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# Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

## Introduction to Finite Element Method - I & II

Course Numbers: 20-MECH-525 & 526; Winter & Spring Quarters

## Showcase: Finite Element Analysis in Actions

Click here to see some examples of the final projects from this course and other FEA applications in engineering

Course Syllabus

## FEM - I (Winter Quarter); FEM - II (Spring Quarter)

Lecture Notes

Notice: The lecture notes are for educational and personal use only. Files are in Acrobat PDF format. To read/print/save these
notes, You will need the Acrobat Reader which can be downloaded free from gif (712 . Please report any errors or typos in
the notes to Dr. Liu (E-mail: Yijun.Liu@uc.edu)
bytes)

Chapter 1. Introduction

## ● Lecture 1. Introduction to FEM

● Lecture 2. Review of Matrix Algebra
● Lecture 3. Stiffness Matrix for Spring Element; FE Equations
● Lecture 4. Assembly of Stiffness Matrices; Examples
● Homework Problems

## ● Lecture 1. Linear Static Analysis; Bar Element

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

● Lecture 2. Examples
● Lecture 3. Distributed Load; Transformation of Coordinate Systems; Element Stress
● Lecture 4. Examples
● Lecture 5. Introduction to ANSYS (Computer Lab Session 1)
● Lecture 6. Beam Elements
● Lecture 7. Examples; Distributed Load
● Review
● Midterm Exam
● Lecture 8. More Examples of Beam Elements, Frame Analysis
● Lecture 9. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 2)
● Homework Problems

## ● Lecture 1. Review of the Basic Theory in 2-D Elasticity

● Lecture 2. Stiffness Matrices for 2-D Problems; T3 Element
● Lecture 3. T6, Q4 and Q8 Elements; Example
● Lecture 4. Distributed Loads; Stress Calculation; Discussions
● Review
● Homework Problems
● Final Exam
● End of Winter Quarter

## ● Lecture 1. Symmetry in FEA

● Lecture 2. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 3)
● Lecture 3. Nature of FEA Solutions; Error, Convergence and Adaptivity
● Lecture 4. Substructures (Superelements) in FEA; Equation Solving
● Computer Lab Assignment 1

## ● Lecture 1. Plate Theory

● Lecture 2. Plate Elements; Shell Theory and Shell Elements
● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 4)
● Computer Lab Assignment 2

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

## ● Lecture 1. Review of 3-D Elasticity; FE Formulation

● Lecture 2. 3-D Solid Elements; Element Formulation; 3-D Examples
● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 5)
● Lecture 4. Solids of Revolution; Axisymmetric Elements; Examples
● Computer Lab Assignment 3

## ● Lecture 1. Review of Basic Dynamic Equations

● Lecture 2. Free Vibration (Normal Mode) Analysis
● Lecture 3. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 6)
● Lecture 4. Damping; Modal Equations; Frequency Response Analysis
● Lecture 5. Use of ANSYS/I-DEAS Master Series (Computer Lab Session 7 - Preview of the final projects)
● Lecture 6. Transient Response Analysis; Examples
● Computer Lab Assignment 4
● Final Project Assignment

## ● Lecture 1. Introduction; Temperature Field; Thermal Stresses

● Presentation of the Final Project - I
● Presentation of the Final Project - II
● End of Spring Quarter

Contact Info

E-mail: Yijun.Liu@uc.edu
Tel.: (513) 556-4607 (Voice), (513) 556-3390 (Fax)
Office: 590 Rhodes Hall
S-mail: Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210072, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072

Introduction to Finite Element Method I & II

© 1997-2002 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati Last updated January 02, 2002 .

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

I. Basic Concepts
The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis
(FEA), is based on the idea of building a complicated object with
simple blocks, or, dividing a complicated object into small and
manageable pieces. Application of this simple idea can be found
everywhere in everyday life as well as in engineering.

Examples:

•Lego (kids’play)
•Buildings
•Approximation of the area of a circle:

“Element” Si
θi
R

1
Area of one triangle: S i = 2 R 2 sinθi
2π 
N
1 2
Area of the circle: S N = ∑ Si = R N sin  → π R 2 as N → ∞
i =1 2 N
where N = total number of triangles (elements).

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 1

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## •Design analysis: hand calculations, experiments, and

computer simulations
•FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation
method in engineering
•...

## Applications of FEM in Engineering

•Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering
•Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear)
•Thermal/fluid flows
•Electromagnetics
•Geomechanics
•Biomechanics
•...

Examples:
...
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 2
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## •1943 ----- Courant (Variational methods)

•1956 ----- Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp (Stiffness)
•1960 ----- Clough (“Finite Element”, plane problems)

## •1970s ----- Applications on mainframe computers

•1980s ----- Microcomputers, pre- and postprocessors
•1990s ----- Analysis of large structural systems

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 3

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Procedures:

## •Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes)

•Describe the behavior of the physical quantities on each
element
•Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an
approximate system of equations for the whole structure
•Solve the system of equations involving unknown
quantities at the nodes (e.g., displacements)
•Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at
selected elements

Example:

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 4

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Computer Implementations

## •Preprocessing (build FE model, loads and constraints)

•FEA solver (assemble and solve the system of equations)
•Postprocessing (sort and display the results)

## •ANSYS (General purpose, PC and workstations)

•NASTRAN (General purpose FEA on mainframes)
•ABAQUS (Nonlinear and dynamic analyses)
•COSMOS (General purpose FEA)
•ALGOR (PC and workstations)
•PATRAN (Pre/Post Processor)
•HyperMesh (Pre/Post Processor)
•Dyna-3D (Crash/impact analysis)
•...

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 5

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## •Understand the fundamental ideas of the FEM

•Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements
covered in this course
•Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems
•Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know
the physics of the problems)
•Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (don’t misuse the
FEM - a numerical tool)

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 6

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Linear System of Algebraic Equations

a 11 x1 + a 12 x 2 + ...+ a 1n x n = b1
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + ...+ a 2 n x n = b2
(1)
.......
a n1 x1 + a n 2 x 2 + ...+ a nn x n = bn

## where x1, x2, ..., xn are the unknowns.

In matrix form:
Ax = b (2)
where
a11 a12 ... a1n 
a ... a 2 n 
[]
a22
A = aij =  
21

##  ... ... ... ... 

a ... ann 
 n1 an2 
(3)
 x1  b1 
x  b 
 2  2
x = {xi }=   b = {bi }=  
: : 

 xn 
 
bn 

A is called a n×n (square) matrix, and x and b are (column)
vectors of dimension n.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 7

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Row and Column Vectors

 w1 
 
v = [v1 v2 v3 ] w = w 2 
w 
 3

For two matrices A and B, both of the same size (m×n), the
addition and subtraction are defined by
C=A + B with cij = a ij + bij
D=A− B with d ij = a ij − bij

Scalar Multiplication
λA = λa ij[ ]
Matrix Multiplication
For two matrices A (of size l×m) and B (of size m×n), the
product of AB is defined by
m
C = AB with cij = ∑ a ik bkj
k =1

## where i = 1, 2, ..., l; j = 1, 2, ..., n.

Note that, in general, AB ≠ BA , but ( AB )C = A ( BC)
(associative).

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 8

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Transpose of a Matrix
If A = [aij], then the transpose of A is
A T = a ji [ ]
Notice that ( AB) T = B T A T .

Symmetric Matrix
A square (n×n) matrix A is called symmetric, if
A = AT or a ij = a ji

## Unit (Identity) Matrix

1 0 0
...
0 1 0
...
I= 
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... 1 
 
Note that AI = A, Ix = x.

Determinant of a Matrix
The determinant of square matrix A is a scalar number
denoted by det A or |A|. For 2×2 and 3×3 matrices, their
determinants are given by
a b 
det   = ad − bc
c d 
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 9
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

and
a11 a12 a13 
det a21 a22 a23  = a11a22a33 + a12a23a31 + a21a32a13
 

a31 a32 a33 

− a13a22a31 − a12a21a33 − a23a32a11

Singular Matrix
A square matrix A is singular if det A = 0, which indicates
problems in the systems (nonunique solutions, degeneracy, etc.)

Matrix Inversion
For a square and nonsingular matrix A (det A ≠ 0), its
inverse A-1 is constructed in such a way that
AA − 1 = A − 1 A = I
The cofactor matrix C of matrix A is defined by
Cij = ( − 1)i + j Mij

## where Mij is the determinant of the smaller matrix obtained by

eliminating the ith row and jth column of A.
Thus, the inverse of A can be determined by
1
A− 1 = CT
det A
We can show that ( AB ) − 1 = B − 1A − 1 .

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 10

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Examples:
−1
a b  1  d − b
(1)   =
c d  (ad − bc)  
− c a 
Checking,
−1
a b  a b  1  d − b a b  1 0
c d  c d  (ad − bc) − c a c d  = 0 1
=
        

−1
1 − 1 0 
T
3 2 1 3 2 1
(2) − 1 2 − 1 = 2 2 1 = 2 2 1
1
  (4 − 2 − 1)    
0 − 1 2 
  
1 1 1
 
1 1 1

Checking,
 1 − 1 0 3 2 1 1 0 0
− 1 2 − 12 2 1 = 0 1 0
    
0 − 1 2 
 
1 1 1
  0 0 1

## If det A = 0 (i.e., A is singular), then A-1 does not exist!

The solution of the linear system of equations (Eq.(1)) can be
expressed as (assuming the coefficient matrix A is nonsingular)
x = A − 1b
Thus, the main task in solving a linear system of equations is to
found the inverse of the coefficient matrix.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 11

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Solution Techniques for Linear Systems of Equations

•Gauss elimination methods
•Iterative methods

## Positive Definite Matrix

A square (n×n) matrix A is said to be positive definite, if for
any nonzero vector x of dimension n,
x T Ax > 0
Note that positive definite matrices are nonsingular.

## Differentiation and Integration of a Matrix

Let

[ ]
A( t ) = a ij ( t )

## then the differentiation is defined by

d da (t ) 
A(t ) =  ij 
dt  dt 
and the integration by

∫ 
 ∫
A(t )dt =  aij (t )dt 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 12

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## (3-D fields - temperature, displacement, stress, flow velocity)

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 13
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## III. Spring Element

“Everything important is simple.”

## One Spring Element

x
i j
fi ui uj fj
k

Two nodes: i, j
Nodal displacements: ui, uj (in, m, mm)
Nodal forces: fi, fj (lb, Newton)
Spring constant (stiffness): k (lb/in, N/m, N/mm)
Spring force-displacement relationship:
F = k∆ with ∆ = u j − ui

Linear

F Nonlinear
k

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 14

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

course.

## Consider the equilibrium of forces for the spring. At node i,

we have
f i = − F = − k (u j − ui ) = kui − ku j

and at node j,
f j = F = k ( u j − ui ) = − kui + ku j

In matrix form,

k − k ui   f i 
− k  =  
 k u j   f j 
or,
ku = f
where
k = (element) stiffness matrix
u = (element nodal) displacement vector
f = (element nodal) force vector
Note that k is symmetric. Is k singular or nonsingular? That is,
can we solve the equation? If not, why?

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 15

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Spring System

x
k1 k2

1 2 3
u1, F1 u2, F2 u3, F3

For element 1,

 k1 − k1 u1   f 11 
− k   =  1
 1 k1 u2   f 2 
element 2,

 k2 − k 2 u2   f 12 
− k  =  2
 2 k2  u3   f 2 
where f i m is the (internal) force acting on local node i of element
m (i = 1, 2).
Assemble the stiffness matrix for the whole system:
Consider the equilibrium of forces at node 1,
F1 = f 11
at node 2,
F2 = f 21 + f 12
and node 3,
F3 = f 22

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 16

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

That is,
F1 = k1u1 − k1u2
F2 = − k1u1 + ( k1 + k 2 )u2 − k 2 u3
F3 = − k 2 u2 + k 2 u3
In matrix form,
 k1 − k1 0 u1   F1 
− k    
k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2  = F2 
 1 
 − k2 k2     
 0 u3  F3 
or
KU = F
K is the stiffness matrix (structure matrix) for the spring system.

## An alternative way of assembling the whole stiffness matrix:

“Enlarging” the stiffness matrices for elements 1 and 2, we
have

 k1 − k1 0u1   f 11 
− k    
k1 0u2  =  f 21 
 1 
 0   
 0 0 u3   0 

0 0 0 u1   0 
0 k    
− k 2 u2  =  f 12 
 2

   2
0 − k 2
 k2  u3   f 2 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 17

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Adding the two matrix equations (superposition), we have

 k1 − k1 0 u1   f 11 
− k    
k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2  =  f 21 + f 12 
 1 
 − k2 k2     2 
 0 u3   f 2 
This is the same equation we derived by using the force
equilibrium concept.

Assuming, u1 = 0 and F2 = F3 = P
we have
 k1 − k1 0  0  F1 
− k    
k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2  =  P 
 1 
 − k2 k2     
 0 u3   P 
which reduces to
k1 + k 2 − k 2 u2   P 
− k  =  
 2 k2  u3   P 
and
F1 = − k1u2
Unknowns are
u2 
U=  and the reaction force F1 (if desired).
u3 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 18

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Solving the equations, we obtain the displacements

u2   2 P / k1 
  = 
 3 
u 2 P / k 1 + P / k 2

F1 = − 2 P

## Checking the Results

•Deformed shape of the structure
•Balance of the external forces
•Order of magnitudes of the numbers

## Notes About the Spring Elements

•Suitable for stiffness analysis
•Not suitable for stress analysis of the spring itself
•Can have spring elements with stiffness in the lateral
direction, spring elements for torsion, etc.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 19

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Example 1.1

k1 k2 P k3
x
1 2 3 4

## Given: For the spring system shown above,

k1 = 100 N / mm, k 2 = 200 N / mm, k 3 = 100 N / mm
P = 500 N, u 1 = u4 = 0
Find: (a) the global stiffness matrix
(b) displacements of nodes 2 and 3
(c) the reaction forces at nodes 1 and 4
(d) the force in the spring 2
Solution:
(a) The element stiffness matrices are
 100 − 100
k1 =   (N/mm) (1)
− 100 100 
 200 − 200
k2 =   (N/mm) (2)
− 200 200 
 100 − 100
k3 =   (N/mm) (3)
− 100 100 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 20

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

## Applying the superposition concept, we obtain the global stiffness

matrix for the spring system as
u1 u2 u3 u4
 100 − 100 0 0 
− 100 100 + 200 − 200 0 
K= 
 0 − 200 200 + 100 − 100
 0 − 100 100 
 0 
or
 100 − 100 0 0 
− 100 300 − 200 0 
K= 
 0 − 200 300 − 100
 0 − 100 100 
 0 
which is symmetric and banded.
Equilibrium (FE) equation for the whole system is
 100 − 100 0 0 u1   F1 
− 100 300 − 200 0  u2  0 
   = 
 
 

(4)
 0 − 200 300 − 100u3   P 
 0 − 100 100 
 0 u4 
  
F4 

## (b) Applying the BC ( u1 = u4 = 0 ) in Eq(4), or deleting the 1st and

4th rows and columns, we have

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 21

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

 300 − 200u2   0 
− 200 300 u  = P  (5)
  3   
Solving Eq.(5), we obtain
u2   P / 250  2 
 =   =   ( mm) (6)
 3 
u 3 P / 500  3

(c) From the 1st and 4th equations in (4), we get the reaction forces
F1 = − 100u 2 = − 200 (N)
F4 = − 100u 3 = − 300 (N )

## (d) The FE equation for spring (element) 2 is

 200 − 200ui   f i 
− 200 200 u  =  f 
  j   j 
Here i = 2, j = 3 for element 2. Thus we can calculate the spring
force as
u2 
F = f j = − f i = [− 200 200] 
u3 
2 
= [− 200 200] 
3
= 200 (N)
Check the results!

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 22

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

Example 1.2

4 k4 F1
k1 1
2
4 1 k2 F2 k3

2 3 3 5
x

## Problem: For the spring system with arbitrarily numbered nodes

and elements, as shown above, find the global stiffness
matrix.
Solution:
First we construct the following

## Element Connectivity Table

Element Node i (1) Node j (2)
1 4 2
2 2 3
3 3 5
4 2 1

## which specifies the global node numbers corresponding to the

local node numbers for each element.
Then we can write the element stiffness matrices as follows

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 23

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 1. Introduction

u4 u2 u2 u3
 k1 − k1   k2 − k2 
k1 =  k2 = 
− k1 k1  − k 2 k2 

u3 u5 u2 u1
 k3 − k3   k4 − k4 
k3 =  k4 = 
− k 3 k3  − k 4 k4 
Finally, applying the superposition method, we obtain the global
stiffness matrix as follows
u1 u2 u3 u4 u5
 k4 − k4 0 0 0 
− k k1 + k 2 + k 4 − k2 − k1 0 
 4 
K= 0 − k2 k2 + k 3 0 − k3 
 0 − k1 0 k1 0 
 

 0 0 − k3 0 k3 
The matrix is symmetric, banded, but singular.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 24

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements.

Linear Static Analysis

## Most structural analysis problems can be treated as linear

static problems, based on the following assumptions
to the deformed shape)
2. Elastic materials (no plasticity or failures)
3. Static loads (the load is applied to the structure in a slow

## Linear analysis can provide most of the information about

the behavior of a structure, and can be a good approximation for
many analyses. It is also the bases of nonlinear analysis in most
of the cases.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 25

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Consider a uniform prismatic bar:

ui uj
fi i j fj
x A,E
L

L length
A cross-sectional area
E elastic modulus
u = u( x ) displacement
ε = ε( x) strain
σ = σ ( x) stress

Strain-displacement relation:
du
ε= (1)
dx
Stress-strain relation:
σ = Eε (2)

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 26

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Stiffness Matrix --- Direct Method

Assuming that the displacement u is varying linearly along
the axis of the bar, i.e.,

u( x ) = 
x x
1 − ui + u j (3)
 L L
we have
u j − ui ∆
ε= = ( ∆ = elongation) (4)
L L
E∆
σ = Eε = (5)
L
We also have
F
σ= (F = force in bar) (6)
A
Thus, (5) and (6) lead to
EA
F= ∆ = k∆ (7)
L
EA
where k = is the stiffness of the bar.
L
The bar is acting like a spring in this case and we conclude
that element stiffness matrix is

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 27

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

 EA EA 
k − k  L −
k= = L 
− k k  
 − EA EA 

 L L 
or
EA  1 − 1
k= (8)
L  
− 1 1 
This can be verified by considering the equilibrium of the forces
at the two nodes.
Element equilibrium equation is

EA  1 − 1ui   f i 
  =   (9)
L − 1 1 u j   f j 

## Degree of Freedom (dof)

Number of components of the displacement vector at a
node.
For 1-D bar element: one dof at each node.

## Physical Meaning of the Coefficients in k

The jth column of k (here j = 1 or 2) represents the forces
applied to the bar to maintain a deformed shape with unit
displacement at node j and zero displacement at the other node.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 28

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Stiffness Matrix --- A Formal Approach

We derive the same stiffness matrix for the bar using a
formal approach which can be applied to many other more
complicated situations.
Define two linear shape functions as follows
N i (ξ) = 1 − ξ, N j (ξ) = ξ (10)

where
x
ξ= , 0 ≤ξ ≤1 (11)
L
From (3) we can write the displacement as
u( x) = u(ξ) = N i (ξ)ui + N j (ξ)u j

or
ui 
u = Ni [ ]
N j   = Nu (12)
u j 
Strain is given by (1) and (12) as
du  d 
ε= =  Nu = Bu (13)
dx dx 
where B is the element strain-displacement matrix, which is

B=
d
dx
[
N i (ξ ) N j (ξ) =] d

[
N i (ξ) ]
N j (ξ ) •
dx
i.e., B = [− 1 / L 1 / L] (14)

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 29

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Stress can be written as

σ = Eε = EBu (15)
Consider the strain energy stored in the bar

## ∫ ∫(u B T EBu )dV

1 1
U= σ T εdV = T

2 2
V V
(16)
1 T 
2 
V

= u  (B EB)dV u
T

where (13) and (15) have been used.
The work done by the two nodal forces is
1 1 1
W= f i ui + f j u j = u T f (17)
2 2 2
For conservative system, we state that
U =W (18)
which gives

1 T 

u  (B EB)dV u = u T f
T 1
2   2
V 
We can conclude that
 

V

 (B EB)dV u = f
T

or
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 30
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

ku = f (19)
where

k=
∫(B
V
T
EB)dV (20)

## is the element stiffness matrix.

Expression (20) is a general result which can be used for
the construction of other types of elements. This expression can
also be derived using other more rigorous approaches, such as
the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy, or the Galerkin’s
Method.
Now, we evaluate (20) for the bar element by using (14)
L
− 1 / L  EA  1 − 1
k=

0

 1 / L
E[− 1 / L 1 / L]Adx =
 L  
− 1 1 

## which is the same as we derived using the direct method.

Note that from (16) and (20), the strain energy in the
element can be written as
1
U = u T ku (21)
2

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 31

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.1

1 2A,E 2 A,E

1 2 P 3 x
L L

## Problem: Find the stresses in the two bar assembly which is

loaded with force P, and constrained at the two ends,
as shown in the figure.
Solution: Use two 1-D bar elements.
Element 1,
u1 u2
2 EA  1 − 1
k1 =
L  
− 1 1 
Element 2,
u2 u3
EA  1 − 1
k2 =
L  
− 1 1 
Imagine a frictionless pin at node 2, which connects the two
elements. We can assemble the global FE equation as follows,
 2 − 2 0 u1   F1 
EA     
− 2 3 − 1u2  = F2 
L  
   
0 − 1 1 
 u3  F3 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 32

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Load and boundary conditions (BC) are,

u1 = u 3 = 0, F2 = P
FE equation becomes,
 2 − 2 0  0  F1 
EA     
− 2 3 − 1u2  =  P 
L  
   
0 − 1 1 
  0  F3 
Deleting the 1st row and column, and the 3rd row and column,
we obtain,
EA
L
[]
3 {u2 }= {P}

Thus,
PL
u2 =
3EA
and
u1  0
  PL  
u2  = 1
u  3EA 0
 3  
Stress in element 1 is
u1 
σ1 = Eε1 = EB1u1 = E[− 1 / L 1 / L] 
u2 
u2 − u1 E  PL
− 0
P
=E =  =
L L 3EA  3 A

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 33

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Similarly, stress in element 2 is

u2 
σ2 = Eε2 = EB 2 u 2 = E [
− 1 / L 1 / L ] 
u3 
u3 − u2 E  PL  P
=E = 0 − = −
L L  3EA 3A
which indicates that bar 2 is in compression.
Check the results!

Notes:
•In this case, the calculated stresses in elements 1 and 2
are exact within the linear theory for 1-D bar structures.
It will not help if we further divide element 1 or 2 into
smaller finite elements.
•For tapered bars, averaged values of the cross-sectional
areas should be used for the elements.
•We need to find the displacements first in order to find
the stresses, since we are using the displacement based
FEM.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 34

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.2

1 A,E 2

1 2 P 3 x
L L

## Problem: Determine the support reaction forces at the two ends

of the bar shown above, given the following,
P = 6.0 ×10 4 N , E = 2.0 ×10 4 N / mm2 ,
A = 250 mm2 , L = 150 mm, ∆=1.2 mm

Solution:
We first check to see if or not the contact of the bar with
the wall on the right will occur. To do this, we imagine the wall
on the right is removed and calculate the displacement at the
right end,
PL (6.0 ×104 )(150)
∆0 = = = 18
. mm > ∆ = 12
. mm
EA (2.0 ×10 )(250)
4

## Thus, contact occurs.

The global FE equation is found to be,
 1 − 1 0 u1   F1 
EA     
− 1 2 − 1u2  = F2 
L  
   
0 − 1 1 
 u3  F3 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 35

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## The load and boundary conditions are,

F2 = P = 6.0 ×10 4 N
u1 = 0, u3 = ∆ = 12
. mm

FE equation becomes,
 1 − 1 0  0  F1 
EA     
− 1 2 − 1u2  =  P 
L  
   
0 − 1 1 
  ∆  F3 
The 2nd equation gives,
EA u2 
[2 − 1] ∆  = {P}
L  
that is,

[2]{u2 }= P + ∆ 
EA EA
L  L 
Solving this, we obtain

u2 =   . mm
1 PL
 + ∆ = 15
2  EA 

and
u1   0 
   
u2  = 15
.  ( mm)
u  12 
 3  . 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 36

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## To calculate the support reaction forces, we apply the 1st

and 3rd equations in the global FE equation.
The 1st equation gives,
u 1 
EA   EA
F1 = [1 − 1 0]u 2  = ( − u 2 ) = − 5.0 × 10 4 N
L u  L
 3
and the 3rd equation gives,
u1 
  EA
[0 − 1 1]u2  = ( − u2 + u3 )
EA
F3 =
L u  L
 3
= − 10
. ×10 4 N

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 37

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

i j
x

qL/2 qL/2
i j

## Uniformly distributed axial load q (N/mm, N/m, lb/in) can

be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2.
We verify this by considering the work done by the load q,
L 1 1

∫ ∫ ∫
1 1 qL
Wq = uqdx = u(ξ )q ( Ldξ ) = u(ξ )dξ
2 2 2
0 0 0
1
 ui 
∫[N (ξ ) ]
qL
= i N j (ξ )   dξ
2
0
 uj 
1
 ui 
∫[1 − ξ ξ ]dξ  
qL
=
2
0
 uj 
1  qL qL   ui 
=   
2 2 2   u j 
 qL / 2 
=
1
2
ui[ uj 

]
qL / 2

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 38

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

that is,
1 T  qL / 2
Wq = u fq with f q =   (22)
2  qL / 2 
Thus, from the U=W concept for the element, we have
1 T 1 1
u ku = u T f + u T f q (23)
2 2 2
which yields
ku = f + f q (24)

## The new nodal force vector is

 f i + qL / 2 
f + fq =   (25)
f
 j + qL / 2 
In an assembly of bars,

1 2 3

qL/2 qL qL/2
1 2 3

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 39

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Bar Elements in 2-D and 3-D Space

2-D Case
x
y j
Y
ui’ θ
i vi
ui

Local Global
x, y X, Y
ui' , vi' ui , vi

## Note: Lateral displacement vi’ does not contribute to the stretch

of the bar, within the linear theory.

Transformation
u 
ui' = ui cos θ + vi sin θ = [l m] i 
 vi 
u 
vi' = − ui sin θ + vi cos θ = [− m l ] i 
 vi 
where l = cosθ , m = sin θ .

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 40

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

In matrix form,
 ui'   l m  ui 
 ' =    (26)
 vi   − m l   vi 
or,
~
u i' = Tu i
where the transformation matrix

~  l m
T=   (27)
− m l 
~ ~
is orthogonal, that is, T − 1 = T T .
For the two nodes of the bar element, we have
 ui'   l m 0 0   ui 
 ' 
 vi   − m l 0 0   v i 
 ' =   (28)
uj   0 0 l m  u j 
 v 'j   0 0 − m l   v j 

or,
~
T 0
u ' = Tu with T =  ~ (29)
 0 T
The nodal forces are transformed in the same way,
f ' = Tf (30)

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 41

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D Space

In the local coordinate system, we have

EA  1 − 1  ui   f i 
' '

   '  =  '
L  − 1 1   uj   f j 

## Augmenting this equation, we write

1 0 − 1 0  ui'   f i ' 
 

EA  0 0 0 0  vi'   0 
 '  =  
L − 1 0 1 0  u j   f j' 
0 0 0 0  v 'j   0 

or,
k 'u ' = f '
Using transformations given in (29) and (30), we obtain
k ' Tu = Tf
Multiplying both sides by TT and noticing that TTT = I, we
obtain
T T k ' Tu = f (31)
Thus, the element stiffness matrix k in the global coordinate
system is
k = T T k 'T (32)
which is a 4× 4 symmetric matrix.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 42

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Explicit form,
ui vi uj vj
 l2 lm − l 2 − lm 
 
EA  lm m2 − lm − m2  (33)
k=
L  − l 2 − lm l2 lm 
 
 − lm − m
2
lm m2 

## Calculation of the directional cosines l and m:

X j − Xi Yj − Yi
l = cosθ = , m = sin θ = (34)
L L
The structure stiffness matrix is assembled by using the element
stiffness matrices in the usual way as in the 1-D case.

Element Stress
 ui 
 ui'   
1   l m 0 0   vi 
σ = Eε = EB  '  = E  −
1
 
 uj   L L   0 0 l m  u j 
 v j 

That is,
 ui 
v 
E  i
σ = [− l − m l m]  (35)
L  uj 
 v j 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 43

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.3
3
A simple plane truss is made
45o
of two identical bars (with E, A, and
L), and loaded as shown in the 2 P2
figure. Find
1) displacement of node 2; Y 2 P1
1
2) stress in each bar.
45o
Solution: X
1
This simple structure is used
here to demonstrate the assembly
and solution process using the bar element in 2-D space.
In local coordinate systems, we have
EA  1 − 1
k 1' = = k '

L −  2
 1 1 
These two matrices cannot be assembled together, because they
are in different coordinate systems. We need to convert them to
global coordinate system OXY.
Element 1:
2
θ = 45o , l = m =
2
Using formula (32) or (33), we obtain the stiffness matrix in the
global system

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 44

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 v1 u2 v2
1 1 − 1 − 1
1 1 − 1 − 1
EA  
k 1 = T1T k 1' T1 =
2 L − 1 − 1 1 1
− 1 − 1 1 1
 
Element 2:
2 2
θ = 135o , l = − , m=
2 2
We have,
u2 v2 u3 v3
1 − 1 − 1 1 
 1 − 1
EA − 1 1 
k 2 = T2 k 2 T2 =
T '

2 L − 1 1 1 − 1
1 − 1 − 1 1 
 
Assemble the structure FE equation,
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3
1 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 u1   F1 X 
1 1 − 1 − 1 0 0 v1   F1Y 
    
EA − 1 − 1 2 0 − 1 1 u2  F2 X 
  =  
2 L − 1 − 1 0 2 1 − 1v2   F2Y 
0 0 − 1 1 1 − 1u3  F3 X 
    
 0 0 1 − 1 − 1 1  3   3Y 
v F

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 45

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Load and boundary conditions (BC):

u1 = v1 = u3 = v3 = 0, F2 X = P1 , F2Y = P2
Condensed FE equation,
EA 2 0u2   P1 
  =  
2 L 0 2v2  P2 
Solving this, we obtain the displacement of node 2,
u2  L  P1 
 =  
 2
v EA  P2 
Using formula (35), we calculate the stresses in the two bars,
0 
 
E 2 L 0  2
σ1 = [− 1 − 1 1 1] P  = ( P1 + P2 )
L 2 EA  1  2 A
P2 
 
 P1 
 
E 2 L  P2  2
σ2 = [1 − 1 − 1 1]  0  = ( P1 − P2 )
L 2 EA   2 A
0 
 

## Check the results:

Look for the equilibrium conditions, symmetry,
antisymmetry, etc.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 46

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

y’
x’
P 3
2 2

1 Y
L
3

1 45o
X

## For the plane truss shown above,

P = 1000 kN, L = 1 m, E = 210 GPa ,
A = 6.0 ×10 − 4 m 2 for elements 1 and 2,
A = 6 2 ×10 − 4 m 2 for element 3.
Determine the displacements and reaction forces.
Solution:
We have an inclined roller at node 3, which needs special
attention in the FE solution. We first assemble the global FE
equation for the truss.
Element 1:
θ = 90 o , l = 0, m = 1

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 47

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u1 v1 u2 v2
0 0 0 0
 0 − 1
( 210 ×109 )(6.0 ×10 − 4 ) 0 1 ( N / m)
k1 =
1 0 0 0 0
0 − 1 0 1
 
Element 2:
θ = 0o , l = 1, m = 0
u2 v 2 u3 v 3
1 0 − 1 0
 0 0 0
(210 ×10 9 )(6.0 ×10 − 4 )  0 ( N / m)
k2 =
1 − 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
 
Element 3:
1 1
θ = 45o , l = , m=
2 2
u1 v1 u3 v3
 0.5 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5
 0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5
(210 ×10 9 )(6 2 ×10 − 4 )  0.5 
k3 =
2 − 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 0.5 
− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5 0.5 
 
( N / m)

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 48

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## The global FE equation is,

 0.5 0.5 0 0 − 0.5 − 0.5u1   F1 X 
 . 0 − 1 − 0.5 − 0.5v1   F1Y 
15
    
5
1 0 − 1 0 u2  F2 X 
1260 ×10  v  =  F 
 1 0 0  2   2Y 
 .
15 0.5 u3  F3 X 
    
Sym. 0.5 v3   F3Y 
u1 = v1 = v2 = 0, and v3' = 0,
F2 X = P , F3 x ' = 0.

## From the transformation relation and the BC, we have

 2 2 u3  2
v3' = −   = ( − u3 + v3 ) = 0,
 2 2 v3  2

that is,
u3 − v3 = 0
This is a multipoint constraint (MPC).
Similarly, we have a relation for the force at node 3,

 2 2 F3 X  2
F3 x ' =    = ( F3 X + F3Y ) = 0,
2 2  3Y 
F 2

that is,
F3 X + F3Y = 0

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 49

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Applying the load and BC’s in the structure FE equation by

‘deleting’1st, 2nd and 4th rows and columns, we have
 1 − 1 0 u2   P 
   
1260 ×105 − 1 15
. 0.5u3  = F3 X 
 
    
 0 0.5 0.5
v3   F3Y 
Further, from the MPC and the force relation at node 3, the
equation becomes,
 1 − 1 0 u2   P 
   
1260 ×105 − 1 15
. 0.5u3  =  F3 X 
 
   
 u3  − F3 X 
 0 0.5 0.5
which is
 1 − 1  P 
  
u 
1260 ×105 − 1 2  2  =  F3 X 
 u3 
 1 − F 
0   3X 
The 3rd equation yields,
F3 X = − 1260 ×105 u3
Substituting this into the 2nd equation and rearranging, we have
 1 − 1u2  P 
1260 ×105   =  
− 1 3 u3   0 
Solving this, we obtain the displacements,

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 50

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

u 2  1 3 P   0.01191 
  = 5  =   ( m)
 3  2520 ×10   
u P 0.003968
From the global FE equation, we can calculate the reaction
forces,
F1 X   0 − 0.5 − 0.5 − 500
F   0 − 0.5 − 0.5 u − 500
   2
  
  
1Y
  
 F2Y  = 1260 ×10  0 0 u3  =  0.0  ( kN )
5
0
F  − 1 15 v  − 500
 3X  . 0.5  3   

 F3Y 
 
0 0.5 0.5 
 
 500 

∑ Aj u j = 0
j

## where Aj’s are constants and uj’s are nodal displacement

components. In the FE software, such as MSC/NASTRAN,
users only need to specify this relation to the software. The
software will take care of the solution.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 51

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

3-D Case

y
x j
Y
i
z
X
Z

Local Global
x, y, z X, Y, Z
ui' , vi' , wi' ui , vi , wi

## Element stiffness matrices are calculated in the local

coordinate systems and then transformed into the global
coordinate system (X, Y, Z) where they are assembled.

## FEA software packages will do this transformation

automatically.
Input data for bar elements:
•(X, Y, Z) for each node
•E and A for each element

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 52

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Simple Plane Beam Element

y
vi, Fi vj, Fj

i j
E,I x
θi, Mi θj, Mj
L

L length
I moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area
E elastic modulus
v = v( x ) deflection (lateral displacement) of the
neutral axis
dv
dx
F = F ( x) shear force
M = M ( x) moment about z-axis

## Elementary Beam Theory:

d 2v
EI 2 = M ( x) (36)
dx
My
σ=− (37)
I

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 53

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Direct Method
Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute
each column of the stiffness matrix.

## Element stiffness equation (local node: i, j or 1, 2):

vi θi vj θj
 12 6 L − 12 6 L vi   Fi 

EI  6 L 4 L
2
− 6 L 2 L2 
θi 

M 
 i (38)
 =
   
L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v j   F j 
 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ   M 
  j   j 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 54

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Formal Approach
Apply the formula,
L

k=

0
B T EIBdx (39)

## To derive this, we introduce the shape functions,

N 1 ( x ) = 1 − 3x 2 / L2 + 2 x 3 / L3
N 2 ( x) = x − 2 x 2 / L + x 3 / L2
(40)
N 3 ( x ) = 3x / L − 2 x / L
2 2 3 3

N 4 ( x) = − x 2 / L + x 3 / L2
Then, we can represent the deflection as,
v( x ) = Nu
vi 
θ 
 i (41)
= [N 1 ( x ) N 2 ( x) N 3 ( x) N 4 ( x )] 
v j 

θ j 

which is a cubic function. Notice that,
N1 + N 3 = 1
N2 + N3 L + N4 = x
which implies that the rigid body motion is represented by the
assumed deformed shape of the beam.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 55

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Curvature of the beam is,

d 2v d 2
2
= 2 Nu = Bu (42)
dx dx
where the strain-displacement matrix B is given by,
d2
[
B = 2 N = N 1" ( x ) N 2" ( x) N 3" ( x) N 4" ( x )
dx
]
(43)
=
6 12 x 4 6 x 6 12 x 2 6x 
− + − + − − + 2
 L 
2 3 2 2 3
L L L L L L L
Strain energy stored in the beam element is
L T
 My  1  My 
∫ ∫∫
1 1
U= σ T εdV = −  − dAdx
2 2  I  E I 
V 0 A
L L T
1 d 2 v  d 2 v 
∫ ∫
1 T 1
= M Mdx =   EI  2 dx
2 EI 2 dx 2  dx 
0 0
L

1
= (Bu)T EI (Bu)dx
2
0

1 T 
L

2 
 T

= u  B EIBdx

u
0

element is
L

k=

0
B T EIBdx

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 56

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Applying the result in (43) and carrying out the integration, we

arrive at the same stiffness matrix as given in (38).

## Combining the axial stiffness (bar element), we obtain the

stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element,
ui vi θi uj vj θj
 EA 0 0 −
EA
0 0 
 L L 
 12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI 
 0 0 − 
 L3 L2 L3 L2 
 0 6 EI 4 EI 6 EI 2 EI 
0 − 2
k=  L 2
L L L 
 EA EA 
− L 0 0
L
0 0 
 12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI 
 0 − − 0 − 2 
 L3 L2 L3 L 
 0 6 EI 2 EI 6 EI 4 EI 
0 − 2

 L2 L L L  

## 3-D Beam Element

The element stiffness matrix is formed in the local (2-D)
coordinate system first and then transformed into the global (3-
D) coordinate system to be assembled.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 57

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.5
Y
P
M
1 2

1 E,I 2 3 X
L L

Given: The beam shown above is clamped at the two ends and
acted upon by the force P and moment M in the mid-
span.
Find: The deflection and rotation at the center node and the
reaction forces and moments at the two ends.
Solution: Element stiffness matrices are,
v1 θ1 v2 θ2
 12 6 L − 12 6 L 
 2 
EI  6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L 
2

k1 = 3
L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L 
 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 
 
v2 θ2 v3 θ3
 12 6 L − 12 6 L 
 2 
EI  6 L 4 L − 6 L 2 L 
2

k2 = 3
L − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L 
 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 
 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 58

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

## Global FE equation is,

v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 θ3
 12 6 L − 12 6 L 0 0 v1   F1Y 
 6 L 4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 0 0 θ1   M 1 
    
EI − 12 − 6 L 24 0 − 12 6 L v2   F2Y 
2  =  
L3 
 6 L 2 L 2
0 8 L 2
− 6 L 2 L θ
 2   M 2 
 0 0 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v3   F3Y 
 2    
 0 0 6 L 2 L 2
− 6 L 4 L θ
 3   M 3 
F2Y = − P , M2 = M ,
v1 = v3 = θ1 = θ3 = 0
Reduced FE equation,
EI 24 0 v2  − P 
L3  0 8 L2 θ  =  M 
  2   
Solving this we obtain,

v2  L − PL 
2

 =  
θ
 2 24 EI  3 M 
From global FE equation, we obtain the reaction forces and
moments,

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 59

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

 F1Y  − 12 6 L  2 P + 3 M / L 
M   2   
 1  EI − 6 L 2 L v2  1  PL + M 
 = 3  =  
F
 3Y  L − 12 − 6 L θ2  4 2 P − 3 M / L 
  6L 2 L2 
M3     
 − PL + M  
Stresses in the beam at the two ends can be calculated using the
formula,
My
σ = σx = −
I
Note that the FE solution is exact according to the simple beam
theory, since no distributed load is present between the nodes.
Recall that,
d 2v
EI 2 = M ( x)
dx
and
dM
= V (V - shear force in the beam)
dx
dV
= q (q - distributed load on the beam)
dx
Thus,
d 4v
EI 4 = q( x )
dx
If q(x)=0, then exact solution for the deflection v is a cubic
function of x, which is what described by our shape functions.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 60

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

i x L j

qL/2 qL/2
qL2/12
qL2/12
i j

L L

qL qL/2

qL2/12
L L

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 61

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.6
y
p

1 E,I 2 x
L

## Given: A cantilever beam with distributed lateral load p as

shown above.
Find: The deflection and rotation at the right end, the
reaction force and moment at the left end.
Solution: The work-equivalent nodal loads are shown below,
y
f
m

1 E,I 2 x
L

where
f = pL / 2, m = pL2 / 12
Applying the FE equation, we have

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 62

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

 12 6 L − 12 6 L v1   F1Y 
 − 6 L 2 L2 θ1  M 
 
  =  1
2
EI  6 L 4 L
 
L3 − 12 − 6 L 12 − 6 L v2   F2 Y 
 6 L 2 L2 − 6 L 4 L2 θ   M 
  2   2 
F2 Y = − f , M2 = m
v1 = θ1 = 0
Reduced equation is,
EI  12 − 6 L v2  − f 
L3 − 6 L 4 L2 θ  =  m 
  2   
Solving this, we obtain,

v2  L − 2 L f + 3 Lm − pL / 8 EI 
2 4

 =  =   (A)
θ
 2 6 EI  − 3 Lf + 6m   − pL3
/ 6 EI 
These nodal values are the same as the exact solution.
Note that the deflection v(x) (for 0 < x< 0) in the beam by the
FEM is, however, different from that by the exact solution. The
exact solution by the simple beam theory is a 4th order
polynomial of x, while the FE solution of v is only a 3rd order
polynomial of x.
If the equivalent moment m is ignored, we have,

v2  L − 2 L f  − pL / 6 EI 
2 4

 =  =   (B)
θ
 2 6 EI  − 3 Lf   − pL3
/ 4 EI 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 63

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

The errors in (B) will decrease if more elements are used. The
equivalent moment m is often ignored in the FEM applications.
The FE solutions still converge as more elements are applied.
From the FE equation, we can calculate the reaction force
and moment as,
 F1Y  L3 − 12 6 L v2   pL / 2 
 =  2  =  2 
 1
M EI − 6 L 2 L θ
 2   5 pL / 12 
where the result in (A) is used. This force vector gives the total
effective nodal forces which include the equivalent nodal forces
for the distributed lateral load p given by,
 − pL / 2 
 
− pL / 12 
2

## The correct reaction forces can be obtained as follows,

 F1Y   pL / 2   − pL / 2   pL 
 =  2 −  =  2 
 1 
M 5 pL / 12  − pL2
/ 12   pL / 2 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 64

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

Example 2.7
Y
P
1 E,I 2
2 X
1 3 k
L L 4

## Given: P = 50 kN, k = 200 kN/m, L = 3 m,

E = 210 GPa, I = 2×10-4 m4.
Find: Deflections, rotations and reaction forces.
Solution:
The beam has a roller (or hinge) support at node 2 and a
spring support at node 3. We use two beam elements and one
spring element to solve this problem.
The spring stiffness matrix is given by,
v3 v4
k − k
ks = 
− k k 

Adding this stiffness matrix to the global FE equation (see
Example 2.5), we have

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 65

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

v1 θ1 v2 θ2 v3 θ3 v4
12 6 L − 12 6 L 0 0 0 v1   F1Y 
 4 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 0 0 0 θ1   M 1 
    
 24 0 − 12 6L 0 v2  F2Y 
EI     
8 L 2
− 6L 2L 2
0 θ2  =  M 2 
L 
3
   
 12 + k ' − 6 L − k 'v3   F3Y 
 
 4 L2 0 θ3   M 3 
 Symmetry k ' 
v4 
 
F4Y 
in which
L3
k '= k
EI
is used to simply the notation.
We now apply the boundary conditions,
v1 = θ1 = v2 = v4 = 0,
M 2 = M 3 = 0, F3Y = − P
‘Deleting’the first three and seventh equations (rows and
columns), we have the following reduced equation,
8 L2 − 6 L 2 L2 θ2   0 
EI     
− 6 L 12 + k ' − 6 L v3  = − P 
L3  2 2    

 2 L − 6 L 4 L 
θ3   0 
Solving this equation, we obtain the deflection and rotations at
node 2 and node 3,

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 66

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

θ2  3
  PL 2
 
v3  = − 7 L 
θ  EI (12 + 7 k ')  
 3 9 
The influence of the spring k is easily seen from this result.
Plugging in the given numbers, we can calculate
θ2  − 0.002492 rad 
   
v =
 3  − 0.01744 m 
θ  − 0.007475 rad 
 3  
From the global FE equation, we obtain the nodal reaction
forces as,
 F1Y   − 69.78 kN 
 M  − 69.78 kN ⋅m
 1  
 =  
F2Y   116.2 kN 
F4Y 
  
 3.488 kN 
Checking the results: Draw free body diagram of the beam

69.78 kN 50 kN

1 2 3

69.78 kN⋅m
116.2 kN 3.488 kN

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 67

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## In general, the stresses and strains in a structure consist of

six components:
σx , σ y , σz , τ xy , τ yz , τ zx for stresses,

and
ε x , ε y , εz , γxy , γyz , γzx for strains.

σy

τ xy
τ yz
σx
τzx
y
σz
x
z

## Under contain conditions, the state of stresses and strains

can be simplified. A general 3-D structure analysis can,
therefore, be reduced to a 2-D analysis.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 75

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Plane (2-D) Problems

•Plane stress:
σz = τ yz = τ zx = 0 (εz ≠ 0) (1)

## A thin planar structure with constant thickness and

y y

p
x z

•Plane strain:
εz = γyz = γzx = 0 (σz ≠ 0) (2)

y y

p
x z

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 76

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Stress-Strain-Temperature (Constitutive) Relations

For elastic and isotropic materials, we have,
 εx   1 / E − ν/E 0 σx   εx 0 
      
 ε y  = − ν / E 1/ E 0 σ y  +  εy0  (3)

γ   0   γ 
 xy   0 τ xy 
1 / G  xy 0 
or,
ε = E − 1σ + ε0
where ε0 is the initial strain, E the Young’s modulus, ν the
Poisson’s ratio and G the shear modulus. Note that,
E
G= (4)
2(1 + ν)
which means that there are only two independent materials
constants for homogeneous and isotropic materials.
We can also express stresses in terms of strains by solving
the above equation,

σ x  1 ν 0  εx   ε x 0 
 
σ =
E ν 1  ε  − 
ε

 y 
0
 y   y 0  (5)
τ  1 − ν
2
  γ 
 xy  0 0 (1 − ν) / 2
 γxy   xy 0 
or,
σ = Eε + σ0
where σ0 = − Eε0 is the initial stress.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 77

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

The above relations are valid for plane stress case. For
plane strain case, we need to replace the material constants in
the above equations in the following fashion,
E
E→
1 − ν2
ν
ν→ (6)
1− ν
G→ G
For example, the stress is related to strain by

σ x  1 − ν ν 0  ε x   ε x 0 
  E     
σ y  = 
ν 1− ν 0 ε −
 y   ε y 0 
τ  (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν )   γ 
 xy  
 0 0 (1 − 2ν) / 2 
γxy   xy 0 
in the plane strain case.

is given by,
 ε x 0  α∆T 
   
ε
 y0   = α ∆T  (7)
γ   0 
 xy 0   
where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion, ∆T the change
of temperature. Note that if the structure is free to deform under
structure.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 78

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Strain and Displacement Relations

For small strains and small rotations, we have,
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v
εx = , ε y = , γxy = +
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x
In matrix form,
 ε x  ∂ / ∂x 0 
   u 
εy  =  0 ∂ / ∂y  , or ε = Du

(8)
γ  ∂ / ∂y ∂ / ∂x v 
 xy   
From this relation, we know that the strains (and thus
stresses) are one order lower than the displacements, if the
displacements are represented by polynomials.

Equilibrium Equations
In elasticity theory, the stresses in the structure must satisfy
the following equilibrium equations,
∂σ x ∂τ xy
+ + fx = 0
∂x ∂y
(9)
∂τ xy ∂σ y
+ + fy = 0
∂x ∂y
where fx and fy are body forces (such as gravity forces) per unit
volume. In FEM, these equilibrium conditions are satisfied in
an approximate sense.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 79

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Boundary Conditions

ty
p
y tx

St
Su
x

## The boundary S of the body can be divided into two parts,

Su and St. The boundary conditions (BC’s) are described as,
u = u, v = v, on S u
(10)
tx = tx , ty = ty , on S t

## in which tx and ty are traction forces (stresses on the boundary)

and the barred quantities are those with known values.
forces, concentrated forces and moments, etc.) are converted to
point forces acting at the nodes.

## Exact Elasticity Solution

The exact solution (displacements, strains and stresses) of a
given problem must satisfy the equilibrium equations (9), the
given boundary conditions (10) and compatibility conditions
(structures should deform in a continuous manner, no cracks and
overlaps in the obtained displacement fields).

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 80

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Example 3.1
A plate is supported and loaded with distributed force p as
shown in the figure. The material constants are E and ν.

## The exact solution for this simple problem can be found

easily as follows,
Displacement:
p p
u= x, v=−ν y
E E
Strain:
p p
εx = , εy = − ν , γxy = 0
E E
Stress:
σ x = p, σ y = 0, τ xy = 0

## Exact (or analytical) solutions for simple problems are

numbered (suppose there is a hole in the plate!). That is why we
need FEM!

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 81

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## A General Formula for the Stiffness Matrix

Displacements (u, v) in a plane element are interpolated
from nodal displacements (ui, vi) using shape functions Ni as
follows,
u1 
v 
u  N 1 L 
 
1
0 N2 0 
 =  u 2 or u = Nd (11)
v   0 N1 0 N2 L 
 
v
 2

 M 
where N is the shape function matrix, u the displacement vector
and d the nodal displacement vector. Here we have assumed
that u depends on the nodal values of u only, and v on nodal
values of v only.
From strain-displacement relation (Eq.(8)), the strain vector
is,
ε = Du = DNd, or ε = Bd (12)
where B = DN is the strain-displacement matrix.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 82

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## ∫ ∫(σ ε + σ ε + τ xy γxy )dV

1 1
U= σ T ε dV = x x y y
2 2
V V

∫(Eε) ε dV ∫
1 1 T
= = ε Eε dV
T

2 2
V V

1
= d T B T EB dV d
2
V

1
= d T kd
2
From this, we obtain the general formula for the element
stiffness matrix,

k=

V
B T EB dV (13)

Note that unlike the 1-D cases, E here is a matrix which is given
by the stress-strain relation (e.g., Eq.(5) for plane stress).
The stiffness matrix k defined by (13) is symmetric since E
is symmetric. Also note that given the material property, the
behavior of k depends on the B matrix only, which in turn on
the shape functions. Thus, the quality of finite elements in
representing the behavior of a structure is entirely determined by
the choice of shape functions.
Most commonly employed 2-D elements are linear or

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 83

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Constant Strain Triangle (CST or T3)

This is the simplest 2-D element, which is also called
linear triangular element.

v3
3
(x3, y3) u3
y
v
v2
v1 u 2
(x, y) u2
1 (x2, y2)
u1
(x1, y1)
x
Linear Triangular Element

## For this element, we have three nodes at the vertices of the

triangle, which are numbered around the element in the
counterclockwise direction. Each node has two degrees of
freedom (can move in the x and y directions). The
displacements u and v are assumed to be linear functions within
the element, that is,
u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y , v = b4 + b5 x + b6 y (14)
where bi (i = 1, 2, ..., 6) are constants. From these, the strains
are found to be,
εx = b2 , ε y = b6 , γxy = b3 + b5 (15)

## which are constant throughout the element. Thus, we have the

name “constant strain triangle” (CST).

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 84

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Displacements given by (14) should satisfy the following

six equations,
u1 = b1 + b2 x1 + b3 y1
u2 = b1 + b2 x2 + b3 y 2
M
v3 = b4 + b5 x3 + b6 y3

Solving these equations, we can find the coefficients b1, b2, ...,
and b6 in terms of nodal displacements and coordinates.
Substituting these coefficients into (14) and rearranging the
terms, we obtain,
u1 
v 
 1
u N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 u2 
 =    (16)
v   0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 
v2 
u3 
 
v3 
where the shape functions (linear functions in x and y) are
1
N1 = {( x2 y3 − x3 y 2 ) + ( y2 − y3 ) x + ( x3 − x 2 ) y}
2A
1
N2 = {( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + ( y3 − y1 ) x + ( x1 − x3 ) y} (17)
2A
1
N3 = {( x1 y2 − x 2 y1 ) + ( y1 − y2 ) x + ( x2 − x1 ) y}
2A
and

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 85

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1 x1 y1 
A = det 1 x 2 y2 
1
(18)
2  

1 x3 y3 

is the area of the triangle (Prove this!).
Using the strain-displacement relation (8), results (16) and
(17), we have,
u1 
v 
 εx  y 23 0 y31 0 y12 0  1 
  1  u 
ε
 y = Bd = 0 x32 0 x13 0 x 21  2 (19)
2A   v2
γ   y12   
 xy  x32 y23 x13 y31 x21  
u3
 
v3 
where xij = xi - xj and yij = yi - yj (i, j = 1, 2, 3). Again, we see
constant strains within the element. From stress-strain relation
(Eq.(5), for example), we see that stresses obtained using the
CST element are also constant.
Applying formula (13), we obtain the element stiffness
matrix for the CST element,

k=

V
B T EB dV = tA( B T EB ) (20)

## in which t is the thickness of the element. Notice that k for CST

is a 6 by 6 symmetric matrix. The matrix multiplication in (20)
can be carried out by a computer program.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 86

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Both the expressions of the shape functions in (17) and

their derivations are lengthy and offer little insight into the
behavior of the element.
η=0
ξ=0 η=b
3
ξ=a η=1

ξ=1 (a, b)
2
1

## We introduce the natural coordinates (ξ, η ) on the

triangle, then the shape functions can be represented simply by,
N1 = ξ, N 2 = η, N 3 = 1 − ξ − η (21)
Notice that,
N1 + N 2 + N 3 = 1 (22)
which ensures that the rigid body translation is represented by
the chosen shape functions. Also, as in the 1-D case,
1, at node i;
Ni =  (23)
0, at the other nodes

and varies linearly within the element. The plot for shape
function N1 is shown in the following figure. N2 and N3 have
similar features.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 87

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

ξ=0
3
N1
ξ=1
1
2
1

## We have two coordinate systems for the element: the global

coordinates (x, y) and the natural coordinates (ξ, η ) . The
relation between the two is given by
x = N1x1 + N 2 x2 + N 3 x3
(24)
y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3
or,
x = x13ξ + x 23η + x3
(25)
y = y13ξ + y23η + y3
where xij = xi - xj and yij = yi - yj (i, j = 1, 2, 3) as defined earlier.
Displacement u or v on the element can be viewed as
functions of (x, y) or (ξ, η ) . Using the chain rule for derivatives,
we have,

## ∂u  ∂x ∂ y ∂u  ∂u 

∂ξ 
 ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂x  
∂x 
∂u  = ∂x ∂y  ∂u  = J ∂u  (26)
      

∂η 
  ∂η ∂η 
∂ y 
 
∂ y 

where J is called the Jacobian matrix of the transformation.
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 88
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## From (25), we calculate,

x y13  1  y 23 − y13 
J =  13 , J− 1 = (27)
x23 y 23  2A 
− x 23 x13 
where det J = x13 y23 − x 23 y13 = 2 A has been used (A is the area of
the triangular element. Prove this!).
From (26), (27), (16) and (21) we have,
 ∂u  ∂u 

∂x  1  y23 − y13 
∂ξ 
 ∂u  = − x  
  2 A  23 x13  ∂
 u
 (28)
∂ y 
 
∂η 
1  y23 − y13 u1 − u3 
=  
2A 
− x23 x13 u2 − u3 
Similarly,
∂v 

 ∂x 
 1  y 23 − y13 v1 − v3 
∂v  = − x   (29)
  2 A  23 x13 v 2 − v3 

∂ y 

Using the results in (28) and (29), and the relations
ε = Du = DNd = Bd , we obtain the strain-displacement matrix,
y 23 0 y31 0 y12 0
1 
B= 0 x32 0 x13 0 x 21  (30)
2A  

x32 y23 x13 y31 x 21 y12 
which is the same as we derived earlier in (19).
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 89
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Applications of the CST Element:

•Use in areas where the strain gradient is small.
•Use in mesh transition areas (fine mesh to coarse mesh).
•Avoid using CST in stress concentration or other crucial
areas in the structure, such as edges of holes and corners.
•Recommended for quick and preliminary FE analysis of
2-D problems.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 90

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## Linear Strain Triangle (LST or T6)

This element is also called quadratic triangular element.
v3
u3
3
v6 v5
y
u6 6 5 u5
v2
v1
u4 2 u2
1 4
u1 v4
x

There are six nodes on this element: three corner nodes and
three midside nodes. Each node has two degrees of freedom
(DOF) as before. The displacements (u, v) are assumed to be
u = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 xy + b6 y 2
(31)
v = b7 + b8 x + b9 y + b10 x + b11 xy + b12 y 2 2

## where bi (i = 1, 2, ..., 12) are constants. From these, the strains

are found to be,
εx = b2 + 2b4 x + b5 y
ε y = b9 + b11 x + 2b12 y (32)
γxy = ( b3 + b8 ) + ( b5 + 2b10 ) x + ( 2b6 + b11 ) y

## which are linear functions. Thus, we have the “linear strain

triangle” (LST), which provides better results than the CST.
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 91
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## In the natural coordinate system we defined earlier, the six

shape functions for the LST element are,
N 1 = ξ( 2ξ − 1)
N 2 = η( 2η − 1)
N 3 = ζ ( 2ζ − 1)
(33)
N 4 = 4ξη
N 5 = 4ηζ
N 6 = 4ζ ξ
in which ζ = 1 − ξ − η . Each of these six shape functions
represents a quadratic form on the element as shown in the
figure.
ξ=0
3
ξ=1/2
6 5
ξ=1 N1
1
4 2
1

## Displacements can be written as,

6 6
u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (34)
i =1 i =1

## The element stiffness matrix is still given by

k = ∫B T EB dV , but here BTEB is quadratic in x and y. In
V
general, the integral has to be computed numerically.
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 92
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

η v3
v4 u3

η =1 u4
3 ξ
4

v2
v1 2 u2
1
y u1
η=−1
ξ=− 1 ξ =1
x

## There are four nodes at the corners of the quadrilateral

shape. In the natural coordinate system (ξ, η ) , the four shape
functions are,
1 1
N 1 = (1 − ξ )(1 − η ), N 2 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η )
4 4 (35)
1 1
N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η ), N 4 = (1 − ξ )(1 + η )
4 4
4
Note that ∑ N i = 1 at any point inside the element, as expected.
i=1

## The displacement field is given by

4 4
u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (36)
i =1 i =1

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 93

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

This is the most widely used element for 2-D problems due
to its high accuracy in analysis and flexibility in modeling.
η

η =1 7
3 ξ
4
6
8
5 2
1
y
η=−1
ξ=− 1 ξ =1
x

There are eight nodes for this element, four corners nodes
and four midside nodes. In the natural coordinate system (ξ, η ) ,
the eight shape functions are,
1
N 1 = (1 − ξ )(η − 1)(ξ + η + 1)
4
1
N 2 = (1 + ξ )(η − 1)(η − ξ + 1)
4 (37)
1
N 3 = (1 + ξ )(1 + η )(ξ + η − 1)
4
1
N 4 = (ξ − 1)(η + 1)(ξ − η + 1)
4

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 94

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

1
N 5 = (1 − η )(1 − ξ 2 )
2
1
N 6 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η 2 )
2
1
N 7 = (1 + η )(1 − ξ 2 )
2
1
N 8 = (1 − ξ )(1 − η 2 )
2
8
Again, we have ∑ N i = 1 at any point inside the element.
i=1

## The displacement field is given by

8 8
u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi (38)
i =1 i =1

## which are quadratic functions over the element. Strains and

functions, which are better representations.
Notes:
•Q4 and T3 are usually used together in a mesh with
linear elements.
•Q8 and T6 are usually applied in a mesh composed of
•Quadratic elements are preferred for stress analysis,
because of their high accuracy and the flexibility in
modeling complex geometry, such as curved boundaries.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 95

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Example 3.2
A square plate with a hole at the center and under pressure
in one direction.
y

A
x
B

## The dimension of the plate is 10 in. x 10 in., thickness is

0.1 in. and radius of the hole is 1 in. Assume E = 10x106 psi, v
= 0.3 and p = 100 psi. Find the maximum stress in the plate.

FE Analysis:
From the knowledge of stress concentrations, we should
expect the maximum stresses occur at points A and B on the
edge of the hole. Value of this stress should be around 3p (=
300 psi) which is the exact solution for an infinitely large plate
with a hole.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 96

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## We use the ANSYS FEA software to do the modeling

(meshing) and analysis, using quadratic triangular (T6 or LST),
elements. Linear triangles (CST or T3) is NOT available in
ANSYS.
The stress calculations are listed in the following table,
along with the number of elements and DOF used, for
comparison.
Table. FEA Stress Results
Elem. Type No. Elem. DOF Max. σ (psi)
T6 966 4056 310.1
Q4 493 1082 286.0
Q8 493 3150 327.1
... ... ... ...
Q8 2727 16,826 322.3

Discussions:
•Check the deformed shape of the plate
•Check convergence (use a finer mesh, if possible)
•Less elements (~ 100) should be enough to achieve the
same accuracy with a better or “smarter” mesh
•We’ll redo this example in next chapter employing the
symmetry conditions.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 97

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 98

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Concentrated load (point forces), surface traction (pressure
applied to a structure. Both traction and body forces need to be
converted to nodal forces in the FEA, since they cannot be
applied to the FE model directly. The conversions of these
loads are based on the same idea (the equivalent-work concept)
which we have used for the cases of bar and beam elements.

qB
q fB
qA
fA
s
B B
A L A

Traction on a Q4 element

## Suppose, for example, we have a linearly varying traction q

on a Q4 element edge, as shown in the figure. The traction is
normal to the boundary. Using the local (tangential) coordinate
s, we can write the work done by the traction q as,
L
Wq = t ∫un ( s )q( s )ds
0

## where t is the thickness, L the side length and un the component

of displacement normal to the edge AB.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 99

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## For the Q4 element (linear displacement field), we have

un ( s ) = (1 − s / L )unA + ( s / L )unB
The traction q(s), which is also linear, is given in a similar way,
q( s ) = (1 − s / L )q A + ( s / L )qB
Thus, we have,
 L
1 − s / L  q A 
Wq = t ∫[unA unB ] [1 − s / L s / L] ds
0  s / L  q B 
L
 (1 − s / L ) 2 ( s / L )(1 − s / L ) q A 
= [unA unB ]t ∫ ds q 
0 ( s / L )(1 − s / L )   B
2
(s / L)
tL 2 1q A 
= [unA unB ] 
6 1 2  
q B 
and the equivalent nodal force vector is,
 f A  tL 2 1q A 
 =   
 f B  6 1 2q B 
Note, for constant q, we have,
 f A  qtL 1
 = 
 f B  2 1
the traction is converted to forces at three nodes along the edge,
Traction tangent to the boundary, as well as body forces,
are converted to nodal forces in a similar way.
© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 100
Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Stress Calculation
The stress in an element is determined by the following
relation,
σx   εx 
   
σ
 y = E  ε y  = EBd (39)
τ  γ 
 xy   xy 
where B is the strain-nodal displacement matrix and d is the
nodal displacement vector which is known for each element
once the global FE equation has been solved.
Stresses can be evaluated at any point inside the element
(such as the center) or at the nodes. Contour plots are usually
used in FEA software packages (during post-process) for users
to visually inspect the stress results.

## The von Mises Stress:

The von Mises stress is the effective or equivalent stress for
2-D and 3-D stress analysis. For a ductile material, the stress
level is considered to be safe, if
σe ≤σY
where σe is the von Mises stress and σY the yield stress of the
material. This is a generalization of the 1-D (experimental)
result to 2-D and 3-D situations.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 101

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## The von Mises stress is defined by

1
σe = (σ1 − σ2 ) 2 + (σ2 − σ3 ) 2 + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 (40)
2
in which σ1 , σ2 and σ3 are the three principle stresses at the
considered point in a structure.
For 2-D problems, the two principle stresses in the plane
are determined by

σx + σ y σx − σ y 
2

σ1 = +  + τ xy
P

2

2  2 
(41)
σx + σ y σx − σ y 
2

σ2 = −  + τ xy
P

2

2  2 

## Thus, we can also express the von Mises stress in terms of

the stress components in the xy coordinate system. For plane
stress conditions, we have,

## σe = (σx + σ y ) 2 − 3(σxσ y − τ xy2 ) (42)

Averaged Stresses:
Stresses are usually averaged at nodes in FEA software
packages to provide more accurate stress values. This option
should be turned off at nodes between two materials or other
geometry discontinuity locations where stress discontinuity does
exist.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 102

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

Discussions

## 1) Know the behaviors of each type of elements:

T3 and Q4: linear displacement, constant strain and stress;
T6 and Q8: quadratic displacement, linear strain and stress.

## 2) Choose the right type of elements for a given problem:

When in doubt, use higher order elements or a finer mesh.

## 3) Avoid elements with large aspect ratios and corner angles:

Aspect ratio = Lmax / Lmin
where Lmax and Lmin are the largest and smallest characteristic
lengths of an element, respectively.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 103

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 3. Two-Dimensional Problems

## 4) Connect the elements properly:

Don’t leave unintended gaps or free elements in FE models.

A C

B D
Improper connections (gaps along AB and CD)

Sections 3.1-3.5 and 3.8-3.12 of Cook’s book.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 104

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Chapter 4. Finite Element Modeling and

Solution Techniques

I. Symmetry

## A structure possesses symmetry if its components are

arranged in a periodic or reflective manner.

Types of Symmetry:
•Reflective (mirror, bilateral) symmetry
•Rotational (cyclic) symmetry
•Axisymmetry
•Translational symmetry
•...

Examples:

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 105

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Applications of the symmetry properties:

•Reducing the size of the problems (save CPU time, disk
space, postprocessing effort, etc.)
•Checking the FEA results
•...

## Symmetry of a structure should be fully exploited and

retained in the FE model to ensure the efficiency and quality of
FE solutions.

Examples:

Cautions:
In vibration and buckling analyses, symmetry concepts, in
general, should not be used in FE solutions (works fine in
modeling), since symmetric structures often have antisymmetric
vibration or buckling modes.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 106

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Substructuring is a process of analyzing a large structure as

a collection of (natural) components. The FE models for these
components are called substructures or superelements (SE).

Physical Meaning:
A finite element model of a portion of structure.

Mathematical Meaning:
Boundary matrices which are load and stiffness matrices
reduced (condensed) from the interior points to the exterior or
boundary points.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 107

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

•Large problems (which will otherwise exceed your
computer capabilities)
•Less CPU time per run once the superelements have
been processed (i.e., matrices have been saved)
•Components may be modeled by different groups
•Partial redesign requires only partial reanalysis (reduced
cost)
•Efficient for problems with local nonlinearities (such as
confined plastic deformations) which can be placed in
one superelement (residual structure)
•Exact for static stress analysis

•Matrix condensation for dynamic problems introduce
new approximations
•...

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 108

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Direct Methods (Gauss Elimination):

•Solution time proportional to NB2 (N is the dimension of
the matrix, B the bandwidth)
•Suitable for small to medium problems, or slender
structures (small bandwidth)
•Easy to handle multiple load cases

Iterative Methods:
•Solution time is unknown beforehand
•Reduced storage requirement
•Suitable for large problems, or bulky structures (large
bandwidth, converge faster)
•Need solving again for different load cases

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 109

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Gauss Elimination - Example:

 8 − 2 0  x1   2 
− 2 4 − 3x  = − 1 or Ax = b .
  2   
0 − 3 3 
    
x 3   3 
Forward Elimination:
(1)  8 − 2 0 2
Form (2) − 2 4 − 3 − 1;
 
0 − 3 3
(3)  3
(1) + 4 x (2) ⇒ (2):
(1) 8 − 2 0 2
(2) 0 14 − 12 − 2;
 
0 − 3
(3)  3 3
14
(2) + (3) ⇒ (3):
3
(1) 8 − 2 0 2
(2) 0 14 − 12 − 2;
 
(3) 
0 0 2 
12 

Back Substitution:
x 3 = 12 / 2 = 6 1.5
 
x 2 = ( − 2 + 12 x 3 ) / 14 = 5 or x =  5 .
x1 = (2 + 2 x 2 ) / 8 = 1.5 6 
 

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 110

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Iterative Method - Example:

The Gauss-Seidel Method
Ax = b (A is symmetric)
N
or ∑ aij x j = bi , i = 1, 2, ..., N .
j =1

## Start with an estimate x( 0 ) and then iterate using the following:

1  i− 1 N

∑ a ij x j ∑ a ij x j
( k + 1) ( k + 1)
= bi − −
(k )
xi ,
a ii  j =1 j=i+ 1 
for i = 1, 2, ..., N .
In vector form,
−1
[
x ( k + 1) = A D b − A L x ( k + 1) − A L x ( k ) ,
T
]
where
A D = 〈a ii 〉 is the diagonal matrix of A,

## A L is the lower triangular matrix of A,

such that A = A D + A L + A L .
T

## Iterations continue until solution x converges, i.e.

x ( k + 1) − x ( k )
≤ε ,
x(k )

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 111

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## IV. Nature of Finite Element Solutions

•FE Model – A mathematical model of the real structure,
based on many approximations.
•Real Structure -- Infinite number of nodes (physical
points or particles), thus infinite number of DOF’s.
•FE Model – finite number of nodes, thus finite number
of DOF’s.

## ð Displacement field is controlled (or constrained) by the

values at a limited number of nodes.

## Recall that on an element :

4
u = ∑ N α uα
α =1

Stiffening Effect:
•FE Model is stiffer than the real structure.
•In general, displacement results are smaller in
magnitudes than the exact values.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 112

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## Hence, FEM solution of displacement provides a lower

bound of the exact solution.

∆ (Displacement)

Exact Solution

FEM Solutions

No. of DOF’s

## The FEM solution approaches the exact solution from

below.
This is true for displacement based FEA only!

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 113

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

V. Numerical Error

## Error ≠ Mistakes in FEM (modeling or solution).

Types of Error:
•Modeling Error (beam, plate … theories)
•Discretization Error (finite, piecewise … )
•Numerical Error ( in solving FE equations)

## Example (numerical error):

u1 u2
P
1 k1 2 k2 x

FE Equations:

 k1 − k1 u1  P 
− k  =  
 1 k1 + k 2 
u 2   0 
and Det K = k1 k 2 .
The system will be singular if k2 is small compared with k1.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 114

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

P
u2 = u1 −
u2
k1
k1
u2 = u1
k1 + k 2

## k2 << k1 (two lines close):

ð System ill-conditioned.

P/k1 u1

P
u2 = u1 −
u2 k1

k1
u2 = u1
k1 + k 2
k2 >> k1 (two line apart):
ð System well conditioned.

P/k1 u1

## •Large difference in stiffness of different parts in FE

model may cause ill-conditioning in FE equations.
Hence giving results with large errors.
•Ill-conditioned system of equations can lead to large
changes in solution with small changes in input
(right hand side vector).

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 115

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## VI. Convergence of FE Solutions

As the mesh in an FE model is “refined” repeatedly, the FE
solution will converge to the exact solution of the mathematical
model of the problem (the model based on bar, beam, plane
stress/strain, plate, shell, or 3-D elasticity theories or
assumptions).

Types of Refinement:
h-refinement: reduce the size of the element (“h” refers to the
typical size of the elements);
p-refinement: Increase the order of the polynomials on an
element (linear to quadratic, etc.; “h” refers to
the highest order in a polynomial);
r-refinement: re-arrange the nodes in the mesh;
hp-refinement: Combination of the h- and p-refinements
(better results!).

Examples:

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 116

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## VII. Adaptivity (h-, p-, and hp-Methods)

•Future of FE applications
•Automatic refinement of FE meshes until converged
results are obtained
•User’s responsibility reduced: only need to generate a
good initial mesh

Error Indicators:
Define,
σ --- element by element stress field (discontinuous),
σ*--- averaged or smooth stress (continuous),
σE = σ - σ* --- the error stress field.

## Compute strain energy,

M
1 T −1
U = ∑ Ui , Ui = ∫2 s E s dV ;
i =1 V i

M
1 *T − 1 *
U = ∑ U i* ,
*
U* =
i ∫2 s E s dV ;
i =1 V i

M
1 T −1
U E = ∑ U Ei , U Ei = ∫2 s E E s E dV ;
i =1 V i

element i.

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 117

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 4. FE Modeling and Solution Techniques

## One error indicator --- the relative energy error:

1/ 2
 U 
η= E  . (0 ≤η ≤1)
U + U E 

## The indicator η is computed after each FE solution. Refinement

of the FE model continues until, say
η ≤ 0.05.
=> converged FE solution.

Examples:

## © 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 118

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

I. Plate Theory
• Flat plate
• Bending behavior dominates

## Note the following similarity:

1-D straight beam model ó 2-D flat plate model

Applications:
• Shear walls
• Floor panels
• Shelves
• …

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 119

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

∆y

y
∆x My
q(x,y)
Qy Mxy
t Mx
Qx
x Mid surface
Mxy

Stresses:

τyz y

σy

τxy
τxz τxy
σx
x

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 120

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Relations Between Forces and Stresses

Bending moments (per unit length):
t/2
M x = ∫− t / 2 σ x zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (1)
t/2
M y = ∫− t / 2 σ y zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (2)

## Twisting moment (per unit length):

t/2
M xy = ∫− t / 2 τ xy zdz , ( N ⋅ m / m) (3)

## Shear Forces (per unit length):

t/2
Q x = ∫− t / 2 τ xz dz , ( N / m) (4)
t/2
Q y = ∫− t / 2 τ yz dz , ( N / m) (5)

## Maximum bending stresses:

6M 6M y
(σ x ) max =± 2x, (σ y ) max = ± . (6)
t t2
• Maximum stress is always at z = ± t / 2
• No bending stresses at midsurface (similar to the beam
model)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 121

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Assumptions (similar to those in the beam theory):

A straight line along the normal to the mid surface remains
that is, these is no transverse shear deformation:
γ xz = γ yz = 0 .

Displacement:

∂w
z
∂x

w
x

w = w( x, y ), ( deflection)
∂w
u = −z , (7)
∂x
∂w
v = −z .
∂y

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 122

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Strains:
∂ 2w
ε x = −z 2 ,
∂x
∂ 2w
ε y = −z 2 , (8)
∂y
∂ 2w
γ xy = −2 z .
∂x ∂y
Note that there is no stretch of the mid surface due to the
deflection (bending) of the plate.

## Stresses (plane stress state):

σ x  1 ν 0  ε x 
  E ν 1  ε  ,
σ
 y =
 y 
0

τ  1 − ν
2

 xy   0 0 (1 − ν ) / 2 γ xy 

or,
 ∂2w 
 2 
σ x   1 ν 0   ∂x2 
 
σ = −
E 
ν  ∂ w  .
 y z 2 
1 0
  ∂y 2 
(9)
τ  1 − ν
 xy   0 0 (1 − ν )  ∂ 2 w 
 
 ∂x∂y 

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 123

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Governing Equation:
D∇ 4 w = q ( x , y ) , (10)
where
∂4 ∂4 ∂4
∇ ≡ ( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 ),
4

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y
Et 3
D= (the bending rigidity of the plate),
12(1 − ν )
2

d 4w
EI 4
= q( x ) .
dx

## Note: Equation (10) represents the equilibrium condition

in the z-direction. To see this, refer to the previous figure
showing all the forces on a plate element. Summing the forces
in the z-direction, we have,
Q x ∆y + Q y ∆x + q∆x∆y = 0,

which yields,
∂Q x ∂Q y
+ + q( x, y ) = 0 .
∂x ∂y
Substituting the following relations into the above equation, we
obtain Eq. (10).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 124

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Shear forces and bending moments:

∂M x ∂M xy ∂M xy ∂M y
Qx = + , Qy = + ,
∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

##  ∂2w ∂2w   ∂2w ∂2w 

M x = D 2 + ν 2  , M y = D 2 + ν 2  .
 ∂x ∂y   ∂y ∂x 

## The fourth-order partial differential equation, given in (10)

and in terms of the deflection w(x,y), needs to be solved under
certain given boundary conditions.

Boundary Conditions:
∂w
Clamped: w = 0, = 0; (11)
∂n
Simply supported: w = 0, M n = 0; (12)
Free: Q n = 0, M n = 0; (13)
where n is the normal direction of the boundary. Note that the
given values in the boundary conditions shown above can be
non-zero values as well.

s n

boundary

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 125

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Examples:
A square plate with four edges clamped or hinged, and
under a uniform load q or a concentrated force P at the center C.

y
C L
L
x Given: E, t, and ν = 0.3

## For this simple geometry, Eq. (10) with boundary condition

(11) or (12) can be solved analytically. The maximum
deflections are given in the following table for the different
cases.

## Deflection at the Center (wc)

Clamped Simply supported

## Under concentrated force P 0.00560 PL2/D 0.0116 PL2/D

in which: D= Et3/(12(1-v2)).
These values can be used to verify the FEA solutions.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 126

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Thick Plate Theory (Mindlin Plate Theory)

If the thickness t of a plate is not “thin”, e.g., t / L ≥ 1 / 10
(L = a characteristic dimension of the plate), then the thick plate
theory by Mindlin should be applied. This theory accounts for
the angle changes within a cross section, that is,
γ xz ≠ 0, γ yz ≠ 0 .

This means that a line which is normal to the mid surface before
the deformation will not be so after the deformation.

∂w
z θy  ≠ − 
 ∂x 

w
∂w x
∂x

## New independent variables:

θ x and θ y : rotation angles of a line, which is normal to the
mid surface before the deformation, about x- and y-axis,
respectively.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 127

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

New relations:
u = zθ y , v = − zθ x ; (14)

∂θ y
εx = z ,
∂x
∂θ
ε y = −z x ,
∂y
∂θ ∂θ
γ xy = z ( y − x ), (15)
∂y ∂x
∂w
γ xz = +θ y ,
∂x
∂w
γ yz = −θ x.
∂y
Note that if we imposed the conditions (or assumptions)
that
∂w ∂w
γ xz = + θ y = 0, γ yz = − θ x = 0,
∂x ∂y
then we can recover the relations applied in the thin plate
theory.
Main variables: w( x, y ),θ x ( x, y ) and θ y ( x, y ) .

## The governing equations and boundary conditions can be

established for thick plate based on the above assumptions.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 128

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## II. Plate Elements

Kirchhoff Plate Elements:

z y

Mid surface 4
3

x
1 2
∂w  ∂w  t
w1 ,   ,    ∂w   ∂w 
w2 ,   ,  
 ∂x  1  ∂y  1  ∂x  2  ∂y  2

∂w ∂w
DOF at each node: w, , .
∂y ∂y
On each element, the deflection w(x,y) is represented by
 4
∂w ∂w 
w( x, y ) = ∑  N i wi + N xi ( ) i + N yi ( ) i  ,
i =1  ∂x ∂y 
where Ni, Nxi and Nyi are shape functions. This is an
incompatible element! The stiffness matrix is still of the form
k = ∫ B T EBdV ,
V

strain matrix.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 129

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

z y z y

4 4 7 3
3
8 6
x x
1 2 1 2
t t 5

## DOF at each node: w, θx and θy.

On each element:
n
w( x, y ) = ∑ N i wi ,
i =1
n
θ x ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ xi ,
i =1
n
θ y ( x, y ) = ∑ N iθ yi .
i =1

## • Three independent fields.

• Deflection w(x,y) is linear for Q4, and quadratic for Q8.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 130

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Discrete Kirchhoff Element:

Triangular plate element (not available in ANSYS).
z y 3

4 6

1 2
t 5 x

∂w ∂w
DOF at corner nodes: w, , ,θ x ,θ y ;
∂x ∂y
DOF at mid side nodes: θ x ,θ y .

## Total DOF = 21.

Then, impose conditions γ xz = γ yz = 0 , etc., at selected
nodes to reduce the DOF (using relations in (15)). Obtain:
z y 3

1 2
x

∂w   ∂w 
At each node: w,θ x  = ,θ y  = .
 ∂x   ∂y 
Total DOF = 9 (DKT Element).
• Incompatible w(x,y); convergence is faster (w is cubic
along each edge) and it is efficient.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 131

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Test Problem:

P
y
C
L
L
x L/t = 10, ν = 0.3

## ANSYS Result for wc

Mesh wc (× PL2/D)
2×2 0.00593
4×4 0.00598
8×8 0.00574
16×16 0.00565
: :
Exact Solution 0.00560

## Question: Converges from “above”? Contradiction to what

we learnt about the nature of the FEA solution?
Reason: This is an incompatible element ( See comments
on p. 177).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 132

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Shells – Thin structures witch span over curved surfaces.

Example:
• Sea shell, egg shell (the wonder of the nature);
• Containers, pipes, tanks;
• Car bodies;
• Roofs, buildings (the Superdome), etc.

Forces in shells:
Membrane forces + Bending Moments
(cf. plates: bending only)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 133

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

## Example: A Cylindrical Container.

p p

internal forces:

p
p
membrane stresses
dominate

Shell Theory:
• Thin shell theory
• Thick shell theory
Shell theories are the most complicated ones to formulate
and analyze in mechanics (Russian’s contributions).

• Engineering ≠ Craftsmanship
• Demand strong analytical skill

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 134

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Shell Elements:

## DOF at each node:

w
v

u θx
θy

Q4 or Q8 shell element.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 135

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

θz
i w
v

i u θx
θy

## • Based on shell theories;

• Most general shell elements (flat shell and plate
elements are subsets);
• Complicated in formulation.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 136

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 5. Plate and Shell Elements

Test Cases:

L/2
q L/2
F
A
R A
80o R

F
Roof Pinched Cylinder

F2
F R F
b
A

A F L
F1
F

## ð Check the Table, on page 188 of Cook’s book, for

conditions.

Difficulties in Application:
• Non uniform thickness (turbo blades, vessels with
stiffeners, thin layered structures, etc.);
ð Should turn to 3-D theory and apply solid elements.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 137

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Stress State:
y
F

x
z

y,v
σy

τ yx
τ yz τ xy
τ zy
σx
τ zx τ xz
σz x, u

z, w

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 138

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

σx 
σ 
 y 
σz 
ó = {σ }=   , or [σ ] (1)
 τ xy
ij

 τ yz 
 
 τ zx 
Strains:

 εx 
 εy 
ε 
å = {ε }=  z
γ xy  , or [ε ]
ij (2)
γ 
 yz 
 γ zx 
Stress-strain relation:
1 − v v v 0 0 0 
σx   v 1− v v 0 0 0  εx 
σ    
 y   v v 1− v 0 0 0  ε y 
 0 1 − 2v
σz

=
E
 0 0 0 0   ε z 
 τ xy + −  γ xy 
(1 v )(1 2 v ) 2
  1 − 2v
 τ yz   0 0 0 0 0  γ yz 
   2  
 τ zx   0 1 − 2v  γ zx 
0 0 0 0
 2 

or ó = Eå (3)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 139

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Displacement:
 u( x, y , z )   u1 
   
u =  v ( x, y , z )  =  u2  ( 4)
 w( x, y , z )   u 
   3

Strain-Displacement Relation:
∂u ∂v ∂w
εx = , εy = , εz = ,
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂v ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂w
γ xy = + , γ yz = + , γ xz = + (5)
∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x

or

1  ∂ui ∂u j 
ε ij =  +  , (i, j = 1, 2, 3)
2  ∂x j ∂xi 

or simply,

ε ij =
1
2
(ui , j + u j ,i ) ( tensor notation)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 140

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Equilibrium Equations:
∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz
+ + + fx = 0 ,
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂τ yx ∂σ y ∂τ yz
+ + + fy = 0 , ( 6)
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂τ zx ∂τ zy ∂σ z
+ + + fz = 0 ,
∂x ∂y ∂z
or
σ ij , j + f i = 0

## Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

ui = ui , on Γu ( specified displacement )
ti = ti , on Γσ ( specified traction ) ( 7)
( traction ti = σ ij n j )

p
n
Γσ
Γ ( = Γu + Γσ )
Γu
Stress Analysis:
Solving equations in (6) under the BC’s in (7).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 141

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

## II. Finite Element Formulation

Displacement Field:
N
u= ∑ N i ui
i =1
N
v= ∑ N i vi (8)
i =1
N
w= ∑ N i wi
i =1

Nodal values
In matrix form:

 u1 
 v1 
u   N1 0 0 N2 0 0 L  w1 
   
v  = 0 N1 0 0 N2 0 L  u2  (9)
 ( 3×1)  L
w 
0 0 N1 0 0 N2 ( 3×3 N )  v2 
w2 
 M ( 3N ×1)
or u=Nd

Using relations (5) and (8), we can derive the strain vector

ε =B d
(6×1) (6×3N)×(3N×1)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 142

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Stiffness Matrix:

k = ∫ B T E B dv (10)
v

(3×N) (3N×6)×(6×6)×(6×3N)

## Numerical quadratures are often needed to evaluate the

above integration.

## Rigid-body motions for 3-D bodies (6 components):

3 translations, 3 rotations.
These rigid-body motions (singularity of the system of
equations) must be removed from the FEA model to ensure the
quality of the analysis.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 143

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Tetrahedron:

## linear (4 nodes) quadratic (10 nodes)

Hexahedron (brick):

Penta:

## Avoid using the linear (4-node) tetrahedron element in 3-D

stress analysis (Inaccurate! But it is OK for dynamic analysis).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 144

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Element Formulation:
 Linear Hexahedron Element
6
5
y 8 7 2
1
4 3 mapping (x↔ξ)
x (-1≤ ξ,η,ζ ≤ 1)
z
η
(-1,1,-1) 4 3 (1,1,-1)
(-1,1,1) 8 7 (1,1,1)

o ξ
(-1,-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1,-1)
(-1,-1,1) 5 6 (1,-1,1)
ζ

## Displacement field in the element:

8 8 8
u = ∑ N i ui , v = ∑ N i vi , w = ∑ N i wi (11)
i =1 i =1 1i =1

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 145

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Shape functions:
1
N 1 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) ,
8
1
N 2 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 − η ) (1 − ζ ) ,
8
1
N 3 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 + ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 − ζ ) , (12)
8
M M
1
N 8 (ξ ,η , ζ ) = (1 − ξ ) (1 + η ) (1 + ζ ) .
8
Note that we have the following relations for the shape
functions:
N i ( ξ j ,η j , ζ j ) = δ ij , i, j = 1,2,L, 8.
8

∑ N i ( ξ ,η ,ζ ) = 1.
i =1

## Coordinate Transformation (Mapping):

8 8 8
x = ∑ N i xi , y = ∑ N i yi , z = ∑ N i zi . (13)
i =1 i =1 i =1

## The same shape functions are used as for the displacement

field.

⇒ Isoparametric element.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 146

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Jacobian Matrix:
 ∂u   ∂x ∂y ∂z   ∂u 
 ∂ξ   ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ   ∂x 
     ∂u 
 ∂u   ∂x ∂y ∂z 
 =   (14)
 ∂η   ∂η ∂η ∂η   ∂y 
 ∂u   ∂x ∂y ∂z   ∂u 
 ∂ζ     ∂z 
 ∂ζ ∂ζ ∂ζ 
≡ J Jacobian matrix

 ∂u   ∂u 
 ∂x   ∂ξ 
 ∂u   
−1  ∂u   ∂u 8
∂N i 
⇒  =J   ,  = ∑ ∂ξ i u , etc. 
 ∂y   ∂η   ∂ξ i =1 
 ∂u   ∂u 
 ∂z   ∂ζ 

and

 ∂v   ∂v 
 ∂x   ∂ξ 
 ∂v   
−1  ∂v 
 =J   , (15)
 ∂y   ∂η 
 ∂v   ∂v 
 ∂z   ∂ζ 

also for w.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 147

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

 ∂u 
 ∂x 
 ∂v 
ε x   
ε   ∂ y 
  
y ∂w 
 ε z   ∂z 
å =   =  ∂x ∂u  = L use (15) = B d
γ xy   + 
γ yz   ∂x ∂y 
   ∂w ∂v 
γ zx   + 
∂y ∂z
 
∂u
 +  ∂w
 ∂z ∂x 

## where d is the nodal displacement vector,

i.e.,
å = Bd (16)
(6×1) (6×24)×(24×1)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 148

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Strain energy,
1 T 1
U=
2V∫ ó å dV =
2V∫ ( Eå ) T å dV

1
= ∫ å T E å dV
2V
1 T T 
= d  ∫ B E B dV  d (17)
2 V 

## Element stiffness matrix,

k = ∫ B T E B dV (18)
V

(24×24) (24×6)×(6×6)×(6×24)

In ξηζ coordinates:
dV = (det J ) dξ dη dζ (19)
1 1 1
⇒ k = ∫ ∫ ∫ B T E B (det J ) dξ dη dζ ( 20)
−1 −1 −1

( Numerical integration)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 149

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

pA/3 pA/12
p

## Area =A Nodal forces for 20-node

Hexahedron
Stresses:
ó = Eå = EB d
Principal stresses:
σ 1 ,σ 2 ,σ 3 .

## von Mises stress:

1
σ e = σ VM = (σ 1 − σ 2 ) 2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + (σ 3 − σ 1 ) 2 .
2

## Stresses are evaluated at selected points (including nodes)

on each element. Averaging (around a node, for example) may
be employed to smooth the field.

Examples: …

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 150

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

## Apply cylindrical coordinates:

( x, y, z) ⇒ (r, θ, z)
z,w

θ
r, u

z, w
σz
θ
r, u
τ rz
r σθ σr

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 151

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Displacement field:

## u = u ( r , z ) , w = w( r , z ) (No v − circumferential component )

Strains:
∂u u ∂w
εr = , εθ = , εz = ,
∂r r ∂z
∂w ∂u
γ rz = + , (γ rθ = γ zθ = 0) ( 21)
∂r ∂z
u
r (r+u)dθ

rdθ

Stresses:

σ r  1 − v v v 0  εr 
σ   v 1− v v 0  ε 
 θ E    θ
  = v 1− v   ( 22)
 v 0 
σ z  (1 + v ) (1 − 2v )  0 1 − 2v  ε z 
τ rz   0 0 γ rz 
2 

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 152

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Axisymmetric Elements:

2 η
2 2
r, u 3
r, u
3 ξ
3 4 1
1 1

## 3-node element (ring) 4-node element (ring)

k = B T E B rdr dθ dz
V
( 23)

or
2π 1 1

k=
∫∫∫
0 −1 −1
B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη dθ

1 1

= 2π
∫∫
−1 −1
B T E B r (det J ) dξ dη ( 24)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 153

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

Applications:
• Rotating Flywheel:
z

Body forces:
fr = ρ rω 2 ( equivalent radial centrifugal/ inertial force)
fz = − ρ g ( gravitational force)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 154

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

p
r0

q = ( p ) 2π r0

• Press Fit:

ri
r0
ri +δ

at r = ri :
uo − ui = δ
⇒ MPC
“i” “o”

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 155

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 6. Solid Elements

p z

## This is a geometrically nonlinear (large deformation)

problem and iteration method (incremental approach) needs to
be employed.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 156

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## • Natural frequencies and modes F(t)

• Frequency response (F(t)=Fo sinωt)
• Transient response (F(t) arbitrary)

I. Basic Equations
A. Single DOF System
k m - mass
f=f(t) k - stiffness
m 
c 
c - damping
 f (t ) - force
ku
c u& m f(t)
x, u

## From Newton’s law of motion (ma = F), we have

mu&& = f(t)−k u −cu& ,
i.e.
mu&&+cu& +ku = f(t) , (1)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 157

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Free Vibration: f(t) = 0 and no damping (c = 0)

Eq. (1) becomes
mu&&+k u =0 . (2)
(meaning: inertia force + stiffness force = 0)
Assume:
u(t) = U sin (ω t) ,

## where ω is the frequency of oscillation, U the amplitude.

Eq. (2) yields
−Uù 2 m sin( ù t)+kU sin( ù t)= 0

i.e.,
[−ω 2
]
m+k U = 0.

[−ω 2
]
m+k = 0,

which yields
k
ω = . (3)
m

## This is the circular natural frequency of the single DOF

system (rad/s). The cyclic frequency (1/s = Hz) is
ω
f= , (4)

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 158

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

u
u = U s in w t
U

t
U
T=1/f

## With non-zero damping c, where

0 < c < c c = 2 mω = 2 k m (cc = critical damping) (5)
we have the damped natural frequency:

ωd = ω 1 − ξ 2 , (6)
c
where ξ = (damping ratio).
cc

ωd ≈ ω . (7)

u

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 159

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## B. Multiple DOF System

Equation of Motion
Equation of motion for the whole structure is
&& + C u& + Ku = f ( t ) ,
Mu (8)
in which: u  nodal displacement vector,
M  mass matrix,
C  damping matrix,
K  stiffness matrix,
f  forcing vector.
Physical meaning of Eq. (8):
Inertia forces + Damping forces + Elastic forces
= Applied forces
Mass Matrices
Lumped mass matrix (1-D bar element):
ρAL 1 ρ,A,L 2 m = ρAL
m1 = 2
2 2
u1 u2
Element mass matrix is found to be

 ρAL 
 0 
m= 2
ρAL 
 0 
1442424 3
diagonal matrix

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 160

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

m= ∫V
ρ N T NdV (9)

## where N is the same shape function matrix as used for the

displacement field.
This is obtained by considering the kinetic energy:
1 T 1
Κ = u& m u& (cf. mv 2 )
2 2
= ∫ ρ u& 2 dV = ∫ ρ (u& ) u& dV
1 1 T

2 V 2 V
= ∫ ρ (N u& ) (N u& )dV
1 T

2 V
1
= u& T ∫ ρ N T N dV u&
2 1V 42 43
m

## Bar Element (linear shape function):

1 − ξ 
m = ∫ ρ  [1 − ξ ξ ]ALdξ
V
 ξ 
1 / 3 1 / 6 u&&1 (10)
= ρAL  
1 / 6 1 / 3 u&&2

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 161

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Element mass matrices:

⇒ local coordinates ⇒ to global coordinates
⇒ assembly of the global structure mass matrix M.

v1 v2
θ1 ρ, A, L θ2

m = ∫ ρNT NdV
V

##  156 22 L 54 − 13L  v&&1

 − 3L2  θ&&1
ρAL  22 L 4 L2 13L

= (11)
420  54 13L 156 − 22 L v&&2
 2  &&
− 13L − 3L − 22 L 4 L  θ2
2

## Units in dynamic analysis (make sure they are consistent):

Choice I Choice II
t (time) s s
L (length) m mm
m (mass) kg Mg
a (accel.) m/s2 mm/s2
f (force) N N
ρ (density) kg/m3 Mg/mm3

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 162

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## II. Free Vibration

Study of the dynamic characteristics of a structure:
• natural frequencies
• normal modes (shapes)

## Let f(t) = 0 and C = 0 (ignore damping) in the dynamic

equation (8) and obtain
M&u& + Ku = 0 (12)
Assume that displacements vary harmonically with time, that
is,
u ( t ) = u sin( ω t ),
u& ( t ) = ω u cos( ω t ),
&u& ( t ) = − ω 2 u sin( ω t ),

## where u is the vector of nodal displacement amplitudes.

Eq. (12) yields,
[K − ω 2
]
M u = 0 (13)
This is a generalized eigenvalue problem (EVP).

Solutions?

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 163

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Trivial solution: u = 0 for any values of ω (not interesting).

Nontrivial solutions: u ≠ 0 only if
K − ω2 M = 0 (14)

## This is an n-th order polynomial of ω2, from which we can

find n solutions (roots) or eigenvalues ωi.
• ωi (i = 1, 2, …, n) are the natural frequencies (or
characteristic frequencies) of the structure.
• ω1 (the smallest one) is called the fundamental frequency.
• For each ωi , Eq. (13) gives one solution (or eigen) vector
[K − ω i
2
]
M ui = 0 .

## u i (i=1,2,…,n) are the normal modes (or natural

modes, mode shapes, etc.).

## Properties of Normal Modes

u iT K u j = 0,

u iT M u j = 0 , for i ≠ j, (15)

## if ωi ≠ ω j . That is, modes are orthogonal (or independent) to

each other with respect to K and M matrices.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 164

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Normalize the modes:

u iT M u i = 1,
u iT K u i = ω i2 . (16)

Note:
• Magnitudes of displacements (modes) or stresses in normal
mode analysis have no physical meaning.
• For normal mode analysis, no support of the structure is
necessary.
ωi = 0 ⇔ there are rigid body motions of the whole or a
part of the structure.
⇒ apply this to check the FEA model (check for
mechanism or free elements in the models).
• Lower modes are more accurate than higher modes in the
FE calculations (less spatial variations in the lower modes
⇒ fewer elements/wave length are needed).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 165

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

Example: y
v2
ρ, A, EI θ2

1 2 x
L

v2  0
[K − ω M   =  ,
2
]
θ2  0
EI  12 − 6L ρAL  156 − 22L
K= 3  2 
, M=  2 
.
L − 6L 4L  420 − 22L 4L 

## EVP: 12 −156λ − 6L + 22Lλ

= 0,
− 6L + 22Lλ 4L − 4L λ
2 2

in which λ = ω ρ AL / 420 EI .
2 4

## Solving the EVP, we obtain,

1
 EI  2  v 2   1 
ω 1 = 3.533  ,   = 1.38 ,
4 
 ρ AL  θ 2 1  L 
#3 #2
1
 EI  2  v 2   1 
#1 ω 2 = 34 .81 
4 
,   = 7.62 .
 ρAL  θ 2  2  L 
Exact solutions:
1 1
 EI  2
 EI  2
ω1 = 3.516  ,
4 
ω2 = 22.03  .
4 
 ρAL   ρAL 
We can see that mode 1 is calculated much more accurately
than mode 2, with one beam element.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 166

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

III. Damping
Two commonly used models for viscous damping.

## A. Proportional Damping (Rayleigh Damping)

C = αM + β K (17)
where the constants α & β are found from
αω 1 β αω 2 β
ξ1 = + , ξ2 = + ,
2 2ω1 2 2ω 2
with ω1 , ω 2 , ξ1 & ξ 2 (damping ratio) being selected.
Damping ratio

B. Modal Damping
Incorporate the viscous damping in modal equations.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 167

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## IV. Modal Equations

• Use the normal modes (modal matrix) to transform the
coupled system of dynamic equations to uncoupled
system of equations.
We have

[K − ω i M ui = 0 ,
2
] i = 1,2,..., n (18)

## where the normal mode u i satisfies:

 u iT K u j = 0,
 T for i ≠ j,
ui M u j = 0,

and

 u iT M u i = 1 ,
 T for i = 1, 2, …, n.
 i
u K u i = ω 2
i ,

## Form the modal matrix:

Ö (n×n ) = [u 1 u 2 L u n ] (19)
Can verify that
ω12 0 L 0 
 
0 ω 2
M
ÖT KÖ = Ù =  2  (Spectralmatrix),
M O 0
 2 (20)
 0 L 0 ω n

ÖT MÖ = I.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 168

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Transformation for the displacement vector,

u = z1 u 1 + z 2 u 2 + L + z n u n = Φ z , (21)
where
 z1 ( t ) 
 z (t ) 
 
z= 2 
 M 
 z n ( t ) 

## are called principal coordinates.

Substitute (21) into the dynamic equation:
M Φ &z& + C Φ z& + K Φ z = f ( t ).
Pre-multiply by ΦT, and apply (20):
&z& + C φ z& + Ω z = p ( t ), (22)

p = Φ T
f (t) .

## Using Modal Damping

 2 ξ 1ω 1 0 L 0 
 0 2 ξ 2ω 
=  
2

 M O M  . (23)
 
 0 L 2 ξ nω n 

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 169

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Equation (22) becomes,

&z&i + 2 ξ i ω i z& i + ω i2 z i = p i ( t ), i = 1,2,…,n. (24)

## Equations in (22) or (24) are called modal equations.

These are uncoupled, second-order differential equations,
which are much easier to solve than the original dynamic
equation (coupled system).
To recover u from z, apply transformation (21) again, once
z is obtained from (24).

Notes:
• Only the first few modes may be needed in constructing
the modal matrix Φ (i.e., Φ could be an n×m rectangular
matrix with m<n). Thus, significant reduction in the
size of the system can be achieved.
• Modal equations are best suited for problems in which
higher modes are not important (i.e., structural

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 170

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## V. Frequency Response Analysis

(Harmonic Response Analysis)
&& + Cu& + Ku = F
Mu 1sin
23ωt
(25)
Modal method: Apply the modal equations,

## &z&i + 2ξ iω i z&i + ω i2 zi = pi sin ω t , i=1,2,…,m. (26)

These are 1-D equations. Solutions are
pi ω i2
zi ( t ) = sin( ω t − θ i ), (27)
(1 − η ) + ( 2ξ iηi )
2 2 2
zi

where
 2ξ iη i
 θ = arctan , phase angle
1 − ηi
i 2

 ηi = ω ω i ,
 ci ci
ω/ωi
ξ
 i c = = , damping ratio
 c 2 m ω i

## Recover u from (21).

Direct Method: Solve Eq. (25) directly, that is, calculate
iω t
the inverse. With u = u e (complex notation), Eq. (25)
becomes

[K + iω C − ω 2 M u = F . ]
This equation is expensive to solve and matrix is ill-
conditioned if ω is close to any ωi.

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 171

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## VI. Transient Response Analysis

(Dynamic Response/Time-History Analysis)

f(t)

u(t)

## Compute responses by integrating through time:

u1

u n u n+1
u2

t0 t1 t2 t n t n+1 t

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 172

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Equation of motion at instance t n , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ⋅⋅⋅:

&& n + Cu& n + Ku n = f n .
Mu

## Time increment: ∆t=tn+1-tn, n=0, 1, 2, 3, ⋅⋅⋅.

There are two categories of methods for transient analysis.
A. Direct Methods (Direct Integration Methods)
• Central Difference Method
Approximate using finite difference:
1
u& = ( u n + 1 − u n − 1 ),
2 ∆ t
n

1
&&
u = ( u n +1 − 2 u n + u n −1 )
(∆ t)2
n

## Dynamic equation becomes,

 1   1 
M ( u + − 2 u + u − )  + C  ( u n +1 − u n −1 ) + Ku n = fn ,
 ( ∆t )  2 ∆t
n 1 n n 1

2

which yields,
Au n +1 = F(t )
where
 1 1
 A = M+ C,
 (∆ t )2
2∆t
    
 F ( t ) = f n −  K − 2 2 M  u n −  1 2 M − 1 C  u n −1.
  (∆ t )   (∆ t ) 2∆t 

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 173

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## un+1 is calculated from un & un-1, and solution is

marching from t 0 , t1, L t n , t n + 1, L , until convergent.

## This method is unstable if ∆t is too large.

• Newmark Method:
Use approximations:
( ∆t ) 2
u n +1 ≈ u n + ∆tu& n + [(1 − 2 β )u&& n + 2 βu&& n +1 ], → ( u&& n +1 = L)
2
u& n +1 ≈ u& n + ∆t [(1 − γ ) u && n +1 ],
&& n + γu
where β & γ are chosen constants. These lead to
Au n +1 = F (t)

where
γ 1
A = K + C + M ,
β∆t β (∆ t)2
F ( t ) = f ( f n + 1 , γ , β , ∆ t , C , M , u n , u& n , u
&& n ).

## This method is unconditionally stable if

1
2 β ≥ γ ≥ .
2
1 1
e . g ., γ = , β =
2 4

## which gives the constant average acceleration method.

Direct methods can be expensive! (the need to
compute A-1, often repeatedly for each time step).

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 174

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

B. Modal Method
First, do the transformation of the dynamic equations using
the modal matrix before the time marching:
m
u = ∑ u i zi (t ) =Φ z ,
i =1 i = 1,2,⋅⋅⋅, m.
&z&i + 2 ξ i ω i z& i + ω i z i = p i ( t ),

## Then, solve the uncoupled equations using an integration

method. Can use, e.g., 10%, of the total modes (m= n/10).
• Uncoupled system,
• Fewer equations,
• No inverse of matrices,
• More efficient for large problems.

## Comparisons of the Methods

Direct Methods Modal Method
• Small model • Large model
• More accurate (with small ∆t) • Higher modes ignored
• … • …

## © 1999 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 175

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 7. Structural Vibration and Dynamics

## Cautions in Dynamic Analysis

• Symmetry: It should not be used in the dynamic analysis
(normal modes, etc.) because symmetric structures can
have antisymmetric modes.
• Mechanism, rigid body motion means ω = 0. Can use
this to check FEA models to see if they are properly
connected and/or supported.