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Lessons Learned in

Model Validation for


NERC Compliance
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NERC Modeling, Data, and Analysis

MOD‐025‐2: Generator Real and Reactive Power Capability Demonstration

MOD‐026‐1: Verification of Models for Generator Excitation Control Systems

MOD‐027‐1: Verification of Models for Turbine/Governor and Load Control Functions, including
validation of turbine droop and determination of governor’s deadband

MOD-033-1: Steady-State and Dynamic Power System Model Validation

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Unit Size for NERC Model Validation Requirement
(MVA)

ERCOT Eastern Interconnection WECC

Individual Individual Individual


Plant Plant Plant
Unit Unit Unit

MOD-25-2 >20 >75 >20 >75 >20 >75

MOD-26-1 >50 >75 >100 >100 >75 >75

MOD-27-1 >50 >75 >100 >100 >75 >75

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Siemens PTI Services

• Onsite technical assistance for performing the tests


• Field tests data processing
• Model validation (PSS®E/PSLF)
• Verification of generator OC excitation curve and generating unit inertia
constant
• Adjustment of controllers parameters
• AVR and PSS tuning
• Over- and Under-excitation limiter adjustment
• V/Hz limiter adjustment
• Development of user-written models
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MOD-025-2 Generator Tests

Estimated and Operating capability curve (D-curve)

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MOD-025-2 Generator Tests

Measurements:
• Active & reactive power, voltage at unit terminals (point A)
• Active & reactive power, voltage at the high voltage side of the GSU (point F)
• Active & reactive power through the high voltage side of the auxiliary transformer (point B)
• Voltage at the low voltage side of the tertiary winding (point C)
• Active and reactive power at the high voltage side of the
GSU of the other units (point D)

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MOD-026-1 Generator Excitation Control System Model Verification

• Open-circuit dynamic response calibration

• Interconnected dynamic performance calibration

• Validate model parameters by comparing field test records against current


PSS®E or PSLF dynamic models

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MOD-026-1 Generator Excitation Control System Model Verification

• Open-circuit dynamic response calibration


• Interconnected dynamic performance calibration
• Validate model parameters by comparing field test records
against current PSS®E or PSLF dynamic models

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MOD-027-1 Turbine/Governor and Load Control Functions Model Verification

• Validation of the speed governor response for an on-line


perturbation test with synthetic speed signal of ±0.2Hz

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Governor Modeling
Improvements for
Stability and Frequency
Response Studies
MISO Experience

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Result of NERC MOD-033 System Model Validation performed by MISO

• MISO uses the Eastern Interconnect 60.0200

Gen trip simulated at 0.5 sec


Wide Model for Transient Stability 60.0000

Analysis. These models predicts 59.9800

system frequency response settling at Settling frequency is


optimistic.

Frequency in Hz
59.9600
a higher value.
59.9400
• This difference between the simulated
Frequency with Current Models
and the PMU recording is due to lack 59.9200

Synchrophasor data
PMU
of deadband in the governor model. 59.9000
Frequency nadir differs
This modeling issue has been a known
59.8800
for a long time. Frequency comparison on 345 kV Bus near the generator
59.8600

0.00
0.28
0.55
0.83
1.09
1.37
1.64
1.92
2.19
2.47
2.74
3.02
3.29
3.57
3.84
4.12
4.39
4.67
4.94
5.22
5.49
5.77
6.04
6.32
6.59
6.87
7.14
7.42
7.69
7.97
8.24
8.52
8.79
9.07
9.34
9.62
9.89
10.17
10.44
10.72
10.99
11.27
11.54
11.82
12.09
12.37
12.65
12.92
13.20
13.47
13.75
14.02
14.30
14.57
14.85
15.12
15 40
TIme in sec

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Governor Dadband Modeling Improvement

• 14 governor models with deadband


blocks were released in PSS®E
versions 33.10 and 34.2
• MISO did extensive testing of these
new models on the Eastern IEEEG1*
Interconnection with very encouraging
results
asymmetrical dead-band

IEEEG1SDU*

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Page 12 July 2017 Digital Grid | PTI
MISO Test Results of 2020 Summer Dynamic case
with New Governor Models, compared to Real Time Data

60.010

60.000
Green trace represents base case with current governor models.
59.990
Incorrect model prediction.
59.980

59.970 Generating
PMU : Frequency at 345 kV Bus near Fermi Plant Unit
Hz

Frequency, New Governor Type, 2020SUM


59.960
Frequency, Base Model, 2020SUM
59.950

59.940

Settling frequency in simulation (red trace) closer to Real time data (purple trace), which is critical for
59.930
any frequency related studies. Note :Some difference expected as case represents an out year
scenario, not the actual system condition pre-event.
59.920
10.1
10.5
10.8
11.2
11.6
11.9
12.3
12.7
13.0
13.4
13.7
14.1
14.5
14.8
15.2
15.6
15.9
16.3
16.6
17.0
17.4
17.7
18.1
18.5
18.8
19.2
19.6
19.9
0.0
0.4
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.2
3.6
4.0
4.3
4.7
5.0
5.4
5.8
6.1
6.5
6.9
7.2
7.6
7.9
8.3
8.7
9.0
9.4
9.8

seconds

*MISO Dynamics model


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Page 13 July 2017 Digital Grid | PTI
Power Plant Model
Validation using PSS®E
Playback Model
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PSS®E Playback Model
PLBVFU1 Overview

• The PLBVFU1 model plays back a known set of voltage


and frequency signals

• The PLBVFU1 model acts as a generator model


(with no excitation system or turbine-governor models)

• The played-in voltage and frequency signals must be


included in a data input file

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PSS®E Playback Model
Playback Model for Voltage Signal

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PSS®E Playback Model
Playback Model for Frequency Signal

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Page 17 July 2017 Digital Grid | PTI
PSS®E Playback Model
Playback Model Example Test System

Unit to be
tested

Playback generator

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Page 18 July 2017 Digital Grid | PTI
PSS®E Playback Model
Playback Model – PMU data vs. PSS®E simulation results

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Page 19 July 2017 Digital Grid | PTI
Contact Us

Carlos Grande-Moran
Principal Consultant
Siemens Power Technologies International
E-mail:
carlos.grande@siemens.com

Dinemayer Silva
Staff Consultant
Siemens Power Technologies International
E-mail:
dinemayer.silva@siemens.com

usa.siemens.com/digitalgrid

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