6 EI 4 EI 6 EI 2 EI

0 − 2

k= L 2

L L L

EA EA

− L 0 0

L

0 0

12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI

0 − − 0 − 2

L3 L2 L3 L

0 6 EI 2 EI 6 EI 4 EI

0 − 2

L2 L L L

The element stiffness matrix is formed in the local (2-D)

coordinate system first and then transformed into the global (3-

D) coordinate system to be assembled.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.5

Y

P

M

1 2

1 E,I 2 3 X

L L

Given: The beam shown above is clamped at the two ends and

acted upon by the force P and moment M in the mid-

span.

Find: The deflection and rotation at the center node and the

reaction forces and moments at the two ends.

Solution: Element stiffness matrices are,

v1 θ1 v2 θ2

12 6 L − 12 6 L

2

EI 6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L

2

k1 = 3

L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L

6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2

v2 θ2 v3 θ3

12 6 L − 12 6 L

2

EI 6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L

2

k2 = 3

L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L

6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 θ3

12 6 L − 12 6 L 0 0 v1 F1Y

6 L 4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 0 0 θ1 M 1

EI − 12 − 6 L 24 0 − 12 6 L v2 F2Y

2 =

L3

6 L 2 L 2

0 8 L 2

− 6 L 2 L θ

2 M 2

0 0 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v3 F3Y

2

0 0 6 L 2 L 2

− 6 L 4 L θ

3 M 3

Loads and constraints (BC’s) are,

F2Y = − P , M2 = M ,

v1 = v3 = θ1 = θ3 = 0

Reduced FE equation,

EI 24 0 v2 − P

L3 0 8 L2 θ = M

2

Solving this we obtain,

v2 L − PL

2

=

θ

2 24 EI 3 M

From global FE equation, we obtain the reaction forces and

moments,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

F1Y − 12 6 L 2 P + 3 M / L

M 2

1 EI − 6 L 2 L v2 1 PL + M

= 3 =

F

3Y L − 12 − 6 L θ2 4 2 P − 3 M / L

6L 2 L2

M3

− PL + M

Stresses in the beam at the two ends can be calculated using the

formula,

My

σ = σx = −

I

Note that the FE solution is exact according to the simple beam

theory, since no distributed load is present between the nodes.

Recall that,

d 2v

EI 2 = M ( x)

dx

and

dM

= V (V - shear force in the beam)

dx

dV

= q (q - distributed load on the beam)

dx

Thus,

d 4v

EI 4 = q( x )

dx

If q(x)=0, then exact solution for the deflection v is a cubic

function of x, which is what described by our shape functions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

i x L j

qL/2 qL/2

qL2/12

qL2/12

i j

distributed load q.

L L

qL qL/2

qL2/12

L L

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.6

y

p

1 E,I 2 x

L

shown above.

Find: The deflection and rotation at the right end, the

reaction force and moment at the left end.

Solution: The work-equivalent nodal loads are shown below,

y

f

m

1 E,I 2 x

L

where

f = pL / 2, m = pL2 / 12

Applying the FE equation, we have

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

12 6 L − 12 6 L v1 F1Y

− 6 L 2 L2 θ1 M

= 1

2

EI 6 L 4 L

L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v2 F2 Y

6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ M

2 2

Load and constraints (BC’s) are,

F2 Y = − f , M2 = m

v1 = θ1 = 0

Reduced equation is,

EI 12 − 6 L v2 − f

L3 − 6 L 4 L2 θ = m

2

Solving this, we obtain,

v2 L − 2 L f + 3 Lm − pL / 8 EI

2 4

= = (A)

θ

2 6 EI − 3 Lf + 6m − pL3

/ 6 EI

These nodal values are the same as the exact solution.

Note that the deflection v(x) (for 0 < x< 0) in the beam by the

FEM is, however, different from that by the exact solution. The

exact solution by the simple beam theory is a 4th order

polynomial of x, while the FE solution of v is only a 3rd order

polynomial of x.

If the equivalent moment m is ignored, we have,

v2 L − 2 L f − pL / 6 EI

2 4

= = (B)

θ

2 6 EI − 3 Lf − pL3

/ 4 EI

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

The errors in (B) will decrease if more elements are used. The

equivalent moment m is often ignored in the FEM applications.

The FE solutions still converge as more elements are applied.

From the FE equation, we can calculate the reaction force

and moment as,

F1Y L3 − 12 6 L v2 pL / 2

= 2 = 2

1

M EI − 6 L 2 L θ

2 5 pL / 12

where the result in (A) is used. This force vector gives the total

effective nodal forces which include the equivalent nodal forces

for the distributed lateral load p given by,

− pL / 2

− pL / 12

2

F1Y pL / 2 − pL / 2 pL

= 2 − = 2

1

M 5 pL / 12 − pL2

/ 12 pL / 2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.7

Y

P

1 E,I 2

2 X

1 3 k

L L 4

E = 210 GPa, I = 2×10-4 m4.

Find: Deflections, rotations and reaction forces.

Solution:

The beam has a roller (or hinge) support at node 2 and a

spring support at node 3. We use two beam elements and one

spring element to solve this problem.

The spring stiffness matrix is given by,

v3 v4

k − k

ks =

− k k

Adding this stiffness matrix to the global FE equation (see

Example 2.5), we have

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 θ3 v4

12 6 L − 12 6 L 0 0 0 v1 F1Y

4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 0 0 0 θ1 M 1

24 0 − 12 6L 0 v2 F2Y

EI

8 L 2

− 6L 2L 2

0 θ2 = M 2

L

3

12 + k ' − 6 L − k 'v3 F3Y

4 L2 0 θ3 M 3

Symmetry k '

v4

F4Y

in which

L3

k '= k

EI

is used to simply the notation.

We now apply the boundary conditions,

v1 = θ1 = v2 = v4 = 0,

M 2 = M 3 = 0, F3Y = − P

‘Deleting’the first three and seventh equations (rows and

columns), we have the following reduced equation,

8 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 θ2 0

EI

− 6 L 12 + k ' − 6 L v3 = − P

L3 2 2

2 L − 6 L 4 L

θ3 0

Solving this equation, we obtain the deflection and rotations at

node 2 and node 3,

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

θ2 3

PL 2

v3 = − 7 L

θ EI (12 + 7 k ')

3 9

The influence of the spring k is easily seen from this result.

Plugging in the given numbers, we can calculate

θ2 − 0.002492 rad

v =

3 − 0.01744 m

θ − 0.007475 rad

3

From the global FE equation, we obtain the nodal reaction

forces as,

F1Y − 69.78 kN

M − 69.78 kN ⋅m

1

=

F2Y 116.2 kN

F4Y

3.488 kN

Checking the results: Draw free body diagram of the beam

69.78 kN 50 kN

1 2 3

69.78 kN⋅m

116.2 kN 3.488 kN

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

six components:

σx , σ y , σz , τ xy , τ yz , τ zx for stresses,

and

ε x , ε y , εz , γxy , γyz , γzx for strains.

σy

τ xy

τ yz

σx

τzx

y

σz

x

z

can be simplified. A general 3-D structure analysis can,

therefore, be reduced to a 2-D analysis.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

•Plane stress:

σz = τ yz = τ zx = 0 (εz ≠ 0) (1)

loading within the plane of the structure (xy-plane).

y y

p

x z

•Plane strain:

εz = γyz = γzx = 0 (σz ≠ 0) (2)

transverse loading along its length (z-direction).

y y

p

x z

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

For elastic and isotropic materials, we have,

εx 1 / E − ν/E 0 σx εx 0

ε y = − ν / E 1/ E 0 σ y + εy0 (3)

γ 0 γ

xy 0 τ xy

1 / G xy 0

or,

ε = E − 1σ + ε0

where ε0 is the initial strain, E the Young’s modulus, ν the

Poisson’s ratio and G the shear modulus. Note that,

E

G= (4)

2(1 + ν)

which means that there are only two independent materials

constants for homogeneous and isotropic materials.

We can also express stresses in terms of strains by solving

the above equation,

σ x 1 ν 0 εx ε x 0

σ =

E ν 1 ε −

ε

y

0

y y 0 (5)

τ 1 − ν

2

γ

xy 0 0 (1 − ν) / 2

γxy xy 0

or,

σ = Eε + σ0

where σ0 = − Eε0 is the initial stress.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

The above relations are valid for plane stress case. For

plane strain case, we need to replace the material constants in

the above equations in the following fashion,

E

E→

1 − ν2

ν

ν→ (6)

1− ν

G→ G

For example, the stress is related to strain by

σ x 1 − ν ν 0 ε x ε x 0

E

σ y =

ν 1− ν 0 ε −

y ε y 0

τ (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) γ

xy

0 0 (1 − 2ν) / 2

γxy xy 0

in the plane strain case.

is given by,

ε x 0 α∆T

ε

y0 = α ∆T (7)

γ 0

xy 0

where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion, ∆T the change

of temperature. Note that if the structure is free to deform under

thermal loading, there will be no (elastic) stresses in the

structure.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

For small strains and small rotations, we have,

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

εx = , ε y = , γxy = +

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

In matrix form,

ε x ∂ / ∂x 0

u

εy = 0 ∂ / ∂y , or ε = Du

(8)

γ ∂ / ∂y ∂ / ∂x v

xy

From this relation, we know that the strains (and thus

stresses) are one order lower than the displacements, if the

displacements are represented by polynomials.

Equilibrium Equations

In elasticity theory, the stresses in the structure must satisfy

the following equilibrium equations,

∂σ x ∂τ xy

+ + fx = 0

∂x ∂y

(9)

∂τ xy ∂σ y

+ + fy = 0

∂x ∂y

where fx and fy are body forces (such as gravity forces) per unit

volume. In FEM, these equilibrium conditions are satisfied in

an approximate sense.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Boundary Conditions

ty

p

y tx

St

Su

x

Su and St. The boundary conditions (BC’s) are described as,

u = u, v = v, on S u

(10)

tx = tx , ty = ty , on S t

and the barred quantities are those with known values.

In FEM, all types of loads (distributed surface loads, body

forces, concentrated forces and moments, etc.) are converted to

point forces acting at the nodes.

The exact solution (displacements, strains and stresses) of a

given problem must satisfy the equilibrium equations (9), the

given boundary conditions (10) and compatibility conditions

(structures should deform in a continuous manner, no cracks and

overlaps in the obtained displacement fields).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Example 3.1

A plate is supported and loaded with distributed force p as

shown in the figure. The material constants are E and ν.

easily as follows,

Displacement:

p p

u= x, v=−ν y

E E

Strain:

p p

εx = , εy = − ν , γxy = 0

E E

Stress:

σ x = p, σ y = 0, τ xy = 0

numbered (suppose there is a hole in the plate!). That is why we

need FEM!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Displacements (u, v) in a plane element are interpolated

from nodal displacements (ui, vi) using shape functions Ni as

follows,

u1

v

u N 1 L

1

0 N2 0

= u 2 or u = Nd (11)

v 0 N1 0 N2 L

v

2

M

where N is the shape function matrix, u the displacement vector

and d the nodal displacement vector. Here we have assumed

that u depends on the nodal values of u only, and v on nodal

values of v only.

From strain-displacement relation (Eq.(8)), the strain vector

is,

ε = Du = DNd, or ε = Bd (12)

where B = DN is the strain-displacement matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1 1

U= σ T ε dV = x x y y

2 2

V V

∫(Eε) ε dV ∫

1 1 T

= = ε Eε dV

T

2 2

V V

∫

1

= d T B T EB dV d

2

V

1

= d T kd

2

From this, we obtain the general formula for the element

stiffness matrix,

k=

∫

V

B T EB dV (13)

Note that unlike the 1-D cases, E here is a matrix which is given

by the stress-strain relation (e.g., Eq.(5) for plane stress).

The stiffness matrix k defined by (13) is symmetric since E

is symmetric. Also note that given the material property, the

behavior of k depends on the B matrix only, which in turn on

the shape functions. Thus, the quality of finite elements in

representing the behavior of a structure is entirely determined by

the choice of shape functions.

Most commonly employed 2-D elements are linear or

quadratic triangles and quadrilaterals.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

This is the simplest 2-D element, which is also called

linear triangular element.

v3

3

(x3, y3) u3

y

v

v2

v1 u 2

(x, y) u2

1 (x2, y2)

u1

(x1, y1)

x

Linear Triangular Element

triangle, which are numbered around the element in the

counterclockwise direction. Each node has two degrees of

freedom (can move in the x and y directions). The

displacements u and v are assumed to be linear functions within

the element, that is,

u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y , v = b4 + b5 x + b6 y (14)

where bi (i = 1, 2, ..., 6) are constants. From these, the strains

are found to be,

εx = b2 , ε y = b6 , γxy = b3 + b5 (15)

name “constant strain triangle” (CST).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

six equations,

u1 = b1 + b2 x1 + b3 y1

u2 = b1 + b2 x2 + b3 y 2

M

v3 = b4 + b5 x3 + b6 y3

Solving these equations, we can find the coefficients b1, b2, ...,

and b6 in terms of nodal displacements and coordinates.

Substituting these coefficients into (14) and rearranging the

terms, we obtain,

u1

v

1

u N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 u2

= (16)

v 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3

v2

u3

v3

where the shape functions (linear functions in x and y) are

1

N1 = {( x2 y3 − x3 y 2 ) + ( y2 − y3 ) x + ( x3 − x 2 ) y}

2A

1

N2 = {( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + ( y3 − y1 ) x + ( x1 − x3 ) y} (17)

2A

1

N3 = {( x1 y2 − x 2 y1 ) + ( y1 − y2 ) x + ( x2 − x1 ) y}

2A

and

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1 x1 y1

A = det 1 x 2 y2

1

(18)

2

1 x3 y3

is the area of the triangle (Prove this!).

Using the strain-displacement relation (8), results (16) and

(17), we have,

u1

v

εx y 23 0 y31 0 y12 0 1

1 u

ε

y = Bd = 0 x32 0 x13 0 x 21 2 (19)

2A v2

γ y12

xy x32 y23 x13 y31 x21

u3

v3

where xij = xi - xj and yij = yi - yj (i, j = 1, 2, 3). Again, we see

constant strains within the element. From stress-strain relation

(Eq.(5), for example), we see that stresses obtained using the

CST element are also constant.

Applying formula (13), we obtain the element stiffness

matrix for the CST element,

k=

∫

V

B T EB dV = tA( B T EB ) (20)

is a 6 by 6 symmetric matrix. The matrix multiplication in (20)

can be carried out by a computer program.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

their derivations are lengthy and offer little insight into the

behavior of the element.

η=0

ξ=0 η=b

3

ξ=a η=1

ξ=1 (a, b)

2

1

triangle, then the shape functions can be represented simply by,

N1 = ξ, N 2 = η, N 3 = 1 − ξ − η (21)

Notice that,

N1 + N 2 + N 3 = 1 (22)

which ensures that the rigid body translation is represented by

the chosen shape functions. Also, as in the 1-D case,

1, at node i;

Ni = (23)

0, at the other nodes

and varies linearly within the element. The plot for shape

function N1 is shown in the following figure. N2 and N3 have

similar features.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

ξ=0

3

N1

ξ=1

1

2

1

coordinates (x, y) and the natural coordinates (ξ, η ) . The

relation between the two is given by

x = N1x1 + N 2 x2 + N 3 x3

(24)

y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3

or,

x = x13ξ + x 23η + x3

(25)

y = y13ξ + y23η + y3

where xij = xi - xj and yij = yi - yj (i, j = 1, 2, 3) as defined earlier.

Displacement u or v on the element can be viewed as

functions of (x, y) or (ξ, η ) . Using the chain rule for derivatives,

we have,

∂ξ

∂ξ ∂ξ ∂x

∂x

∂u = ∂x ∂y ∂u = J ∂u (26)

∂η

∂η ∂η

∂ y

∂ y

where J is called the Jacobian matrix of the transformation.

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 88

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

x y13 1 y 23 − y13

J = 13 , J− 1 = (27)

x23 y 23 2A

− x 23 x13

where det J = x13 y23 − x 23 y13 = 2 A has been used (A is the area of

the triangular element. Prove this!).

From (26), (27), (16) and (21) we have,

∂u ∂u

∂x 1 y23 − y13

∂ξ

∂u = − x

2 A 23 x13 ∂

u

(28)

∂ y

∂η

1 y23 − y13 u1 − u3

=

2A

− x23 x13 u2 − u3

Similarly,

∂v

∂x

1 y 23 − y13 v1 − v3

∂v = − x (29)

2 A 23 x13 v 2 − v3

∂ y

Using the results in (28) and (29), and the relations

ε = Du = DNd = Bd , we obtain the strain-displacement matrix,

y 23 0 y31 0 y12 0

1

B= 0 x32 0 x13 0 x 21 (30)

2A

x32 y23 x13 y31 x 21 y12

which is the same as we derived earlier in (19).

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 89

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

•Use in areas where the strain gradient is small.

•Use in mesh transition areas (fine mesh to coarse mesh).

•Avoid using CST in stress concentration or other crucial

areas in the structure, such as edges of holes and corners.

•Recommended for quick and preliminary FE analysis of

2-D problems.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

This element is also called quadratic triangular element.

v3

u3

3

v6 v5

y

u6 6 5 u5

v2

v1

u4 2 u2

1 4

u1 v4

x

There are six nodes on this element: three corner nodes and

three midside nodes. Each node has two degrees of freedom

(DOF) as before. The displacements (u, v) are assumed to be

quadratic functions of (x, y),

u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 xy + b6 y 2

(31)

v = b7 + b8 x + b9 y + b10 x + b11 xy + b12 y 2 2

are found to be,

εx = b2 + 2b4 x + b5 y

ε y = b9 + b11 x + 2b12 y (32)

γxy = ( b3 + b8 ) + ( b5 + 2b10 ) x + ( 2b6 + b11 ) y

triangle” (LST), which provides better results than the CST.

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 91

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

shape functions for the LST element are,

N 1 = ξ( 2ξ − 1)

N 2 = η( 2η − 1)

N 3 = ζ ( 2ζ − 1)

(33)

N 4 = 4ξη

N 5 = 4ηζ

N 6 = 4ζ ξ

in which ζ = 1 − ξ − η . Each of these six shape functions

represents a quadratic form on the element as shown in the

figure.

ξ=0

3

ξ=1/2

6 5

ξ=1 N1

1

4 2

1

6 6

u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (34)

i =1 i =1

k = ∫B T EB dV , but here BTEB is quadratic in x and y. In

V

general, the integral has to be computed numerically.

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 92

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

η v3

v4 u3

η =1 u4

3 ξ

4

v2

v1 2 u2

1

y u1

η=−1

ξ=− 1 ξ =1

x

shape. In the natural coordinate system (ξ, η ) , the four shape

functions are,

1 1

N 1 = (1 − ξ )(1 − η ), N 2 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η )

4 4 (35)

1 1

N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η ), N 4 = (1 − ξ )(1 + η )

4 4

4

Note that ∑ N i = 1 at any point inside the element, as expected.

i=1

4 4

u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (36)

i =1 i =1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

This is the most widely used element for 2-D problems due

to its high accuracy in analysis and flexibility in modeling.

η

η =1 7

3 ξ

4

6

8

5 2

1

y

η=−1

ξ=− 1 ξ =1

x

There are eight nodes for this element, four corners nodes

and four midside nodes. In the natural coordinate system (ξ, η ) ,

the eight shape functions are,

1

N 1 = (1 − ξ )(η − 1)(ξ + η + 1)

4

1

N 2 = (1 + ξ )(η − 1)(η − ξ + 1)

4 (37)

1

N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η )(ξ + η − 1)

4

1

N 4 = (ξ − 1)(η + 1)(ξ − η + 1)

4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1

N 5 = (1 − η )(1 − ξ 2 )

2

1

N 6 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η 2 )

2

1

N 7 = (1 + η )(1 − ξ 2 )

2

1

N 8 = (1 − ξ )(1 − η 2 )

2

8

Again, we have ∑ N i = 1 at any point inside the element.

i=1

8 8

u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (38)

i =1 i =1

stresses over a quadratic quadrilateral element are linear

functions, which are better representations.

Notes:

•Q4 and T3 are usually used together in a mesh with

linear elements.

•Q8 and T6 are usually applied in a mesh composed of

quadratic elements.

•Quadratic elements are preferred for stress analysis,

because of their high accuracy and the flexibility in

modeling complex geometry, such as curved boundaries.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Example 3.2

A square plate with a hole at the center and under pressure

in one direction.

y

A

x

B

0.1 in. and radius of the hole is 1 in. Assume E = 10x106 psi, v

= 0.3 and p = 100 psi. Find the maximum stress in the plate.

FE Analysis:

From the knowledge of stress concentrations, we should

expect the maximum stresses occur at points A and B on the

edge of the hole. Value of this stress should be around 3p (=

300 psi) which is the exact solution for an infinitely large plate

with a hole.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

(meshing) and analysis, using quadratic triangular (T6 or LST),

linear quadrilateral (Q4) and quadratic quadrilateral (Q8)

elements. Linear triangles (CST or T3) is NOT available in

ANSYS.

The stress calculations are listed in the following table,

along with the number of elements and DOF used, for

comparison.

Table. FEA Stress Results

Elem. Type No. Elem. DOF Max. σ (psi)

T6 966 4056 310.1

Q4 493 1082 286.0

Q8 493 3150 327.1

... ... ... ...

Q8 2727 16,826 322.3

Discussions:

•Check the deformed shape of the plate

•Check convergence (use a finer mesh, if possible)

•Less elements (~ 100) should be enough to achieve the

same accuracy with a better or “smarter” mesh

•We’ll redo this example in next chapter employing the

symmetry conditions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Transformation of Loads

Concentrated load (point forces), surface traction (pressure

loads) and body force (weight) are the main types of loads

applied to a structure. Both traction and body forces need to be

converted to nodal forces in the FEA, since they cannot be

applied to the FE model directly. The conversions of these

loads are based on the same idea (the equivalent-work concept)

which we have used for the cases of bar and beam elements.

qB

q fB

qA

fA

s

B B

A L A

Traction on a Q4 element

on a Q4 element edge, as shown in the figure. The traction is

normal to the boundary. Using the local (tangential) coordinate

s, we can write the work done by the traction q as,

L

Wq = t ∫un ( s )q( s )ds

0

of displacement normal to the edge AB.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

un ( s ) = (1 − s / L )unA + ( s / L )unB

The traction q(s), which is also linear, is given in a similar way,

q( s ) = (1 − s / L )q A + ( s / L )qB

Thus, we have,

L

1 − s / L q A

Wq = t ∫[unA unB ] [1 − s / L s / L] ds

0 s / L q B

L

(1 − s / L ) 2 ( s / L )(1 − s / L ) q A

= [unA unB ]t ∫ ds q

0 ( s / L )(1 − s / L ) B

2

(s / L)

tL 2 1q A

= [unA unB ]

6 1 2

q B

and the equivalent nodal force vector is,

f A tL 2 1q A

=

f B 6 1 2q B

Note, for constant q, we have,

f A qtL 1

=

f B 2 1

For quadratic elements (either triangular or quadrilateral),

the traction is converted to forces at three nodes along the edge,

instead of two nodes.

Traction tangent to the boundary, as well as body forces,

are converted to nodal forces in a similar way.

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 100

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Stress Calculation

The stress in an element is determined by the following

relation,

σx εx

σ

y = E ε y = EBd (39)

τ γ

xy xy

where B is the strain-nodal displacement matrix and d is the

nodal displacement vector which is known for each element

once the global FE equation has been solved.

Stresses can be evaluated at any point inside the element

(such as the center) or at the nodes. Contour plots are usually

used in FEA software packages (during post-process) for users

to visually inspect the stress results.

The von Mises stress is the effective or equivalent stress for

2-D and 3-D stress analysis. For a ductile material, the stress

level is considered to be safe, if

σe ≤σY

where σe is the von Mises stress and σY the yield stress of the

material. This is a generalization of the 1-D (experimental)

result to 2-D and 3-D situations.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1

σe = (σ1 − σ2 ) 2 + (σ2 − σ3 ) 2 + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 (40)

2

in which σ1 , σ2 and σ3 are the three principle stresses at the

considered point in a structure.

For 2-D problems, the two principle stresses in the plane

are determined by

σx + σ y σx − σ y

2

σ1 = + + τ xy

P

2

2 2

(41)

σx + σ y σx − σ y

2

σ2 = − + τ xy

P

2

2 2

the stress components in the xy coordinate system. For plane

stress conditions, we have,

Averaged Stresses:

Stresses are usually averaged at nodes in FEA software

packages to provide more accurate stress values. This option

should be turned off at nodes between two materials or other

geometry discontinuity locations where stress discontinuity does

exist.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Discussions

T3 and Q4: linear displacement, constant strain and stress;

T6 and Q8: quadratic displacement, linear strain and stress.

When in doubt, use higher order elements or a finer mesh.

Aspect ratio = Lmax / Lmin

where Lmax and Lmin are the largest and smallest characteristic

lengths of an element, respectively.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Don’t leave unintended gaps or free elements in FE models.

A C

B D

Improper connections (gaps along AB and CD)

Readings:

Sections 3.1-3.5 and 3.8-3.12 of Cook’s book.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

Solution Techniques

I. Symmetry

arranged in a periodic or reflective manner.

Types of Symmetry:

•Reflective (mirror, bilateral) symmetry

•Rotational (cyclic) symmetry

•Axisymmetry

•Translational symmetry

•...

Examples:

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•Reducing the size of the problems (save CPU time, disk

space, postprocessing effort, etc.)

•Simplifying the modeling task

•Checking the FEA results

•...

retained in the FE model to ensure the efficiency and quality of

FE solutions.

Examples:

Cautions:

In vibration and buckling analyses, symmetry concepts, in

general, should not be used in FE solutions (works fine in

modeling), since symmetric structures often have antisymmetric

vibration or buckling modes.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

a collection of (natural) components. The FE models for these

components are called substructures or superelements (SE).

Physical Meaning:

A finite element model of a portion of structure.

Mathematical Meaning:

Boundary matrices which are load and stiffness matrices

reduced (condensed) from the interior points to the exterior or

boundary points.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•Large problems (which will otherwise exceed your

computer capabilities)

•Less CPU time per run once the superelements have

been processed (i.e., matrices have been saved)

•Components may be modeled by different groups

•Partial redesign requires only partial reanalysis (reduced

cost)

•Efficient for problems with local nonlinearities (such as

confined plastic deformations) which can be placed in

one superelement (residual structure)

•Exact for static stress analysis

Disadvantages:

•Increased overhead for file management

•Matrix condensation for dynamic problems introduce

new approximations

•...

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•Solution time proportional to NB2 (N is the dimension of

the matrix, B the bandwidth)

•Suitable for small to medium problems, or slender

structures (small bandwidth)

•Easy to handle multiple load cases

Iterative Methods:

•Solution time is unknown beforehand

•Reduced storage requirement

•Suitable for large problems, or bulky structures (large

bandwidth, converge faster)

•Need solving again for different load cases

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

8 − 2 0 x1 2

− 2 4 − 3x = − 1 or Ax = b .

2

0 − 3 3

x 3 3

Forward Elimination:

(1) 8 − 2 0 2

Form (2) − 2 4 − 3 − 1;

0 − 3 3

(3) 3

(1) + 4 x (2) ⇒ (2):

(1) 8 − 2 0 2

(2) 0 14 − 12 − 2;

0 − 3

(3) 3 3

14

(2) + (3) ⇒ (3):

3

(1) 8 − 2 0 2

(2) 0 14 − 12 − 2;

(3)

0 0 2

12

Back Substitution:

x 3 = 12 / 2 = 6 1.5

x 2 = ( − 2 + 12 x 3 ) / 14 = 5 or x = 5 .

x1 = (2 + 2 x 2 ) / 8 = 1.5 6

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

The Gauss-Seidel Method

Ax = b (A is symmetric)

N

or ∑ aij x j = bi , i = 1, 2, ..., N .

j =1

1 i− 1 N

∑ a ij x j ∑ a ij x j

( k + 1) ( k + 1)

= bi − −

(k )

xi ,

a ii j =1 j=i+ 1

for i = 1, 2, ..., N .

In vector form,

−1

[

x ( k + 1) = A D b − A L x ( k + 1) − A L x ( k ) ,

T

]

where

A D = 〈a ii 〉 is the diagonal matrix of A,

such that A = A D + A L + A L .

T

x ( k + 1) − x ( k )

≤ε ,

x(k )

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•FE Model – A mathematical model of the real structure,

based on many approximations.

•Real Structure -- Infinite number of nodes (physical

points or particles), thus infinite number of DOF’s.

•FE Model – finite number of nodes, thus finite number

of DOF’s.

values at a limited number of nodes.

4

u = ∑ N α uα

α =1

Stiffening Effect:

•FE Model is stiffer than the real structure.

•In general, displacement results are smaller in

magnitudes than the exact values.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

bound of the exact solution.

∆ (Displacement)

Exact Solution

FEM Solutions

No. of DOF’s

below.

This is true for displacement based FEA only!

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

V. Numerical Error

Types of Error:

•Modeling Error (beam, plate … theories)

•Discretization Error (finite, piecewise … )

•Numerical Error ( in solving FE equations)

u1 u2

P

1 k1 2 k2 x

FE Equations:

k1 − k1 u1 P

− k =

1 k1 + k 2

u 2 0

and Det K = k1 k 2 .

The system will be singular if k2 is small compared with k1.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

P

u2 = u1 −

u2

k1

k1

u2 = u1

k1 + k 2

ð System ill-conditioned.

P/k1 u1

P

u2 = u1 −

u2 k1

k1

u2 = u1

k1 + k 2

k2 >> k1 (two line apart):

ð System well conditioned.

P/k1 u1

model may cause ill-conditioning in FE equations.

Hence giving results with large errors.

•Ill-conditioned system of equations can lead to large

changes in solution with small changes in input

(right hand side vector).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

As the mesh in an FE model is “refined” repeatedly, the FE

solution will converge to the exact solution of the mathematical

model of the problem (the model based on bar, beam, plane

stress/strain, plate, shell, or 3-D elasticity theories or

assumptions).

Types of Refinement:

h-refinement: reduce the size of the element (“h” refers to the

typical size of the elements);

p-refinement: Increase the order of the polynomials on an

element (linear to quadratic, etc.; “h” refers to

the highest order in a polynomial);

r-refinement: re-arrange the nodes in the mesh;

hp-refinement: Combination of the h- and p-refinements

(better results!).

Examples:

…

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•Future of FE applications

•Automatic refinement of FE meshes until converged

results are obtained

•User’s responsibility reduced: only need to generate a

good initial mesh

Error Indicators:

Define,

σ --- element by element stress field (discontinuous),

σ*--- averaged or smooth stress (continuous),

σE = σ - σ* --- the error stress field.

M

1 T −1

U = ∑ Ui , Ui = ∫2 s E s dV ;

i =1 V i

M

1 *T − 1 *

U = ∑ U i* ,

*

U* =

i ∫2 s E s dV ;

i =1 V i

M

1 T −1

U E = ∑ U Ei , U Ei = ∫2 s E E s E dV ;

i =1 V i

element i.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

1/ 2

U

η= E . (0 ≤η ≤1)

U + U E

of the FE model continues until, say

η ≤ 0.05.

=> converged FE solution.

Examples:

…

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

I. Plate Theory

• Flat plate

• Lateral loading

• Bending behavior dominates

1-D straight beam model ó 2-D flat plate model

Applications:

• Shear walls

• Floor panels

• Shelves

• …

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

∆y

y

∆x My

q(x,y)

Qy Mxy

t Mx

Qx

x Mid surface

Mxy

Stresses:

τyz y

σy

τxy

τxz τxy

σx

x

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Bending moments (per unit length):

t/2

M x = ∫− t / 2 σ x zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (1)

t/2

M y = ∫− t / 2 σ y zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (2)

t/2

M xy = ∫− t / 2 τ xy zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (3)

t/2

Q x = ∫− t / 2 τ xz dz , ( N / m) (4)

t/2

Q y = ∫− t / 2 τ yz dz , ( N / m) (5)

6M 6M y

(σ x ) max =± 2x, (σ y ) max = ± . (6)

t t2

• Maximum stress is always at z = ± t / 2

• No bending stresses at midsurface (similar to the beam

model)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

A straight line along the normal to the mid surface remains

straight and normal to the deflected mid surface after loading,

that is, these is no transverse shear deformation:

γ xz = γ yz = 0 .

Displacement:

∂w

z

∂x

w

x

w = w( x, y ), ( deflection)

∂w

u = −z , (7)

∂x

∂w

v = −z .

∂y

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Strains:

∂ 2w

ε x = −z 2 ,

∂x

∂ 2w

ε y = −z 2 , (8)

∂y

∂ 2w

γ xy = −2 z .

∂x ∂y

Note that there is no stretch of the mid surface due to the

deflection (bending) of the plate.

σ x 1 ν 0 ε x

E ν 1 ε ,

σ

y =

y

0

τ 1 − ν

2

xy 0 0 (1 − ν ) / 2 γ xy

or,

∂2w

2

σ x 1 ν 0 ∂x2

σ = −

E

ν ∂ w .

y z 2

1 0

∂y 2

(9)

τ 1 − ν

xy 0 0 (1 − ν ) ∂ 2 w

∂x∂y

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Governing Equation:

D∇ 4 w = q ( x , y ) , (10)

where

∂4 ∂4 ∂4

∇ ≡ ( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 ),

4

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

Et 3

D= (the bending rigidity of the plate),

12(1 − ν )

2

d 4w

EI 4

= q( x ) .

dx

in the z-direction. To see this, refer to the previous figure

showing all the forces on a plate element. Summing the forces

in the z-direction, we have,

Q x ∆y + Q y ∆x + q∆x∆y = 0,

which yields,

∂Q x ∂Q y

+ + q( x, y ) = 0 .

∂x ∂y

Substituting the following relations into the above equation, we

obtain Eq. (10).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

∂M x ∂M xy ∂M xy ∂M y

Qx = + , Qy = + ,

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

M x = D 2 + ν 2 , M y = D 2 + ν 2 .

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

and in terms of the deflection w(x,y), needs to be solved under

certain given boundary conditions.

Boundary Conditions:

∂w

Clamped: w = 0, = 0; (11)

∂n

Simply supported: w = 0, M n = 0; (12)

Free: Q n = 0, M n = 0; (13)

where n is the normal direction of the boundary. Note that the

given values in the boundary conditions shown above can be

non-zero values as well.

s n

boundary

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Examples:

A square plate with four edges clamped or hinged, and

under a uniform load q or a concentrated force P at the center C.

y

C L

L

x Given: E, t, and ν = 0.3

(11) or (12) can be solved analytically. The maximum

deflections are given in the following table for the different

cases.

Clamped Simply supported

in which: D= Et3/(12(1-v2)).

These values can be used to verify the FEA solutions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

If the thickness t of a plate is not “thin”, e.g., t / L ≥ 1 / 10

(L = a characteristic dimension of the plate), then the thick plate

theory by Mindlin should be applied. This theory accounts for

the angle changes within a cross section, that is,

γ xz ≠ 0, γ yz ≠ 0 .

This means that a line which is normal to the mid surface before

the deformation will not be so after the deformation.

∂w

z θy ≠ −

∂x

w

∂w x

∂x

θ x and θ y : rotation angles of a line, which is normal to the

mid surface before the deformation, about x- and y-axis,

respectively.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

New relations:

u = zθ y , v = − zθ x ; (14)

∂θ y

εx = z ,

∂x

∂θ

ε y = −z x ,

∂y

∂θ ∂θ

γ xy = z ( y − x ), (15)

∂y ∂x

∂w

γ xz = +θ y ,

∂x

∂w

γ yz = −θ x.

∂y

Note that if we imposed the conditions (or assumptions)

that

∂w ∂w

γ xz = + θ y = 0, γ yz = − θ x = 0,

∂x ∂y

then we can recover the relations applied in the thin plate

theory.

Main variables: w( x, y ),θ x ( x, y ) and θ y ( x, y ) .

established for thick plate based on the above assumptions.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Kirchhoff Plate Elements:

z y

Mid surface 4

3

x

1 2

∂w ∂w t

w1 , , ∂w ∂w

w2 , ,

∂x 1 ∂y 1 ∂x 2 ∂y 2

∂w ∂w

DOF at each node: w, , .

∂y ∂y

On each element, the deflection w(x,y) is represented by

4

∂w ∂w

w( x, y ) = ∑ N i wi + N xi ( ) i + N yi ( ) i ,

i =1 ∂x ∂y

where Ni, Nxi and Nyi are shape functions. This is an

incompatible element! The stiffness matrix is still of the form

k = ∫ B T EBdV ,

V

strain matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

z y z y

4 4 7 3

3

8 6

x x

1 2 1 2

t t 5

On each element:

n

w( x, y ) = ∑ N i wi ,

i =1

n

θ x ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ xi ,

i =1

n

θ y ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ yi .

i =1

• Deflection w(x,y) is linear for Q4, and quadratic for Q8.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Triangular plate element (not available in ANSYS).

Start with a 6-node triangular element,

z y 3

4 6

1 2

t 5 x

∂w ∂w

DOF at corner nodes: w, , ,θ x ,θ y ;

∂x ∂y

DOF at mid side nodes: θ x ,θ y .

Then, impose conditions γ xz = γ yz = 0 , etc., at selected

nodes to reduce the DOF (using relations in (15)). Obtain:

z y 3

1 2

x

∂w ∂w

At each node: w,θ x = ,θ y = .

∂x ∂y

Total DOF = 9 (DKT Element).

• Incompatible w(x,y); convergence is faster (w is cubic

along each edge) and it is efficient.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Test Problem:

P

y

C

L

L

x L/t = 10, ν = 0.3

Mesh wc (× PL2/D)

2×2 0.00593

4×4 0.00598

8×8 0.00574

16×16 0.00565

: :

Exact Solution 0.00560

we learnt about the nature of the FEA solution?

Reason: This is an incompatible element ( See comments

on p. 177).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Example:

• Sea shell, egg shell (the wonder of the nature);

• Containers, pipes, tanks;

• Car bodies;

• Roofs, buildings (the Superdome), etc.

Forces in shells:

Membrane forces + Bending Moments

(cf. plates: bending only)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

p p

internal forces:

p

p

membrane stresses

dominate

Shell Theory:

• Thin shell theory

• Thick shell theory

Shell theories are the most complicated ones to formulate

and analyze in mechanics (Russian’s contributions).

• Engineering ≠ Craftsmanship

• Demand strong analytical skill

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Shell Elements:

w

v

u θx

θy

Q4 or Q8 shell element.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

θz

i w

v

i u θx

θy

• Most general shell elements (flat shell and plate

elements are subsets);

• Complicated in formulation.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Test Cases:

L/2

q L/2

F

A

R A

80o R

F

Roof Pinched Cylinder

F2

F R F

b

A

A F L

F1

F

values of the displacement ∆A under the various loading

conditions.

Difficulties in Application:

• Non uniform thickness (turbo blades, vessels with

stiffeners, thin layered structures, etc.);

ð Should turn to 3-D theory and apply solid elements.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Stress State:

y

F

x

z

y,v

σy

τ yx

τ yz τ xy

τ zy

σx

τ zx τ xz

σz x, u

z, w

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

σx

σ

y

σz

ó = {σ }= , or [σ ] (1)

τ xy

ij

τ yz

τ zx

Strains:

εx

εy

ε

å = {ε }= z

γ xy , or [ε ]

ij (2)

γ

yz

γ zx

Stress-strain relation:

1 − v v v 0 0 0

σx v 1− v v 0 0 0 εx

σ

y v v 1− v 0 0 0 ε y

0 1 − 2v

σz

=

E

0 0 0 0 ε z

τ xy + − γ xy

(1 v )(1 2 v ) 2

1 − 2v

τ yz 0 0 0 0 0 γ yz

2

τ zx 0 1 − 2v γ zx

0 0 0 0

2

or ó = Eå (3)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Displacement:

u( x, y , z ) u1

u = v ( x, y , z ) = u2 ( 4)

w( x, y , z ) u

3

Strain-Displacement Relation:

∂u ∂v ∂w

εx = , εy = , εz = ,

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂v ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂w

γ xy = + , γ yz = + , γ xz = + (5)

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x

or

1 ∂ui ∂u j

ε ij = + , (i, j = 1, 2, 3)

2 ∂x j ∂xi

or simply,

ε ij =

1

2

(ui , j + u j ,i ) ( tensor notation)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Equilibrium Equations:

∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz

+ + + fx = 0 ,

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂τ yx ∂σ y ∂τ yz

+ + + fy = 0 , ( 6)

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂τ zx ∂τ zy ∂σ z

+ + + fz = 0 ,

∂x ∂y ∂z

or

σ ij , j + f i = 0

ui = ui , on Γu ( specified displacement )

ti = ti , on Γσ ( specified traction ) ( 7)

( traction ti = σ ij n j )

p

n

Γσ

Γ ( = Γu + Γσ )

Γu

Stress Analysis:

Solving equations in (6) under the BC’s in (7).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Displacement Field:

N

u= ∑ N i ui

i =1

N

v= ∑ N i vi (8)

i =1

N

w= ∑ N i wi

i =1

Nodal values

In matrix form:

u1

v1

u N1 0 0 N2 0 0 L w1

v = 0 N1 0 0 N2 0 L u2 (9)

( 3×1) L

w

0 0 N1 0 0 N2 ( 3×3 N ) v2

w2

M ( 3N ×1)

or u=Nd

Using relations (5) and (8), we can derive the strain vector

ε =B d

(6×1) (6×3N)×(3N×1)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Stiffness Matrix:

k = ∫ B T E B dv (10)

v

(3×N) (3N×6)×(6×6)×(6×3N)

above integration.

3 translations, 3 rotations.

These rigid-body motions (singularity of the system of

equations) must be removed from the FEA model to ensure the

quality of the analysis.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Tetrahedron:

Hexahedron (brick):

Penta:

stress analysis (Inaccurate! But it is OK for dynamic analysis).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Element Formulation:

Linear Hexahedron Element

6

5

y 8 7 2

1

4 3 mapping (x↔ξ)

x (-1≤ ξ,η,ζ ≤ 1)

z

η

(-1,1,-1) 4 3 (1,1,-1)

(-1,1,1) 8 7 (1,1,1)

o ξ

(-1,-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1,-1)

(-1,-1,1) 5 6 (1,-1,1)

ζ

8 8 8

u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi , w = ∑ N i wi (11)

i =1 i =1 1i =1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Shape functions:

1

N 1 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) ,

8

1

N 2 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) ,

8

1

N 3 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 − ζ ) , (12)

8

M M

1

N 8 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 + ζ ) .

8

Note that we have the following relations for the shape

functions:

N i ( ξ j ,η j , ζ j ) = δ ij , i, j = 1,2,L, 8.

8

∑ N i ( ξ ,η ,ζ ) = 1.

i =1

8 8 8

x = ∑ N i xi , y = ∑ N i yi , z = ∑ N i zi . (13)

i =1 i =1 i =1

field.

⇒ Isoparametric element.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Jacobian Matrix:

∂u ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u

∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂x

∂u

∂u ∂x ∂y ∂z

= (14)

∂η ∂η ∂η ∂η ∂y

∂u ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂u

∂ζ ∂z

∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ

≡ J Jacobian matrix

∂u ∂u

∂x ∂ξ

∂u

−1 ∂u ∂u 8

∂N i

⇒ =J , = ∑ ∂ξ i u , etc.

∂y ∂η ∂ξ i =1

∂u ∂u

∂z ∂ζ

and

∂v ∂v

∂x ∂ξ

∂v

−1 ∂v

=J , (15)

∂y ∂η

∂v ∂v

∂z ∂ζ

also for w.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

∂u

∂x

∂v

ε x

ε ∂ y

y ∂w

ε z ∂z

å = = ∂x ∂u = L use (15) = B d

γ xy +

γ yz ∂x ∂y

∂w ∂v

γ zx +

∂y ∂z

∂u

+ ∂w

∂z ∂x

i.e.,

å = Bd (16)

(6×1) (6×24)×(24×1)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Strain energy,

1 T 1

U=

2V∫ ó å dV =

2V∫ ( Eå ) T å dV

1

= ∫ å T E å dV

2V

1 T T

= d ∫ B E B dV d (17)

2 V

k = ∫ B T E B dV (18)

V

(24×24) (24×6)×(6×6)×(6×24)

In ξηζ coordinates:

dV = (det J ) dξ dη dζ (19)

1 1 1

⇒ k = ∫ ∫ ∫ B T E B (det J ) dξ dη dζ ( 20)

−1 −1 −1

( Numerical integration)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Loads:

Distributed loads ⇒ Nodal forces

pA/3 pA/12

p

Hexahedron

Stresses:

ó = Eå = EB d

Principal stresses:

σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3 .

1

σ e = σ VM = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 .

2

on each element. Averaging (around a node, for example) may

be employed to smooth the field.

Examples: …

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

( x, y, z) ⇒ (r, θ, z)

z,w

θ

r, u

z, w

σz

θ

r, u

τ rz

r σθ σr

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Displacement field:

Strains:

∂u u ∂w

εr = , εθ = , εz = ,

∂r r ∂z

∂w ∂u

γ rz = + , (γ rθ = γ zθ = 0) ( 21)

∂r ∂z

u

r (r+u)dθ

dθ

rdθ

Stresses:

σ r 1 − v v v 0 εr

σ v 1− v v 0 ε

θ E θ

= v 1− v ( 22)

v 0

σ z (1 + v ) (1 − 2v ) 0 1 − 2v ε z

τ rz 0 0 γ rz

2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Axisymmetric Elements:

2 η

2 2

r, u 3

r, u

3 ξ

3 4 1

1 1

∫

k = B T E B rdr dθ dz

V

( 23)

or

2π 1 1

k=

∫∫∫

0 −1 −1

B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη dθ

1 1

= 2π

∫∫

−1 −1

B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη ( 24)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Applications:

• Rotating Flywheel:

z

ω angular velocity (rad/s)

Body forces:

fr = ρ rω 2 ( equivalent radial centrifugal/ inertial force)

fz = − ρ g ( gravitational force)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

p

r0

q = ( p ) 2π r0

• Press Fit:

ri

r0

ri +δ

at r = ri :

uo − ui = δ

⇒ MPC

“i” “o”

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

p z

problem and iteration method (incremental approach) needs to

be employed.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

• Frequency response (F(t)=Fo sinωt)

• Transient response (F(t) arbitrary)

I. Basic Equations

A. Single DOF System

k m - mass

f=f(t) k - stiffness

m

c

c - damping

f (t ) - force

ku

c u& m f(t)

x, u

mu&& = f(t)−k u −cu& ,

i.e.

mu&&+cu& +ku = f(t) , (1)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Eq. (1) becomes

mu&&+k u =0 . (2)

(meaning: inertia force + stiffness force = 0)

Assume:

u(t) = U sin (ω t) ,

Eq. (2) yields

−Uù 2 m sin( ù t)+kU sin( ù t)= 0

i.e.,

[−ω 2

]

m+k U = 0.

[−ω 2

]

m+k = 0,

which yields

k

ω = . (3)

m

system (rad/s). The cyclic frequency (1/s = Hz) is

ω

f= , (4)

2π

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

u

u = U s in w t

U

t

U

T=1/f

0 < c < c c = 2 mω = 2 k m (cc = critical damping) (5)

we have the damped natural frequency:

ωd = ω 1 − ξ 2 , (6)

c

where ξ = (damping ratio).

cc

ωd ≈ ω . (7)

u

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Equation of Motion

Equation of motion for the whole structure is

&& + C u& + Ku = f ( t ) ,

Mu (8)

in which: u nodal displacement vector,

M mass matrix,

C damping matrix,

K stiffness matrix,

f forcing vector.

Physical meaning of Eq. (8):

Inertia forces + Damping forces + Elastic forces

= Applied forces

Mass Matrices

Lumped mass matrix (1-D bar element):

ρAL 1 ρ,A,L 2 m = ρAL

m1 = 2

2 2

u1 u2

Element mass matrix is found to be

ρAL

0

m= 2

ρAL

0

1442424 3

diagonal matrix

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

m= ∫V

ρ N T NdV (9)

displacement field.

This is obtained by considering the kinetic energy:

1 T 1

Κ = u& m u& (cf. mv 2 )

2 2

= ∫ ρ u& 2 dV = ∫ ρ (u& ) u& dV

1 1 T

2 V 2 V

= ∫ ρ (N u& ) (N u& )dV

1 T

2 V

1

= u& T ∫ ρ N T N dV u&

2 1V 42 43

m

1 − ξ

m = ∫ ρ [1 − ξ ξ ]ALdξ

V

ξ

1 / 3 1 / 6 u&&1 (10)

= ρAL

1 / 6 1 / 3 u&&2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

⇒ local coordinates ⇒ to global coordinates

⇒ assembly of the global structure mass matrix M.

v1 v2

θ1 ρ, A, L θ2

m = ∫ ρNT NdV

V

− 3L2 θ&&1

ρAL 22 L 4 L2 13L

= (11)

420 54 13L 156 − 22 L v&&2

2 &&

− 13L − 3L − 22 L 4 L θ2

2

Choice I Choice II

t (time) s s

L (length) m mm

m (mass) kg Mg

a (accel.) m/s2 mm/s2

f (force) N N

ρ (density) kg/m3 Mg/mm3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Study of the dynamic characteristics of a structure:

• natural frequencies

• normal modes (shapes)

equation (8) and obtain

M&u& + Ku = 0 (12)

Assume that displacements vary harmonically with time, that

is,

u ( t ) = u sin( ω t ),

u& ( t ) = ω u cos( ω t ),

&u& ( t ) = − ω 2 u sin( ω t ),

Eq. (12) yields,

[K − ω 2

]

M u = 0 (13)

This is a generalized eigenvalue problem (EVP).

Solutions?

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Nontrivial solutions: u ≠ 0 only if

K − ω2 M = 0 (14)

find n solutions (roots) or eigenvalues ωi.

• ωi (i = 1, 2, …, n) are the natural frequencies (or

characteristic frequencies) of the structure.

• ω1 (the smallest one) is called the fundamental frequency.

• For each ωi , Eq. (13) gives one solution (or eigen) vector

[K − ω i

2

]

M ui = 0 .

modes, mode shapes, etc.).

u iT K u j = 0,

u iT M u j = 0 , for i ≠ j, (15)

each other with respect to K and M matrices.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

u iT M u i = 1,

u iT K u i = ω i2 . (16)

Note:

• Magnitudes of displacements (modes) or stresses in normal

mode analysis have no physical meaning.

• For normal mode analysis, no support of the structure is

necessary.

ωi = 0 ⇔ there are rigid body motions of the whole or a

part of the structure.

⇒ apply this to check the FEA model (check for

mechanism or free elements in the models).

• Lower modes are more accurate than higher modes in the

FE calculations (less spatial variations in the lower modes

⇒ fewer elements/wave length are needed).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Example: y

v2

ρ, A, EI θ2

1 2 x

L

v2 0

[K − ω M = ,

2

]

θ2 0

EI 12 − 6L ρAL 156 − 22L

K= 3 2

, M= 2

.

L − 6L 4L 420 − 22L 4L

= 0,

− 6L + 22Lλ 4L − 4L λ

2 2

in which λ = ω ρ AL / 420 EI .

2 4

1

EI 2 v 2 1

ω 1 = 3.533 , = 1.38 ,

4

ρ AL θ 2 1 L

#3 #2

1

EI 2 v 2 1

#1 ω 2 = 34 .81

4

, = 7.62 .

ρAL θ 2 2 L

Exact solutions:

1 1

EI 2

EI 2

ω1 = 3.516 ,

4

ω2 = 22.03 .

4

ρAL ρAL

We can see that mode 1 is calculated much more accurately

than mode 2, with one beam element.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

III. Damping

Two commonly used models for viscous damping.

C = αM + β K (17)

where the constants α & β are found from

αω 1 β αω 2 β

ξ1 = + , ξ2 = + ,

2 2ω1 2 2ω 2

with ω1 , ω 2 , ξ1 & ξ 2 (damping ratio) being selected.

Damping ratio

B. Modal Damping

Incorporate the viscous damping in modal equations.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

• Use the normal modes (modal matrix) to transform the

coupled system of dynamic equations to uncoupled

system of equations.

We have

[K − ω i M ui = 0 ,

2

] i = 1,2,..., n (18)

u iT K u j = 0,

T for i ≠ j,

ui M u j = 0,

and

u iT M u i = 1 ,

T for i = 1, 2, …, n.

i

u K u i = ω 2

i ,

Ö (n×n ) = [u 1 u 2 L u n ] (19)

Can verify that

ω12 0 L 0

0 ω 2

M

ÖT KÖ = Ù = 2 (Spectralmatrix),

M O 0

2 (20)

0 L 0 ω n

ÖT MÖ = I.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

u = z1 u 1 + z 2 u 2 + L + z n u n = Φ z , (21)

where

z1 ( t )

z (t )

z= 2

M

z n ( t )

Substitute (21) into the dynamic equation:

M Φ &z& + C Φ z& + K Φ z = f ( t ).

Pre-multiply by ΦT, and apply (20):

&z& + C φ z& + Ω z = p ( t ), (22)

p = Φ T

f (t) .

2 ξ 1ω 1 0 L 0

0 2 ξ 2ω

=

2

Cφ

M O M . (23)

0 L 2 ξ nω n

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

&z&i + 2 ξ i ω i z& i + ω i2 z i = p i ( t ), i = 1,2,…,n. (24)

These are uncoupled, second-order differential equations,

which are much easier to solve than the original dynamic

equation (coupled system).

To recover u from z, apply transformation (21) again, once

z is obtained from (24).

Notes:

• Only the first few modes may be needed in constructing

the modal matrix Φ (i.e., Φ could be an n×m rectangular

matrix with m<n). Thus, significant reduction in the

size of the system can be achieved.

• Modal equations are best suited for problems in which

higher modes are not important (i.e., structural

vibrations, but not shock loading).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

(Harmonic Response Analysis)

&& + Cu& + Ku = F

Mu 1sin

23ωt

Harmonicloading

(25)

Modal method: Apply the modal equations,

These are 1-D equations. Solutions are

pi ω i2

zi ( t ) = sin( ω t − θ i ), (27)

(1 − η ) + ( 2ξ iηi )

2 2 2

zi

where

2ξ iη i

θ = arctan , phase angle

1 − ηi

i 2

ηi = ω ω i ,

ci ci

ω/ωi

ξ

i c = = , damping ratio

c 2 m ω i

Direct Method: Solve Eq. (25) directly, that is, calculate

iω t

the inverse. With u = u e (complex notation), Eq. (25)

becomes

[K + iω C − ω 2 M u = F . ]

This equation is expensive to solve and matrix is ill-

conditioned if ω is close to any ωi.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

(Dynamic Response/Time-History Analysis)

• Structure response to arbitrary, time-dependent loading.

f(t)

u(t)

u1

u n u n+1

u2

t0 t1 t2 t n t n+1 t

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

&& n + Cu& n + Ku n = f n .

Mu

There are two categories of methods for transient analysis.

A. Direct Methods (Direct Integration Methods)

• Central Difference Method

Approximate using finite difference:

1

u& = ( u n + 1 − u n − 1 ),

2 ∆ t

n

1

&&

u = ( u n +1 − 2 u n + u n −1 )

(∆ t)2

n

1 1

M ( u + − 2 u + u − ) + C ( u n +1 − u n −1 ) + Ku n = fn ,

( ∆t ) 2 ∆t

n 1 n n 1

2

which yields,

Au n +1 = F(t )

where

1 1

A = M+ C,

(∆ t )2

2∆t

F ( t ) = f n − K − 2 2 M u n − 1 2 M − 1 C u n −1.

(∆ t ) (∆ t ) 2∆t

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

marching from t 0 , t1, L t n , t n + 1, L , until convergent.

• Newmark Method:

Use approximations:

( ∆t ) 2

u n +1 ≈ u n + ∆tu& n + [(1 − 2 β )u&& n + 2 βu&& n +1 ], → ( u&& n +1 = L)

2

u& n +1 ≈ u& n + ∆t [(1 − γ ) u && n +1 ],

&& n + γu

where β & γ are chosen constants. These lead to

Au n +1 = F (t)

where

γ 1

A = K + C + M ,

β∆t β (∆ t)2

F ( t ) = f ( f n + 1 , γ , β , ∆ t , C , M , u n , u& n , u

&& n ).

1

2 β ≥ γ ≥ .

2

1 1

e . g ., γ = , β =

2 4

Direct methods can be expensive! (the need to

compute A-1, often repeatedly for each time step).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

B. Modal Method

First, do the transformation of the dynamic equations using

the modal matrix before the time marching:

m

u = ∑ u i zi (t ) =Φ z ,

i =1 i = 1,2,⋅⋅⋅, m.

&z&i + 2 ξ i ω i z& i + ω i z i = p i ( t ),

method. Can use, e.g., 10%, of the total modes (m= n/10).

• Uncoupled system,

• Fewer equations,

• No inverse of matrices,

• More efficient for large problems.

Direct Methods Modal Method

• Small model • Large model

• More accurate (with small ∆t) • Higher modes ignored

• Single loading • Multiple loading

• Shock loading • Periodic loading

• … • …

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

• Symmetry: It should not be used in the dynamic analysis

(normal modes, etc.) because symmetric structures can

have antisymmetric modes.

• Mechanism, rigid body motion means ω = 0. Can use

this to check FEA models to see if they are properly

connected and/or supported.

• Input for FEA: loading F(t) or F(ω) can be very

complicated in real applications and often needs to be

filtered first before used as input for FEA.

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