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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

1.1 Health, welfare and working environment requirements

Question 1:
Outline the precautions to be taken to minimise the risks to persons working in cold stores at sub-zero
temperatures (8)
Answer Plan
- provision of thermal clothing such as insulated suits or jackets, gloves and head covering with drying out
facilities for this clothing
- restricting time spent in the cold store with regular breaks and the availability of warm drinks;
- precautions against being locked in the cold store such as doors capable of being opened from the inside
and alarms measures to protect the employees against the escape of refrigerant gas
- the selection of equipment used in cold stores such as racking designed to withstand low temperature
- the removal of ice build-up;
- the need for pre-employment examinations and continuing health surveillance and
- the provision to employees of information and training on the potential hazards associated with this type
of work and the precautions to be observed

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

1.2 Violence at work

Question 2:
Outline the practical measures that might be taken to reduce the risk of violence to employees who deal with
members of the public as part of their work (8)
Answer Plan
- Look at in terms of environment, job factors, individual protection and general security
- The design of public areas, in terms of décor, seating, the means of providing information (e.g. on waiting
times)
- Wide counters, coded locks on doors, CCTV systems, panic buttons & alarm systems
- Those involving money may need physical separation, such as security screens, between employees &
members of the public
- avoidance of carrying large amounts of cash, implementing appointment systems,
- avoid lone working altogether &/or to implement regular check-in procedures & to issue panic alarms,
staff will need to be trained in the procedures & possibly how they might recognise the early signs of
aggressive behaviour & avoid, defuse or otherwise deal with a violent situation.
- In certain circumstances, the employment of security staff & the provision of PPE (e.g. bullet or stab proof
vests, helmets etc.) may be required

Question 3: Identify control measures that an employer could take to reduce the riskof violence
between workers. (8)
Answer Plan
- Briefing staff on problems that are likely to occur and giving them training in dealing with them such as de-
escalation techniques
- Introducing a policy of zero tolerance for workplace violence and setting up procedures for reporting any
occurrence
- Providing counselling for both perpetrators and victims of violence and arranging for re-location in
different parts of the worksite where this is possible
- Introducing a policy for alcohol and substance misuse including the disciplinary action to be taken against
offenders
- Prohibiting the carrying of weapons on site
- Employing security personnel together with cctv
- Introducing a recruitment strategy

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

1.4 Movement of people

Question 4: List EIGHT causes of slip and trip accidents at work. (8)
Answer Plan
Slip Trip
- Unsuitable surface, e.g. polished tiles - Trailing cables
- Weather causing slippery floor surface - Debris on floor / housekeeping issues
- Spilled liquid - Uneven surface, e.g. kerb
- Inappropriate footwear - Damaged surface, e.g. hole in a carpet

Question 5:
(a) Identify the types of hazards that may cause slips or trips at work. (4)
(b) Identify control measures to reduce the risk from, slip and trip hazards in the workplace. (4)
Answer Plan
(b)
- Risk assessment - Use of signs and personal protective
- Slip resistant surfaces equipment
- Spillage control and drainage - Information, instruction, training and
supervision
- Designated walkways
- Maintenance of a safe workplace
- Fencing and guarding
Question 6: Identify control measures to reduce the risk of accidents from reversing vehicles
in the workplace. (8)
Answer Plan
- Avoid the need to reverse / 1 way systems / - Refuge / recess
turning circles - Workplace lighting
- Segregation of pedestrians, e.g. barriers / - Wearing hi-visibility jackets
warning signs
- CCTV in vehicle cab
- Audible vehicle alarm
- Prohibit unauthorised persons
- Mirrors on vehicles
- Site rules
- Mirrors at blind corners
- Driver training
Question 7:
Outline measures to be taken to prevent accidents when pedestrians are required to work in vehicle
manoeuvring areas. (8)
Answer Plan
- Segregated systems for vehicular & pedestrian traffic
- Appropriate road markings
- Maintaining good visibility (mirrors, transparent doors, provision of lighting etc) & audible warnings on
vehicles
- Other relevant measures that were mentioned included the:
- Drawing up & enforcement of site rules,
- The provision of refuges,
- The wearing of high-visibility clothing,
- A good standard of housekeeping,
- Training for, & supervision of all concerned.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 8:
Identify control measures that could be implemented to reduce the risks to pedestrians in areas where vehicles
are manoeuvring. (8)
Answer Plan
- The management of traffic movement such as the introduction of one way systems and the
designation of specific traffic routes which should be clearly marked
- Segregation of pedestrians from transport with demarcation of walkways and the provision of barriers
and refuges
- Introducing safe systems of work for loading, unloading and stacking using banksmen when necessary
- Maintaining good visibility by means of mirrors, transparent doors and the provision of lighting
- The enforcement of site rules covering speed restrictions and limited areas of access for vehicles
- The fitting of visual and audible alarm devices to vehicles
- Ensuring that workers wore high visibility clothing
- Ensuring that floors were regularly cleaned and kept free from spillages
- Ensuring that workers were fully trained in the precautionary measures that should be taken and that an
effective level of supervision was in place to ensure the controls were followed

Question 9:
(a) Identify THREE control measures to segregate pedestrians and vehicles in the workplace. (3)
(b) Identify measures to reduce the risk to pedestrians when segregation is not practicable. (5)
Answer Plan
(a)
- THE provision of separate walkways which are clearly marked
- The provision of barriers and fencing
- Site rules which are strictly enforced
- The issue of instructions to drivers
- The provision of instruction and training to pedestrians on the precautions that must be observed.
(b)
When segregation is not possible, measures to reduce the risk to pedestrians include:
- The provision of designated safe crossing points and refuges
- Fitting vehicles with audible or visual alarms for example to give warning of a reversing operation
- The use of a banksman to ensure safe vehicle movement in areas where pedestrians are likely to be
present; ensuring a good standard of visibility by the provision of mirrors, transparent doors and CCTV
- The introduction of a speed restriction on vehicles
- The use of trained and authorised drivers particularly for forklift trucks
- The provision and use of high visibility personal protective equipment
- The provision of a good standard of lighting which avoids the possibility of glare

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 10:
Forklift trucks are operating in a busy work place. Identify suitable control measures to reduce the risk of
collision with workers (8)
Answer Plan
- the management of traffic movement such as the introduction of one way systems and the designation of
specific traffic routes
- segregation of pedestrians from transport with the demarcation of walkways
- the enforcement of site rules covering speed restrictions and limited areas of access for trucks
- the fitting of visual and audible alarm devices the trucks
- the provision of adequate lighting, mirrors and transparent doors
- ensuring that workers wore high visibility clothing
- ensuring that floors were regularly cleaned and kept free from spillages and
- Introducing procedures for the regular maintenance of the trucks with particular reference to the
condition of steering, brakes and tyres

Question 11:
(a) Identify FOUR hazards that cause slips and trips. (4)
(b) For the hazards identified above, outline measures that can be used to control the risk. (4)
Answer Plan
(a)
There are many reasons why people slip or trip, including
- The floor being poorly maintained,
- Changes in level caused by ramps,
- Slopes or kerbs,
- Slippery surfaces caused by oil or water, other spillages being left in place and not cleaned up,
- Inadequate lighting,
- The wearing of inappropriate footwear,
- General obstructions in walkways such as trailing cables,
- Pipes and air hoses and miscellaneous rubbish being allowed to accumulate and block pedestrian routes
(b)
Control measures such as:
- improved work layout with designated walkways;
- using non-slip flooring;
- highlighting changes in level with hazard warning strips;
- providing good lighting;
- introducing procedures for reporting defects and for dealing with spillages; and
- Ensuring high standards of keep floors clear of obstructions.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 12:
In order to improve the safety of pedestrians in vehicle manoeuvring areas, identify the rules that should be
followed by:
(a) Drivers (4)
(b) Pedestrians (4)
Answer Plan
(a)
Rules that should be followed by drivers include:
- the need to carry out pre-user checks and to report defects;
- the adherence to speed limits and safety signs;
- the use of alarms and horns where required;
- the use of visibility aids;
- remaining in marked vehicle zones;
- parking vehicles in designated parking areas and removing the ignition keys when the vehicle is not in use
- using banks-men when reversing
- refraining from using a mobile phone when driving and not driving when under the influence of alcohol or
substances
(b)
Rules for pedestrians:
- they would be expected to keep to designated walkways;
- wear hi- visibility clothing;
- use designated crossing points;
- observe safety signs;
- use entrance/exit doors separate from those used by vehicles;
- exercise vigilance for vehicle movement;
- escort visitors who might not be familiar with the site and access routes

Question 13:
Outline the precautionary measures to be taken to avoid accidents involving reversing vehicles within a
workplace. (8)
Answer Plan
- Avoiding the need for vehicles to reverse, e.g. one-way systems and turning circles
- Segregation of vehicles and pedestrians, e.g. barriers and warning signs
- Aspects of vehicles and workplace design, e.g. audible alarms, mirrors on vehicles and at blind corners,
refuges, lighting, etc.
- Good levels of lighting to ensure good visibility for drivers and pedestrians
- The wearing of high-visibility jackets by employees to make them more conspicuous
- The use of CCTV in the cab so the driver has full visibility without the need for turning around
- Prohibition of unauthorised pedestrians within the work area concerned
- Procedural measures, including the use of banksmen, site rules, driver training, etc.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 14:
The warehouse of ceramic tiles manufacturing is to be developed to increase its increase its storage capacity
and to enable the use of internal transport to transfer the goods to and from loading bay:
(a) Outline the design features that the traffic routes that should be addressed in order to minimise the risk
of fork-lift truck related accidents (10)
(b) Describe additional measures to be taken to protect pedestrians from the risk & being struck by a fork-
lift truck in the warehouse. (10)
Answer Plan
(a)
The design features of the traffic routes that should be addressed in order to minimise the risk of fork- lift
truck related accidents. These would include features such as:
- marking of traffic routes
- one-way systems
- segregation of pedestrians from transport
- speed retarders
- widths and sources of aisles
- warning signs
- clearly marked crossing places for pedestrians and
- Visibility issues such as adequate lighting, mirrors and transparent doors.
(b)
Measures to protect pedestrians from being struck by a fork-lift truck include:
- the prevention of unauthorised access to the warehouse
- the maintenance of vehicles, traffic routes and floors
- the fitting of audible & visual warnings on vehicles
- the implementation and enforcement of speed limits
- the use of high visibility clothing
- a good standard of housekeeping
- the use of competent drivers and
- the introduction of an effective system of monitoring and supervision to ensure control measures were
implemented

Question 15:
(a) Outline the design features of the traffic routes that should be addressed in order to minimise
the risk of fork-lift truck related accidents. (10)
(b) Describe additional measures to be taken to protect pedestrians from the risk & being struck
by a fork-lift truck in the warehouse. (10)
Answer Plan
(a)
The design features of the traffic routes that should be addressed in order to minimise the risk of fork-lift truck
related accidents.
- marking of traffic routes, one-way systems - warning signs
- segregation of pedestrians from transport - clearly marked crossing places for pedestrians
- speed retarders - Visibility issues such as adequate lighting,
- widths and sources of aisles mirrors and transparent doors

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

(b)
To protect pedestrians from being struck by a fork-lift truck a wide variety of additional measures could be:
- prevention of unauthorised access to the - the implementation and enforcement of
warehouse speed limits the use of high visibility clothing
- the maintenance of vehicles, traffic routes and - a good standard of housekeeping
floors - the use of competent drivers
- the fitting of audible and visual warnings on - The introduction of an effective system of
vehicles monitoring and supervision to ensure control
measures were implemented

1.5 Construction hazards and control

Question 16:
Identify EIGHT precaution that should be considered to prevent accidents to children who might be tempted to
gain access to a construction site (8)
Answer Plan
- Inhibiting entry to the site by the use of fencing
- Warning against the dangers by means of signs and monitoring
- Using security patrols or closed circuit television
- Entry be gained by reference to the need to make the site itself safe by isolating services;
- Reducing heights of materials
- Covering or fencing excavations removing or covering ladders and denying access to scaffolding;
- Clearing debris to avoid the possibility of arson;
- Securing tools chemicals equipment and vehicles and working with the community by, for instance,
visiting local schools to warn of construction site dangers.

Question 17: Identify the main hazards associated with demolition work. (8)
Answer Plan:
The main hazards associated with demolition work include
- Working at height - The presence of flammable substances or
- Falling debris and masonry and premature hazardous materials from previous uses of the
collapse building
- Use of explosives - The use of explosives; the possible presence
of services such as electricity, gas and water
- Contact with and noise and vibration from
equipment such as pneumatic drills and heavy - Biological hazards arising from the presence of
plant vermin and stagnant water
- The presence of dust which might possibly - The presence of sharps such as nails, syringes
include asbestos and glass and hazards arising during manual
handling operations

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

1.6 Working at height

Question 18:
Identify EIGHT precautions that to reduce the risk of injury when using a mobile tower scaffold (8)
Answer Plan
- Erected by competent persons - Erect on firm, level ground
- Used within SWL / not overloaded - Avoid overhead obstacles
- Properly braced / no defective components - Tied if there is side loading
- Use of edge protection – guard rails and toe - Cordon off work area
boards - Access platform from inside the tower
- Use of outriggers - Push / pull at the base when moving the
- Correct height to least base ratio tower
- No moving the tower with people / materials
on it

Question 19:
Identify ways in which accidents may be prevented when using portable ladders as a means of access. (8)
Answer Plan
- Ways in which accidents might be prevented when using portable ladders:
- Using only authorised ladders which were regularly maintained and inspected;
- Using the correct ladder for the task to be undertaken ensuring it was of suitable length and non-
conductive;
- Carrying out a pre-use inspection of the ladder to ensure it was in good condition, unpainted and with no
splits in the stiles;
- Placing the ladder on a firm base, at the correct location to prevent over reaching, at the correct angle
(between 70-80º), ensuring it extended at least four rungs beyond the landing point and that it was
secured both at the top and bottom.
- Ensuring the ladder was not overloaded – one person to climb at a time –
- It was not erected near overhead cables,
- Its base was protected from collision,
- It should be used only for work of short duration and not in inclement weather
- The worker using the ladder should avoid wearing muddy or greasy footwear,
- Use a holster or tool bag to carry tools
- Should always maintain three points of contact on the ladder.

Question 20: Give reasons that may cause a mobile tower scaffold to become unstable. (8)
Answer Plan
- Component condition - Failure to fit outriggers in conditions where
- Effectiveness of the brakes would be one of these would be required,
the important reasons for instability - Using the scaffold in high winds,
- Erection and use: - Climbing the outside of the tower,
- Failure to use competent workers in the - Moving the tower on uneven ground with
erection of the scaffold, materials and/or persons on the working
- Erecting the tower on ground that was neither platform
firm nor level and neglecting to maintain the - Using the scaffold as a support for heavy
correct base/height ratio would be materials or rubbish chutes.
contributory instability factors.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 21:
(a) Identify reasons why a scaffold may collapse. (8)
(b) Identify precautions to be taken to minimise the risks to workers when working on a scaffold. (8)
(c) Identify when a scaffold should be inspected. (4)
Answer Plan
(a)
- One of the main reasons why a scaffold may collapse is because it was not properly designed for its
intended purpose.
Other reasons include:
- incomplete and incorrect erection and the condition of the ground on which it was erected; the poor
condition or incompatibility of its components;
- unauthorised alteration or interference with the erected scaffold;
- uneven load distribution on or overloading of the scaffold;
- being struck by passing traffic and as a result of severe weather conditions.
(b)
- Ensuring the original erection and any subsequent alterations were carried out by or under the
supervision of competent persons;
- Erecting the scaffold on stable ground, using base and sole plates;
- Ensuring that working platforms were close boarded and were provided with guard-rails, mid rails and toe
boards to prevent the fall of persons and materials;
- Providing adequate bracing and tying the scaffold into the building or structure; providing safe access such
as by secured ladders to the working platforms;
- Providing protection if the scaffold was adjacent to traffic routes; ensuring the scaffold was inspected on a
regular basis by a competent person;
- Providing personal protective equipment for the workers such as boots and hard hats.
(c)
Scaffold should be inspected:
- Before being taken into use;
- At periodic intervals thereafter as may be prescribed for the different types of scaffold;
- Following any alterations to the scaffold;
- Following any adverse weather conditions or other events such as a collision or fire, any of which
might be likely to affect its strength.
- Inspections should be carried out on a daily, weekly and monthly basis – which covered all possibilities.
Question 22:
As part of a general refurbishment, air conditioning units are to be installed on the roof of a two-storey office
building. The units will be lifted onto the roof by means of a mobile crane that is situated at ground level
Outline the control measures that will be required to protect the safety of the workers on the roof. (8)
Answer Plan
- Provision of safe means of access for example by the erection of scaffolding or stair towers
- Provision of edge protection with guard rails and toe boards around the perimeter of the roof.
- Preventing access to fragile surfaces or arourid1rndrllhts;
- Provision of fall arrest equipment such as harnesses;
- the use of mechanical hoists to raise tools and equipment to the roof;
- the introduction of escape and rescue procedures in the event of an emergency; \
- the provision and use of personal protective equipment such as hard hats and high visibility clothing

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

- the use of competent employees and supervision and


- the suspension of work in adverse weather conditions

Question 23:
A roofing contractor is required to carry out extensive repair work on a fragile roof on a large manufacturing
building.
(a) Outline the factors that should be considered in the selection process for hiring the roofing contractor. (8)
(b) Identify the main risks to the contractors from working at height. (4)
(c) Identify possible control measures for the erection of an independent tied scaffold. (8)
Answer Plan:
(a)
- Previous experience with the type of work to be carried out
- reputation amongst previous or current clients and membership of a trade organisation;
- the content and quality of the health and safety policy and the systems in place for its implementation
including the preparation of risk assessments monitoring and consultation with the Workforce
- the competence of and level of health and safety training given to employees
- resources and the condition of equipment to be used on site and procedures in place for its regular
maintenance
- procedures for the selection and control of sub-contractors
- accident record and any action taken by the enforcing authorities
- access to competent advice on health and safety
- the detailed proposals, such as method statements and safe systems of work , for the work to be carried
out
(b)
The main risks to the contractors when working at height would be:
- falling when either gaining access to the roof or from their working positions
- falling through the fragile material of the roof and being struck by falling objects
- additional risks from:
- the manual handling of tools
- equipment and materials
- from contact with live services such as electrical cables and
- from inclement weather conditions such as sun, wind rain and ice
(c)
- The initial control measure to ensure that the design of the scaffold was appropriate for its intended use
and the weight that it would be expected to carry.
- Then it need to be erected on stable ground, using components of good quality, by competent persons
wearing appropriate personal protective equipment such as fall arrest equipment.
- The scaffold should be tied in securely to the structure on which work is to be carried out and access to it
should be restricted until the erection has been completed.
- Measures should be taken to protect the scaffold from damage by passing plant or vehicles
- It should be subject to a thorough inspection before being put into use.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Question 24: Identify safe working practices for the use of a mobile elevating work platform (MEWP). (8)
Answer Plan:
Safe working practices for the use of a mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) include:
- The involvement of competent persons both to operate and work from the platform
- The completion of any statutory testing and inspection requirements
- its use only on firm level ground with checks being made on the presence of overhead
obstructions such as power cables
- The use of outriggers which should be locked in position; the correct inflation of the tyres with the wheels
immobilised during elevation of the platform
- The prohibition on moving the platform when elevated or in use
- The use of harnesses by workers on the platform
- The erection of barriers round the area where the platform is to be used
- Ensuring the platform is not overloaded and securing all tools & equipment before the platform is moved
- Introducing emergency procedures in the case of failure of the platform

Question 25: Outline the factors to be considered in the selection and use of personal head
protection at work. (8)
Answer Plan:
In the selection of personal head protection for a work activity, factors to be considered include:
Its suitability for the task, its quality, for instance whether it carries a CE marking, its compatibility with other
personal protective equipment such as ear defenders for example and its cost relative to the risk involved.
Other factors to be taken into account during the selection process would be its size, fit and adjustability,
comfort factors such as its manufacture from non-irritant materials and the existence of an absorbent
sweat band and its colour if this is necessary to designate different categories of worker.
As for the use of the protection, consideration would have to be given to:
- Procedures for the cleaning and replacement of the sweat bands,
- The regular inspection of the equipment for signs of deterioration,
- Its replacement at intervals recommended by the manufacturer,
- The provision of suitable storage for the equipment when not in use and the arrangements for its
cleaning and inspection before it is issued to another person.
Question 26: Outline precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the
sloping roof of a building. (8)
Answer Plan:
- Initially an assessment should be made to gauge the condition of the roof and to check for the
presence of fragile materials.
- It would then be necessary to provide safe means of access
- Normally by the erection of a scaffold
- To use roof ladders or crawling boards
- To erect edge protection with guard rails and toe boards to prevent the fall of persons and
materials and either to provide barriers and signage around areas on the roof containing fragile
materials or to cover them to prevent persons falling through
- Other precautions would include Provision for transporting tools and materials to the roof and the
removal of waste
- The use of appropriate personal protective equipment such as hard hats and footwear
- The employment of competent personnel together with a high level of supervision;
- The erection of signs and/or barriers to prevent members of the public from passing beneath the work
area.

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

Excavations

Question 27: Identify the main hazards associated with excavation work on construction sites. (8)
Answer Plan
Main hazards associated with excavation work such as:
- The unstable nature of the sides of the excavation
- Contact with buried services such as electricity or gas
- Ingress of water
- Build-up of fumes and lack of oxygen
- The dangers associated with excavation machinery such as contact with overhead lines or being struck by
the machines
- The effect of the excavation work on adjacent structures causing them to collapse
- The failure to provide protection for the edges of excavations
- The restrictions on access and egress
- Biological hazards such as leptospirosis
- Coming into contact with contaminated land and even the possible presence of an unexploded bomb

Question 28: Outline the main precautions when carrying out excavation work. (8)
Answer Plan
- Review plans of underground services - Use of barriers to prevent pedestrian access
- Review for overhead hazards that may be hit - Safe access, e.g. ladder tied at top
by excavator - Vehicle segregation
- Locate and identify underground services , e.g. - Stop blocks to prevent vehicles falling into
using cable avoidance tool (CAT) excavation
- Isolate services, if possible - De-watering pumps
- Safe digging technique, mechanical digging to - Testing the atmosphere for toxic gases,
the side of the service and manual digging to vapour, etc.
expose it
- Use of permits-to-work
- Position of waste or building materials away
- Formal inspections and examinations
from excavation to prevent collapse
- Start of shift
- Battering (sloping the sides) or of an
excavation using support systems, e.g. - After any event likely to affect stability
shoring, hydraulic trench box - After accidental collapse

Question 29:
Excavation work is being carried out on a construction site. Identify the control measures needed to reduce the
risk to workers. (8)
Answer Plan
Control measures include:
- The detection of underground services by - Providing guard-rails and barriers to prevent
using plans or cable/pipe detectors; people falling into the excavation;
- Supporting the sides of the excavation by - Providing means of support for adjacent
shoring or benching structures to prevent collapse;
- Storing materials and spoil away from edge of - Providing safe means of access/egress into the
the excavation; excavation;
- Providing means to prevent vehicles falling - Testing for noxious fumes and providing
into the excavation such as stop blocks; ventilation if necessary

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Unit IGC 2 – Element 1: Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control

- Using pumps to protect against flooding - Arranging for the excavation to be inspected
- Taking precautions to safeguard the workers at regular intervals by a competent person
from biological hazard or those caused by the - Safe systems and permits to work.
presence of contaminated ground and

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