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acceleration After reading this article you should be able to:

E Byron Howells

C define and list all seven fundamental (base) SI units

C derive other SI units

C describe the relationship between force, mass and acceleration

Abstract

There are seven fundamental (base) SI (Systeme International) units

defined for seven independent dimensions of measurement. Historically 1. Length

these definitions have changed, but they have been in their present The unit of length is the metre (m). The metre is the length of

form since 1960. Any measurement made in science can be expressed the path travelled by light in a vacuum in a time interval of

in terms of these independent dimensions and their units expressed in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

terms of the fundamental units, although some are given their own 2. Time

special names and symbols. Each side of a mathematical equation can The unit of time is the second (s). The second is the duration

be represented using basic dimensions, and both sides should balance. of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the

Force is an example of a dependent dimension made up of the indepen- transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground

dent dimensions of mass, length and time, and therefore the units of state of the caesium-133 atom.

force can be expressed as kgm/s2, although this can be simplified to 3. Mass

the newton (N). When the individual dimensions of a derived unit of The unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). The kilogram is the

measurement are evaluated then it is easier to appreciate the mathemat- mass of the international prototype held in Sevres in France.

ical relationships between different units of measurement to support 4. Electric current

scientific observations, calculations and theories. The unit of current is the ampere (A). The ampere is that

constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel

Keywords Acceleration; force; mass; SI units; Systeme International conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-

section, and placed 1 metre apart in a vacuum, would

produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 107

newton per metre of length.

5. Thermodynamic temperature

The unit of thermodynamic temperature is the kelvin (K).

Introduction The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the difference between

A physical quantity is a quantity that can be used in a mathe- absolute zero and the thermodynamic temperature of the

matical equation of science and technology. A unit is a particular triple point of water (the temperature at which the three

fixed physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with phases of water can coexist). The SI also recognizes Celsius

which other particular quantities of the same category are ( C) which is given by C ¼ K 273.15.

compared to express their value. Since 1960, units of measure- 6. Amount of substance

ment have been internationally standardized by the Systeme The unit of the amount of substance is the mole (mol). The mole

International d’Unites (SI units). The SI was established by the is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary

11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conference particles as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. Therefore

Generale des Poids et Mesures, CGPM). It is a decimalized a mole of any pure substance has a mass in grams exactly equal to

system based on the unchanging, fundamental and reproducible the molecular or atomic mass of that substance.

properties of nature. It allows a link between different branches The Avogadro constant (L, NA) is the ratio of the number of

of science, all using the same common units of measurement. elementary particles N in a sample to the amount of substance n in

The SI defines both ‘fundamental’ and ‘derived’ units of the sample, i.e. NA ¼ N/n. It has the value 6.022 1023 and units

measurement. per mole (/mol). Prior to the 1971 revision of the SI unit defini-

tions, the amount of substance was described using the closely

Fundamental SI units related dimensionless quantity Avogadro’s number (N), which

has the numerical value of the Avogadro constant expressed in

Fundamental (base) units are dimensionally independent, and base units. One mole of a substance contains Avogadro’s number

any other unit is either a derived unit or not an SI unit at all. (6.023 1023) of particles and at standard temperature and

There are seven fundamental units, and they are the building pressure (0 C and 101.3 kPa) one mole of a gas occupies 22.4

blocks of all other derived units. The seven fundamental units litres.

are: 7. Luminous intensity

The unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd). The

candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of

E Byron Howells MB BCh (Wales) FRCA is a Consultant Anaesthetist and a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540

College Tutor at the Princess of Wales Hospital, Bridgend, UK. Conflicts 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction

of interest: none declared. of 1/683 watt per steradian.

ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE 12:9 415 Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PHYSICS

Dimension SI unit Symbol Dimension Name Symbol Units

Time second s Force newton N kgm/s2

Mass kilogram kg Pressure pascal Pa N/m2 or kg/m/s

Electric current ampere A Energy/work joule J Nm or kg/m2/s2

Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K Power watt W J/s or Nm/s or kg

Amount of substance mole mol m2/s3

Luminous intensity candela cd Electrical charge coulomb C As

Potential difference volt V W/A or J/s/A or kg

N.B. SI units whose names are derived from the proper name of a person are

m2/s3/A

always written in lower case e e.g. kelvin e except where any word would

normally be capitalized, such as in a title or at the beginning of a sentence. Capacitance farad F C/V

The corresponding abbreviated symbols are always written in upper case e Resistance ohm U V/A

e.g. K.

Table 3

Table 1

Derived SI units (Table 3). Some derived units are relatively complex when

expressed in terms of the basic units, and are therefore given

Dimensions

specific names for convenience e e.g. the kgm/s2 is also called

Any measurement made in science can be simplified if it is

the newton (N), the unit of force.

expressed in terms of its basic dimensions. Dimensions are the

Some everyday units are recognized by the system although

basic components of any equation and are independent of units

they themselves are not true SI units. Examples are the litre (103

used. The dimensions of a physical quantity indicate how it is

m3), the minute (60 s), the hour (60 min) and the bar (105 Pa).

related to the basic quantities listed in Table 1.

For example a common term used in physics is velocity,

Prefixes to the SI units

which has the dimensions of length and time and is written in

Many SI units are of an inconvenient order of magnitude to

dimension notation as: [L]/[T]. This denotes that measurement

describe everyday phenomena. Prefixes are therefore used in

of velocity requires that the numerical value of a length be

conjunction with the unit symbols to indicate multiples or

divided by the numerical value of a time in any units but in terms

submultiples. For example, the metre is too large to use to measure

of SI units this would be expressed as metre per second (m/s).

the thickness of a piece of paper, and the pascal (unit of pressure)

Each side of an equation can be represented in basic dimensions

is too small to express ventilator pressures encountered in

and both sides should balance. Most commonly observable

anaesthesia and intensive care. The use of millimetres (mm) and

events can be described using the dimensions of mass [M],

kilopascals (kPa) is more practical. Table 4 shows some common

length [L], time [T] and temperature [ɵ].

prefixes used to produce multiples or submultiples of all SI units.

Derived units

Force, mass and acceleration

These units are derived by the multiplication and/or division of

one or more of the fundamental units (Table 2). Certain derived Force

units have been named and given their own specific symbol, and A force is that which changes the shape, state of rest or motion of

may be further combined to express other derived units a body. A force may cause a stationary body to change position

or shape; and may cause a moving body to change speed or

direction (i.e. change velocity). Force and velocity are both

vector quantities e i.e. they have both magnitude and direction.

Derived units

The unit of force is the newton and it is related to mass and

Dimension Name Units acceleration by the following equation:

Volume cubic metre m3

Speed metre per second (direction not specific) m/s Therefore 1 newton is the force required to give a mass of 1 kg an

Velocity metre per second (direction specific) m/s acceleration of 1 m/s2.

Acceleration metre per second per second m/s2 As force is a vector, a single force can be divided up into two

Momentum kilogram metre per second kgm/s or more component forces, and two or more forces can be rep-

Density kilogram per cubic metre kg/m3 resented by a single resultant force (Figure 1).

Current density ampere per square metre A/m2

Concentration mole per cubic metre mol/m3 Mass

Mass is a measure of the inertia of an object. The force needed to

Table 2 accelerate an object by a given amount depends on its mass.

ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE 12:9 416 Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PHYSICS

Acceleration

Prefixes Velocity is the rate of change of displacement per unit time and

has units of metres per second or m/s. Velocity is a vector

Fraction or multiple Prefix Symbol

quantity and so is direction specific. If the velocity of an object is

1024 yotta Y

constant then it is said to be moving with uniform velocity. The

1021 zetta Z

average velocity of an object during a journey is the total

1018 exa E

displacement divided by the time taken, even though the velocity

1015 peta P

at any instant during that journey could have varied.

1012 tera T

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity or the change in

109 giga G

velocity per unit time and has units of metres per second per

106 mega M

second or m/s2. An object accelerates if its velocity changes (the

103 kilo k

usual case in linear motion) or its direction changes (the usual

102 hecto h

case in circular motion), and for this to occur an external force

101 deca da

must act on that object. An object whose velocity changes by the

101 deci d

same amount in equal periods of time is said to be moving with

102 centi c

uniform acceleration.

103 milli m

Momentum

106 micro m

109 nano n

Momentum is the product of an object’s mass and its velocity. It

is a vector quantity and has units of kilogram metre per second or

1012 pico p

kgm/s.

1015 femto f

1018 atto a

Momentum ¼ Mass Velocity or Momentum ¼ mv

1021 zepto z

1024 yocto y

Therefore a 70 kg man running at 5 m/s has a momentum of:

70 kg 5 m/s ¼ 350 kgm/s.

Table 4

If an object of fixed mass doubles its velocity, then its

momentum is doubled as well.

A larger mass needs a larger force to change its velocity and so

When two moving objects collide (i.e. exert forces on each

mass can be described as the tendency of an object to resist

other) then the ‘law of conservation of linear momentum’

change of velocity. The unit of mass is the kilogram.

states that the total momentum of both objects before the colli-

Mass is not the same as weight. Weight describes the force

sion is equal to the total momentum of both objects after the

that a body may exert on its surroundings and therefore has the

collision, provided that no external forces act. Mathematically

unit newton. The force of gravity will accelerate a body towards

this is written as:

the earth at 9.81 m/s2. This acceleration due to gravity is fixed

and does not vary with mass. Therefore the weight of a 1 kg m1 v1 þ m2 v2 ¼ m1 v3 þ m2 v4

object on earth is given by:

where:

F ¼ ma m1v1 is the momentum of object 1 before collision

F ¼ 1 kg 9:81 m=s2 m2v2 is the momentum of object 2 before collision

F ¼ 9:81 N m1v3 is the momentum of object 1 after collision

m2v4 is the momentum of object 2 after collision.

If an object of mass 1 kg lies on the ground it will exert a force of

9.81 N on the floor, and the floor will exert an equal and opposite Newton’s laws of motion

force back on the object.

In the 17th century Isaac Newton formulated three laws in

relation to a body’s motion and the forces that are applied to it.

F1

‘Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion

FR in a straight line unless acted on by some external force.’

This law expresses the concept of inertia. A body of large mass

requires a large force to change its velocity or its direction by

a noticeable amount e i.e. a large mass has a large inertia.

F2 Newton’s second law of motion

Figure 1 A single force FR can be divided up into component forces (F1 and ‘The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly

F2); or two forces acting in different directions (F1 and F2) can be repre- proportional to the external force acting on the body and takes

sented by a single resultant force FR. place in the direction of the force.’

ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE 12:9 417 Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PHYSICS

Change in momentum dðmvÞ stationary crate, the crate pushes back on the man with a force of

i:e: Force ¼ or F ¼

Time dt exactly the same size. Whether or not the crate starts to move has

nothing to do with the force that it exerts on the man. In

if the mass is constant then the equation becomes:

accordance to Newton’s second law, the crate will start to move

dv if the force exerted by the man is greater than any force acting on

F ¼m

dt the crate in such a way as to resist its motion (e.g. friction

That is : F ¼ ma: between the crate and the ground). A

FURTHER READING

‘For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.’ Moseley M, Lynch J. The story of science. Power proof and passion.

If a body A exerts a force on a body B, then B exerts an equal and Mitchell Beazley, 2010.

oppositely directed force on A. Thus if a man pushes on a large Robinson A. The story of measurement. Thames and Hudson, 2007.

ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE 12:9 418 Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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