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HOST: NO MATTER

WHAT WE LOOK LIKE TODAY,

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WE'RE ALL DIRECTLY DESCENDED

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FROM ANCESTORS WHO EVOLVED

ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.

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THE OLDEST HUMAN POPULATION

EMERGED IN AFRICA.

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AFRICA IS THE HOME

OF THE WORLD'S

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MOST ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS.

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FAR TOO OFTEN,

AFRICA HAS BEEN THOUGHT OF

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AS ISOLATED AND STATIC,

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BUT NOTHING COULD BE

FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH.

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THE ROOTS OF EVERY FAMILY TREE

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TRACE HERE TO AFRICA.


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AND SO DOES THE HISTORY

OF CIVILIZATION.

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IN THIS SERIES,

WE'LL BE GOING ON A JOURNEY

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THROUGH 200,000 YEARS

OF HISTORY.

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WE'LL EXPLORE GREAT CITIES

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BUILT ALONG AFRICA'S

EXTENSIVE TRADE NETWORKS,

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DISCOVER ART OF

UNPARALLELED BEAUTY

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AND TECHNICAL BRILLIANCE,

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AND MARVEL

AT THOUSANDS OF YEARS

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OF BREATHTAKING ARCHITECTURE.

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DRIVING ALL THIS WERE AFRICANS

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WHO PROSPERED, CREATED,

AND SUFFERED
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THROUGH THEIR RICH,

SOMETIMES TRAGIC,

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YET ENDLESSLY

FASCINATING HISTORY.

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THIS IS A SELDOM-TOLD STORY

OF HOW AFRICANS,

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BY SHAPING THEIR OWN WORLDS,

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SHAPED THE LARGER WORLD

AS WELL.
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AFRICA'S GREAT RIFT VALLEY.

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THIS IS WHERE HUMANITY'S STORY

MOST LIKELY BEGINS.

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HOMO SAPIENS,

ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS,

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HAVE LIVED HERE

FOR ABOUT 200,000 YEARS.

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THIS GREAT GEOLOGICAL FAULT,

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STRETCHING 3,000 MILES

THROUGH AFRICA,

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FROM ETHIOPIA TO MALAWI,

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WITH ITS GREAT LAKES

AND SAVANNAHS

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FULL OF ANIMAL LIFE,

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GAVE OUR ANCESTORS

THE PERFECT ENVIRONMENT

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IN WHICH TO EVOLVE.
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MAN: THE RIFT VALLEY,

IT'S LIKE A CRUCIBLE,

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LIKE IN A CHEMISTRY LAB,

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WHERE HUMANS HAVE BEEN TESTED.

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BECAUSE NATURE CONSTANTLY TESTS

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DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SPECIES.

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THOSE WHO CAN FIT

THE ENVIRONMENT OR THE SITUATION


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THAT IS AROUND

SURVIVE AND CONTINUE,

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AND THE OTHERS, YOU KNOW,

GET REPLACED.

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[THUNDER]

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HOST: IN 1997,

THE RAINS FELL HEAVILY

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IN ETHIOPIA'S

NORTHERN RIFT VALLEY.


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LAYERS OF SEDIMENT DISLODGED,

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REVEALING

AN EXTRAORDINARY FIND--

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A HUMAN SKULL.

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IT'S ONE OF THE OLDEST

HOMO SAPIEN REMAINS

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TO BE FOUND ANYWHERE

IN THE WORLD.

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SCIENTISTS NAMED THE SKULL

IDALTU, MEANING FIRSTBORN,

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AND IDALTU WALKED THESE VALLEYS

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160,000 YEARS AGO.

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DR. BERHANE ASFAW

WAS ONE OF THE SCIENTISTS

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WHO MADE THE DISCOVERY.

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THIS IS ONE

OF THE FEW SPECIMENS


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THAT WE FOUND ALMOST COMPLETE.

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THE WHOLE, THE FACE

AND THE BRAIN CASE.

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AND THE MOST IMPRESSIVE THING

ABOUT THIS IS

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EVEN AT THIS EARLY AGE,

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THE FACE IS MODERN HOMO SAPIEN,

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THE BRAIN CASE


IS MODERN HOMO SAPIEN,

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THE SHAPE FROM THE BACK

IS A MODERN HOMO SAPIEN.

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IT'S EXACTLY US.

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HOST: THE ANATOMY AND AGE

OF IDALTU'S SKULL

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PROVIDED THE STRONGEST

EVIDENCE YET

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THAT ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS


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EMERGED IN AFRICA.

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MAN: EACH STAGE

OF THE EVOLUTION

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TOWARD MODERN HUMANS,

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IT TAKES PLACE IN AFRICA.

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ASFAW: WHEN WE FOUND

HOMO SAPIEN IDALTU,

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IT'S VERY IMPORTANT BECAUSE


IT PUSHES THE TIME FAR BACK.

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IT MEANS ANATOMICALLY MODERN

HOMO SAPIENS

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STARTED WALKING ON THIS PLANET

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MUCH EARLIER THAN WE THOUGHT,

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AND THE INTERESTING THING IS

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AT THE SAME TIME, EUROPE WAS

PACKED WITH NEANDERTHALS,

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WHICH ARE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT

FROM HOMO SAPIENS.

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HOST: ONE OF AFRICA'S MOST

RESPECTED PALEOANTHROPOLOGISTS

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IS DR. RICHARD LEAKEY.

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HE AND HIS COLLEAGUES HAVE MADE

GROUNDBREAKING DISCOVERIES

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ABOUT HOW OUR SPECIES EVOLVED

ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.

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I'VE COME TO MEET HIM AT HIS

INSTITUTE IN NAIROBI, KENYA.

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HOW DO WE KNOW

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THAT THE FIRST

HUMAN BEINGS

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EVOLVED ON

THE AFRICAN CONTINENT?

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THE FOSSIL EVIDENCE AND THE

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

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THAT'S COME TO LIGHT


IN THE LAST 20, 30 YEARS

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IS VERY, VERY SUBSTANTIAL,

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TESTABLE, AND REAL.

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WHY DO YOU THINK

THIS IDEA

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WAS SO DISTURBING

IN SOME QUARTERS?

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HISTORICALLY, THE SCIENCE

OF PALEOANTHROPOLOGY
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OR ANTHROPOLOGY CAME INTO

EXISTENCE AT A TIME WHEN

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WE REALLY KNEW VERY LITTLE.

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AFRICANS WERE CONSIDERED

PRIMITIVE, HEATHEN,

WHO KNOWS.

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AND THE ORIGINS

OF THE SUBHUMAN

STATUS OF AFRICANS

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BEGINS, REALLY,

IN THE 18TH CENTURY.


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IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT,

IRONICALLY ENOUGH.

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THEY WEREN'T REALLY

CONSIDERED TO BE

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ONE OF OUR SPECIES.

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HOST: CONTINUING

ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

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AND NOW MAJOR

SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGHS
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HAVE CONFIRMED THAT

AFRICA ABSOLUTELY

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WAS THE CRADLE OF HUMANITY.

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MAN: IT'S LIKE IF WE'RE

EXPLORING OUR PAST

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AND LOOKING AT WHERE

OUR ROOTS ARE SUNK DOWN,

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WE'LL FIND THAT THEY'RE

THE DEEPEST IN AFRICA,

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AND THAT'S WHERE WE GET

MOST OF OUR GENETICS.

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HOST: GENETICISTS

HAVE IDENTIFIED

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AN ASTONISHING LINK TO OUR

EARLIEST HUMAN RELATIONS

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THROUGH OUR DNA.

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EVERY LIVING PERSON

SHARES A COMMON DIRECT

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MATERNAL ANCESTOR.

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SHE'S KNOWN AS

MITOCHONDRIAL EVE.

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WE BELIEVE THAT SHE WAS PART

OF A SMALL GROUP OF HUMANS

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WHO LIVED IN THIS

REGION OF AFRICA

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AROUND THE TIME

OF THE IDALTU SKULL.

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MAN: OUR COMMON ANCESTRY


THROUGH THE MITOCHONDRIAL EVE

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MEANS THAT OUR

GENETIC DIFFERENCES

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ARE LITERALLY SKIN DEEP.

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THAT AT THE BOTTOM, WE ARE ALL

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DESCENDED FROM THE SAME FAMILY.

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HOST: MITOCHONDRIAL DNA,

FOUND IN OUR CELLS,

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IS THE GENETIC SIGNATURE

PASSED DOWN THROUGH FEMALES

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FROM MOTHER TO CHILD.

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WHAT IT MEANS IS THAT

THIS WAS A WOMAN,

HYPOTHETICALLY,

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WHO LIVED 200,000

YEARS AGO,

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WHO HAD ENOUGH DAUGHTERS

IN A CONTINUOUS CHAIN,

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STRAIGHT BACK SO THAT

HER MITOCHONDRIAL

DNA SURVIVED.

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ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.

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AND ALL OF US TODAY,

NO MATTER WHAT

WE LOOK LIKE,

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ARE DESCENDED

FROM BLACK ANCESTORS?

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YEAH, THAT IS

EXACTLY,
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THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED.

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ALL THE HUMANS,

ALL THE HOMO SAPIENS

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ALL OVER THE WORLD,

BE IT YELLOW, WHITE, BLACK,

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WE ARE DESCENDED

FROM A COMMON ANCESTOR

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IN AFRICA.

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WHAT WOULD LIFE

FOR HUMAN BEINGS

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200,000 YEARS AGO

HAVE BEEN LIKE

IN THIS VALLEY?

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200,000 YEARS AGO,

I WOULD IMAGINE

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THE GROUPS WERE

QUITE SMALL.

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MM-HMM.

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THE DANGERS AROUND,

WE HAD PREDATORS,

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THINGS LIKE HYENAS

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AND GROUPS OF CARNIVORES

ALL AROUND.

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MM-HMM.

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IT'S DIFFICULT

FOR US TO IMAGINE

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PREHISTORIC LIFE

OR A WORLD WITHOUT
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ANY TRAPPINGS

OF THE THINGS THAT HAVE

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COME TO DEFINE HUMANNESS

OVER THE LAST 10,000 YEARS,

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AND SO,

IN THE MODERN ZEITGEIST,

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THE ONLY THING THAT COMES CLOSE

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IS ACTUALLY

THE POST-APOCALYPTIC
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ZOMBIE SHOWS, FOR EXAMPLE.

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YOU HAVE SMALL BANDS OF PEOPLE

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ROAMING THE LANDSCAPE,

WORKING TOGETHER,

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FIGHTING OFF PREDATORS

THAT ARE TRYING TO EAT THEM,

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AND WORRIED ABOUT

THE OTHER GROUPS OF HUMANS

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THAT THEY MIGHT BUMP INTO.

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SO, THERE ARE A LOT OF

INTERESTING PARALLELS

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THAT COULD BE DRAWN.

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HOST: MODERN HOMO SAPIENS

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INITIALLY LIVED ONLY IN AFRICA,

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SLOWLY SPREADING

ACROSS THE CONTINENT

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OVER 120,000 YEARS.

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BUT BETWEEN 80,000 AND 50,000

YEARS AGO,

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THEY BEGAN SUCCESSFULLY

TO POPULATE

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THE REST OF THE WORLD.

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HOST: SO, WHAT HAPPENED

80,000 YEARS AGO?

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LEAKEY: WELL, I WISH


WE KNEW WHAT HAPPENED,

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BUT THERE'S

NO DOUBT AT ALL

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THAT A VERY SMALL

POPULATION

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SOMEWHERE IN THAT

TIME ZONE

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CAUGHT SOME ADAPTATION

THAT GAVE THEM

A HUGE ADVANTAGE.

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I HAVE A FEELING IT

MIGHT HAVE BEEN SPEECH.

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I DON'T KNOW

WHAT IT WAS.

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BUT THEY SPREAD VERY

QUICKLY OUT OF AFRICA.

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SO, 80,000 YEARS AGO,

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THE HUMAN COMMUNITY

WAS BLACK.

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WHEREVER THEY WERE


IN THE WORLD.

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HOST: BUT WHEN THOSE

EARLY HUMAN BEINGS

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MIGRATED OUT OF AFRICA,

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THEY WEREN'T TRAVELING ALONE.

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THEY WERE CARRYING SOMETHING

WITHIN THEM.

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AND THAT SOMETHING HAD DEVELOPED

SLOWLY, OVER MILLENNIA.


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IT WAS CULTURE.

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THAT CULTURE WOULD

DEVELOP TO INCLUDE

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THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENTS

OF HUMAN CREATIVITY,

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AND IT BEGAN HERE

ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT.

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IN 1991, ARCHAEOLOGIST

CHRISTOPHER HENSHILWOOD,

198
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EXPLORING HIS

GRANDFATHER'S LAND,

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00:10:20,374 --> 00:10:22,541

DISCOVERED THE OPENING

TO A CAVE

200

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ON A CLIFF FACE

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ABOVE THE CRASHING WAVES

202

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WHERE THE ATLANTIC

AND INDIAN OCEANS COLLIDE.

203

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TODAY, WE CALL THIS


THE BLOMBOS CAVE.

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INSIDE IS EVIDENCE

OF OVER 140,000 YEARS

205

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OF HUMAN HABITATION,

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AND SIGNS OF THE FIRST FORM

OF HUMAN CREATIVE EXPRESSION.

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00:10:44,831 --> 00:10:46,831

BEFORE THIS DISCOVERY,

WE THOUGHT

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THE EARLIEST EXAMPLES

OF ARTWORK
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00:10:49,136 --> 00:10:52,037

WERE FOUND IN THE LASCAUX CAVES

IN FRANCE,

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DATING BACK

ONLY 35,000 YEARS AGO.

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HAWKS: WHEN PEOPLE BEGAN MAKING

DISCOVERIES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA,

212

00:10:58,345 --> 00:11:00,745

LIKE AT BLOMBOS CAVE,

THEY REALIZED

213

00:11:00,814 --> 00:11:04,249

THAT ACTUALLY, THIS RECORD

OF ARTISTIC PRODUCTION
214

00:11:04,318 --> 00:11:06,952

GOES BACK MUCH FURTHER

THAN ANYONE GUESSED.

215

00:11:07,020 --> 00:11:09,921

IN FRANCE, CAVE PAINTINGS

30,000 YEARS OLD,

216

00:11:09,990 --> 00:11:11,790

35,000 AT THE OLDEST.

217

00:11:11,858 --> 00:11:13,525

IN SOUTHERN AFRICA,

WE'RE TALKING ABOUT

218

00:11:13,594 --> 00:11:16,828

90,000, 100,000 YEARS.

219
00:11:16,897 --> 00:11:20,398

WOMAN: BLOMBOS CAVE IS

A RELATIVELY RECENT DISCOVERY,

220

00:11:20,467 --> 00:11:25,470

SO, THE MORE RESEARCH

WE DO IN AFRICA,

221

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AND ALSO THE MORE DATING

WE CONDUCT,

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THIS WILL CHANGE PEOPLE'S MINDS

OF HOW

223

00:11:33,180 --> 00:11:35,080

WE SAW HUMAN HISTORY,

224

00:11:35,148 --> 00:11:37,549


AND THE EVIDENCE SHOWS

225

00:11:37,618 --> 00:11:41,252

THEY WERE ALREADY ASSESSING

THE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR

226

00:11:41,321 --> 00:11:45,557

THAT WE SEE AS DEFINING

THE MODERN HUMAN

227

00:11:45,626 --> 00:11:48,093

BEFORE THEY LEFT AFRICA.

228

00:11:48,161 --> 00:11:52,297

HOST: SMALL OCHRE BLOCKS

FOUND IN THE BLOMBOS CAVE

229

00:11:52,366 --> 00:11:54,633

COMPLETELY CHANGED

HOW WE UNDERSTAND
230

00:11:54,701 --> 00:11:58,003

THE DEVELOPMENT

OF HUMAN CREATIVITITY.

231

00:11:58,071 --> 00:12:01,673

ONE OF THESE BLOCKS,

COVERED IN CURIOUS MARKINGS,

232

00:12:01,742 --> 00:12:06,044

IS NOW HOUSED IN

THE IZIKO MUSEUM IN CAPE TOWN.

233

00:12:06,113 --> 00:12:08,947

WOMAN: IT'S UNIQUE

IN TERMS OF

234

00:12:09,016 --> 00:12:10,315

FIRSTLY WHERE

IT WAS FOUND
235

00:12:10,384 --> 00:12:11,850

AND THE DATE--

IT'S PRETTY OLD.

236

00:12:11,918 --> 00:12:13,818

77,000 YEARS AGO.

MM.

237

00:12:13,887 --> 00:12:16,521

WHAT IS INTERESTING

IS THE ETCHING.

238

00:12:16,590 --> 00:12:19,924

IT'S ALMOST A HASHED ETCHING

ON THE ONE EDGE,

239

00:12:19,993 --> 00:12:22,027

AND THAT IS DONE

WITH PURPOSE.
240

00:12:22,095 --> 00:12:23,895

I'VE OFTEN THOUGHT

THAT IF

241

00:12:23,964 --> 00:12:25,263

PIGMENT WAS PUT

ON IT,

242

00:12:25,332 --> 00:12:26,865

YOU COULD USE IT

AS A STAMP,

243

00:12:26,933 --> 00:12:30,268

WHICH TO ME SCREAMS

ARTISTIC EXPRESSION.

244

00:12:30,337 --> 00:12:31,770

MM-HMM. MEANING.
245

00:12:31,838 --> 00:12:34,205

MEANING.

SYMBOLIC MEANING.

246

00:12:34,274 --> 00:12:37,342

SO, THIS WOULD MAKE IT

ONE OF THE EARLIEST

247

00:12:37,411 --> 00:12:40,045

ARTISTIC ARTIFACTS

THAT WE HAVE.

248

00:12:40,113 --> 00:12:43,448

THIS IS A SIGN OF

A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO

249

00:12:43,517 --> 00:12:47,585

HAD MANAGED

TO EMERGE ABOVE
250

00:12:47,654 --> 00:12:49,487

IMMEDIATE CONCERNS

FOR FOOD

251

00:12:49,556 --> 00:12:52,090

AND BASIC

HUMAN SURVIVAL.

252

00:12:52,159 --> 00:12:54,993

THAT SAYS SOMETHING

ABOUT AFRICA AND AFRICANS.

253

00:12:55,062 --> 00:12:56,895

I THINK SO.

IT SHOWS THAT

254

00:12:56,963 --> 00:13:00,999

THESE PEOPLE WERE

COGNIZANT OF

THEIR SURROUNDINGS.
255

00:13:01,068 --> 00:13:03,835

THEY WERE SOCIALLY AWARE.

256

00:13:03,904 --> 00:13:05,804

IT SHOWS THE BIRTHPLACE

257

00:13:05,872 --> 00:13:09,307

OF A VERY RICH

CULTURAL HERITAGE

258

00:13:09,376 --> 00:13:13,111

THAT HAS IN THE PAST

NOT BEEN RECOGNIZED.

259

00:13:13,180 --> 00:13:15,914

THIS IS ARTWORK.

260

00:13:15,982 --> 00:13:18,183


HOST: ALONGSIDE

THE OCHRE BLOCK,

261

00:13:18,251 --> 00:13:19,784

A PAINTING KIT WAS FOUND.

262

00:13:21,054 --> 00:13:23,655

THAT OCHRE BLOCK WAS

NOT ONLY DECORATED,

263

00:13:23,724 --> 00:13:27,425

IT WAS GROUND DOWN, MIXED WITH

WATER AND MINERALS,

264

00:13:27,494 --> 00:13:29,994

AND USED AS PAINT.

265

00:13:30,063 --> 00:13:34,199

LEWIS: ONCE A GROUP IS INTO

SYMBOLIC EXPRESSION,
266

00:13:34,267 --> 00:13:36,367

WHETHER IT BE VIA BEADS OR

267

00:13:36,436 --> 00:13:39,504

USING COLORANTS TO PAINT

THE BODY OR TO PAINT WALLS,

268

00:13:39,573 --> 00:13:42,373

THAT'S GONNA BE ANOTHER

VERY IMPORTANT BEHAVIOR

269

00:13:42,442 --> 00:13:46,111

TO USE FOR COMMUNICATING

COMPLEX SETS OF IDEAS

270

00:13:46,179 --> 00:13:49,914

ABOUT GROUP IDENTITY AND ALSO

TO HELP TRANSMIT INFORMATION


271

00:13:49,983 --> 00:13:52,784

TO OTHER MEMBERS

OF YOUR IMMEDIATE GROUP.

272

00:13:52,853 --> 00:13:55,854

HOST: MUCH OF THIS EARLY ART

HAS PERISHED WITH TIME,

273

00:13:55,922 --> 00:13:59,324

BUT CAVE ART PROVIDES US

WITH THE ONLY SNAPSHOTS

274

00:13:59,392 --> 00:14:04,329

OF HOW EARLY HUMAN BEINGS LIVED,

HUNTED, AND EVEN LOVED.

275

00:14:04,397 --> 00:14:06,631

HAWKS: WE JUST GET

THE DURABLE ELEMENT,


276

00:14:06,700 --> 00:14:08,366

BUT WHEN YOU'RE

PAINTING YOUR SKIN,

277

00:14:08,435 --> 00:14:10,568

WHEN YOU'RE PAINTING HIDES

THAT YOU MIGHT BE WEARING,

278

00:14:10,637 --> 00:14:14,272

WHEN YOU'RE USING FEATHERS

AND OTHER KINDS OF

279

00:14:14,341 --> 00:14:17,442

REALLY SPECIAL OBJECTS

BUT PERISHABLE OBJECTS,

280

00:14:17,511 --> 00:14:19,477

YOU KNOW, WHEN WE LOOK

AT SOCIETIES TODAY,
281

00:14:19,546 --> 00:14:21,412

THEY HAVE THIS INCREDIBLE RANGE

282

00:14:21,481 --> 00:14:23,047

OF THINGS THAT

WOULD NEVER SURVIVE

283

00:14:23,116 --> 00:14:24,482

IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD.

284

00:14:26,753 --> 00:14:28,753

HOST: DEEP

IN THE LIBYAN DESERT,

285

00:14:28,822 --> 00:14:31,289

IN A REMOTE CAVE AT WADI SURA,

286

00:14:31,358 --> 00:14:34,325

MILES FROM ANY


LUSH VEGETATION TODAY,

287

00:14:34,394 --> 00:14:38,396

A STUNNING VISUAL RECORD REVEALS

A QUITE SURPRISING PICTURE

288

00:14:38,465 --> 00:14:43,234

OF DAILY LIFE IN THE SAHARA

7,000 YEARS AGO.

289

00:14:43,303 --> 00:14:45,970

THE WALLS OF THE CAVE

TEEM WITH DEPICTIONS

290

00:14:46,039 --> 00:14:49,040

OF PEOPLE SWIMMING

AND ANIMALS GRAZING,

291

00:14:49,109 --> 00:14:52,610

GLIMPSES INTO
A LONG-LOST LANDSCAPE.

292

00:14:52,679 --> 00:14:55,713

MIRE: YOU HAVE THE CAVE

OF SWIMMERS.

293

00:14:55,782 --> 00:14:59,083

THERE YOU HAVE YOUR HISTORY

RECORDING, IF YOU LIKE,

294

00:14:59,152 --> 00:15:02,787

WHERE WE ARE GETTING AN IDEA OF

295

00:15:02,856 --> 00:15:05,990

A PLACE WHERE WE TODAY

CANNOT EVEN IMAGINE

296

00:15:06,059 --> 00:15:07,725

ANY LIFE SURVIVING.


297

00:15:07,794 --> 00:15:12,263

WE HAVE LAKES AND THE DEPICTIONS

OF THE SWIMMERS

298

00:15:12,332 --> 00:15:18,736

AND VERY ABUNDANT WILDLIFE

THRIVING IN THE SAHARA,

299

00:15:18,805 --> 00:15:22,874

A PLACE NOW WE KNOW

FOR SAND DUNES.

300

00:15:24,277 --> 00:15:26,177

HOST: HOWEVER,

THE SAHARA WAS ONCE

301

00:15:26,246 --> 00:15:28,413

A COMPLETELY

DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT,
302

00:15:28,481 --> 00:15:32,183

CAPABLE OF SUSTAINING THESE

EMERGING HUMAN COMMUNITIES.

303

00:15:32,252 --> 00:15:34,786

TODAY, THE SAHARA IS

VERY BARREN AND DRY,

304

00:15:34,855 --> 00:15:36,654

BUT FROM ROCK ART,

WE FIND THAT THERE ARE

305

00:15:36,723 --> 00:15:40,758

A LOT OF AQUATIC FAUNA,

HIPPO, CROCODILE, GIRAFFES.

306

00:15:40,827 --> 00:15:42,894

A VERY VIBRANT

BIODIVERSITY.
307

00:15:42,963 --> 00:15:44,195

HOST: SO, IN THIS CASE,

308

00:15:44,264 --> 00:15:47,332

ART VERIFIES

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

309

00:15:47,400 --> 00:15:49,667

YES. IT TELLS US MORE

ABOUT HOW

310

00:15:49,736 --> 00:15:50,902

THE LANDSCAPE

HAS CHANGED

311

00:15:50,971 --> 00:15:52,503

OR HOW THE ENVIRONMENT

HAS CHANGED.

312
00:15:54,608 --> 00:15:56,074

ABAKA: OVER 10,000 YEARS AGO,

313

00:15:56,142 --> 00:15:59,377

THE SAHARA WAS ACTUALLY

A GREEN SAVANNAH.

314

00:15:59,446 --> 00:16:04,449

THERE WERE ANIMALS, FISHES,

LAKES, RIVERS,

315

00:16:04,517 --> 00:16:07,285

AND RIGHT ACROSS WHAT IS NOW

THE SAHARA,

316

00:16:07,354 --> 00:16:10,021

THE ENVIRONMENT WAS GREEN.

317

00:16:10,090 --> 00:16:11,823

EHRET: THIS WAS


THE KIND OF ENVIRONMENT

318

00:16:11,892 --> 00:16:14,225

THAT ATTRACTS

THE GREAT HERBIVORES,

319

00:16:14,294 --> 00:16:16,961

THE LARGE HERDING ANIMALS.

320

00:16:17,030 --> 00:16:19,797

THE HIPPOPOTAMUSES, RHINOS.

321

00:16:19,866 --> 00:16:21,199

THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN

A TIME WHEN THOSE

322

00:16:21,268 --> 00:16:22,934

WERE THE IMPORTANT ANIMALS.

323
00:16:23,003 --> 00:16:24,369

HOST: ALTHOUGH EARLY HUMANS

324

00:16:24,437 --> 00:16:26,638

CONTINUED TO BE

HUNTER-GATHERERS,

325

00:16:26,706 --> 00:16:29,974

OVER TIME, THEY BEGAN

TO CULTIVATE PLANTS,

326

00:16:30,043 --> 00:16:32,176

AND AROUND 10,000 YEARS AGO,

327

00:16:32,245 --> 00:16:34,646

ACROSS AFRICA

AND THE MIDDLE EAST,

328

00:16:34,714 --> 00:16:37,582

THEY BEGAN TO BREED


ANIMALS AS LIVESTOCK

329

00:16:37,651 --> 00:16:39,450

AND DOMESTICATE CATTLE.

330

00:16:39,519 --> 00:16:41,519

THE SAHARA BECAME THIS BAND

331

00:16:41,588 --> 00:16:44,689

WHERE THESE PEOPLE SPREAD

THEIR LIVESTOCK GRAZING.

332

00:16:44,758 --> 00:16:46,724

MIRE: EVERYWHERE

ACROSS THE SAHARA,

333

00:16:46,793 --> 00:16:50,595

YOU HAVE VAST SCENES OF

PAINTINGS OF THESE ANIMALS,


334

00:16:50,664 --> 00:16:54,832

BUT ALSO, I THINK,

IT KIND OF ALSO SHOWS THAT

335

00:16:54,901 --> 00:17:00,305

THIS IS THEM GOING TOWARDS

THE DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS

336

00:17:00,373 --> 00:17:04,409

AND SETTLE

IN A SEDENTARY SOCIETY.

337

00:17:04,477 --> 00:17:08,246

HAWKS: WHEN YOU LOOK AT AFRICA,

IT'S THE CRADLE OF MANKIND, BUT

338

00:17:08,315 --> 00:17:11,316

LOOKING INTO THE DEVELOPMENT

OF AGRICULTURE,
339

00:17:11,384 --> 00:17:13,985

IT BECOMES A CRADLE

OF CIVILIZATION.

340

00:17:14,054 --> 00:17:15,987

[MAN SPEAKING NATIVE LANGUAGE]

341

00:17:16,056 --> 00:17:19,824

EHRET: BETWEEN 4,800

AND 4,200 B.C.,

342

00:17:19,893 --> 00:17:23,428

MORE THAN 1,000 YEARS BEFORE

THE RISE OF ANCIENT EGYPT,

343

00:17:23,496 --> 00:17:26,064

IN THE AREAS WEST OF THE NILE,

344

00:17:26,132 --> 00:17:30,268


THE FIRST COMPLEX

AFRICAN SOCIETY FORMS.

345

00:17:30,337 --> 00:17:33,671

IT'S NOT A SETTLED SOCIETY

OF TOWNS,

346

00:17:33,740 --> 00:17:36,674

BUT IT'S PEOPLE WHO RAISE

GREAT HERDS OF CATTLE.

347

00:17:38,511 --> 00:17:41,846

HOST: FOR 3,000 YEARS,

THESE COMMUNITIES,

348

00:17:41,915 --> 00:17:43,514

AND THE WORLD AROUND THEM,

349

00:17:43,583 --> 00:17:45,717

CONTINUED TO EVOLVE.
350

00:17:45,785 --> 00:17:49,387

FARMING DEVELOPED,

AND POPULATIONS GREW.

351

00:17:49,456 --> 00:17:51,856

BUT BY 4,000 B.C.,

352

00:17:51,925 --> 00:17:54,425

VAST AREAS OF THE LUSH SAVANNAH

353

00:17:54,494 --> 00:17:57,128

HAD TURNED INTO DESERT.

354

00:17:57,197 --> 00:17:59,130

LIFE FOR THE PEOPLE

OF THE GREEN SAHARA

355

00:17:59,199 --> 00:18:00,965


IS BRUTALLY TRANSFORMED.

356

00:18:01,034 --> 00:18:03,501

EVERYTHING CHANGES,

357

00:18:03,570 --> 00:18:05,937

SETTING CIVILIZATION IN AFRICA

358

00:18:06,006 --> 00:18:08,306

ON A RADICAL, NEW PATH.

359

00:18:09,576 --> 00:18:12,643

WOMAN: THERE WAS A SLOW

CHANGE IN CLIMATE,

360

00:18:12,712 --> 00:18:16,781

THUS MAKING TRADITIONAL

PASTORAL WAYS OF LIFE

361
00:18:16,850 --> 00:18:18,649

FAR MORE DIFFICULT FOR PEOPLE.

362

00:18:21,521 --> 00:18:23,855

HOST: IN THE FACE

OF THIS CLIMATE CHANGE,

363

00:18:23,923 --> 00:18:27,825

THE POPULATIONS OF

THE SAHARA DISPERSED.

364

00:18:27,894 --> 00:18:30,962

AND MANY PEOPLE MIGRATED

TOWARDS THE FERTILE LANDS

365

00:18:31,031 --> 00:18:33,331

OF THE NILE VALLEY,

366

00:18:33,400 --> 00:18:36,501

BECOMING THE ANCESTORS


OF BOTH THE EGYPTIANS

367

00:18:36,569 --> 00:18:37,935

AND THE NUBIANS.

368

00:18:40,940 --> 00:18:43,374

ABAKA: THE VERDANT

VALLEY OF THE NILE

369

00:18:43,443 --> 00:18:46,944

WAS AN ATTRACTIVE PLACE

FOR COMMUNITIES TO SETTLE.

370

00:18:47,013 --> 00:18:50,148

HAWKS: THE NILE IS LIKE THIS

GREEN RIVER THROUGH THE DESERT,

371

00:18:50,216 --> 00:18:54,118

AND THE REGULAR FLOODS CREATE

THIS INCREDIBLE SOIL,


372

00:18:54,187 --> 00:18:57,522

SO THAT ONCE YOU HAVE

THE DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS,

373

00:18:57,590 --> 00:19:01,292

THIS BECOMES THE BREADBASKET

OF THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN,

374

00:19:01,361 --> 00:19:04,495

AND YOU'VE GOT THAT HAPPENING

375

00:19:04,564 --> 00:19:08,499

AS PEOPLE ARE DEVELOPING

VILLAGES AND STATES.

376

00:19:08,568 --> 00:19:11,836

EHRET: THERE'S PRESSURES THAT

ARISE AS POPULATION GROWS


377

00:19:11,905 --> 00:19:15,339

THAT LEADS TO FOUNDATION

OF MORE COMPLEX SOCIETIES.

378

00:19:15,408 --> 00:19:17,909

BRADSHAW: THE POPULATION

BECOMES DIVIDED

379

00:19:17,977 --> 00:19:19,510

BETWEEN THE FOOD-PRODUCING

GROUPS

380

00:19:19,579 --> 00:19:21,412

AND THE NON-FOOD-PRODUCING

GROUPS,

381

00:19:21,481 --> 00:19:23,748

AND WHAT WE SEE WITH

THE NON-FOOD-PRODUCING GROUPS


382

00:19:23,817 --> 00:19:26,851

IS THAT THEY BECOME ARTISANS,

PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS,

383

00:19:26,920 --> 00:19:29,720

SO THEY HAVE A SURPLUS OF FOOD,

384

00:19:29,789 --> 00:19:31,289

AND THIS IS THE POINT AT WHICH

385

00:19:31,357 --> 00:19:35,493

WE START SEEING THINGS THAT

WE MIGHT CALL CIVILIZATION.

386

00:19:35,562 --> 00:19:37,795

HOST: BURIAL PITS

IN THE NILE VALLEY

387

00:19:37,864 --> 00:19:40,765


HAVE BEEN THE SOURCE

OF RARE AND UNIQUE ARTIFACTS

388

00:19:40,834 --> 00:19:44,402

DATING BACK MORE THAN

6,000 YEARS.

389

00:19:44,471 --> 00:19:48,005

THEY SHOW A RICH,

CREATIVE CULTURE.

390

00:19:48,074 --> 00:19:51,943

THESE PRESTIGE ITEMS

WERE CRAFTED BY ARTISANS

391

00:19:52,011 --> 00:19:54,612

TO BE ENJOYED BY ELITES.

392

00:19:54,681 --> 00:19:55,813

HOST: HOW OLD IS THIS?


393

00:19:55,882 --> 00:19:59,550

SO, THIS DATES

ABOUT 3,600 B.C.

394

00:19:59,619 --> 00:20:02,887

REALLY? THIS IS

6,000 YEARS AGO.

395

00:20:02,956 --> 00:20:03,888

YEAH.

396

00:20:03,957 --> 00:20:05,423

SO, THE BROTHERS

AND SISTERS

397

00:20:05,492 --> 00:20:07,625

BACK IN THE NILE VALLEY

398
00:20:07,694 --> 00:20:10,061

WERE COMBING OUT THEIR HAIR

WITH AN AFRO COMB.

399

00:20:10,130 --> 00:20:14,565

YES. JUST LIKE AFRO

COMBS, THESE LONG,

THICK COMBS

400

00:20:14,634 --> 00:20:16,734

WOULD'VE BEEN PERFECT

FOR AFRICAN HAIR,

401

00:20:16,803 --> 00:20:18,703

AND THIS IS AN ITEM

THAT WOULD PROCLAIM

402

00:20:18,771 --> 00:20:22,773

STATUS AND IDENTITY

AND MAKE A STATEMENT.


403

00:20:22,842 --> 00:20:24,542

THEY'RE OFTEN FOUND

IN THE BURIAL

404

00:20:24,611 --> 00:20:27,044

STILL IN THE HAIR,

VERY PROMINENTLY PLACED,

405

00:20:27,113 --> 00:20:29,981

SO THESE SYMBOLS

WOULD'VE BEEN VISIBLE.

406

00:20:30,049 --> 00:20:32,016

JUST THE WAY

BLACK PEOPLE

WEAR THEM TODAY.

407

00:20:32,085 --> 00:20:33,451

ABSOLUTELY.
408

00:20:33,520 --> 00:20:35,753

BLACK PEOPLE WERE

COMBING THEIR HAIR

WITH AFRO COMBS.

409

00:20:35,822 --> 00:20:37,255

I THOUGHT WE INVENTED

THIS IN THE SIXTIES.

410

00:20:37,323 --> 00:20:38,623

[LAUGHTER]

411

00:20:38,691 --> 00:20:41,192

AMAZING.

SO, THE BURIALS

AT THAT DATE

412

00:20:41,261 --> 00:20:42,894

WERE PIT BURIALS.


413

00:20:42,962 --> 00:20:45,096

IN THE DRY SAND,

OFTEN IT PRESERVES

414

00:20:45,165 --> 00:20:46,898

ORGANIC MATERIALS.

415

00:20:46,966 --> 00:20:48,533

WE CAN ACTUALLY DO

AN ARCHAEOLOGY

416

00:20:48,601 --> 00:20:50,334

OF HAIRDOS

AND HAIRSTYLES.

417

00:20:50,403 --> 00:20:51,602

OH, WHAT KIND

OF HAIRSTYLES?

418
00:20:51,671 --> 00:20:53,171

THEY'VE GOT ALL SORTS.

419

00:20:53,239 --> 00:20:55,006

THEY'VE GOT THE USE OF

HENNA AND FAKE HAIR

420

00:20:55,074 --> 00:20:56,774

AND BIG BOUFFANTS.

421

00:20:56,843 --> 00:20:58,042

THERE'S EVEN

A SUGGESTION WE'VE GOT

422

00:20:58,111 --> 00:20:59,610

SOME MOHAWKS AS WELL.

423

00:20:59,679 --> 00:21:01,045

THAT'S ASTONISHING.
424

00:21:01,114 --> 00:21:02,914

SO, THE PEOPLE

WHO MADE THIS WERE

425

00:21:02,982 --> 00:21:04,549

HIGHLY-SKILLED

CRAFTSPEOPLE.

426

00:21:04,617 --> 00:21:06,751

THEY WERE MAKING

BEAUTIFUL POTTERY.

427

00:21:06,819 --> 00:21:09,053

VERY SKILLED AT MAKING

STONE VESSELS.

428

00:21:09,122 --> 00:21:11,455

ALL UP AND DOWN THE

NILE VALLEY AT THIS TIME


429

00:21:11,524 --> 00:21:14,358

YOU SEE GROUPS CREATING

VERY VIBRANT,

430

00:21:14,427 --> 00:21:17,762

PERSONAL CULTURE

THAT THEY WOULD

WEAR AND DISPLAY.

431

00:21:17,830 --> 00:21:19,096

MM-HMM.

432

00:21:19,165 --> 00:21:21,999

EHRET: YOU GET THIS COMING IN

OF PEOPLE FROM THE SAHARA,

433

00:21:22,068 --> 00:21:25,069

BRINGING IDEAS THAT

EVEN MORE COMPLEX,


434

00:21:25,138 --> 00:21:28,105

LARGER-SCALE INSTITUTIONS

CAN BE BUILT,

435

00:21:28,174 --> 00:21:30,575

AND THEN DEVELOPMENT

OF LITTLE, TINY KINGDOMS.

436

00:21:32,378 --> 00:21:34,145

MAN: DIFFERENT GROUPS

ARE UNITING

437

00:21:34,214 --> 00:21:36,414

UNDER POWERFUL FIGURES

OR PERHAPS

438

00:21:36,482 --> 00:21:39,116

LOCAL DEITIES OR FETISHES

OR EMBLEMS,
439

00:21:39,185 --> 00:21:40,718

AND THEN THESE

GROUPS CONSOLIDATE.

440

00:21:40,787 --> 00:21:42,620

ONE IS VICTORIOUS OVER ANOTHER.

441

00:21:42,689 --> 00:21:44,222

THEY GET LARGER AND LARGER

442

00:21:44,290 --> 00:21:45,523

AND SMALLER IN NUMBER.

443

00:21:48,061 --> 00:21:51,462

HOST: IN 1988,

ARCHAEOLOGISTS DISCOVERED A TOMB

444

00:21:51,531 --> 00:21:56,534

AT ABYDOS, 300 MILES


SOUTH OF CAIRO.

445

00:21:56,603 --> 00:21:58,336

THE TOMB IS THOUGHT TO CONTAIN

446

00:21:58,404 --> 00:22:00,605

ONE OF EGYPT'S EARLIEST RULERS,

447

00:22:00,673 --> 00:22:03,107

CREDITED WITH

CONSOLIDATING THE LANDS

448

00:22:03,176 --> 00:22:05,376

THAT WOULD BECOME

ANCIENT EGYPT.

449

00:22:06,980 --> 00:22:08,980

HE'S KNOWN AS THE SCORPION KING

450
00:22:09,048 --> 00:22:10,881

AND IS BELIEVED TO HAVE RULED

AT THE END

451

00:22:10,950 --> 00:22:13,017

OF THE FOURTH MILLENNIUM B.C.

452

00:22:17,190 --> 00:22:19,857

LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT HIM

OR HIS REIGN,

453

00:22:19,926 --> 00:22:24,662

BUT HIS ROYAL TOMB HOUSED

150 SMALL IVORY TAGS

454

00:22:24,731 --> 00:22:26,897

COVERED IN CARVED SYMBOLS

455

00:22:26,966 --> 00:22:31,535

THAT HELPED TO REWRITE


THE HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION.

456

00:22:31,604 --> 00:22:36,140

THESE SIMPLE IVORY TAGS

REVEALED SOMETHING ASTONISHING.

457

00:22:36,209 --> 00:22:39,143

SOMETHING THAT OVERTURNED

WHAT ARCHAEOLOGISTS BELIEVED

458

00:22:39,212 --> 00:22:42,046

ABOUT HOW OUR

ANCESTORS COMMUNICATED.

459

00:22:42,115 --> 00:22:45,416

THE SYMBOLS ON THESE TAGS

AREN'T ARTWORKS.

460

00:22:45,485 --> 00:22:49,086

THEY ARE IN FACT


THE WORLD'S FIRST WRITING.

461

00:22:50,356 --> 00:22:52,490

MAN: EGYPTIAN WRITING

AS WE KNOW IT,

462

00:22:52,558 --> 00:22:55,660

AS IN FULLY DEVELOPED

EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS,

463

00:22:55,728 --> 00:22:58,796

APPEAR FIRST

AROUND 3,250 B.C.E.

464

00:22:58,865 --> 00:23:01,065

AND SOME OF THE EARLIEST PIECES

465

00:23:01,134 --> 00:23:05,202

ARE THESE LITTLE LABELS,

THESE LITTLE IVORY TAGS


466

00:23:05,271 --> 00:23:09,140

FROM TOMB U-J AT ABYDOS.

467

00:23:09,208 --> 00:23:11,609

HOST: SIMILAR TAGS

FROM THIS BURIAL COMPLEX

468

00:23:11,678 --> 00:23:15,279

ARE NOW KEPT AT

THE PETRIE MUSEUM IN LONDON.

469

00:23:15,348 --> 00:23:18,215

THIS IS

A FORMATIVE STAGE

OF HIEROGLYPHIC WRITING.

470

00:23:18,284 --> 00:23:19,383

SO, WHAT DOES IT SAY?


471

00:23:19,452 --> 00:23:20,751

IT'S BEEN SUGGESTED THAT

472

00:23:20,820 --> 00:23:22,353

IT MIGHT BE

A PLACE NAME.

473

00:23:22,422 --> 00:23:24,422

THIS IS A PRESTIGE ITEM.

474

00:23:24,490 --> 00:23:25,756

AND WHAT WAS IT

USED FOR?

475

00:23:25,825 --> 00:23:27,491

SO, YOU CAN SEE

THERE'S A HOLE

476

00:23:27,560 --> 00:23:29,060


JUST DRILLED

THROUGH THERE,

477

00:23:29,128 --> 00:23:32,697

AND THAT WOULD HAVE

BEEN TIED TO A BOX

OR A BAG,

478

00:23:32,765 --> 00:23:35,266

INDICATING PROPERTY.

479

00:23:35,335 --> 00:23:36,634

SO, THIS WOULD'VE SAID,

480

00:23:36,703 --> 00:23:38,569

"THIS PROPERTY

BELONGS TO ALICE"?

481

00:23:38,638 --> 00:23:40,371

[LAUGHTER]
IT COULD'VE DONE,

482

00:23:40,440 --> 00:23:42,173

OR IT COULD'VE SAID,

"THIS MATERIAL

483

00:23:42,241 --> 00:23:45,176

COMES FROM

THIS PART OF EGYPT."

484

00:23:45,244 --> 00:23:46,444

AND DO YOU HAVE

ANY IDEA

485

00:23:46,512 --> 00:23:48,979

WHAT THE FUNCTION

OF THIS

486

00:23:49,048 --> 00:23:51,716

PROPERTY IDENTIFICATION
SYSTEM WAS?

487

00:23:51,784 --> 00:23:54,685

THIS OBJECT

IS ONLY BEING USED

488

00:23:54,754 --> 00:23:56,354

BY THE ELITE,

BY ROYALTY,

489

00:23:56,422 --> 00:23:59,390

AND IT'S ABOUT

ROYAL OWNERSHIP OF

490

00:23:59,459 --> 00:24:02,393

PARTS OF EGYPT,

PARTS OF LABOR,

491

00:24:02,462 --> 00:24:05,796

OVER MATERIALS.
492

00:24:05,865 --> 00:24:07,264

HOST: WE USED TO BELIEVE

THE FIRST WRITING

493

00:24:07,333 --> 00:24:11,535

BEGAN IN MESOPOTAMIA,

MODERN-DAY IRAQ AND SYRIA.

494

00:24:11,604 --> 00:24:14,605

BUT THESE SMALL TAGS

PROVED THAT WRITING DEVELOPED

495

00:24:14,674 --> 00:24:19,076

SIMULTANEOUSLY AND INDEPENDENTLY

HERE IN AFRICA.

496

00:24:19,145 --> 00:24:21,245

AS TO WHICH LANGUAGE IS OLDER,


497

00:24:21,314 --> 00:24:24,115

THERE'S A HUGE DEBATE

THAT CONTINUES TO RAGE.

498

00:24:24,183 --> 00:24:26,183

DARNELL: I THINK

WE CAN SAY THAT

499

00:24:26,252 --> 00:24:27,918

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN WRITING

500

00:24:27,987 --> 00:24:31,756

DEVELOPS INDEPENDENT OF WRITING

501

00:24:31,824 --> 00:24:34,225

IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA,

502

00:24:34,293 --> 00:24:36,460

AND DEVELOPS REALLY


ALMOST AT THE SAME TIME,

503

00:24:36,529 --> 00:24:40,064

ALTHOUGH THIS EGYPTIAN WRITING

APPEARS TO BE

504

00:24:40,133 --> 00:24:45,069

IN SOME FREQUENT USE

A LITTLE BIT BEFORE

505

00:24:45,138 --> 00:24:49,373

WE SEEM TO GET TRUE,

FULLY DEVELOPED CUNEIFORM.

506

00:24:50,777 --> 00:24:52,810

THE CONCENTRATION OF RESOURCES

507

00:24:52,879 --> 00:24:55,579

LED TO A CONCENTRATION

OF POWER,
508

00:24:55,648 --> 00:24:59,016

RESULTING IN THE FIRST KINGS

RULING OVER WIDE AREAS.

509

00:24:59,085 --> 00:25:01,218

MAINTAINING THAT POWER

510

00:25:01,287 --> 00:25:04,088

REQUIRED THE ABILITY

TO COMMUNICATE,

511

00:25:04,157 --> 00:25:07,758

AND MAXIMIZING THE CAPACITY

TO COMMUNICATE

512

00:25:07,827 --> 00:25:10,327

LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT

OF WRITING.
513

00:25:10,396 --> 00:25:13,597

ABAKA: AND SO, WRITING BECAME

A TOOL FOR ORGANIZING SOCIETY.

514

00:25:13,666 --> 00:25:17,034

ALSO BECAME A TOOL

FOR DOMINATION IN THAT SENSE.

515

00:25:17,103 --> 00:25:20,204

IT BECAME A TOOL

FOR RULING OVER PEOPLE.

516

00:25:21,841 --> 00:25:23,140

HOST: THE EVOLUTION OF WRITING

517

00:25:23,209 --> 00:25:26,243

ENABLED EGYPT'S RULERS

TO MAINTAIN POWER

518
00:25:26,312 --> 00:25:29,513

AND ESTABLISHED A SYSTEM

OF ROYAL ASCENDANCY.

519

00:25:29,582 --> 00:25:31,515

DARNELL: IT LOOKS AS THOUGH

TOMB U-J,

520

00:25:31,584 --> 00:25:34,051

THAT HAS THIS EARLIEST

EGYPTIAN WRITING IN IT,

521

00:25:34,120 --> 00:25:38,756

IT'S ALSO THE FIRST TOMB

THAT CAN BE FOLLOWED

522

00:25:38,825 --> 00:25:41,091

IN A LINE OF DEVELOPMENT

THAT LEADS US

523
00:25:41,160 --> 00:25:43,561

RIGHT TO THE PYRAMIDS

OF THE OLD KINGDOM.

524

00:25:43,629 --> 00:25:46,063

WOMAN: FROM THE FIRST KING

OF THE FIRST DYNASTY

525

00:25:46,132 --> 00:25:49,333

UNTIL THE PYRAMIDS IS A

RELATIVELY SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.

526

00:25:49,402 --> 00:25:52,736

SO YOU HAVE THE CREATION

OF AN EGYPTIAN BUREAUCRACY

527

00:25:52,805 --> 00:25:56,173

AND WITHIN A FEW CENTURIES,

YOU HAVE

528
00:25:56,242 --> 00:25:59,176

THE CONSTRUCTION

OF THE PYRAMIDS.

529

00:25:59,245 --> 00:26:02,880

HOST: AND THE MOST SPECTACULAR

PYRAMID OF ALL

530

00:26:02,949 --> 00:26:06,083

IS THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA.

531

00:26:06,152 --> 00:26:09,587

IT'S THE MOST FAMOUS

AND THE MOST ICONIC BUILDING

532

00:26:09,655 --> 00:26:11,322

IN THE ENTIRE WORLD.

533

00:26:11,390 --> 00:26:13,757

A TRIUMPH OF
SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION

534

00:26:13,826 --> 00:26:15,926

AND ARTISTIC IMAGINATION.

535

00:26:15,995 --> 00:26:17,561

BUILT FOR THE PHARAOH KHUFU,

536

00:26:17,630 --> 00:26:20,831

WHO CAME TO THE THRONE

AROUND 2,600 B.C.

537

00:26:20,900 --> 00:26:23,367

AND RULED FOR ABOUT 27 YEARS,

538

00:26:23,436 --> 00:26:27,204

THE GREAT PYRAMID TOOK

HIS ENTIRE REIGN TO COMPLETE.

539
00:26:27,273 --> 00:26:32,977

THE PROJECT REQUIRED

2,300,000 STONE BLOCKS,

540

00:26:33,045 --> 00:26:37,781

EACH WEIGHING AN AVERAGE

OF 2 1/2 TONS.

541

00:26:37,850 --> 00:26:41,252

THE PYRAMID WOULD REMAIN

THE TALLEST BUILDING ON EARTH

542

00:26:41,320 --> 00:26:44,021

FOR NEARLY 4,000 YEARS.

543

00:26:44,090 --> 00:26:46,357

THE GREAT PYRAMID IS

AN AFRICAN CONSTRUCTION,

544

00:26:46,425 --> 00:26:49,026


AND WE SHOULDN'T FORGET THAT,

AND I FIND IT FANTASTIC

545

00:26:49,095 --> 00:26:53,130

TO THINK ABOUT KHUFU AND HIS

COURTIERS SITTING AROUND

546

00:26:53,199 --> 00:26:54,865

AND SAYING,

"WE'RE GOING TO DO SOMETHING

547

00:26:54,934 --> 00:26:57,134

"THAT NO ONE ELSE

HAS CONCEIVED OF.

548

00:26:57,203 --> 00:27:00,638

LET'S MAKE SOMETHING BIGGER,

MORE IMPRESSIVE."

549

00:27:00,706 --> 00:27:02,640


COLLEEN DARNELL: WITH THE

ANCIENT PYRAMIDS, WE REALLY SEE

550

00:27:02,708 --> 00:27:05,175

ALL OF THE STRONG SUITS

OF ANCIENT EGYPT

551

00:27:05,244 --> 00:27:06,443

COME TO THE FORE.

552

00:27:06,512 --> 00:27:09,914

SO YOU HAVE THEIR

GEOLOGICAL WEALTH OF LIMESTONE

553

00:27:09,982 --> 00:27:12,917

AND YOU ALSO HAVE THE ADVANCED

EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS

554

00:27:12,985 --> 00:27:14,652

AND ENGINEERING SKILLS


555

00:27:14,720 --> 00:27:18,389

ALONGSIDE THIS VERY LARGE

LABOR FORCE.

556

00:27:18,457 --> 00:27:19,790

DER MANUELIAN:

YOU DON'T PULL THAT OFF WITH

557

00:27:19,859 --> 00:27:21,425

HEBREW SLAVES

AND ALL OF THESE MYTHS

558

00:27:21,494 --> 00:27:23,494

THAT REALLY HAVE

NO BASIS IN REALITY.

559

00:27:23,563 --> 00:27:25,930

THE PYRAMIDS WERE

BUILT BY EGYPTIANS.
560

00:27:25,998 --> 00:27:28,532

THEY WERE CONSCRIPTED

FROM ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

561

00:27:28,601 --> 00:27:29,934

WHEN THE NILE IS IN FLOOD,

562

00:27:30,002 --> 00:27:31,602

THAT, OF COURSE,

PLAYS A ROLE, TOO.

563

00:27:31,671 --> 00:27:33,637

COLLEEN DARNELL: DURING

THOSE MONTHS, FARMERS COULD DO

564

00:27:33,706 --> 00:27:35,739

VERY LITTLE WITH THEIR FIELDS,

565
00:27:35,808 --> 00:27:38,442

AND THEY COULD BE EMPLOYED

TO BUILD THE PYRAMIDS,

566

00:27:38,511 --> 00:27:39,810

AND THAT WAS ALSO

PART OF THE WAYS

567

00:27:39,879 --> 00:27:43,213

THAT YOU COULD PAY YOUR TAXES

IN ANCIENT EGYPT.

568

00:27:46,252 --> 00:27:49,186

BUT WHILE EGYPT WOULD

DOMINATE NORTHEASTERN AFRICA,

569

00:27:49,255 --> 00:27:51,855

FURTHER SOUTH,

ON THE BANKS OF THE NILE

570
00:27:51,924 --> 00:27:53,791

IN MODERN-DAY SUDAN,

571

00:27:53,859 --> 00:27:56,193

ANOTHER CENTER OF POWER

WAS GROWING.

572

00:27:58,164 --> 00:28:03,500

IT WAS THE CAPITAL OF THE

ANCIENT KINGDOM OF KUSH--KERMA.

573

00:28:05,071 --> 00:28:06,670

DIGGING IN THE SUDANESE SAND

574

00:28:06,739 --> 00:28:09,540

BETWEEN 1913 AND 1916,

575

00:28:09,609 --> 00:28:13,310

ARCHAEOLOGISTS LED BY HARVARD

PROFESSOR GEORGE REISNER


576

00:28:13,379 --> 00:28:16,780

STUMBLED ACROSS A PIT

FILLED WITH HUMAN BONES

577

00:28:16,849 --> 00:28:20,551

AND THE BURIAL MOUND OF ONE OF

THE LAST KINGS OF KERMA.

578

00:28:20,620 --> 00:28:24,622

BRADSHAW: AROUND 322 REMAINS

OF HUMANS WERE FOUND

579

00:28:24,690 --> 00:28:27,858

IN ONE ELITE BURIAL

IN THE EASTERN CEMETERY.

580

00:28:27,927 --> 00:28:32,596

THIS, OF COURSE, INITIALLY WAS

THOUGHT TO BE HUMAN SACRIFICE.


581

00:28:32,665 --> 00:28:34,832

HOST: REISNER ESTIMATED

THE BODIES DATED BACK

582

00:28:34,900 --> 00:28:36,834

TO ABOUT 1,500 B.C.,

583

00:28:36,902 --> 00:28:38,669

BUT EVIDENCE IN OTHER

BURIAL SITES

584

00:28:38,738 --> 00:28:40,971

SHOWS THE PRACTICE

OF HUMAN SACRIFICE

585

00:28:41,040 --> 00:28:43,207

DATES BACK EVEN FURTHER.

586
00:28:43,275 --> 00:28:44,375

BRADSHAW: DEATH IN KERMA,

587

00:28:44,443 --> 00:28:45,809

PARTICULARLY FOR THE ELITE,

588

00:28:45,878 --> 00:28:48,412

SEEMED TO BE SOMETHING

OF A SPECTACLE.

589

00:28:48,481 --> 00:28:51,215

HOWEVER, THESE MAY VERY WELL

HAVE BEEN RETAINERS

590

00:28:51,283 --> 00:28:52,750

WHO WOULD HAVE SERVED

THE KING IN LIFE

591

00:28:52,818 --> 00:28:54,785

AND THUS WOULD


SERVE HIM IN DEATH.

592

00:28:54,854 --> 00:28:57,554

EVEN THE IDEA

THAT THESE WERE SLAVES

593

00:28:57,623 --> 00:28:59,990

CAPTURED IN FOREIGN WARS

AND KILLED

594

00:29:00,059 --> 00:29:04,495

AS A SORT OF TRIUMPHAL ACT.

595

00:29:06,565 --> 00:29:08,666

HOST: THE EARLIEST

SETTLEMENT IN KERMA

596

00:29:08,734 --> 00:29:12,469

HAS BEEN DATED TO 4,000 B.C.


597

00:29:12,538 --> 00:29:14,672

SETTLEMENTS IN MESOPOTAMIA

598

00:29:14,740 --> 00:29:17,207

FORMED INTO

THE EARLIEST CITIES.

599

00:29:17,276 --> 00:29:20,511

BUT RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

SHOW THAT KERMA

600

00:29:20,579 --> 00:29:23,347

WAS DEVELOPING INTO

A COMPLEX SOCIETY

601

00:29:23,416 --> 00:29:25,416

AT THE SAME TIME.

602

00:29:25,484 --> 00:29:28,585


BY 2,500 B.C., IT'S ESTIMATED

603

00:29:28,654 --> 00:29:30,421

THAT THE CITY'S POPULATION

604

00:29:30,489 --> 00:29:33,290

HAD GROWN TO OVER 10,000,

605

00:29:33,359 --> 00:29:35,092

AND ITS POWER AND WEALTH

606

00:29:35,161 --> 00:29:38,629

RIVALED THAT OF ITS

NORTHERN NEIGHBOR EGYPT.

607

00:29:41,067 --> 00:29:44,034

TODAY, LITTLE REMAINS

OF WHAT WAS ONCE

608
00:29:44,103 --> 00:29:45,903

A MAGNIFICENT PLANNED CITY,

609

00:29:45,971 --> 00:29:48,005

BUILT AROUND

MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE

610

00:29:48,074 --> 00:29:50,507

AS GRAND AS THAT

OF EARLY EGYPT.

611

00:29:50,576 --> 00:29:52,409

BRADSHAW: THE ARCHAEOLOGY

OF THE CITY ITSELF

612

00:29:52,478 --> 00:29:54,778

CENTERED AROUND

WHAT SEEMS TO BE

613

00:29:54,847 --> 00:29:56,647


A VAST STRUCTURE.

614

00:29:56,716 --> 00:29:58,682

THIS IS KNOWN AS THE DEFFUFA.

615

00:29:58,751 --> 00:30:00,217

DIFFERENT SCHOLARS

HAVE DIFFERENT IDEAS

616

00:30:00,286 --> 00:30:01,452

ABOUT WHAT IT COULD BE.

617

00:30:04,190 --> 00:30:05,789

IN TERMS OF

MUD BRICK ARCHITECTURE,

618

00:30:05,858 --> 00:30:07,591

IT CERTAINLY SEEMS

TO BE THE LARGEST
619

00:30:07,660 --> 00:30:09,860

AND EARLIEST IN AFRICA.

620

00:30:09,929 --> 00:30:11,495

HOST: THE NUBIAN KINGDOM

621

00:30:11,564 --> 00:30:14,531

HAD ITS OWN DISTINCT

CULTURE AND RELIGION

622

00:30:14,600 --> 00:30:17,768

AND WAS RENOWNED

FOR ITS DEADLY ARCHERS.

623

00:30:48,100 --> 00:30:50,200

HOST: FOR OVER 2,000 YEARS,

624

00:30:50,269 --> 00:30:52,236

THE KINGDOMS OF KUSH AND EGYPT


625

00:30:52,304 --> 00:30:53,971

PROSPERED AND GREW

626

00:30:54,039 --> 00:30:56,039

AS KINDRED CIVILIZATIONS

627

00:30:56,108 --> 00:30:58,575

AT OPPOSITE ENDS

OF THE NILE VALLEY.

628

00:30:58,644 --> 00:31:03,113

BY 1,500 B.C., EGYPT WAS

THE WORLD'S GREATEST POWER,

629

00:31:03,182 --> 00:31:06,116

CONTROLLING TRADE ROUTES

TO THE MIDDLE EAST.

630
00:31:06,185 --> 00:31:09,353

BUT EGYPT'S GATEWAY

TO THE PRECIOUS RESOURCES

631

00:31:09,421 --> 00:31:12,456

OF THE INTERIOR OF AFRICA

WAS KUSH.

632

00:31:13,926 --> 00:31:16,994

KUSH SUPPLIED

LUXURY ITEMS SUCH AS GOLD

633

00:31:17,062 --> 00:31:20,297

TO EGYPT'S FLOURISHING

18TH DYNASTY.

634

00:31:20,366 --> 00:31:22,933

FROM TUTANKHAMEN'S FACE MASK

635

00:31:23,002 --> 00:31:26,370


TO THE TRADING EXPEDITIONS

LED BY HATSHEPSUT

636

00:31:26,438 --> 00:31:29,907

AND THE WEALTH AMASSED

BY QUEEN NEFERTITI,

637

00:31:29,975 --> 00:31:31,642

EGYPTIAN PHARAOHS REQUIRED

638

00:31:31,710 --> 00:31:34,511

ENDLESS SUPPLIES

OF EXOTIC GOODS

639

00:31:34,580 --> 00:31:37,748

TO HELP THEIR PASSAGE

INTO THE AFTERLIFE.

640

00:31:37,817 --> 00:31:40,751

IT'S DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE


ANY PEOPLE ANYWHERE

641

00:31:40,820 --> 00:31:43,887

WHO RESISTED THE FINALITY OF

DEATH MORE LAVISHLY

642

00:31:43,956 --> 00:31:45,989

THAN DID THE EGYPTIANS.

643

00:31:46,058 --> 00:31:47,858

THE KING'S SACRED TOMB

644

00:31:47,927 --> 00:31:50,861

WOULD BE FILLED WITH

EVERY CONCEIVABLE LUXURY

645

00:31:50,930 --> 00:31:53,197

TO ACCOMPANY HIM

THROUGH THE AFTERLIFE.


646

00:31:55,434 --> 00:32:00,604

LEOPARD SKINS, OSTRICH FEATHERS,

IVORY, PRECIOUS STONES,

647

00:32:00,673 --> 00:32:04,241

AND GOLD FROM NUBIA'S

BOUNTIFULLY LADEN MINES.

648

00:32:04,310 --> 00:32:06,643

DARNELL: GOLD IS THE SKIN

OF THE GODS.

649

00:32:06,712 --> 00:32:09,413

THE GOD IS HOT OR

THIS FACE OF THE SUN

650

00:32:09,481 --> 00:32:11,348

IS THE WOMAN'S FACE EN FACE

651
00:32:11,417 --> 00:32:15,352

WITH THE COWL EARS AS GOLD.

652

00:32:15,421 --> 00:32:18,488

COLLEEN DARNELL: IT IS A METAL

THAT NEVER CORRODES,

653

00:32:18,557 --> 00:32:22,259

AND SO THEY RECOGNIZED THIS

AS BEING

654

00:32:22,328 --> 00:32:27,097

THE PERFECT MATERIAL

FOR FUNERARY GOODS.

655

00:32:27,166 --> 00:32:30,234

BRADSHAW: WE SEE THE ROYALS

BEING ADORNED WITH GOLD

656

00:32:30,302 --> 00:32:34,638


AND WE FIND FROM MYRIAD,

EVEN LESSER ELITE HOUSES,

657

00:32:34,707 --> 00:32:36,139

WE SEE GOLD OBJECTS.

658

00:32:36,208 --> 00:32:38,809

DARNELL: THE GOLD MINING REGIONS

OF THE EASTERN DESERT

659

00:32:38,878 --> 00:32:41,745

REALLY FORCE

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS

660

00:32:41,814 --> 00:32:44,514

AND THE ANCIENT NUBIANS

TO CONTINUE

661

00:32:44,583 --> 00:32:47,517

THE CLOSE ASSOCIATIONS


THEY ALREADY CULTURALLY HAD.

662

00:32:47,586 --> 00:32:52,122

IT'S ONE OF THE REASONS WHY

EGYPT CAN'T LET GO OF NUBIA

663

00:32:52,191 --> 00:32:54,558

AND IT'S ONE OF THE REASONS

NUBIA IS

664

00:32:54,627 --> 00:32:57,961

BOTH SO ATTRACTIVE

AND POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS.

665

00:32:58,030 --> 00:33:00,330

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT

AND THE KUSHITE KINGDOM

666

00:33:00,399 --> 00:33:04,768

WAS ONE OF INTIMACY, PROXIMITY,


AND BITTER RIVALRY.

667

00:33:06,138 --> 00:33:08,672

THE EGYPTIANS FELT

THREATENED BY NUBIA

668

00:33:08,741 --> 00:33:11,408

AND WANTED TO CONTROL

THE GOLD MINES THEMSELVES.

669

00:33:12,645 --> 00:33:14,311

BRADSHAW: THE KINGDOM OF KERMA

AND EGYPT

670

00:33:14,380 --> 00:33:15,812

SEEMED TO HAVE HAD

WHAT YOU MIGHT CALL

671

00:33:15,881 --> 00:33:17,681

A DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIP.
672

00:33:17,750 --> 00:33:20,284

AT THIS POINT, THE EGYPTIANS

WERE WRITING OF NUBIA

673

00:33:20,352 --> 00:33:23,287

AS "VILE KUSH," SO WE KNOW

THERE WAS CERTAINLY

674

00:33:23,355 --> 00:33:25,923

A LOT OF VENOM

FROM THE EGYPTIAN SIDE.

675

00:33:25,991 --> 00:33:29,593

EVENTUALLY, RIVALRY

LED TO CONFLICT,

676

00:33:29,662 --> 00:33:32,996

CULMINATING IN A WAR

THAT WOULD BRING TO AN END


677

00:33:33,065 --> 00:33:37,334

15 CENTURIES OF INDEPENDENT

KUSHITE RULE.

678

00:33:38,871 --> 00:33:40,737

HAWKS: EVERY TIME

YOU HAVE CIVILIZATIONS

679

00:33:40,806 --> 00:33:41,939

DEVELOP IN THE WORLD,

680

00:33:42,007 --> 00:33:44,641

WHAT YOU HAVE IS

WARFARE AND BLOODSHED.

681

00:33:44,710 --> 00:33:47,811

BECAUSE OTHER PEOPLE WANT

THE STUFF THAT YOU'VE GOT.


682

00:33:47,880 --> 00:33:51,114

AND THAT BECOMES A PART

OF THE HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION.

683

00:33:51,183 --> 00:33:53,650

HOST: AROUND 1,500 B.C.,

684

00:33:53,719 --> 00:33:56,987

STANDING AT THE PROW

OF A FLOTILLA OF SHIPS,

685

00:33:57,056 --> 00:33:58,956

PHARAOH THUTMOSE I

686

00:33:59,024 --> 00:34:00,757

LED HIS TROOPS TO WAR

687

00:34:00,826 --> 00:34:03,493

AGAINST THE KUSHITE KINGDOM.


688

00:34:03,562 --> 00:34:07,197

THUTMOSE I, NOT BORN

OF ROYAL BLOOD,

689

00:34:07,266 --> 00:34:10,334

HAD SERVED AS A GENERAL

TO THE PREVIOUS PHARAOH

690

00:34:10,402 --> 00:34:14,838

AND EARNED A REPUTATION AS A

FORMIDABLE MILITARY STRATEGIST.

691

00:34:18,444 --> 00:34:22,312

FOR THE EGYPTIANS, NUBIA WAS

A VERY STRATEGIC LOCATION.

692

00:34:22,381 --> 00:34:24,514

BRADSHAW: WHAT WE SEE

IS THUTMOSE IS GOING
693

00:34:24,583 --> 00:34:27,150

VERY DETERMINEDLY TO THE SOUTH.

694

00:34:27,219 --> 00:34:29,853

HE SACKS THE CITY OF KERMA.

695

00:34:29,922 --> 00:34:33,123

TO SACK THE CAPITAL CITY

OF THIS KINGDOM

696

00:34:33,192 --> 00:34:34,591

WAS TRULY A FEAT.

697

00:34:34,660 --> 00:34:38,061

THE NUBIANS WERE WELL-KNOWN

WARRIORS AND FIGHTERS.

698

00:34:38,130 --> 00:34:40,230


THERE ARE STORIES OF THOUSANDS

699

00:34:40,299 --> 00:34:42,332

OF CAPTURED PRISONERS OF WAR

700

00:34:42,401 --> 00:34:45,602

BEING EXECUTED IN A VARIETY

OF DIFFERENT WAYS.

701

00:34:45,671 --> 00:34:48,705

LEST ANYONE DOUBT THE FINALITY

OF THE CONQUEST,

702

00:34:48,774 --> 00:34:52,376

THUTMOSE STRAPPED THE BODY

OF THE FALLEN NUBIAN KING

703

00:34:52,444 --> 00:34:54,811

TO THE FRONT OF HIS SHIP.


704

00:34:54,880 --> 00:34:57,414

"EGYPT IS THE CHIEF,"

HE DECLARED,

705

00:34:57,483 --> 00:35:01,952

"WHILE PEOPLES ACROSS THE WHOLE

EARTH ARE HER SERVANTS."

706

00:35:03,689 --> 00:35:06,757

COLLEEN DARNELL: NUBIA BECAME

A SECOND PART OF EGYPT.

707

00:35:06,825 --> 00:35:09,659

BRADSHAW: THE 18TH DYNASTY

IS REALLY A PERIOD OF TIME WHEN

708

00:35:09,728 --> 00:35:12,729

THE EGYPTIAN PRESENCE

IN NUBIA EXPANDS.
709

00:35:12,798 --> 00:35:15,766

HOST: FOR 400 YEARS,

THE PEOPLE OF KUSH

710

00:35:15,834 --> 00:35:18,969

WOULD STRUGGLE UNDER AND AGAINST

EGYPTIAN RULE

711

00:35:19,038 --> 00:35:21,638

WHILE EGYPT PLUNDERED

THE KINGDOM'S GOLD MINES

712

00:35:21,707 --> 00:35:23,607

THROUGH ANNUAL TRIBUTE.

713

00:35:23,675 --> 00:35:26,209

KUSHITE ROYAL

TRADITIONS SURVIVED,

714
00:35:26,278 --> 00:35:28,912

SOUTH OF THE REGIONS

THAT EGYPT RULED.

715

00:35:30,616 --> 00:35:32,983

DARNELL: ALL OF NUBIA

IS INCORPORATED

716

00:35:33,052 --> 00:35:36,787

INTO EGYPT MORE FULLY

THAN EVER BEFORE.

717

00:35:36,855 --> 00:35:39,990

NUBIA GETS A SHADOW GOVERNMENT

718

00:35:40,059 --> 00:35:41,792

THAT MIRRORS PHARAONIC EGYPT.

719

00:35:41,860 --> 00:35:44,061

YOU GET A VICEROY OF KUSH,


720

00:35:44,129 --> 00:35:45,462

THE KING SON OF KUSH,

721

00:35:45,531 --> 00:35:49,966

WHO, LIKE PHARAOH,

IS IN CHARGE OF ALL OF NUBIA.

722

00:35:50,035 --> 00:35:52,302

HOST: THE EGYPTIANS

ALSO BROUGHT ALONG

723

00:35:52,371 --> 00:35:55,572

THEIR CULTURE AND THEIR GODS.

724

00:35:55,641 --> 00:35:58,041

COLLEEN DARNELL: WE KNOW THAT

ALREADY IN THE 18TH DYNASTY,

725
00:35:58,110 --> 00:36:00,677

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS WERE

BUILDING TEMPLES IN NUBIA

726

00:36:00,746 --> 00:36:02,913

TO EGYPTIAN GODS, BUT

727

00:36:02,981 --> 00:36:06,016

EGYPTIANS GODS THAT HAD

A LOCAL RELEVANCE

728

00:36:06,085 --> 00:36:07,717

FOR THE NUBIANS.

729

00:36:07,786 --> 00:36:13,390

HOST: AMUN, GOD OF GODS IN EGYPT

FOR 400 YEARS.

730

00:36:13,459 --> 00:36:18,328

700 YEARS LATER, THE KUSHITES


MADE THIS ALL-POWERFUL DEITY

731

00:36:18,397 --> 00:36:19,596

THEIR OWN,

732

00:36:19,665 --> 00:36:21,264

INCORPORATING HIM

733

00:36:21,333 --> 00:36:23,300

INTO THEIR PANTHEON

734

00:36:23,368 --> 00:36:27,037

ALONGSIDE THEIR LION-HEADED GOD

APEDEMAK.

735

00:36:27,106 --> 00:36:31,007

THE EGYPTIANS BUILT AN

AWE-INSPIRING TEMPLE TO AMUN

736
00:36:31,076 --> 00:36:34,211

AT THE SOUTHERNMOST TIP

OF THEIR NUBIAN EMPIRE

737

00:36:34,279 --> 00:36:37,347

AT THE HOLY SITE

OF JEBEL BARKAL.

738

00:36:37,416 --> 00:36:39,883

THIS WOULD ALSO BECOME

A SACRED PLACE

739

00:36:39,952 --> 00:36:41,751

FOR THE KUSHITES.

740

00:36:41,820 --> 00:36:44,087

MAN: FOR THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS

AND THE ANCIENT KUSHITES,

741

00:36:44,156 --> 00:36:46,490


THIS PINNACLE

SYMBOLIZED A SERPENT

742

00:36:46,558 --> 00:36:48,492

THAT WAS A PROTECTIVE DEITY

743

00:36:48,560 --> 00:36:49,993

ON THE CROWN OF THE PHARAOH

744

00:36:50,062 --> 00:36:52,929

THAT SPIT FIRE AND POISON

AT THE PHARAOH'S ENEMIES.

745

00:36:52,998 --> 00:36:55,565

SO, THIS IS WHAT

GAVE JEBEL BARKAL

746

00:36:55,634 --> 00:36:59,636

ITS MYSTICAL ASSOCIATION

THAT LED EGYPTIANS AND KUSHITES


747

00:36:59,705 --> 00:37:01,571

TO BUILD AND REBUILD AND EXPAND

748

00:37:01,640 --> 00:37:04,074

THEIR TEMPLES

OVER THE CENTURIES.

749

00:37:04,143 --> 00:37:06,176

HOST: BUT AFTER 1,100 B.C.,

750

00:37:06,245 --> 00:37:09,045

PARTS OF KUSH

REGAINED THEIR INDEPENDENCE,

751

00:37:09,114 --> 00:37:11,948

AND BY 750 B.C., EGYPT,

752

00:37:12,017 --> 00:37:14,684


FOLLOWING INVASIONS

BY LIBYAN TRIBES,

753

00:37:14,753 --> 00:37:17,821

WAS GREATLY DIMINISHED

AND FRAGMENTED.

754

00:37:17,890 --> 00:37:21,191

AROUND 750 B.C., PIYE,

755

00:37:21,260 --> 00:37:23,126

A NEW KUSHITE KING,

756

00:37:23,195 --> 00:37:24,828

CAME TO THE THRONE.

757

00:37:24,897 --> 00:37:27,297

HE WAS BRILLIANT AND AMBITIOUS,

758
00:37:27,366 --> 00:37:30,200

DRIVEN IN PART

BY HIS FERVENT WORSHIP

759

00:37:30,269 --> 00:37:32,769

OF THE GOD AMUN.

760

00:37:32,838 --> 00:37:36,106

EMBERLING: HE CLEARLY MADE

JEBEL BARKAL AN IMPORTANT PLACE.

761

00:37:36,175 --> 00:37:38,175

UH, HE BUILT A PALACE HERE,

762

00:37:38,243 --> 00:37:40,777

HE VERY SIGNIFICANTLY

EXPANDED THE TEMPLE,

763

00:37:40,846 --> 00:37:43,513

AND, UH, BARKAL WAS


VERY CLEARLY THE CENTER

764

00:37:43,582 --> 00:37:46,516

OF HIS SYMBOLIC ASSERTION

OF KINGSHIP.

765

00:37:48,353 --> 00:37:51,688

HOST: PIYE TURNED HIS SIGHTS

NORTHWARD TO EGYPT,

766

00:37:51,757 --> 00:37:55,091

PORTRAYING KUSH

AS THE CHAMPION OF AMUN.

767

00:37:55,160 --> 00:37:57,961

DARNELL: NUBIA

APPEARS TO SEE ITSELF

768

00:37:58,030 --> 00:38:00,931

AS THE REAL EGYPT


769

00:38:00,999 --> 00:38:04,201

BECAUSE THEY'RE

THE REAL WORSHIPPERS

770

00:38:04,269 --> 00:38:06,169

OF THE EGYPTIAN GODS.

771

00:38:06,238 --> 00:38:08,872

COLLEEN DARNELL: IT'S REMARKABLE

THAT THE NUBIANS

772

00:38:08,941 --> 00:38:12,742

ADOPTED EGYPTIAN CULTURE

AND RELIGION AND CIVILIZATION

773

00:38:12,811 --> 00:38:14,945

TO THE POINT THAT THEY BELIEVED

774
00:38:15,013 --> 00:38:18,081

THAT THEY WERE BETTER EGYPTIANS

THAN THE EGYPTIANS WHO WERE

775

00:38:18,150 --> 00:38:19,950

CURRENTLY IN CONTROL

OF THE NILE VALLEY.

776

00:38:20,018 --> 00:38:22,519

SO, WHEN PIYE INVADES EGYPT,

777

00:38:22,588 --> 00:38:26,656

HE DOES SO IN THE NAME

OF THE GOD AMUN.

778

00:38:26,725 --> 00:38:30,994

PIYE ESSENTIALLY CASTS HIS

INVASION OF EGYPT AS A HOLY WAR,

779

00:38:31,063 --> 00:38:35,265


OF THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE

PROPER WORSHIP OF THE GOD AMUN.

780

00:38:37,402 --> 00:38:39,736

AT THE HEAD OF A POWERFUL ARMY,

781

00:38:39,805 --> 00:38:43,073

PIYE SET SAIL

NORTH DOWN THE NILE,

782

00:38:43,141 --> 00:38:45,742

READY TO INVADE

THE ONCE IMPREGNABLE

783

00:38:45,811 --> 00:38:47,277

EMPIRE OF EGYPT.

784

00:38:47,346 --> 00:38:50,714

HE ORDERED HIS MEN TO PURIFY

THEMSELVES IN THE RIVER.


785

00:38:50,782 --> 00:38:54,017

"I SHALL LET EGYPT," HE SAID,

786

00:38:54,086 --> 00:38:57,153

"TASTE THE TASTE

OF MY FINGERS."

787

00:38:59,524 --> 00:39:01,925

IN A CAMPAIGN THAT

LASTED NEARLY A YEAR,

788

00:39:01,994 --> 00:39:06,763

PIYE'S ARMY CONQUERED EGYPT

AS FAR NORTH AS THE NILE DELTA.

789

00:39:06,832 --> 00:39:11,368

TRIUMPHANT, PIYE WAS CROWNED

PHARAOH OF NUBIA AND EGYPT


790

00:39:11,436 --> 00:39:16,039

AND FOUNDER OF THE 25TH DYNASTY

OF EGYPT'S PHARAOHS.

791

00:39:16,108 --> 00:39:18,541

THE KUSHITES,

ONCE THE CONQUERED,

792

00:39:18,610 --> 00:39:20,477

NOW BECAME THE CONQUERORS,

793

00:39:20,545 --> 00:39:24,581

REUNITING FRAGMENTED EGYPT

UNDER THEIR RULE.

794

00:39:24,650 --> 00:39:27,484

COLLEEN DARNELL: WE CAN SEE

THE NUBIAN CONQUEST OF EGYPT

795
00:39:27,552 --> 00:39:28,952

AS BOTH A HOLY WAR

796

00:39:29,021 --> 00:39:31,221

AND A STRATEGIC EXPANSION

TO THE NORTH,

797

00:39:31,290 --> 00:39:33,723

AND OBVIOUSLY,

IT WAS A GREAT PRIZE

798

00:39:33,792 --> 00:39:36,192

TO RULE BOTH EGYPT AND NUBIA.

799

00:39:36,261 --> 00:39:37,894

EHRET: THEY'RE RULING

OVER AN EMPIRE

800

00:39:37,963 --> 00:39:40,497

THAT RUNS FROM MEROE


DOWN IN THE SOUTH,

801

00:39:40,565 --> 00:39:42,432

CLEAR UP TO THE DELTA,

802

00:39:42,501 --> 00:39:46,770

LARGER THAN ANY TERRITORY

EGYPT ITSELF EVER RULED.

803

00:39:46,838 --> 00:39:49,439

DARNELL: IN SOME WAYS, IT CAN BE

SEEN AS A TURNING OF THE TABLES

804

00:39:49,508 --> 00:39:51,908

THAT NUBIA, WHO'S

ALWAYS THE UNDERDOG,

805

00:39:51,977 --> 00:39:54,210

NOW HAS EGYPT AS THE UNDERDOG.


806

00:39:54,279 --> 00:39:58,248

IT SIMPLY SHOWS, I THINK,

OVER AND OVER AGAIN,

807

00:39:58,317 --> 00:40:00,817

HOW UPPER EGYPT AND NUBIA

808

00:40:00,886 --> 00:40:05,922

ARE SO CLOSELY

ASSOCIATED, IDEOLOGICALLY.

809

00:40:05,991 --> 00:40:09,292

HOST: THIS WAS THE START

OF A NEW ERA IN EGYPT

810

00:40:09,361 --> 00:40:11,828

WHICH WOULD SEE IT RULED

BY A DYNASTY

811
00:40:11,897 --> 00:40:16,499

THAT HISTORIANS CALL

THE BLACK PHARAOHS OF THE NILE,

812

00:40:16,568 --> 00:40:19,202

RESTORING PROSPERITY

AND STABILITY

813

00:40:19,271 --> 00:40:20,837

BACK TO EGYPT.

814

00:40:27,446 --> 00:40:30,113

BUT ACROSS AFRICA,

IN THE LUSH FOREST

815

00:40:30,182 --> 00:40:33,016

OF MODERN-DAY

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC,

816

00:40:33,085 --> 00:40:35,685


NEW RADICAL

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS

817

00:40:35,754 --> 00:40:39,022

WERE LAYING THE FOUNDATION

FOR OTHER CIVILIZATIONS.

818

00:40:40,459 --> 00:40:44,661

SOMETIME BETWEEN

1,800 B.C. AND 1,500 B.C.,

819

00:40:44,730 --> 00:40:46,863

SMALL COMMUNITIES

OF CRAFTSPEOPLE

820

00:40:46,932 --> 00:40:51,835

GATHERED TO STOKE FURNACES,

INTENDING TO FIRE CERAMIC.

821

00:40:53,038 --> 00:40:55,872


BUT IN THE LATERITIC

AFRICAN SOIL,

822

00:40:55,941 --> 00:40:59,676

THE CRAFTSMEN DISCOVERED

A BY-PRODUCT--IRON.

823

00:41:01,446 --> 00:41:03,580

IRON IS ONE OF THOSE

INVENTIONS THAT

824

00:41:03,648 --> 00:41:05,682

ACTUALLY HAS

A TREMENDOUS IMPACT.

825

00:41:05,751 --> 00:41:08,284

EHRET: WE SUSPECT

THE FIRST USAGES

826

00:41:08,353 --> 00:41:11,354


WERE FOR DECORATION,

FOR ORNAMENTATION.

827

00:41:11,423 --> 00:41:13,623

BUT VERY QUICKLY,

PEOPLE BEGAN TO SEE,

828

00:41:13,692 --> 00:41:15,892

"OH, HEY, WE CAN SHAPE THIS."

829

00:41:15,961 --> 00:41:17,994

WOMAN: EACH METAL

HAS A CERTAIN QUALITY--

830

00:41:18,063 --> 00:41:20,096

IRON FOR ITS STRENGTH,

831

00:41:20,165 --> 00:41:23,299

AND THE KIND OF TOOLS

THAT ONE CAN CREATE WITH IT.


832

00:41:23,368 --> 00:41:27,070

FOURSHEY: IN TERMS

OF CONVERTING ECONOMIES

833

00:41:27,139 --> 00:41:29,739

FROM HUNTING AND GATHERING

TO AGRICULTURE,

834

00:41:29,808 --> 00:41:32,976

IRON BEGAN TO BE USED

PARTICULARLY AS CURRENCIES,

835

00:41:33,044 --> 00:41:35,912

BUT ALSO IN TERMS OF

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION.

836

00:41:35,981 --> 00:41:38,815

HOST: WE PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT

THAT IRON HAD BEEN DISCOVERED


837

00:41:38,884 --> 00:41:41,918

IN TURKEY, AROUND 1,500 B.C.,

838

00:41:41,987 --> 00:41:45,088

BUT NEW EVIDENCE REVEALS

THAT IRON WORKING EMERGED

839

00:41:45,157 --> 00:41:47,624

AT THE SAME TIME IN AFRICA.

840

00:41:47,692 --> 00:41:48,691

BRADSHAW: FOR A LONG TIME,

841

00:41:48,760 --> 00:41:51,628

THE IDEA THAT IRON

COULD BE SMELTED

842

00:41:51,696 --> 00:41:55,165


IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

WAS COMPLETELY DISMISSED.

843

00:41:55,233 --> 00:41:58,034

EHRET: THE NEW EVIDENCE

IS THAT IRON WORKING

844

00:41:58,103 --> 00:42:01,004

BEGINS RIGHT

IN THE HEART OF AFRICA.

845

00:42:01,072 --> 00:42:03,840

WE FIND DATES OF AROUND 1,000

846

00:42:03,909 --> 00:42:06,109

IN THE LAKE CHAD AREA.

847

00:42:06,178 --> 00:42:09,546

900 AS WE GET TOWARDS

THE MIDDLE OF NIGERIA.


848

00:42:09,614 --> 00:42:12,582

700 B.C. TO 500 B.C.

OVER IN MALI.

849

00:42:12,651 --> 00:42:16,453

SHOWING THE SPREAD OF IRON

COMING OUT OF THAT AREA.

850

00:42:16,521 --> 00:42:19,355

FOURSHEY: EVEN WITH THE KINDS OF

TECHNOLOGY THAT WE HAVE TODAY,

851

00:42:19,424 --> 00:42:23,927

IT'S INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT

TO PRODUCE A SMELT

852

00:42:23,995 --> 00:42:25,762

IN THE WAY THAT

PEOPLE WOULD HAVE,


853

00:42:25,831 --> 00:42:27,397

YOU KNOW, 3,000 YEARS AGO.

854

00:42:27,466 --> 00:42:29,699

PEOPLE TALK

ABOUT CIVILIZATIONS,

855

00:42:29,768 --> 00:42:31,768

AND THEY THINK EVERYTHING

NEW AND EXCITING

856

00:42:31,837 --> 00:42:34,070

BEGINS IN THE CIVILIZATION.

857

00:42:34,139 --> 00:42:36,339

TURNS OUT WHEN YOU

LOOK AT HISTORY,

858
00:42:36,408 --> 00:42:41,044

HUMAN BEINGS CREATE

ADVANCED NEW TECHNOLOGIES

859

00:42:41,112 --> 00:42:42,545

OUT OF THEIR OWN EXPERIENCES.

860

00:42:42,614 --> 00:42:43,913

THEY DON'T HAVE TO LIVE

861

00:42:43,982 --> 00:42:45,181

IN THIS KIND OF SOCIETY

862

00:42:45,250 --> 00:42:46,549

OR THAT KIND OF SOCIETY.

863

00:42:48,186 --> 00:42:51,120

HOST: THE IRON WORKING

COMMUNITIES OF CENTRAL AFRICA


864

00:42:51,189 --> 00:42:54,858

LEFT LITTLE TANGIBLE EVIDENCE

OF THEIR EXISTENCE BEHIND,

865

00:42:54,926 --> 00:42:57,594

BUT THEY DID LEAVE

THEIR TECHNOLOGICAL LEGACY,

866

00:42:57,662 --> 00:43:00,597

TOGETHER WITH THE SOPHISTICATED

ARTISTIC HERITAGE

867

00:43:00,665 --> 00:43:03,032

UNIQUE TO THIS PART OF AFRICA.

868

00:43:05,537 --> 00:43:07,403

NEAR THE CENTER

OF MODERN-DAY NIGERIA

869
00:43:07,472 --> 00:43:09,739

DURING THE FIRST

MILLENNIUM B.C.,

870

00:43:09,808 --> 00:43:14,277

A REMARKABLE ARTISTIC TRADITION

OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURE EMERGED.

871

00:43:14,346 --> 00:43:16,479

THESE PIECES ARE

HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED,

872

00:43:16,548 --> 00:43:19,983

INTRICATELY DETAILED,

AND TECHNICALLY ACCOMPLISHED.

873

00:43:20,051 --> 00:43:22,318

YET MUCH OF THE CULTURE

FROM WHICH THEY WERE CREATED

874
00:43:22,387 --> 00:43:24,354

REMAINS A MYSTERY.

875

00:43:24,422 --> 00:43:27,457

THEY'RE KNOWN AS

THE NOK TERRACOTTAS

876

00:43:27,526 --> 00:43:30,126

AND THEY ARE SUBLIME.

877

00:43:30,195 --> 00:43:34,764

IN 1943, A FARMER

FROM A VILLAGE CALLED NOK

878

00:43:34,833 --> 00:43:39,569

GAVE ARCHAEOLOGIST BERNARD FAGG

THE HEAD OF A SCARECROW.

879

00:43:39,638 --> 00:43:42,272

ON CLOSER INSPECTION,
FAGG ESTIMATED

880

00:43:42,340 --> 00:43:47,210

THAT THE FINELY SCULPTED HEAD

DATED BACK TO AROUND 900 B.C.,

881

00:43:47,279 --> 00:43:48,978

MAKING IT, OUTSIDE OF EGYPT,

882

00:43:49,047 --> 00:43:52,448

THE EARLIEST SCULPTURAL ART

FOUND IN AFRICA.

883

00:43:52,517 --> 00:43:57,020

THEY HAVE THIS VERY

ELABORATE HAIRSTYLES

884

00:43:57,088 --> 00:44:00,690

AND EVERY HEAVY JEWELRY

AROUND THE NECK.


885

00:44:00,759 --> 00:44:04,160

SO, WE ASSUME

IT DEPICTS PEOPLE,

886

00:44:04,229 --> 00:44:07,931

MAYBE HIGH RANKING PEOPLE,

IN CEREMONIAL ATTIRE.

887

00:44:09,734 --> 00:44:12,035

PRESTON BLIER: THE CURRENT

THINKING IS THAT IT WAS PROBABLY

888

00:44:12,103 --> 00:44:14,437

TRAVELING ARTISTS

WHO WERE MOVING AROUND

889

00:44:14,506 --> 00:44:16,839

CREATING THESE WORKS

FOR INDIVIDUALS.
890

00:44:16,908 --> 00:44:18,107

IT COULD HAVE BEEN COURTS

891

00:44:18,176 --> 00:44:20,209

OR DISTINCTIVE

RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS.

892

00:44:20,278 --> 00:44:22,078

THAT CERTAINLY MAKES

A LOT OF SENSE

893

00:44:22,147 --> 00:44:28,084

SIMPLY BECAUSE OF THE BREADTH OF

THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESE WORKS.

894

00:44:28,153 --> 00:44:29,485

EHRET: THE HEIGHT

OF THE NOK PERIOD


895

00:44:29,554 --> 00:44:31,888

IS DURING THE LAST

THOUSAND YEARS B.C.

896

00:44:31,957 --> 00:44:33,356

THIS IS THE PERIOD

IN THE ARCHAEOLOGY

897

00:44:33,425 --> 00:44:36,092

WE KNOW THE IRON WORKING

IS REACHING THIS AREA.

898

00:44:39,497 --> 00:44:41,230

HOST: THROUGHOUT

CENTRAL AFRICA,

899

00:44:41,299 --> 00:44:43,600

NEW COMMUNITIES

WERE TAKING SHAPE.


900

00:44:43,668 --> 00:44:46,302

FROM 3,000 B.C., AN INCREDIBLE

901

00:44:46,371 --> 00:44:49,205

MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE

AND TECHNOLOGIES UNFOLDED

902

00:44:49,274 --> 00:44:51,908

THAT WOULD CHANGE

THE FACE OF AFRICA.

903

00:44:51,977 --> 00:44:55,278

IT'S KNOWN AS

THE BANTU MIGRATION.

904

00:44:55,347 --> 00:44:57,780

FOURSHEY: THE MIGRATION IS

PARTICULARLY SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE

905
00:44:57,849 --> 00:45:03,119

ABOUT 2/3 OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

IS POPULATED BY BANTU SPEAKERS.

906

00:45:03,188 --> 00:45:08,491

BY 1,000 B.C.E., BANTU HAVE

ENTERED INTO EASTERN AFRICA

907

00:45:08,560 --> 00:45:11,427

AND SOCIETIES LIKE THE SWAHILI

SOCIETY THAT WE KNOW OF

908

00:45:11,496 --> 00:45:14,831

AND THE ZULU THAT WE KNOW IN

SOUTHERN AFRICA START TO EMERGE.

909

00:45:16,401 --> 00:45:18,167

HOST: WHILE THE PEOPLE OF

CENTRAL AFRICA WERE BUILDING

910
00:45:18,236 --> 00:45:20,937

NEW SOCIETIES BASED ON IRON,

911

00:45:21,006 --> 00:45:23,272

THIS GREAT

TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT

912

00:45:23,341 --> 00:45:27,143

WAS ALSO TRANSFORMING THE

CIVILIZATIONS ALONG THE NILE,

913

00:45:27,212 --> 00:45:30,880

AND NOWHERE MORE SO

THAN IN MEROE.

914

00:45:30,949 --> 00:45:33,650

BUILT ON WHAT WAS ONCE

A FERTILE GREEN ISLAND

915

00:45:33,718 --> 00:45:35,652


ON THE BANKS OF THE NILE,

916

00:45:35,720 --> 00:45:39,155

MEROE BY 500 B.C. HAD BECOME

917

00:45:39,224 --> 00:45:43,359

THE NEW CAPITAL OF THE

INDEPENDENT KINGDOM OF KUSH.

918

00:45:43,428 --> 00:45:46,896

WOMAN: IT WAS AN AREA

THAT SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE,

919

00:45:46,965 --> 00:45:48,698

THAT HAD THE ROYAL CITY THERE.

920

00:45:48,767 --> 00:45:50,400

SO, LIFE WAS PROBABLY

921
00:45:50,468 --> 00:45:55,672

RELATIVELY COMFORTABLE FOR MOST

OF THE POPULATION AT MEROE.

922

00:45:55,740 --> 00:45:58,574

HOST: THE RULERS

OF THE THIRD AGE OF KUSH

923

00:45:58,643 --> 00:46:01,177

CREATED A POWERFUL KINGDOM,

924

00:46:01,246 --> 00:46:03,746

EVIDENCE OF WHICH

CAN STILL BE SEEN

925

00:46:03,815 --> 00:46:07,750

IN THEIR MONUMENTAL LEGACY

AT MEROE.

926

00:46:07,819 --> 00:46:09,719


THESE PYRAMIDS

WERE BURIAL CHAMBERS

927

00:46:09,788 --> 00:46:11,954

FOR THE KINGS AND QUEENS

OF MEROE.

928

00:46:12,023 --> 00:46:15,258

MORE THAN 100 DOT

THE SKYLINE ON THIS ISLAND.

929

00:46:18,163 --> 00:46:20,029

THE WEALTH OF KUSH

HAD BEEN FOUNDED

930

00:46:20,098 --> 00:46:22,265

ON ITS ABUNDANT

RESERVES OF GOLD,

931

00:46:22,333 --> 00:46:25,535


WHICH IT COULD TRADE

WITH THE ANCIENT WORLD.

932

00:46:25,603 --> 00:46:27,203

BUT THERE WAS ANOTHER RESOURCE

933

00:46:27,272 --> 00:46:29,305

THAT WOULD GENERATE

WEALTH FOR THE STATE

934

00:46:29,374 --> 00:46:32,208

AND WOULD COME TO DEFINE MEROE.

935

00:46:32,277 --> 00:46:33,743

YELLIN: IT'S LONG BEEN KNOWN

THAT MEROE

936

00:46:33,812 --> 00:46:35,545

WAS AN IRON WORKING CENTER


937

00:46:35,613 --> 00:46:37,780

BECAUSE THERE WERE

THESE ENORMOUS SLAGHEAPS

938

00:46:37,849 --> 00:46:40,316

IN THEIR URBAN PART OF THE TOWN

939

00:46:40,385 --> 00:46:45,822

THAT WAS USED FOR WEAPONS,

IRON BLADES, IRON SPEARHEADS.

940

00:46:45,890 --> 00:46:48,691

HOST: AND THOSE WEAPONS

WOULD BE NEEDED TO DEFEND KUSH

941

00:46:48,760 --> 00:46:51,594

IN THE FACE OF A NEW THREAT.

942

00:46:51,663 --> 00:46:55,364


IN 31 B.C., CLEOPATRA'S EGYPT--

943

00:46:55,433 --> 00:46:58,434

ONCE THE GREATEST EMPIRE

IN THE MEDITERRANEAN--

944

00:46:58,503 --> 00:47:01,204

WAS DEFEATED BY THE ROMANS.

945

00:47:01,272 --> 00:47:03,005

THE ROMAN MILITARY MACHINE

946

00:47:03,074 --> 00:47:05,842

WAS THE MOST POWERFUL

IN THE ANCIENT WORLD,

947

00:47:05,910 --> 00:47:08,144

ANNEXING TERRITORIES

FROM BRITAIN
948

00:47:08,213 --> 00:47:11,147

TO THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA.

949

00:47:11,216 --> 00:47:14,751

NOW IT TURNED ITS SIGHTS

ONTO KUSH.

950

00:47:14,819 --> 00:47:16,652

YELLIN: ONE OF THE THINGS

THE ROMANS DID

951

00:47:16,721 --> 00:47:19,422

IS THEY PUSHED THE SOUTHERN

BOUNDARY OF EGYPT

952

00:47:19,491 --> 00:47:21,591

FURTHER INTO

MEROITIC TERRITORY,

953
00:47:21,659 --> 00:47:24,193

AND WHAT WE DO KNOW IS THAT

954

00:47:24,262 --> 00:47:27,196

THE MEROITES STARTED

TO PUSH BACK.

955

00:47:27,265 --> 00:47:29,065

HOST: HALTING THIS

ROMAN ADVANCE

956

00:47:29,134 --> 00:47:33,903

WOULD CALL FOR STRONG AND

DECISIVE LEADERSHIP FROM MEROE.

957

00:47:33,972 --> 00:47:37,039

ONE OF THE MOST UNUSUAL THINGS

ABOUT THE KINGDOM OF KUSH

958

00:47:37,108 --> 00:47:40,009


IS THE SURPRISING NUMBER

OF QUEENS THAT RULED.

959

00:47:40,078 --> 00:47:42,812

THEY WERE KNOWN AS KANDAKES.

960

00:47:42,881 --> 00:47:44,514

YELLIN: IN ABOUT 100 YEARS,

961

00:47:44,582 --> 00:47:48,751

WE HAVE 4 OF THESE

TREMENDOUSLY POWERFUL KANDAKES

962

00:47:48,820 --> 00:47:52,522

AND THEY ARE

TERRIFICALLY EFFECTIVE.

963

00:47:52,590 --> 00:47:55,424

HOST: WITHOUT DOUBT THE MOST

FAMOUS OF THOSE QUEENS


964

00:47:55,493 --> 00:47:58,995

WAS A ONE-EYED WARRIOR

NAMED AMANIRENAS,

965

00:47:59,063 --> 00:48:01,430

WHO RISKED HER LIFE IN BATTLE

966

00:48:01,499 --> 00:48:03,099

TO DEFEND HER KINGDOM

967

00:48:03,168 --> 00:48:07,136

AND MAKE SURE THAT HER PEOPLE

COULD LIVE SECURELY.

968

00:48:07,205 --> 00:48:11,307

AMANIRENAS REIGNED

FROM 40 B.C. TO 10 B.C.

969
00:48:11,376 --> 00:48:13,509

SAID TO HAVE

THE FIGURE OF A MAN

970

00:48:13,578 --> 00:48:15,444

BY THE GREEK PHILOSOPHER STRABO,

971

00:48:15,513 --> 00:48:17,346

SHE HAD A FEARSOME REPUTATION

972

00:48:17,415 --> 00:48:20,650

AS A MILITARY LEADER

AND STRATEGIST.

973

00:48:20,718 --> 00:48:24,954

FOR 5 YEARS, AMANIRENAS

LED ATTACKS INTO ROMAN EGYPT,

974

00:48:25,023 --> 00:48:28,324

PREVENTING THE ROMANS


FROM INVADING KUSH.

975

00:48:28,393 --> 00:48:31,327

THESE BATTLES WERE RECORDED

IN ROMAN DOCUMENTS,

976

00:48:31,396 --> 00:48:34,797

BUT A FIRSTHAND ACCOUNT WRITTEN

BY THE KUSHITES THEMSELVES

977

00:48:34,866 --> 00:48:38,434

WAS RECORDED IN THEIR OWN

MEROITIC SCRIPT.

978

00:48:38,503 --> 00:48:41,003

HOST: WHEN DOES THIS

STELA DATE FROM?

979

00:48:41,072 --> 00:48:43,539

MAN: IT DATES
FROM THE SECOND HALF

980

00:48:43,608 --> 00:48:45,541

OF THE FIRST

CENTURY B.C.

981

00:48:45,610 --> 00:48:48,744

SO...

DURING THE REIGN OF

THE QUEEN AMANIRENAS.

982

00:48:48,813 --> 00:48:50,179

IN THE CASE OF MEROITIC,

983

00:48:50,248 --> 00:48:52,548

THE WRITING SYSTEM

HAS BEEN DECIPHERED

984

00:48:52,617 --> 00:48:54,350

ALREADY A CENTURY AGO,


985

00:48:54,419 --> 00:48:57,987

BUT IT IS THE LANGUAGE

THAT IS A PROBLEM.

986

00:48:58,056 --> 00:49:00,089

SO, WHY WITH ALL...

987

00:49:00,158 --> 00:49:01,757

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES,

988

00:49:01,826 --> 00:49:06,262

WHY CAN'T WE CRACK THE ONE

AFRICAN WRITTEN SCRIPT

989

00:49:06,331 --> 00:49:07,663

FROM THE ANCIENT WORLD?

990

00:49:07,732 --> 00:49:09,599


IT IS A BIT AS IF I WAS

991

00:49:09,667 --> 00:49:12,068

ASKING YOU AS AN ENGLISH

NATIVE SPEAKER

992

00:49:12,136 --> 00:49:13,936

TO READ ME A TEXT

IN POLISH.

993

00:49:14,005 --> 00:49:16,305

YOU WOULD BE ABLE

TO READ IT PERFECTLY,

994

00:49:16,374 --> 00:49:17,340

BUT PROBABLY YOU WON'T

995

00:49:17,408 --> 00:49:18,608

BE ABLE

TO UNDERSTAND IT,
996

00:49:18,676 --> 00:49:20,243

EXCEPT PLACE NAME

AND NAMES.

997

00:49:20,311 --> 00:49:23,279

THIS IS WHERE WE ARE

WITH MEROITIC SCRIPT.

998

00:49:23,348 --> 00:49:25,414

WELL, IT'S ABOUT A PARTICULAR

BATTLE WITH THE ROMANS.

999

00:49:25,483 --> 00:49:28,017

EXACTLY. SO,

THIS IS GIVING US

1000

00:49:28,086 --> 00:49:30,019

THE NARRATED VERSION

OF THE STORY
1001

00:49:30,088 --> 00:49:31,787

OF THE WAR

AGAINST THE ROMANS.

1002

00:49:31,856 --> 00:49:33,789

UNFORTUNATELY, WE ARE

NOT ABLE YET

1003

00:49:33,858 --> 00:49:36,792

TO SEE WHAT

THEY ARE SAYING.

1004

00:49:36,861 --> 00:49:39,095

HOST: AMANIRENAS

SHOWED HER UTTER DISDAIN

1005

00:49:39,163 --> 00:49:41,864

FOR THE ROMAN EMPEROR

AUGUSTUS CAESAR
1006

00:49:41,933 --> 00:49:45,801

BY CAPTURING HIS BRONZE BUST

DURING AN ATTACK ON HIS FORCES

1007

00:49:45,870 --> 00:49:49,272

AND PLACING IT BENEATH THE

THRESHOLD OF HER GRAND TEMPLE

1008

00:49:49,340 --> 00:49:53,009

TO BE TRODDEN UNDER FOOT

BY ALL WHO ENTERED.

1009

00:49:53,077 --> 00:49:54,510

SO, ALL THE PEOPLE

IN THE KINGDOM

1010

00:49:54,579 --> 00:49:56,412

ARE STEPPING

OVER THE GREAT


1011

00:49:56,481 --> 00:49:57,847

CAESAR AUGUSTUS,

IS THAT IT?

1012

00:49:57,916 --> 00:50:01,017

MAN: YES. ACCORDING TO THE

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

1013

00:50:01,085 --> 00:50:04,120

WE HAVE, IT'S, UH, CLEAR.

1014

00:50:04,188 --> 00:50:06,389

SHE BROUGHT BACK

THE HEAD OF AUGUSTUS,

1015

00:50:06,457 --> 00:50:08,157

OF HIS BRONZE STATUE.

1016
00:50:10,461 --> 00:50:12,828

HOST: DESPITE THE MIGHT

OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE,

1017

00:50:12,897 --> 00:50:15,665

AMANIRENAS' CLEVER

MILITARY TACTICS

1018

00:50:15,733 --> 00:50:19,168

EVENTUALLY BROUGHT BOTH SIDES

TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE,

1019

00:50:19,237 --> 00:50:21,270

WHERE THE FORMIDABLE

NUBIAN QUEEN

1020

00:50:21,339 --> 00:50:23,806

SUCCESSFULLY BROKERED

A PEACE TREATY

1021
00:50:23,875 --> 00:50:26,409

WITH AUGUSTUS CAESAR HIMSELF.

1022

00:50:26,477 --> 00:50:28,244

HOST: ARE YOU

TELLING ME

1023

00:50:28,313 --> 00:50:31,047

A ONE-EYED

BLACK WOMAN

1024

00:50:31,115 --> 00:50:33,916

WAS ABLE TO DEFEAT

THE MOST POWERFUL ARMY

1025

00:50:33,985 --> 00:50:37,820

ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH

IN 23 B.C.,

1026

00:50:37,889 --> 00:50:39,588


HERE IN THE KINGDOM

OF KUSH?

1027

00:50:39,657 --> 00:50:42,124

YES. YEAH,

THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED.

1028

00:50:42,193 --> 00:50:45,528

HOST: AMANIRENAS,

THE VICTORIOUS AFRICAN QUEEN,

1029

00:50:45,596 --> 00:50:48,597

WOULD ENSURE THE INDEPENDENCE

OF THE KUSHITE KINGDOM

1030

00:50:48,666 --> 00:50:50,666

AND ITS SPLENDID CULTURE

1031

00:50:50,735 --> 00:50:54,003

FOR ANOTHER 400 YEARS.


1032

00:50:54,072 --> 00:50:57,506

HUMAN HISTORY WAS BORN

ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT,

1033

00:50:57,575 --> 00:51:00,810

WHICH MAKES AFRICA

THE WELL SPRING FROM WHICH

1034

00:51:00,878 --> 00:51:02,778

ALL OF THE WORLD'S

HISTORY FLOWS.

1035

00:51:05,183 --> 00:51:08,584

AFRICA IS THE BIRTHPLACE

OF ART AND MUSIC,

1036

00:51:08,653 --> 00:51:11,687

THE FIRST WRITING, AGRICULTURE,


1037

00:51:11,756 --> 00:51:14,056

AND SYSTEMS OF LAWS.

1038

00:51:14,125 --> 00:51:18,961

AFRICA GAVE US THE BLUEPRINT

FOR CIVILIZATION ITSELF.

1039

00:51:19,030 --> 00:51:21,597

THESE RECORDS SPEAK TO US

ACROSS MILLENNIA

1040

00:51:21,666 --> 00:51:24,500

AS PROFOUND REFUTATIONS

OF THE CLAIM

1041

00:51:24,569 --> 00:51:26,702

THAT AFRICANS LACKED A HISTORY

1042

00:51:26,771 --> 00:51:29,005


BEFORE EUROPEANS ARRIVED.

1043

00:51:29,073 --> 00:51:31,340

THIS IS THE TRUE

HISTORY OF AFRICA,

1044

00:51:31,409 --> 00:51:33,509

AND IT'S ONLY JUST BEGUN.

1045

00:51:35,680 --> 00:51:39,348

IN THE FOLLOWING CENTURIES,

THE WORLD'S GREAT RELIGIONS,

1046

00:51:39,417 --> 00:51:41,317

CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM,

1047

00:51:41,386 --> 00:51:44,120

MOLDED IN THEIR INFANCY

IN AFRICA,
1048

00:51:44,188 --> 00:51:47,957

WOULD GROW AND TRANSFORM

THE FATE OF THE WORLD.

1049

00:51:48,026 --> 00:51:50,026

GREAT EMPIRES WOULD PROSPER

1050

00:51:50,094 --> 00:51:52,695

AND CULTURES WOULD BLOSSOM

AS A RESULT,

1051

00:51:52,764 --> 00:51:56,098

BUT THEY WOULD ALSO DRAW THE

CONTINENT INTO BLOODY CONFLICT.

1052

00:52:01,738 --> 00:52:03,773

ANNOUNCER: ON "AFRICA'S

GREAT CIVILIZATIONS"...

1053
00:52:03,841 --> 00:52:04,507

DR. HENRY LOUIS GATES, JR.:

AN AFRICAN KINGDOM BECOMES

1054

00:52:04,575 --> 00:52:05,641

ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL

1055

00:52:05,710 --> 00:52:08,411

AND LEGENDARY EMPIRES

IN THE ANCIENT WORLD,

1056

00:52:08,479 --> 00:52:11,347

ON A LEVEL WITH ROME AND PERSIA.

1057

00:52:11,416 --> 00:52:14,116

THE HISTORICAL COURSE

OF THIS EMPIRE

1058

00:52:14,185 --> 00:52:15,818

IS ALTERED BY THE EMERGENCE


1059

00:52:15,887 --> 00:52:18,020

OF TWO POWERFUL FORCES,

1060

00:52:18,089 --> 00:52:19,588

CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM,

1061

00:52:19,657 --> 00:52:22,091

AND BOTH HAVE PROFOUND EFFECTS

1062

00:52:22,160 --> 00:52:24,927

ON THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA

FOR MILLENNIA TO COME.

1063

00:52:24,996 --> 00:52:26,929

ANNOUNCER:

"AFRICA'S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS,"

1064

00:52:26,998 --> 00:52:29,799


COMING UP NEXT ONLY ON PBS.

1065

00:52:34,178 --> 00:52:36,712

AND THE 12TH CENTURIES A.D.,

1066

00:52:36,781 --> 00:52:39,081

EXTRAORDINARY EVENTS

HAPPENED IN AFRICA,

1067

00:52:39,150 --> 00:52:41,917

EVENTS THAT TRANSFORMED NOT JUST

THE HISTORY OF THE CONTINENT,

1068

00:52:41,986 --> 00:52:43,352

BUT THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD.

1069

00:52:51,395 --> 00:52:54,930

A GREAT KINGDOM AROSE THAT GREW

INTO A POWERFUL EMPIRE,


1070

00:52:54,999 --> 00:52:58,133

AN EMPIRE THAT STRETCHED

ALL THE WAY INTO ARABIA.

1071

00:53:01,939 --> 00:53:04,273

BUT THE HISTORICAL COURSE

OF THIS EMPIRE,

1072

00:53:04,341 --> 00:53:06,075

AND THAT OF MUCH

OF THE CONTINENT,

1073

00:53:06,143 --> 00:53:08,043

WOULD BE ALTERED

BY THE EMERGENCE

1074

00:53:08,112 --> 00:53:11,113

OF TWO POWERFUL FORCES

OF GLOBAL CHANGE--
1075

00:53:12,817 --> 00:53:15,784

CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM--

1076

00:53:18,189 --> 00:53:19,188

BOTH OF WHICH WOULD HAVE

1077

00:53:19,256 --> 00:53:21,490

PROFOUND EFFECTS

ON THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA.

1078

00:53:23,394 --> 00:53:25,794

OFFERING NEW WAYS

TO WORSHIP GOD,

1079

00:53:25,863 --> 00:53:29,965

THESE GREAT RELIGIONS

ALSO PROVIDED AMBITIOUS PEOPLE

1080
00:53:30,034 --> 00:53:33,168

THE CHANCE TO INCREASE

POWER AND INFLUENCE,

1081

00:53:33,237 --> 00:53:35,971

DRAWING THE CONTINENT

INTO CLASHES,

1082

00:53:36,040 --> 00:53:38,140

IN BLOODY CONFLICTS.

1083

00:53:38,209 --> 00:53:41,677

YET FROM THEIR BEGINNINGS,

THESE TWO WORLD RELIGIONS

1084

00:53:41,745 --> 00:53:47,116

WOULD BE SHAPED BY AFRICANS,

SPIRITUALLY AND INSTITUTIONALLY,

1085

00:53:47,184 --> 00:53:50,686


AND BOTH WOULD DEEPLY AFFECT

KEY ASPECTS OF AFRICAN HISTORY

1086

00:53:50,754 --> 00:53:52,287

FOR MILLENNIA TO COME.

1087

00:54:04,959 --> 00:54:07,392

THE HORN OF AFRICA,

WHERE THE RED SEA

1088

00:54:07,461 --> 00:54:09,661

MEETS THE ARABIAN SEA.

1089

00:54:09,730 --> 00:54:12,097

HERE, A BRIDGE OF SALT WATER

1090

00:54:12,166 --> 00:54:15,601

CONNECTS THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

WITH THE MIDDLE EAST.


1091

00:54:17,872 --> 00:54:20,405

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS

SAILED DOWN THIS INLET

1092

00:54:20,474 --> 00:54:22,608

TO TRADE WITH THEIR

SOUTHERN NEIGHBORS

1093

00:54:22,676 --> 00:54:25,077

IN THE KINGDOMS

OF PUNT AND KUSH.

1094

00:54:28,849 --> 00:54:33,152

GREEKS AND ROMANS, PERSIANS

AND BYZANTINES WOULD FOLLOW,

1095

00:54:33,220 --> 00:54:35,587

EAGER TO ACQUIRE

THE LUXURY GOODS


1096

00:54:35,656 --> 00:54:39,625

THAT HAD FIRED THE IMAGINATION

OF EGYPTIAN PHARAOHS.

1097

00:54:41,195 --> 00:54:43,495

AFRICANS AND EUROPEANS

HAVE BEEN TRADING

1098

00:54:43,564 --> 00:54:48,600

ON THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA

FOR AT LEAST 2,000 YEARS.

1099

00:54:48,669 --> 00:54:52,871

THIS BOOK, WRITTEN IN GREEK

IN THE FIRST CENTURY A.D.

1100

00:54:52,940 --> 00:54:56,475

AND CALLED "THE PERIPLUS

OF THE ERYTHRAEAN SEA,"


1101

00:54:56,544 --> 00:55:00,946

DESCRIBES A KEY AFRICAN PORT

ON THE RED SEA,

1102

00:55:01,015 --> 00:55:03,248

AND IT'S CALLED ADULIS.

1103

00:55:05,319 --> 00:55:07,452

"THE PERIPLUS

OF THE ERYTHRAEAN SEA"

1104

00:55:07,521 --> 00:55:09,188

IS ONE OF THE MOST

REMARKABLE TEXTS

1105

00:55:09,256 --> 00:55:11,190

SURVIVING FROM

THE ROMAN EMPIRE,

1106
00:55:11,258 --> 00:55:14,893

A TRIPADVISOR GUIDE WRITTEN BY

AN ENTERPRISING GREEK MERCHANT.

1107

00:55:14,962 --> 00:55:17,095

IT DESCRIBES THE PORTS

AND TRADING PARTNERS

1108

00:55:17,164 --> 00:55:20,499

HE ENCOUNTERED

ALONG THE RED SEA.

1109

00:55:20,568 --> 00:55:24,436

ADULIS WAS THE MARITIME GATEWAY

TO AN AFRICAN KINGDOM

1110

00:55:24,505 --> 00:55:26,405

THAT WOULD BECOME

ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL

1111
00:55:26,473 --> 00:55:29,141

IN THE ANCIENT WORLD--AXUM.

1112

00:55:31,812 --> 00:55:35,547

THE GREAT PERSIAN RELIGIOUS

LEADER MANI DESCRIBED AXUM

1113

00:55:35,616 --> 00:55:37,816

AS ONE OF THE 4 GREAT EMPIRES,

1114

00:55:37,885 --> 00:55:42,287

A PEER WITH ROME,

PERSIA, AND CHINA.

1115

00:55:42,356 --> 00:55:45,857

AT ITS HEIGHT, IT DOMINATED

THE WHOLE OF THE HORN OF AFRICA

1116

00:55:45,926 --> 00:55:48,627

AND STRETCHED
ACROSS THE RED SEA

1117

00:55:48,696 --> 00:55:51,263

DEEP INTO SOUTHERN ARABIA.

1118

00:55:51,332 --> 00:55:53,398

IMPORTS FLOWED INTO ADULIS.

1119

00:55:53,467 --> 00:55:55,067

COPPER AND BRONZE GOODS,

1120

00:55:55,135 --> 00:55:58,670

SILVER, GOLD,

OLIVE OIL, AND WINE,

1121

00:55:58,739 --> 00:56:02,507

WITH IVORY, RHINOCEROS HORN,

AND EVEN TURTLE SHELL

1122
00:56:02,576 --> 00:56:04,576

GOING THE OTHER WAY.

1123

00:56:04,645 --> 00:56:08,146

THIS CONTROL OVER ADULIS

MAKES AXUM RICH,

1124

00:56:08,215 --> 00:56:11,650

PROVIDING A GATEWAY

BETWEEN THE INTERIOR OF AFRICA

1125

00:56:11,719 --> 00:56:14,653

AND PORTS ON THE RED SEA

AND THE INDIAN OCEAN.

1126

00:56:16,590 --> 00:56:19,057

"THE PERIPLUS" INCLUDES

A COLORFUL ACCOUNT

1127

00:56:19,126 --> 00:56:22,194


OF ONE AXUMITE KING, ZOSKALES,

1128

00:56:22,263 --> 00:56:25,564

WHO REIGNED IN THE MIDDLE

OF THE FIRST CENTURY A.D.

1129

00:56:25,633 --> 00:56:29,201

HIS GREEK TRADING PARTNER

DESCRIBES HIM SOMEWHAT ENVIOUSLY

1130

00:56:29,270 --> 00:56:32,738

AS MISERLY IN HIS WAYS,

BUT OTHERWISE UPRIGHT.

1131

00:56:35,676 --> 00:56:39,044

AXUM GREW WEALTHY THROUGH

STIFF TARIFFS ON TRADE

1132

00:56:39,113 --> 00:56:40,946

THROUGH ITS PORT AT ADULIS,


1133

00:56:41,015 --> 00:56:44,950

WHILE INLAND, FERTILE SOIL

NOURISHED BY TWO RAINY SEASONS

1134

00:56:45,019 --> 00:56:47,085

YIELDED BUMPER CROPS ANNUALLY.

1135

00:56:49,523 --> 00:56:51,556

IN THE CENTER

OF THE CITY OF AXUM,

1136

00:56:51,625 --> 00:56:54,393

ONCE THE CAPITAL OF THIS

STUNNING EMPIRE,

1137

00:56:54,461 --> 00:56:56,995

STAND SOME OF THE MOST

REMARKABLE MONUMENTS
1138

00:56:57,064 --> 00:56:59,031

OF THE ANCIENT WORLD.

1139

00:56:59,099 --> 00:57:01,333

THESE LARGE VERTICAL

PHALLIC SYMBOLS

1140

00:57:01,402 --> 00:57:04,703

WERE ERECTED IN HONOR

OF THE GLORY OF THE KING.

1141

00:57:04,772 --> 00:57:07,005

UNDER SOLID BLOCK OF SYENITE,

1142

00:57:07,074 --> 00:57:10,208

THE KING'S BODY

WAS LAID TO REST.

1143

00:57:10,277 --> 00:57:14,413


THIS PARK IS A MEMORIAL GROUND

OF A CIVILIZATION.

1144

00:57:14,481 --> 00:57:17,783

OVER 100 STELES,

ERECTED BETWEEN

1145

00:57:17,851 --> 00:57:19,985

THE THIRD AND FOURTH

CENTURIES A.D.

1146

00:57:20,054 --> 00:57:22,954

AS GRAVE MARKERS

FOR AXUM'S ELITE.

1147

00:57:23,023 --> 00:57:26,091

THEY'RE TALLER

THAN ANY OTHER MONOLITHS

1148

00:57:26,160 --> 00:57:28,660


CRAFTED IN THE ANCIENT WORLD.

1149

00:57:28,729 --> 00:57:32,097

I ASKED DR. ABEBAW GELA

TO EXPLAIN TO ME

1150

00:57:32,166 --> 00:57:34,666

HOW ARCHITECTURE ON THIS SCALE

1151

00:57:34,735 --> 00:57:36,501

COULD HAVE BEEN

CREATED BACK THEN.

1152

00:57:38,739 --> 00:57:40,372

ABEBAW, HOW IN THE WORLD

DID THEY MOVE

1153

00:57:40,441 --> 00:57:44,609

THIS HUGE SLAB HERE

FROM ANOTHER PLACE?


1154

00:57:44,678 --> 00:57:47,145

THEY BROUGHT THESE

STONES FROM A DISTANCE

1155

00:57:47,214 --> 00:57:49,181

OF 5 KILOMETERS

FROM THE WEST.

1156

00:57:49,249 --> 00:57:50,248

AS ONE BIG UNIT?

1157

00:57:50,317 --> 00:57:52,451

AS ONE BIG UNIT.

1158

00:57:52,519 --> 00:57:57,022

HOST: THIS FRAGMENTED COLUMN,

ESTIMATED TO WEIGH 700 TONS,

1159
00:57:57,091 --> 00:57:59,558

IS ONE OF THE LARGEST

SINGLE PIECES OF STONE

1160

00:57:59,626 --> 00:58:01,560

EVER CARVED BY SCULPTORS.

1161

00:58:01,628 --> 00:58:05,130

SCHOLARS BELIEVE THAT IT BUCKLED

AS IT WAS BEING ERECTED.

1162

00:58:05,199 --> 00:58:06,832

THE CARVING

PROCESS, THEY

1163

00:58:06,900 --> 00:58:08,700

DEFINITELY USED

CHISELING.

1164

00:58:08,769 --> 00:58:10,702


MM-HMM.

SO, ERR,

THEY MUST HAVE

1165

00:58:10,771 --> 00:58:12,471

USED IRON CHISELS.

1166

00:58:12,539 --> 00:58:15,707

SO, THE ARTWORK

TOOK PLACE

RIGHT WHERE IT...

1167

00:58:15,776 --> 00:58:17,743

RIGHT HERE, YEAH.

...WOULD BE ERECTED.

1168

00:58:17,811 --> 00:58:19,811

SO, THE CARVING

MIGHT HAVE TAKEN

1169
00:58:19,880 --> 00:58:21,680

PROBABLY

10 YEARS, 9 YEARS.

1170

00:58:21,749 --> 00:58:22,681

10 YEARS?

YEAH.

1171

00:58:22,750 --> 00:58:23,682

HOW LONG DID IT

TAKE TO MOVE IT

1172

00:58:23,751 --> 00:58:24,883

FROM THE QUARRY?

1173

00:58:24,952 --> 00:58:27,085

PROBABLY THEY CAN

DRAG IT

1174

00:58:27,154 --> 00:58:29,154


A DISTANCE OF

10 YARDS

1175

00:58:29,223 --> 00:58:31,156

OR 15 YARDS A DAY.

1176

00:58:31,225 --> 00:58:32,991

THAT MIGHT HAVE

ALSO TAKEN THEM

1177

00:58:33,060 --> 00:58:34,726

ABOUT 3 YEARS.

1178

00:58:34,795 --> 00:58:37,162

DO WE KNOW FOR WHOM

THIS STELE WAS CREATED?

1179

00:58:37,231 --> 00:58:39,364

WE DON'T KNOW

CERTAINLY,
1180

00:58:39,433 --> 00:58:42,968

BUT IF WE SEE FRAGMENTARY

HISTORICAL SOURCES,

1181

00:58:43,036 --> 00:58:45,337

AND THEN SOME EVIDENCES

FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL

1182

00:58:45,406 --> 00:58:46,772

EXCAVATIONS THAT

ARE MADE AT

1183

00:58:46,840 --> 00:58:49,074

DIFFERENT TIMES

IN THIS AREA,

1184

00:58:49,143 --> 00:58:52,978

THIS STELE SEEMS

TO BE MADE FOR
1185

00:58:53,046 --> 00:58:54,312

ELLA AMIDA.

1186

00:58:54,381 --> 00:58:55,480

ELLA AMIDA

THE FIRST.

1187

00:58:55,549 --> 00:58:56,515

AND WHEN

DID HE LIVE?

1188

00:58:56,583 --> 00:59:01,186

THE SECOND HALF

OF THE THIRD CENTURY.

1189

00:59:01,255 --> 00:59:05,257

HOST: KING ELLA AMIDA--

ALSO KNOWN AS OUSANAS--


1190

00:59:05,325 --> 00:59:08,059

RULED DURING THE GOLDEN AGE

OF AXUM.

1191

00:59:08,128 --> 00:59:10,595

GOLD COINS EMBOSSED

WITH HIS FACE AND NAME

1192

00:59:10,664 --> 00:59:14,699

AND INSCRIBED IN GREEK WERE

RECENTLY UNEARTHED IN INDIA,

1193

00:59:14,768 --> 00:59:17,636

2,000 MILES AWAY.

1194

00:59:17,704 --> 00:59:20,439

WE THINK THAT

OUSANAS' SON EZANA,

1195
00:59:20,507 --> 00:59:23,575

WHO WOULD BECOME ONE OF THE MOST

FAMOUS KINGS OF AXUM,

1196

00:59:23,644 --> 00:59:27,112

WAS MEMORIALIZED BY THE OTHER

GREAT STELE ON THIS SITE.

1197

00:59:30,150 --> 00:59:34,719

A NETWORK OF CHAMBERS LIE

BURIED BENEATH THESE TOWERS.

1198

00:59:34,788 --> 00:59:35,887

ABEBAW,

THAT'S AMAZING.

1199

00:59:35,956 --> 00:59:37,255

LOOK AT THOSE

SHAFTS OF LIGHT.

1200
00:59:37,324 --> 00:59:38,390

YEAH.

1201

00:59:40,127 --> 00:59:42,093

NOW, WHAT WAS IN

THE CHAMBERS ON THE RIGHT

1202

00:59:42,162 --> 00:59:43,261

AS OPPOSED TO

THE CHAMBERS ON THE LEFT?

1203

00:59:43,330 --> 00:59:45,997

THESE ARE

TOMBS OF KINGS.

1204

00:59:46,066 --> 00:59:47,332

SO, ON THIS SIDE,

THEY DEPOSIT

1205

00:59:47,401 --> 00:59:49,301


THE BODY OF THE KING,

1206

00:59:49,369 --> 00:59:52,704

AND THEN ON THIS SIDE

THEY DEPOSIT

1207

00:59:52,773 --> 00:59:55,173

THE VALUABLES

OF THE KINGS.

1208

00:59:55,242 --> 00:59:57,209

AH, NOT LIKE

IN EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS

1209

00:59:57,277 --> 00:59:59,978

WHEN THEY WOULD

BURY THE KING

WITH HIS POSSESSIONS.

1210

01:00:00,047 --> 01:00:02,380


HERE THEY PUT

THE POSSESSIONS HERE

AND THE BODY THERE.

1211

01:00:02,449 --> 01:00:03,648

YEAH, THE BODY

AND THE POSSESSIONS

1212

01:00:03,717 --> 01:00:05,951

IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS.

1213

01:00:07,821 --> 01:00:11,790

HOST: 90% OF ANCIENT AXUM

REMAINS UNEXCAVATED

1214

01:00:11,859 --> 01:00:13,959

BENEATH THE CITY'S

MODERN BUILDINGS,

1215

01:00:14,027 --> 01:00:16,161


BUT SCULPTURAL RELIEFS

ON THE STELE

1216

01:00:16,230 --> 01:00:18,063

ARE SIGNS OF ITS GRANDEUR.

1217

01:00:19,666 --> 01:00:21,600

WOMAN: AS YOU

LOOK UP THE STELE,

1218

01:00:21,668 --> 01:00:25,570

YOU SEE STORY AFTER STORY

OF WINDOWS.

1219

01:00:25,639 --> 01:00:29,975

THERE'S EVEN DOOR FRAMES WITH

HANDLES WHICH YOU COULD OPEN

1220

01:00:30,043 --> 01:00:31,610

IF YOU HAD THE RIGHT KIND


OF POWER.

1221

01:00:33,881 --> 01:00:36,615

HOST: THIS WAS A CITY

OF 20,000 PEOPLE.

1222

01:00:36,683 --> 01:00:39,351

AT ITS HEART STOOD

A MONUMENTAL PALACE

1223

01:00:39,419 --> 01:00:41,586

ADORNED WITH BRONZE STATUES,

1224

01:00:41,655 --> 01:00:44,356

AND ITS GRAND PROCESSIONAL WAYS

WERE LINED

1225

01:00:44,424 --> 01:00:46,558

WITH GRANITE VICTORY THRONES.


1226

01:00:47,861 --> 01:00:50,495

AXUM'S POWER WAS FOUNDED

ON ITS WEALTH,

1227

01:00:50,564 --> 01:00:52,597

AND ITS WEALTH

ON THE RICH RESOURCES

1228

01:00:52,666 --> 01:00:55,901

OF ITS UNIQUE POSITION

ON THE HORN OF AFRICA.

1229

01:00:55,969 --> 01:00:58,670

BUT ONE OF ITS MANY

EXTRAORDINARY RESOURCES

1230

01:00:58,739 --> 01:01:02,707

WAS PARAMOUNT--FRANKINCENSE.

1231
01:01:02,776 --> 01:01:06,978

WOMAN: FRANKINCENSE WAS

AN INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY

1232

01:01:07,047 --> 01:01:10,282

AND BOUGHT A LOT

OF RELIGIOUS PRESTIGE

1233

01:01:10,350 --> 01:01:13,351

BECAUSE INCENSE

HAS MAGICAL POWERS.

1234

01:01:13,420 --> 01:01:15,153

HOST: AN AROMATIC GUM RESIN

1235

01:01:15,222 --> 01:01:16,721

PRODUCED FROM THE BARK

OF A TREE

1236

01:01:16,790 --> 01:01:19,491


THAT GROWS IN THE HIGHLANDS

OF ETHIOPIA,

1237

01:01:19,560 --> 01:01:22,160

SOMALIA, AND SOUTHERN ARABIA,

1238

01:01:22,229 --> 01:01:25,864

FRANKINCENSE WAS AS VALUABLE AT

THE HEIGHT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE,

1239

01:01:25,933 --> 01:01:28,700

POUND FOR POUND, AS GOLD.

1240

01:01:28,769 --> 01:01:33,471

MIRE: IT GROWS VERY HIGH UP,

ON A VERY HARSH ENVIRONMENT.

1241

01:01:33,540 --> 01:01:36,207

IT'S VERY HARD TO ACCESS IT.


1242

01:01:36,276 --> 01:01:39,945

PEOPLE WILL ALMOST, UM, GO ON

A PILGRIMAGE, IF YOU LIKE,

1243

01:01:40,013 --> 01:01:45,684

TO GET THIS AS A VERY

SOUGHT-AFTER COMMODITY.

1244

01:01:45,752 --> 01:01:48,987

THIS LED TO

LONG-DISTANCE TRADE.

1245

01:01:51,625 --> 01:01:56,261

BY THE FIFTH CENTURY A.D.,

THROUGH EXPANSIVE TRADE AND WAR,

1246

01:01:56,330 --> 01:01:58,196

AXUM HAD ESTABLISHED ITSELF

1247
01:01:58,265 --> 01:02:00,899

AS NOT JUST ONE OF THE GREAT

AFRICAN EMPIRES,

1248

01:02:00,968 --> 01:02:04,369

BUT ONE OF THE GREAT EMPIRES

OF THE ENTIRE ANCIENT WORLD.

1249

01:02:05,806 --> 01:02:07,238

BUT THE ROOTS OF THIS KINGDOM

1250

01:02:07,307 --> 01:02:10,342

LIE IN AN EQUALLY

REMARKABLE CIVILIZATION

1251

01:02:10,410 --> 01:02:12,310

THAT THRIVED

IN THE HORN OF AFRICA

1252

01:02:12,379 --> 01:02:15,380


1,000 YEARS EARLIER.

1253

01:02:15,449 --> 01:02:19,184

A CIVILIZATION ASSOCIATED WITH

ONE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT'S

1254

01:02:19,252 --> 01:02:21,853

MOST ICONIC FIGURES,

1255

01:02:21,922 --> 01:02:24,889

THE LEGENDARILY BEAUTIFUL

QUEEN OF SHEBA.

1256

01:02:27,861 --> 01:02:29,594

30 MILES NORTH OF AXUM,

1257

01:02:29,663 --> 01:02:32,697

DR. IRIS GERLACH

IS EXCAVATING ARTIFACTS
1258

01:02:32,766 --> 01:02:36,368

FROM AN ANCIENT ROYAL PALACE

IN A CITY CALLED YEHA.

1259

01:02:57,357 --> 01:03:00,992

HOST: YEHA WAS THE CAPITAL OF

THE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF D'MT,

1260

01:03:01,061 --> 01:03:02,994

AND THIS IS THOUGHT

TO HAVE BEEN

1261

01:03:03,063 --> 01:03:05,463

THE LUXURIOUS PALACE

OF ITS RULERS.

1262

01:03:25,652 --> 01:03:28,486

HOST: THE RUINS SUGGEST THAT

D'MT SHARED A CULTURE


1263

01:03:28,555 --> 01:03:30,922

WITH A NEIGHBORING KINGDOM

CALLED SABA,

1264

01:03:30,991 --> 01:03:33,858

JUST ACROSS THE RED SEA

IN SOUTHERN ARABIA.

1265

01:03:59,186 --> 01:04:01,152

HOST: KNOWN IN ENGLISH

AS SHEBA,

1266

01:04:01,221 --> 01:04:04,856

THE KINGDOM IS FAMOUS

FOR HIS LEGENDARY QUEEN.

1267

01:04:04,925 --> 01:04:07,325

IRIS GERLACH BELIEVES

THAT SABAEANS
1268

01:04:07,394 --> 01:04:10,228

BOUGHT THEIR CULTURE HERE

FROM ACROSS THE SEA.

1269

01:04:25,946 --> 01:04:28,980

HOST: WHILE SOME SCHOLARS SEE

YEHA AS AN OFFSHOOT OF SABA,

1270

01:04:29,049 --> 01:04:31,049

OTHERS ARGUE THAT D'MT'S KINGS

1271

01:04:31,118 --> 01:04:34,152

ACTUALLY HIRED OR IMPORTED

SABAEAN ARCHITECTS

1272

01:04:34,221 --> 01:04:36,521

TO BUILD THEIR PALACES,

AND IN FACT

1273
01:04:36,590 --> 01:04:38,790

RULED SABA AT THE TIME.

1274

01:04:38,859 --> 01:04:42,260

FOR CENTURIES, THESE KINGDOMS

HAD A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP,

1275

01:04:42,329 --> 01:04:44,929

SHARING RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

AND CULTURE.

1276

01:04:47,734 --> 01:04:50,735

NEAR THE PALACE STANDS ONE OF

THE OLDEST STONE STRUCTURES

1277

01:04:50,804 --> 01:04:54,139

IN AFRICA, THE GREAT

TEMPLE OF THE MOON.

1278

01:04:54,207 --> 01:04:56,307


BUILT IN THE FIFTH

CENTURY B.C.,

1279

01:04:56,376 --> 01:04:59,711

ABOUT THE SAME TIME AS THE

PARTHENON IN ANCIENT GREECE,

1280

01:04:59,780 --> 01:05:02,614

IT'S THE MOST ENDURING

TESTIMONY WE HAVE

1281

01:05:02,682 --> 01:05:06,484

OF PRE-CHRISTIAN BELIEFS

IN THE HORN OF AFRICA.

1282

01:05:06,553 --> 01:05:07,552

WINDMULLER-LUNA:

WE KNOW A LITTLE BIT ABOUT

1283

01:05:07,621 --> 01:05:09,320


WHAT HAPPENED

IN THE TEMPLE OF YEHA

1284

01:05:09,389 --> 01:05:13,191

BECAUSE OF FRAGMENTS OF ALTARS

AND INSCRIPTIONS

1285

01:05:13,260 --> 01:05:16,094

THAT ARCHAEOLOGISTS

HAVE FOUND IN THE TEMPLE.

1286

01:05:16,163 --> 01:05:19,931

THESE INCLUDE SMALL BASINS WITH

CARVED-OUT TOPS THAT WE BELIEVE

1287

01:05:20,000 --> 01:05:23,768

INCENSE WAS BURNT IN,

AS WELL AS

1288

01:05:23,837 --> 01:05:26,504


STYLIZED CARVINGS OF IBEXES,

1289

01:05:26,573 --> 01:05:29,941

WHICH ARE A KIND

OF HORNED ANIMAL.

1290

01:05:30,010 --> 01:05:33,645

HOST: THESE ENGRAVINGS OF THE

CRESCENT MOON CARVED IN STONE

1291

01:05:33,713 --> 01:05:36,314

ARE SYMBOLS

OF THE GOD ALMOUQAH.

1292

01:05:36,383 --> 01:05:39,017

THE MAIN INSCRIPTION AT

THE TEMPLE OF THE MOON IN YEHA

1293

01:05:39,085 --> 01:05:42,253

DOES SAY IT'S DEDICATED


TO THE GOD ALMOUQAH

1294

01:05:42,322 --> 01:05:46,491

WHO'S THE CHIEF GOD OF

THE KINGDOM OF SABA IN YEMEN.

1295

01:05:46,560 --> 01:05:49,594

SO, THERE OBVIOUSLY IS

A SHARED WORSHIP.

1296

01:05:52,999 --> 01:05:56,901

HOST: OVER TIME, THE GODS

WORSHIPPED AT YEHA MIGRATED,

1297

01:05:56,970 --> 01:05:59,304

BECOMING THE GODS

WORSHIPPED IN AXUM.

1298

01:06:04,144 --> 01:06:06,744

BUT IN THE EARLY


FOURTH CENTURY A.D.,

1299

01:06:06,813 --> 01:06:09,614

AXUM ITSELF WAS

ABOUT TO BE TRANSFORMED

1300

01:06:09,683 --> 01:06:12,417

BY A REVOLUTIONARY FORCE

SWEEPING THROUGH

1301

01:06:12,485 --> 01:06:15,253

MUCH OF THE ANCIENT WORLD.

1302

01:06:15,322 --> 01:06:18,056

A NEW RELIGION

WAS FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGING

1303

01:06:18,124 --> 01:06:21,192

ESTABLISHED FORMS OF WORSHIP

THROUGHOUT THE NORTHEAST


1304

01:06:21,261 --> 01:06:23,695

OF THE AFRICAN CONTINENT,

AND IT WAS CHANGING

1305

01:06:23,763 --> 01:06:25,897

THE COURSE OF WORLD HISTORY

IN THE PROCESS.

1306

01:06:25,966 --> 01:06:28,867

THE RELIGION WOULD BE

KNOWN AS CHRISTIANITY.

1307

01:06:30,136 --> 01:06:33,137

TODAY, THERE ARE

SOME 500 MILLION

1308

01:06:33,206 --> 01:06:36,841

PRACTICING CHRISTIANS

IN AFRICA,
1309

01:06:36,910 --> 01:06:38,643

AND MANY OF US

WOULD ASSUME THAT

1310

01:06:38,712 --> 01:06:40,745

CHRISTIANITY CAME

TO THE CONTINENT

1311

01:06:40,814 --> 01:06:43,748

WITH EUROPEAN COLONIALISM.

1312

01:06:43,817 --> 01:06:46,050

NOTHING COULD BE

FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH.

1313

01:06:48,688 --> 01:06:51,623

CHRISTIANITY TOOK ROOT

ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT


1314

01:06:51,691 --> 01:06:54,292

AS QUICKLY AS IT DID

IN THE MIDDLE EAST.

1315

01:07:03,303 --> 01:07:05,136

MANY PEOPLE ASSOCIATE

CHRISTIANITY IN AFRICA

1316

01:07:05,205 --> 01:07:07,038

WITH THE ARRIVAL

OF EUROPEAN MISSIONARIES

1317

01:07:07,107 --> 01:07:08,539

IN THE 19TH CENTURY.

1318

01:07:09,876 --> 01:07:13,244

BUT HERE IN THE NORTHEASTERN

CORNER OF AFRICA,

1319
01:07:13,313 --> 01:07:16,714

CHRISTIANITY IS AS ANCIENT

AS IT IS ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD.

1320

01:07:16,783 --> 01:07:18,383

AFRICA'S IN THE FOUNDATIONS.

1321

01:07:19,686 --> 01:07:22,687

HOST: BARELY A DECADE

AFTER THE TIME OF JESUS,

1322

01:07:22,756 --> 01:07:25,523

CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES

HAD ESTABLISHED THEMSELVES

1323

01:07:25,592 --> 01:07:28,559

IN ALEXANDRIA

IN NORTHERN EGYPT.

1324

01:07:28,628 --> 01:07:31,796


MAN: ALEXANDRIA WAS

AN ECONOMIC FOCAL POINT.

1325

01:07:31,865 --> 01:07:33,231

IT WAS BUSTLING.

1326

01:07:33,300 --> 01:07:36,267

A LOT OF THE CULTURAL

AND RELIGIOUS INNOVATIONS

1327

01:07:36,336 --> 01:07:38,636

LIVED IN THESE TOWNS

LIKE ALEXANDRIA

1328

01:07:38,705 --> 01:07:40,772

RATHER THAN IN JERUSALEM.

1329

01:07:40,840 --> 01:07:43,841

HOST: CHRISTIANITY QUICKLY

GAINED A FOOTHOLD IN AFRICA


1330

01:07:43,910 --> 01:07:47,078

AND MANY OF ITS DOCTRINES

WOULD BE FORMULATED HERE.

1331

01:07:47,147 --> 01:07:49,013

[PEOPLE SINGING

IN NATIVE LANGUAGE]

1332

01:07:58,391 --> 01:08:00,792

IN MANY WAYS, AFRICA

IN THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD

1333

01:08:00,860 --> 01:08:03,394

WAS INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT

FOR THEOLOGY.

1334

01:08:03,463 --> 01:08:06,497

SO, THE MAIN THEOLOGIANS

WEREN'T SITTING IN ROME.


1335

01:08:06,566 --> 01:08:07,865

THE MAJORITY OF THEM

WERE EITHER

1336

01:08:07,934 --> 01:08:12,403

SITTING IN ALEXANDRIA

OR IN TUNISIA OR ALGERIA.

1337

01:08:14,874 --> 01:08:16,708

HOST: IT'S ALSO

IN NORTHEAST AFRICA

1338

01:08:16,776 --> 01:08:20,678

THAT ANOTHER CHRISTIAN TRADITION

DEVELOPED: MONASTICISM.

1339

01:08:24,150 --> 01:08:26,317

IN ONE OF THE WORLD'S

OLDEST MONASTERIES,
1340

01:08:26,386 --> 01:08:28,386

IN EGYPT'S EASTERN DESERT,

1341

01:08:28,455 --> 01:08:32,090

PILGRIMS STILL WORSHIP

AT THE SITE OF THE CAVE

1342

01:08:32,158 --> 01:08:34,726

OF THE MAN MANY CREDIT

AS THE FOUNDER

1343

01:08:34,794 --> 01:08:37,962

OF THIS GLOBAL TRADITION--

SAINT ANTHONY.

1344

01:08:45,305 --> 01:08:49,440

EGYPT IS THE CRADLE

OF MONASTICISM IN MANY WAYS.


1345

01:08:49,509 --> 01:08:52,677

THE IDEA THAT

YOU GO INTO SOLITUDE

1346

01:08:52,746 --> 01:08:54,145

AND THAT YOU STAY THERE

AND THAT

1347

01:08:54,214 --> 01:08:57,882

YOU FORM YOUR COMMUNITY

AROUND THIS EXPERIENCE,

1348

01:08:57,951 --> 01:08:59,650

THIS IS A VERY

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

1349

01:08:59,719 --> 01:09:01,252

BY THESE PEOPLE WHO

MOVED IN THE DESERT


1350

01:09:01,321 --> 01:09:05,490

AND IT IS SORT OF A MOVEMENT

THAT WANTS TO RECAPTURE

1351

01:09:05,558 --> 01:09:10,094

THIS EARLY CHRISTIAN LIFE

OF FEEDING THE POOR,

1352

01:09:10,163 --> 01:09:13,297

OF BEING SELF-SUFFICIENT,

OF WORKING TO MAKE

1353

01:09:13,366 --> 01:09:15,233

THAT PART OF CHRISTIAN LIFE

AND NOT JUST THIS

1354

01:09:15,301 --> 01:09:19,037

EDUCATED LEARNED

LITURGICAL CHRISTIANITY.
1355

01:09:19,105 --> 01:09:20,338

THIS COMES FROM EGYPT.

1356

01:09:22,142 --> 01:09:24,342

WOMAN: THE MONASTERY

BECOMES A KIND OF

1357

01:09:24,411 --> 01:09:26,778

WELLSPRING FOR TEACHING,

1358

01:09:26,846 --> 01:09:31,249

FOR THINKING,

FOR RELIGIOUS ENGAGEMENT,

1359

01:09:31,317 --> 01:09:35,753

BUT ALSO FOR HOLDING

AND PRESERVING

1360

01:09:35,822 --> 01:09:37,555


THE KEY TENETS OF THE FAITH.

1361

01:09:39,325 --> 01:09:41,626

HOST: BY THE BEGINNING

OF THE FOURTH CENTURY,

1362

01:09:41,694 --> 01:09:45,363

THE NEW FAITH HAD GROWN

FROM A SMALL, PERSECUTED SECT

1363

01:09:45,432 --> 01:09:47,799

TO ONE OF THE MOST

DOMINANT RELIGIONS

1364

01:09:47,867 --> 01:09:49,367

WITHIN THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

1365

01:09:52,605 --> 01:09:55,873

AND NOW IN WHAT

IS TODAY ETHIOPIA,
1366

01:09:55,942 --> 01:09:58,543

THE POWERFUL KINGDOM

OF AXUM ITSELF

1367

01:09:58,611 --> 01:10:02,080

WAS ABOUT TO UNDERGO A PROFOUND

RELIGIOUS CONVERSION.

1368

01:10:03,716 --> 01:10:06,350

AND THIS

MOMENTOUS TRANSFORMATION BEGAN

1369

01:10:06,419 --> 01:10:09,220

NOT AS IT USUALLY DOES,

AMONG THE PEOPLE,

1370

01:10:09,289 --> 01:10:12,590

BUT AT THE VERY APEX

OF AXUM SOCIETY,
1371

01:10:12,659 --> 01:10:14,292

BECAUSE ONE OF

THE FIRST CONVERTS

1372

01:10:14,360 --> 01:10:18,129

IN THE ENTIRE KINGDOM

WOULD BE THE KING.

1373

01:10:18,198 --> 01:10:21,299

KING EZANA WOULD BECOME ONE OF

THE MOST CELEBRATED LEADERS

1374

01:10:21,367 --> 01:10:24,869

IN AFRICAN HISTORY, NOT ONLY

FOR HIS IMPERIAL ADVENTURES

1375

01:10:24,938 --> 01:10:27,171

BUT BECAUSE OF

A PERSONAL DECISION
1376

01:10:27,240 --> 01:10:29,974

THAT WOULD CHANGE THE COURSE

OF ETHIOPIA'S HISTORY,

1377

01:10:30,043 --> 01:10:33,511

AND IN SOME WAYS THE HISTORY

OF CHRISTIANITY ITSELF.

1378

01:10:33,580 --> 01:10:37,014

GELA: EZANA BECAME POPULAR

AFTER HIS REIGN,

1379

01:10:37,083 --> 01:10:40,017

AND MOST OF THE PEOPLE

IN AXUM AND OTHER PLACES,

1380

01:10:40,086 --> 01:10:43,621

THEY GIVE EZANA A SPECIAL PLACE

IN AXUMITE HISTORY
1381

01:10:43,690 --> 01:10:47,191

BECAUSE OF HIS CONVERSION

TO CHRISTIANITY.

1382

01:10:47,260 --> 01:10:49,560

HOST: IN KING EZANA'S

CONVERSION STORY,

1383

01:10:49,629 --> 01:10:52,230

HISTORY AND MYTH COLLIDE.

1384

01:10:52,298 --> 01:10:59,270

SO, THE CONVERSION OF AXUM,

WE HAVE A LEGEND OF TWO BOYS.

1385

01:11:01,174 --> 01:11:04,008

FRUMENTIUS AND EDESIUS

ARE THEIR NAMES.


1386

01:11:05,979 --> 01:11:07,879

THEY TRAVELED

WITH THEIR FATHER,

1387

01:11:07,947 --> 01:11:11,949

A CHRISTIAN MERCHANT

GOING DOWN THE RED SEA,

1388

01:11:12,018 --> 01:11:15,353

AND THEY ARE

SUBJECTED TO PIRACY.

1389

01:11:15,421 --> 01:11:18,589

THE FATHER WAS KILLED

AND NEXT WE FIND THESE BOYS

1390

01:11:18,658 --> 01:11:21,826

IN THE COURT OF AXUM,

AND THEY'RE TAKEN IN BY THE KING


1391

01:11:21,895 --> 01:11:25,863

AND THEY ARE THE ONES

EDUCATING HIS SON EZANA.

1392

01:11:27,066 --> 01:11:28,533

HOST: ACCORDING

TO ONE RECOUNTING,

1393

01:11:28,601 --> 01:11:29,967

FRUMENTIUS AND HIS BROTHER

1394

01:11:30,036 --> 01:11:33,037

WERE SYRIAN CHRISTIANS

TRAVELING BACK FROM INDIA

1395

01:11:33,106 --> 01:11:35,373

IN THE EARLY

FOURTH CENTURY A.D.

1396
01:11:35,441 --> 01:11:36,974

HIS PASSION FOR HIS RELIGION

1397

01:11:37,043 --> 01:11:39,143

WAS SO COMPELLING,

THE STORY GOES,

1398

01:11:39,212 --> 01:11:41,846

THAT YOUNG KING EZANA

DECIDED TO EMBRACE

1399

01:11:41,915 --> 01:11:43,881

THIS NEW RELIGION AS HIS OWN.

1400

01:11:43,950 --> 01:11:47,785

IN THE STORY, WE HAVE

A LOT OF TRUTHS EMBEDDED.

1401

01:11:47,854 --> 01:11:53,257

THE FIRST ONE BEING AXUM WASN'T


ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE WORLD.

1402

01:11:53,326 --> 01:11:55,526

IT WAS RIGHT ALONG

THE TRADE ROUTES

1403

01:11:55,595 --> 01:11:58,829

TOWARD INDIA, TOWARD OMAN.

1404

01:11:58,898 --> 01:12:02,300

SO, THE FATHER

WHO GOES OUT TO TRADE

1405

01:12:02,368 --> 01:12:06,204

REFLECTS THE CONNECTIONS

THAT AXUM ACTUALLY HAD.

1406

01:12:06,272 --> 01:12:07,939

HOST: NO MATTER

HOW IT ORIGINATED,
1407

01:12:08,007 --> 01:12:11,142

EZANA'S CONVERSION IS NO MYTH.

1408

01:12:11,211 --> 01:12:14,879

THESE AXUMITE COINS REVEAL THAT

A MOMENTOUS CHANGE OCCURRED

1409

01:12:14,948 --> 01:12:17,014

IN THE KINGDOM

IN THE FOURTH CENTURY.

1410

01:12:19,852 --> 01:12:22,954

DR. ABEBAW GELA EXPLAINS.

1411

01:12:23,022 --> 01:12:27,558

THESE COINS, MORE THAN

THEIR ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE,

1412
01:12:27,627 --> 01:12:29,160

THEY TELL A LOT OF HISTORY.

1413

01:12:30,763 --> 01:12:35,533

THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF RELIGIOUS

SYMBOLS ON AXUMITE COINS.

1414

01:12:35,602 --> 01:12:40,671

THE EARLIER ONES,

THEY HAVE A SYMBOL OF A CRESCENT

1415

01:12:40,740 --> 01:12:42,707

AND A DISC.

1416

01:12:42,775 --> 01:12:48,312

SO, THE CRESCENT, IT SYMBOLIZES

THE MOON GOD ALMOUQAH,

1417

01:12:48,381 --> 01:12:54,986

AND THEN THE DISC SYMBOLIZES


THE SUN GOD SHAMASH.

1418

01:12:56,589 --> 01:12:58,623

HOST: THESE GODS HAD BEEN

PIOUSLY WORSHIPPED

1419

01:12:58,691 --> 01:13:00,324

IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF YEHA

1420

01:13:00,393 --> 01:13:03,227

AND ACROSS THE HORN OF AFRICA

AND SOUTHERN ARABIA

1421

01:13:03,296 --> 01:13:06,163

FOR OVER 1,000 YEARS.

1422

01:13:06,232 --> 01:13:09,967

BUT DURING EZANA'S REIGN,

AROUND 350 A.D.,


1423

01:13:10,036 --> 01:13:13,971

THE DESIGN OF AXUM'S COINAGE

DRAMATICALLY CHANGED,

1424

01:13:14,040 --> 01:13:16,440

BECOMING THE FIRST COINS

IN THE WORLD

1425

01:13:16,509 --> 01:13:19,010

TO BEAR A CHRISTIAN SYMBOL.

1426

01:13:19,078 --> 01:13:23,014

GELA: THOSE COINS OF EZANA

THAT WERE MINTED AFTER, ERR,

1427

01:13:23,082 --> 01:13:25,750

HIS CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY,

1428

01:13:25,818 --> 01:13:28,519


THEY HAVE THE SYMBOL

OF THE CROSS.

1429

01:13:28,588 --> 01:13:31,856

A COIN IS A VERY GOOD MEDIUM

TO TELL PEOPLE ALSO

1430

01:13:31,924 --> 01:13:33,157

THAT WE ARE CHRISTIANS.

1431

01:13:34,894 --> 01:13:36,460

HOST: SEEING

THE KINGDOM'S RELIGION

1432

01:13:36,529 --> 01:13:37,962

FEATURED ON ITS CURRENCY

1433

01:13:38,031 --> 01:13:41,999

SHOWS US TWO THINGS--THE POWER

OF ITS SPIRITUAL BELIEF


1434

01:13:42,068 --> 01:13:44,368

AND ITS EXTENSIVE

COMMERCIAL TIES

1435

01:13:44,437 --> 01:13:46,771

WITH CHRISTENDOM.

1436

01:13:46,839 --> 01:13:50,007

THE DOMINANT EUROPEAN POWER

AT THAT TIME WAS ROME,

1437

01:13:50,076 --> 01:13:52,543

WHOSE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE

HAD HIMSELF

1438

01:13:52,612 --> 01:13:56,747

CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY

IN 325 A.D.
1439

01:13:56,816 --> 01:13:59,950

THORNTON: IT'S WORTH NOTING THAT

KING EZANA ACCEPTED CHRISTIANITY

1440

01:14:00,019 --> 01:14:03,921

JUST REALLY A FEW DECADES

AFTER CONSTANTINE DID.

1441

01:14:03,990 --> 01:14:05,523

HE DID A LOT OF BUSINESS WITH

1442

01:14:05,591 --> 01:14:07,892

THE EASTERN END

OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

1443

01:14:07,960 --> 01:14:11,062

IT COULD VERY WELL BE THAT HIS

DECISION TO BECOME A CHRISTIAN

1444
01:14:11,130 --> 01:14:14,632

WAS CONNECTED TO

GEOPOLITICS OF THE DAY

1445

01:14:14,701 --> 01:14:16,634

OR COMMERCIAL POLITICS

OF THE DAY.

1446

01:14:18,838 --> 01:14:20,671

HOST:

AND JUST LIKE CONSTANTINE,

1447

01:14:20,740 --> 01:14:23,541

EZANA HAD

TERRITORIAL AMBITIONS.

1448

01:14:28,114 --> 01:14:29,980

IN THE MIDDLE

OF THE FOURTH CENTURY,

1449
01:14:30,049 --> 01:14:34,118

AXUMITE ARMIES FORGED THEIR WAY

INLAND ALONG THE NILE VALLEY,

1450

01:14:34,187 --> 01:14:36,487

INVADING NEW TERRITORIES

AND HEADING FOR

1451

01:14:36,556 --> 01:14:39,056

THE GREAT CITY OF MEROE,

1452

01:14:39,125 --> 01:14:43,194

THE THIRD AND LAST CAPITAL

OF THE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF KUSH.

1453

01:14:51,471 --> 01:14:54,672

FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS,

THE KINGS AND QUEENS OF KUSH,

1454

01:14:54,741 --> 01:14:58,142


FROM THEIR CAPITAL AT MEROE,

HAD DOMINATED THE SOUTHERN END

1455

01:14:58,211 --> 01:15:00,211

OF NILE VALLEY CIVILIZATION...

1456

01:15:02,448 --> 01:15:06,584

RICH FROM TRADE AND SHARING

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND CULTURE

1457

01:15:06,652 --> 01:15:09,854

WITH ITS MILLENNIA-OLD

RIVAL, EGYPT.

1458

01:15:20,967 --> 01:15:25,302

BUT BY THE FOURTH CENTURY,

ECLIPSED BY AXUM'S RISE,

1459

01:15:25,371 --> 01:15:27,438

KUSH WAS IN DECLINE.


1460

01:15:32,512 --> 01:15:34,645

IT STARTED WHEN, UH,

1461

01:15:34,714 --> 01:15:39,116

AXUM APPEARED AS A

POWERFUL, UH, KINGDOM,

1462

01:15:39,185 --> 01:15:42,753

AND BECAUSE

MEROE ECONOMY

1463

01:15:42,822 --> 01:15:45,689

WAS BASED ON TRADE

ALONG THE NILE

1464

01:15:45,758 --> 01:15:47,091

TO CONTROL ALL TRADE

1465
01:15:47,160 --> 01:15:49,660

AND ALL THE ROUTE

COMING FROM AFRICA,

1466

01:15:49,729 --> 01:15:52,463

TOWARDS THE RED SEA

AND WITH THE MEDITERRANEAN.

1467

01:15:52,532 --> 01:15:55,166

AND THEN AXUM APPEARED

1468

01:15:55,234 --> 01:15:58,002

WITH ITS POWER CONTROL

OF THESE GOODS.

1469

01:16:01,007 --> 01:16:04,308

HOST: AN INSCRIPTION

ON A THRONE UNCOVERED AT MEROE

1470

01:16:04,377 --> 01:16:06,377


DESCRIBES AN ASSAULT

ON THE CITY

1471

01:16:06,446 --> 01:16:09,146

BY KING EZANA'S

CONQUERING ARMY.

1472

01:16:09,215 --> 01:16:12,283

NOW IN THE REMAINS

OF WHAT ARE MEROE'S TEMPLES,

1473

01:16:12,351 --> 01:16:15,553

MAHMOUD BASHIR BELIEVES

HE'S FOUND PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

1474

01:16:15,621 --> 01:16:19,290

OF THE VIOLENT DESTRUCTION

RESULTING FROM AXUM'S ATTACK.

1475

01:16:23,296 --> 01:16:24,628


ALL THE EVIDENCE

SHOWS THAT

1476

01:16:24,697 --> 01:16:27,631

IT'S BEING DESTROYED

AND BURIED.

1477

01:16:27,700 --> 01:16:29,066

ALL THE STATUES

ARE SMASHED

1478

01:16:29,135 --> 01:16:30,734

INTO VERY SMALL PIECES.

1479

01:16:30,803 --> 01:16:32,636

SO, WE HAVE

A REAL EVIDENCE

1480

01:16:32,705 --> 01:16:35,072

FOR SOMETHING
HAPPENED THERE,

1481

01:16:35,141 --> 01:16:37,975

LIKE PEOPLE CAME,

THEY DESTROYED EVERYTHING

1482

01:16:38,044 --> 01:16:40,044

WITH THE ATTACK OF EZANA'S.

1483

01:16:40,112 --> 01:16:42,513

AXUM CONQUERS MEROE.

1484

01:16:42,582 --> 01:16:45,349

KING EZANA, WHO, BY

THIS TIME IS CHRISTIAN...

1485

01:16:45,418 --> 01:16:47,685

THAT'S WHAT I BELIEVE.

1486
01:16:47,753 --> 01:16:50,988

HOST: EZANA DIED

AROUND 360 A.D.

1487

01:16:51,057 --> 01:16:54,925

OVER THE NEXT 150 YEARS,

THE AXUMITE EMPIRE,

1488

01:16:54,994 --> 01:16:58,529

EXTENDING FROM THE HORN OF

AFRICA INTO SOUTHERN ARABIA,

1489

01:16:58,598 --> 01:17:00,865

WOULD BECOME SOLIDLY CHRISTIAN.

1490

01:17:00,933 --> 01:17:03,834

IN NUBIA,

THE SUCCESSOR TO KUSH,

1491

01:17:03,903 --> 01:17:06,270


IT WOULD TAKE ANOTHER CENTURY

FOR CHRISTIANITY

1492

01:17:06,339 --> 01:17:09,640

TO ESTABLISH ITSELF

THROUGH PEACEFUL MEANS.

1493

01:17:17,483 --> 01:17:21,585

HERE IN KHARTOUM

AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF SUDAN

1494

01:17:21,654 --> 01:17:24,021

IS HOUSED

AN EXTRAORDINARY COLLECTION

1495

01:17:24,090 --> 01:17:25,856

OF CHRISTIAN ARTWORKS.

1496

01:17:27,793 --> 01:17:31,729

IN THE SIXTH CENTURY, CHRISTIAN


MISSIONARIES FROM CONSTANTINOPLE

1497

01:17:31,797 --> 01:17:34,865

TRAVELED UP THE NILE

AND BEGAN THE CONVERSION

1498

01:17:34,934 --> 01:17:38,335

OF THE 3 NUBIAN KINGDOMS

THAT HAD ARISEN

1499

01:17:38,404 --> 01:17:40,871

AFTER THE FALL OF KUSH.

1500

01:17:40,940 --> 01:17:42,740

HAUSTEIN: PART OF CHRISTIANITY

HAS A LOT TO DO

1501

01:17:42,808 --> 01:17:44,875

WITH ESTABLISHING CONNECTIONS.


1502

01:17:44,944 --> 01:17:47,945

SO, IF YOU HAVE MISSIONARIES

COMING FROM THE NORTH,

1503

01:17:48,014 --> 01:17:50,180

YOU'RE NOT JUST INTERESTED

IN THE TEXT THEY BRING.

1504

01:17:50,249 --> 01:17:52,616

YOU WANT TO DO TRADE,

YOU WANT TO BE ABLE

1505

01:17:52,685 --> 01:17:54,785

TO TRAVEL THERE YOURSELF

AND HAVE PEOPLE

1506

01:17:54,854 --> 01:17:57,421

WHO WILL SPONSOR THESE TRAVELS.

1507
01:17:57,490 --> 01:18:01,025

YOU WANT TO ESTABLISH

VARIOUS CONNECTIONS.

1508

01:18:08,067 --> 01:18:11,802

HOST: THE PEOPLE OF NUBIA

READILY EMBRACED THE NEW FAITH

1509

01:18:11,871 --> 01:18:13,938

AND WITHIN A GENERATION

HAD CREATED

1510

01:18:14,006 --> 01:18:17,641

A VIBRANT AND DISTINCTLY

NUBIAN CHRISTIAN CULTURE.

1511

01:18:20,947 --> 01:18:23,847

CHRISTIANITY THRIVED

IN THE 3 NUBIAN KINGDOMS

1512
01:18:23,916 --> 01:18:26,383

FOR ALMOST 1,000 YEARS.

1513

01:18:26,452 --> 01:18:29,887

DOZENS OF THESE BEAUTIFUL

CHRISTIAN MURALS HAVE SURVIVED.

1514

01:18:31,190 --> 01:18:34,825

THIS ONE DEPICTS THE VIRGIN MARY

AND THE BABY JESUS

1515

01:18:34,894 --> 01:18:37,828

PROTECTING THE QUEEN,

WHOSE NAME WAS MARTHA.

1516

01:18:41,367 --> 01:18:45,202

CURIOUSLY, QUEEN MARTHA

IS DEPICTED AS A BROWN WOMAN,

1517

01:18:45,271 --> 01:18:47,938


WHILE MARY AND JESUS ARE WHITE.

1518

01:18:50,977 --> 01:18:54,411

LITTLE WAS KNOWN OF THIS

MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION

1519

01:18:54,480 --> 01:18:58,015

UNTIL ARCHAEOLOGISTS MADE

AN EXTRAORDINARY DISCOVERY.

1520

01:19:04,557 --> 01:19:07,091

BURIED IN THE NUBIAN DESERT

WERE THE REMAINS

1521

01:19:07,159 --> 01:19:10,794

OF A SEVENTH-CENTURY

CHRISTIAN CATHEDRAL IN FARAS,

1522

01:19:10,863 --> 01:19:13,330

ONCE THE CAPITAL


OF THE KINGDOM OF NOBATIA.

1523

01:19:13,399 --> 01:19:15,366

THE CATHEDRAL IS NOW SUBMERGED

1524

01:19:15,434 --> 01:19:17,735

UNDER THE FLOOD WATERS

OF LAKE NASSER,

1525

01:19:17,803 --> 01:19:20,437

BUT THIS SERIES

OF EXQUISITE FRESCOES

1526

01:19:20,506 --> 01:19:25,109

CREATED DURING THE EARLIEST ERA

OF CHRISTIAN NUBIA WAS SAVED.

1527

01:19:28,614 --> 01:19:30,514

HAUSTEIN: THIS FIND

OF THESE FRESCOES
1528

01:19:30,583 --> 01:19:31,849

AND THE CHURCHES IN FARAS

1529

01:19:31,917 --> 01:19:36,086

IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE

IT'S THE ONLY EXTANT ART

1530

01:19:36,155 --> 01:19:39,289

THAT WE REALLY HAVE FROM THIS

EARLY NUBIAN CHRISTIANITY...

1531

01:19:41,427 --> 01:19:45,529

AND IT DATES BACK TO THE SEVENTH

AND END OF THE SIXTH CENTURY,

1532

01:19:45,598 --> 01:19:47,564

SO, VERY, VERY EARLY ART.

1533
01:19:54,774 --> 01:19:57,274

HOST: THIS NATIVITY SCENE

ONCE COVERED

1534

01:19:57,343 --> 01:20:00,044

THE EASTERN WALL

AT FARAS CATHEDRAL.

1535

01:20:00,112 --> 01:20:02,846

IT SHOWS THE VIRGIN MARY

IN REPOSE

1536

01:20:02,915 --> 01:20:05,716

AND CROWNED LIKE

A NUBIAN PRINCESS.

1537

01:20:05,785 --> 01:20:09,953

WATCHING OVER HER ARE THE

ARCHANGELS MICHAEL AND GABRIEL.

1538
01:20:11,424 --> 01:20:14,191

IN THE CRIB, THE INFANT JESUS

1539

01:20:14,260 --> 01:20:17,828

LIES WARMED BY THE BREATH

OF THE ANIMALS,

1540

01:20:17,897 --> 01:20:21,598

AND IN THE CORNER STANDS

A FIGURE OF A NUBIAN KING.

1541

01:20:23,269 --> 01:20:25,169

THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS OF NUBIA

1542

01:20:25,237 --> 01:20:28,238

WOULD FLOURISH ALONG THE

SOUTHERN REACHES OF THE NILE,

1543

01:20:28,307 --> 01:20:32,076

FROM THESE RICH BEGINNINGS


TO THE 15TH CENTURY.

1544

01:20:36,582 --> 01:20:39,683

BUT JUST AS CHRISTIANITY

WAS TAKING ROOT IN NUBIA,

1545

01:20:39,752 --> 01:20:43,153

A NEW RELIGION--ISLAM--

WAS ABOUT TO TRANSFORM

1546

01:20:43,222 --> 01:20:45,155

THE SPIRITUAL

LANDSCAPE OF AFRICA.

1547

01:20:45,224 --> 01:20:47,091

[MAN CHANTING PRAYER]

1548

01:20:50,730 --> 01:20:53,063

HOST: FROM THE DESERTS

AND OASES OF ARABIA,


1549

01:20:53,132 --> 01:20:57,634

A CONQUERING FORCE POWERED BY

FAITH WAS ON THE MOVE.

1550

01:20:57,703 --> 01:20:59,336

THROUGH THE SPREAD OF ISLAM,

1551

01:20:59,405 --> 01:21:02,573

THEY WERE ABOUT TO TRANSFORM

THE CULTURAL AND POLITICAL

1552

01:21:02,641 --> 01:21:08,212

FABRIC OF AFRICA BOTH

ABOVE AND BELOW THE DESERT.

1553

01:21:08,280 --> 01:21:11,582

THIS CONTACT REMAINS ONE OF

THE MOST SIGNIFICANT EVENTS


1554

01:21:11,650 --> 01:21:15,652

IN THE HISTORY OF ISLAM--

A FIRST EMIGRATION OF MUSLIMS,

1555

01:21:15,721 --> 01:21:18,789

NOT TO MEDINA BUT TO AFRICA.

1556

01:21:18,858 --> 01:21:20,424

SO, HERE'S MUHAMMAD SENDING

1557

01:21:20,493 --> 01:21:22,960

PART OF HIS FAMILY

AND SOME FRIENDS

1558

01:21:23,028 --> 01:21:25,863

TO FIND REFUGE, UM,

WITH THE CHRISTIAN KING

1559

01:21:25,931 --> 01:21:28,298


BECAUSE HE'S UNDER PRESSURE

IN MECCA.

1560

01:21:28,367 --> 01:21:31,702

THEY WERE RECEIVED

BY THE EMPEROR IN AXUM,

1561

01:21:31,771 --> 01:21:34,905

AND SO, YOU HAVE A VERY CLOSE

RELATIONSHIP VERY EARLY ON.

1562

01:21:34,974 --> 01:21:36,640

AND AGAIN, THIS GOES TO SHOW

1563

01:21:36,709 --> 01:21:40,511

HOW MUCH OF A REGIONAL HEGEMON

AXUM WAS.

1564

01:21:40,579 --> 01:21:44,915

HOST: SOON AFTER THE PROPHET'S


DEATH IN 632 A.D.,

1565

01:21:44,984 --> 01:21:50,687

ISLAMIC ARMIES MARCHED WEST

OUT OF ARABIA INTO NORTH AFRICA.

1566

01:21:50,756 --> 01:21:52,990

BY 642, THEY HAD DEPOSED

1567

01:21:53,058 --> 01:21:57,194

THE UNPOPULAR

BYZANTINE RULERS OF EGYPT

1568

01:21:57,263 --> 01:22:00,197

AND CONTROLLED THE BREAD BASKET

OF THE MEDITERRANEAN.

1569

01:22:03,636 --> 01:22:04,768

MAN: A LOT OF PEOPLE

REFER TO THEM
1570

01:22:04,837 --> 01:22:05,969

AS THE MUSLIM CONQUESTS.

1571

01:22:06,038 --> 01:22:08,172

I REFER TO THEM

AS THE ARAB CONQUEST.

1572

01:22:08,240 --> 01:22:11,742

THERE WASN'T THE ESTABLISHMENT

OF A FORCED CONVERSION

1573

01:22:11,811 --> 01:22:14,778

UNDER A KIND OF MILITARY RULE.

1574

01:22:14,847 --> 01:22:18,749

WHAT WAS ESTABLISHED

WAS ISLAMIC RULE OF LAW.

1575
01:22:18,818 --> 01:22:22,085

CONVERSION WASN'T REQUIRED

AMONGST SUBJECT POPULATIONS.

1576

01:22:29,461 --> 01:22:31,829

WOMAN: ISLAM COMES

TO THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

1577

01:22:31,897 --> 01:22:36,433

PRETTY EARLY, IN PLACES

LIKE THE HORN OF AFRICA.

1578

01:22:36,502 --> 01:22:40,637

IT GOES INTO EGYPT AND IN MOST

PLACES, IT COMES THROUGH TRADE.

1579

01:22:40,706 --> 01:22:43,140

YOU CAN'T FORCE ANYONE

TO BELIEVE IN A RELIGION.

1580
01:22:43,209 --> 01:22:46,443

IT'S SORT OF PEOPLE HAVE TO

ADOPT IT AND MAKE IT THEIR OWN,

1581

01:22:46,512 --> 01:22:50,814

AND THAT'S REALLY WHAT HAPPENS

WITH ISLAM IN AFRICA

1582

01:22:50,883 --> 01:22:52,983

AND THE PLACES THAT

IT TRULY TAKES ROOT,

1583

01:22:53,052 --> 01:22:55,953

IT'S THROUGH PEOPLE'S

OWN INITIATIVE

1584

01:22:56,021 --> 01:22:59,790

AND THEIR OWN VALUING OF THIS.

1585

01:22:59,859 --> 01:23:01,258


WARE: WHAT HAPPENS

IN NORTH AFRICA

1586

01:23:01,327 --> 01:23:06,897

IS YOU HAVE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF

A KIND OF ISLAMIC POLITICAL RULE

1587

01:23:06,966 --> 01:23:09,633

THAT ISN'T NECESSARILY ALL THAT

ISLAMIC, YOU KNOW, FOR...

1588

01:23:09,702 --> 01:23:11,969

[LAUGHS] FROM A RELIGIOUS

STANDPOINT, BUT YOU KNOW, IN...

1589

01:23:12,037 --> 01:23:15,372

IN IMPORTANT PARTS

OF, UH, ITS HISTORY,

1590

01:23:15,441 --> 01:23:17,975


BUT IS NONETHELESS,

IT'S A RULE BY MUSLIMS.

1591

01:23:19,578 --> 01:23:22,312

HOST: FROM EGYPT,

ARAB ARMIES PUSHED WEST.

1592

01:23:22,381 --> 01:23:24,047

BY THE BEGINNING

OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY,

1593

01:23:24,116 --> 01:23:26,183

THEY HAD TAKEN CONTROL

OF ALL OF

1594

01:23:26,252 --> 01:23:28,919

THE CHRISTIAN PROVINCES

OF BYZANTIUM,

1595

01:23:28,988 --> 01:23:34,157


ACROSS PRESENT-DAY LIBYA,

TUNISIA, ALGERIA, AND MOROCCO.

1596

01:23:34,226 --> 01:23:38,462

THEN IN THE YEAR 711,

FROM THEIR BASE IN TANGIER,

1597

01:23:38,530 --> 01:23:43,600

THE ARMIES LOOKED NORTH

TOWARDS A NEW FRONTIER--EUROPE.

1598

01:23:46,438 --> 01:23:48,505

AT THE MOUTH

OF THE MEDITERRANEAN,

1599

01:23:48,574 --> 01:23:51,475

12,000 SOLDIERS ASSEMBLED.

1600

01:23:51,543 --> 01:23:54,678

A VAST INVASION FORCE


FROM THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

1601

01:23:54,747 --> 01:23:57,714

SEEKING TO CONQUER

A EUROPEAN KINGDOM.

1602

01:23:57,783 --> 01:24:01,952

THEIR LEADER, A WARRIOR AND

BRILLIANT MILITARY STRATEGIST,

1603

01:24:02,021 --> 01:24:04,688

WOULD BECOME A LEGEND.

1604

01:24:04,757 --> 01:24:08,358

HIS NAME WAS TARIQ IBN ZIYAD.

1605

01:24:08,427 --> 01:24:10,494

IT'S SAID HE WAS BORN A SLAVE

1606
01:24:10,562 --> 01:24:14,598

BUT ROSE TO BECOME

A FIERCE FIGHTER AND GENERAL.

1607

01:24:14,667 --> 01:24:17,067

SO IMPRESSIVE WERE

HIS MILITARY FEATS

1608

01:24:17,136 --> 01:24:20,437

IN HELPING TO CAPTURE THE

NORTH AFRICAN CITY OF TANGIER

1609

01:24:20,506 --> 01:24:22,539

THAT HE WAS MADE ITS GOVERNOR.

1610

01:24:26,078 --> 01:24:27,744

BUT TARIQ WASN'T AN ARAB...

1611

01:24:31,016 --> 01:24:32,716

TARIQ WAS A BERBER.


1612

01:24:35,387 --> 01:24:37,821

MAN: THE PEOPLE

KNOWN AS BERBERS

1613

01:24:37,890 --> 01:24:42,426

ARE ACTUALLY CALLING THEMSELVES

IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE AMAZIGH.

1614

01:24:42,494 --> 01:24:46,763

IT WAS THE ROMANS WHO ACTUALLY

COINED THE WORD BERBERS.

1615

01:24:49,134 --> 01:24:52,402

IT STARTED BECOMING A KIND

OF A DEROGATORY REFERENCE

1616

01:24:52,471 --> 01:24:55,205

TO THOSE PEOPLE AMONGST

THE BERBER COMMUNITIES


1617

01:24:55,274 --> 01:24:58,342

WHO WOULD NOT WANT

TO INDULGE WITH THE ROMANS

1618

01:24:58,410 --> 01:25:02,312

INTO DOING BUSINESS

AND BEING LIABLE TO THEM.

1619

01:25:03,849 --> 01:25:06,883

HOST: THE BERBER PEOPLE

HAVE INHABITED NORTH AFRICA

1620

01:25:06,952 --> 01:25:10,954

FROM PRESENT-DAY MOROCCO IN

THE WEST TO TUNISIA IN THE EAST

1621

01:25:11,023 --> 01:25:13,991

FROM AT LEAST

THE THIRD MILLENNIUM B.C.


1622

01:25:14,059 --> 01:25:16,860

DURING THE CENTURIES

OF ROMAN AND BYZANTINE RULE,

1623

01:25:16,929 --> 01:25:20,630

MANY BERBERS MIGRATED AWAY

FROM THE RICH COASTAL CITIES.

1624

01:25:22,067 --> 01:25:25,068

INLAND, THEY RESISTED

FOREIGN COLONIAL RULE,

1625

01:25:25,137 --> 01:25:27,704

PRESERVING OVER CENTURIES

THEIR OWN

1626

01:25:27,773 --> 01:25:30,640

DISTINCTIVE AND DIVERSE

CULTURE AND TRADITIONS,


1627

01:25:30,709 --> 01:25:33,810

DEEPLY ROOTED IN THE MOUNTAINS

AND FERTILE PLAINS

1628

01:25:33,879 --> 01:25:35,245

OF NORTH AFRICA.

1629

01:25:35,314 --> 01:25:37,914

ELAZKEM: BERBERS

WERE TOUGH FIGHTERS.

1630

01:25:37,983 --> 01:25:41,585

IT COMES FROM THE TOUGHNESS

OF THEIR LIFE AT FIRST.

1631

01:25:41,653 --> 01:25:45,789

IT'S ALSO THE DIFFICULTIES

IN WHICH THEY LIVE.


1632

01:25:45,858 --> 01:25:49,359

THE FACT THAT THEY HAD ACTUALLY

TO FIGHT TO LIVE

1633

01:25:49,428 --> 01:25:52,829

MADE THEM ACTUALLY

EXCELLENT WARRIORS.

1634

01:25:52,898 --> 01:25:55,399

HOST: THOUGH THE BERBERS

MADE A STRONG STAND,

1635

01:25:55,467 --> 01:26:00,103

ONE BY ONE THEIR CHIEFDOMS FELL

TO THE ARAB CONQUERORS.

1636

01:26:03,575 --> 01:26:06,743

BY THE TIME TARIQ GATHERED

HIS ARMY IN TANGIER,


1637

01:26:06,812 --> 01:26:10,313

THOUSANDS OF BERBERS HAD

NOT ONLY CONVERTED TO ISLAM,

1638

01:26:10,382 --> 01:26:13,884

THEY HAD ALSO JOINED

ITS SWEEPING ARMIES.

1639

01:26:13,952 --> 01:26:17,888

WARE: THERE'S A LONG HISTORY

OF AFRICAN CONQUESTS

1640

01:26:17,956 --> 01:26:21,324

OF SOUTHERN EUROPE,

ESPECIALLY IBERIA.

1641

01:26:23,328 --> 01:26:25,495

WE CAN SEE BERBERS

PLAYING A PARTICULAR ROLE


1642

01:26:25,564 --> 01:26:27,764

SIDE-BY-SIDE

WITH ARABS AS WELL.

1643

01:26:27,833 --> 01:26:31,868

HOST: ON THE 29TH OF APRIL,

IN THE YEAR 711,

1644

01:26:31,937 --> 01:26:35,705

TARIQ'S FORCE

SET OFF FROM TANGIER.

1645

01:26:35,774 --> 01:26:39,009

JUST 9 MILES SEPARATE

AFRICA AND EUROPE

1646

01:26:39,078 --> 01:26:40,710

AT THE MOUTH

OF THE MEDITERRANEAN,
1647

01:26:40,779 --> 01:26:42,946

AND ON A FINE DAY

FROM TANGIERS,

1648

01:26:43,015 --> 01:26:46,817

YOU CAN EVEN SEE THE PLACE

WHERE TARIQ'S ARMY LANDED,

1649

01:26:46,885 --> 01:26:49,019

A GREAT ROCK THAT MARKS

THE SOUTHERNMOST TIP

1650

01:26:49,088 --> 01:26:51,588

OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

AND THE SITE

1651

01:26:51,657 --> 01:26:54,391

OF A LEGENDARY

AFRICAN VICTORY.
1652

01:26:54,460 --> 01:26:58,128

IT WAS NAMED JABAL TARIQ

AFTER THE CONQUERING GENERAL.

1653

01:26:59,965 --> 01:27:03,133

WE KNOW IT IN ENGLISH TODAY

AS THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR.

1654

01:27:04,636 --> 01:27:08,638

FROM GIBRALTAR, TARIQ ADVANCED

ONTO THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

1655

01:27:08,707 --> 01:27:12,409

AT THE HEAD OF A PHALANX

5,000 STRONG.

1656

01:27:12,478 --> 01:27:14,711

ONE OF HIS SOLDIERS

IS SAID TO HAVE ASKED HIM,


1657

01:27:14,780 --> 01:27:16,880

"SIR, WHEN SHALL WE RETURN?"

1658

01:27:16,949 --> 01:27:20,016

HE ANSWERED, "WE HAVEN'T

COME HERE TO RETURN.

1659

01:27:20,085 --> 01:27:23,019

"EITHER WE SHALL CONQUER

AND ESTABLISH OURSELVES,

1660

01:27:23,088 --> 01:27:24,554

OR WE SHALL PERISH."

1661

01:27:26,125 --> 01:27:30,627

REINFORCED BY SOME 18,000

BERBER AND ARAB SOLDIERS,

1662

01:27:30,696 --> 01:27:32,996


THE MUSLIM ARMIES

OF NORTH AFRICA

1663

01:27:33,065 --> 01:27:37,167

WITHIN A YEAR HAD CONQUERED

MOST OF PRESENT-DAY SPAIN,

1664

01:27:37,236 --> 01:27:41,138

AND ESTABLISHED OUTPOSTS

AS FAR AS SOUTHERN FRANCE.

1665

01:27:44,009 --> 01:27:48,678

RECALLED TO DAMASCUS, TARIQ

WOULD BE DEAD WITHIN 10 YEARS.

1666

01:27:51,350 --> 01:27:53,083

BUT HIS CONQUESTS

HELPED ESTABLISH

1667

01:27:53,152 --> 01:27:56,887


A NEW ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

STRETCHING ACROSS

1668

01:27:56,955 --> 01:27:59,389

NORTH AFRICA AND MUCH OF SPAIN,

1669

01:27:59,458 --> 01:28:02,425

WHICH WOULD ENDURE

FOR OVER 800 YEARS

1670

01:28:02,494 --> 01:28:07,264

AND CREATE A CULTURAL BOND

BETWEEN TWO CONTINENTS.

1671

01:28:07,332 --> 01:28:09,799

SO, INSTEAD OF

SEEING THEM AS WE DO NOW,

1672

01:28:09,868 --> 01:28:12,802

AS THE BREAK BETWEEN


EUROPE AND AFRICA,

1673

01:28:12,871 --> 01:28:15,605

DURING THIS PERIOD

THEY WERE A BRIDGE

1674

01:28:15,674 --> 01:28:18,642

BETWEEN TWO

VERY INTERCONNECTED AREAS

1675

01:28:18,710 --> 01:28:21,611

WHERE PEOPLE TRAVELED BACKWARDS

AND FORWARDS AS SOLDIERS,

1676

01:28:21,680 --> 01:28:28,251

AS POLITICAL ADVISORS, AS

CRAFTSMEN, ARCHITECTS, SCHOLARS.

1677

01:28:28,320 --> 01:28:31,154

SO, ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF MOVEMENT


BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES

1678

01:28:31,223 --> 01:28:32,589

OF THE STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR.

1679

01:28:34,159 --> 01:28:37,827

HOST: THE SPREAD OF ISLAM ACROSS

NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

1680

01:28:37,896 --> 01:28:41,498

HAD PROFOUND EFFECTS

ON OTHER PARTS OF AFRICA.

1681

01:28:41,567 --> 01:28:44,734

TRADE TO THE EAST THAT HAD

ONCE PASSED THROUGH THE RED SEA

1682

01:28:44,803 --> 01:28:48,371

NOW SHIFTED NORTH TOWARD

THE NEW ISLAMIC CENTERS OF POWER


1683

01:28:48,440 --> 01:28:51,641

IN DAMASCUS, BAGHDAD,

AND THE PERSIAN GULF.

1684

01:28:53,812 --> 01:28:58,315

CHRISTIAN AXUM BECAME ISOLATED

AND VULNERABLE TO ATTACK.

1685

01:28:58,383 --> 01:29:00,984

PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE

WAS THE PORT OF ADULIS,

1686

01:29:01,053 --> 01:29:03,253

THE KINGDOM'S

ECONOMIC LIFELINE.

1687

01:29:06,058 --> 01:29:08,658

WITH THE RISE OF ISLAM,


1688

01:29:08,727 --> 01:29:10,727

THEY LOCKED THEIR EYES

ON ADULIS

1689

01:29:10,796 --> 01:29:13,863

BECAUSE OF ITS

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE.

1690

01:29:13,932 --> 01:29:17,200

THEY INVADED ADULIS

AND THEN ADULIS WAS

1691

01:29:17,269 --> 01:29:20,670

TOTALLY BURNT AND DESTROYED

IN [INDISTINCT].

1692

01:29:20,739 --> 01:29:23,607

BEGINNING FROM THAT TIME,

AXUM STARTED
1693

01:29:23,675 --> 01:29:25,809

A LONG PERIOD OF DECLINE.

1694

01:29:35,921 --> 01:29:39,723

HOST: BUT IN THE 11TH CENTURY,

A NEW DYNASTY WOULD REVIVE

1695

01:29:39,791 --> 01:29:43,727

THE FORTUNES OF ETHIOPIA'S

ONCE-GREAT CHRISTIAN KINGDOM

1696

01:29:43,795 --> 01:29:45,996

AND CREATE ONE OF

THE MOST SPECTACULAR

1697

01:29:46,064 --> 01:29:49,699

OF ALL RELIGIOUS SITES

IN AFRICA AND IN THE WORLD--

1698
01:29:50,902 --> 01:29:52,335

LALIBELA.

1699

01:29:52,404 --> 01:29:54,504

12 EXTRAORDINARY CHURCHES

1700

01:29:54,573 --> 01:29:56,606

CARVED OUT OF THE LIVING ROCK

1701

01:29:56,675 --> 01:29:58,908

IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS.

1702

01:29:58,977 --> 01:30:02,312

ONE OF THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY

ARCHITECTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS

1703

01:30:02,381 --> 01:30:04,681

THAT THE WORLD HAS EVER SEEN.

1704
01:30:11,456 --> 01:30:14,924

THE CHURCHES WERE BUILT

DURING THE ZAGWE DYNASTY,

1705

01:30:14,993 --> 01:30:17,727

WHICH AROSE

FROM THE ASHES OF AXUM,

1706

01:30:17,796 --> 01:30:19,729

REVIVING THE RED SEA

TRADE ROUTES

1707

01:30:19,798 --> 01:30:21,331

IN CHRISTIAN ETHIOPIA.

1708

01:30:28,407 --> 01:30:31,608

BUILT BEFORE MANY OF THE GREAT

CATHEDRALS OF EUROPE,

1709

01:30:31,677 --> 01:30:35,045


THEY ARE AN ASTONISHING

FEAT OF CONSTRUCTION,

1710

01:30:35,113 --> 01:30:37,614

DESIGN, AND IMAGINATION.

1711

01:30:39,451 --> 01:30:43,553

BEING ABLE TO SEE THIS CHURCH

BURIED IN THIS BLOCK OF STONE,

1712

01:30:43,622 --> 01:30:47,724

IT'S A BIT LIKE

MICHELANGELO SEEING DAVID

1713

01:30:47,793 --> 01:30:49,993

BURIED IN THAT BLOCK OF MARBLE.

1714

01:30:54,900 --> 01:30:57,600

THE MOST CELEBRATED KING

WAS LALIBELA,
1715

01:30:57,669 --> 01:31:00,603

AND ACCORDING TO LEGEND,

HE WAS INSTRUCTED BY GOD

1716

01:31:00,672 --> 01:31:04,374

TO BUILD A NEW JERUSALEM

IN ETHIOPIA.

1717

01:31:04,443 --> 01:31:09,279

ACCORDING TO THE SAINT'S

BIOGRAPHY OF KING LALIBELA,

1718

01:31:09,348 --> 01:31:12,148

IT WAS SAID THAT

HE HAD A VISION,

1719

01:31:12,217 --> 01:31:15,785

AND DURING THAT VISION,

HE MADE A PACT WITH GOD.


1720

01:31:15,854 --> 01:31:20,990

GOD TOLD HIM THAT, IF YOU BUILD

THESE CHURCHES I'M SHOWING YOU,

1721

01:31:21,059 --> 01:31:23,660

I WILL MAKE YOU KING.

1722

01:31:23,729 --> 01:31:27,297

ANGELS WERE SAID TO HAVE

TRANSMITTED THE PLANS TO HIM

1723

01:31:27,366 --> 01:31:30,266

AND TO HAVE ASSISTED HIM

NIGHT AND DAY,

1724

01:31:30,335 --> 01:31:34,838

AS HE DUG FOR 24 YEARS

TO BUILD ALL OF THESE CHURCHES.


1725

01:31:37,876 --> 01:31:40,677

WOMAN: LALIBELA IS

ONE OF THE VERY FEW

1726

01:31:40,746 --> 01:31:44,114

ETHIOPIAN KINGS WHO WAS

EVER MADE A SAINT.

1727

01:31:44,182 --> 01:31:47,917

KING LALIBELA BUILT THESE

EXTRAORDINARY CATHEDRALS.

1728

01:31:47,986 --> 01:31:50,520

THEY HAD LITERATURE,

THEY HAD ALL SORT OF THINGS

1729

01:31:50,589 --> 01:31:52,422

THAT WERE HAPPENING

DURING THAT PERIOD.


1730

01:31:52,491 --> 01:31:55,392

SO, IT WAS CLEARLY

A VERY VIBRANT TIME.

1731

01:31:58,830 --> 01:32:00,997

HOST: CARVED IN THE SHAPE

OF A CROSS,

1732

01:32:01,066 --> 01:32:03,900

THE CHURCH OF ST. GEORGE

IS THE MOST CELEBRATED

1733

01:32:03,969 --> 01:32:08,705

OF ALL THE MAGNIFICENT BUILDINGS

IN LALIBELA'S SACRED COMPLEX.

1734

01:32:10,442 --> 01:32:13,743

BUT DEEPER WITHIN THIS COMPLEX

IS A CHURCH THAT CONTAINS


1735

01:32:13,812 --> 01:32:17,213

REPLICAS OF THE TOMBS

OF CHRIST AND ADAM

1736

01:32:17,282 --> 01:32:20,717

AND IS CONSIDERED THE HOLIEST

PART OF LALIBELA.

1737

01:32:20,786 --> 01:32:23,219

IT'S THE CHURCH

OF BIETE GOLGOTHA.

1738

01:32:25,724 --> 01:32:28,658

HISTORIAN SOLOMON GETANEH

IS AN EXPERT

1739

01:32:28,727 --> 01:32:30,527

ON THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCHES.

1740
01:32:32,631 --> 01:32:35,932

[INDISTINCT] LALIBELA,

YOU SEE.

1741

01:32:36,001 --> 01:32:38,134

LOOK AT HERE.

1742

01:32:38,203 --> 01:32:39,202

OH, LOOK AT

THE ALTAR.

1743

01:32:45,510 --> 01:32:47,110

OH, THERE'S

KING LALIBELA.

1744

01:32:49,648 --> 01:32:51,414

AND THE HOLY

VIRGIN MARY.

1745

01:32:53,718 --> 01:32:55,819


WHEN THEY PAINTED,

THEY MAKE--

1746

01:32:55,887 --> 01:32:58,021

THE HEAD IS BIG,

THE EYE ALSO IS BIG.

1747

01:32:58,089 --> 01:32:59,422

YEAH, THE EYES.

THEY'VE GOT TO SHOW

THE EXCELLENCE

1748

01:32:59,491 --> 01:33:01,791

OF THE BRAIN.

1749

01:33:01,860 --> 01:33:03,393

AND HE HAD INSIGHT.

1750

01:33:03,462 --> 01:33:05,228

EXACTLY.
1751

01:33:05,297 --> 01:33:08,364

INSIDE HERE, THE SAME.

LALIBELA ALSO IS BURIED.

1752

01:33:08,433 --> 01:33:10,433

SO, IT'S THE BODY

OF THE KING?

EXACTLY.

1753

01:33:10,502 --> 01:33:12,702

BUT IT'S IN THE

HOLY [INDISTINCT],

1754

01:33:12,771 --> 01:33:14,037

SO, IT'S

NOT ALLOWED.

1755

01:33:17,075 --> 01:33:20,543

HOST: SCHOLARS BELIEVE THAT


LALIBELA'S COMPLEX OF CHURCHES

1756

01:33:20,612 --> 01:33:24,247

WAS BUILT AS A SYMBOLIC

REPRESENTATION OF JERUSALEM.

1757

01:33:27,486 --> 01:33:30,620

BELCHER: THE ETHIOPIANS BECAME

CHRISTIANS VERY EARLY ON

1758

01:33:30,689 --> 01:33:33,890

AND WITHIN A COUPLE

OF DECADES OF THAT,

1759

01:33:33,959 --> 01:33:37,560

THEY HAD SET UP A MONASTERY

IN THE HEART OF JERUSALEM.

1760

01:33:37,629 --> 01:33:40,630

SO, THEY HAD HAD


A DEEP CONNECTION TO IT

1761

01:33:40,699 --> 01:33:43,933

AND A JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM

IS THE LONGING

1762

01:33:44,002 --> 01:33:47,904

OF ANY PIOUS PERSON

IN ETHIOPIA.

1763

01:33:47,973 --> 01:33:49,205

EVERY SINGLE THING

IN THIS

1764

01:33:49,274 --> 01:33:51,941

[INDISTINCT] CHURCH

IS SYMBOLIZED.

1765

01:33:52,010 --> 01:33:56,045

LALIBELA SYMBOLIZES
EVERYTHING TO JERUSALEM.

1766

01:33:56,114 --> 01:33:57,514

GOLGOTHA IS

A PLACE WHERE

1767

01:33:57,582 --> 01:33:59,816

OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST

WAS BURIED...

YES.

1768

01:33:59,885 --> 01:34:03,286

SO, THIS PLACE

WAS CALLED GOLGOTHA.

1769

01:34:03,355 --> 01:34:05,255

THERE ARE 12 PILLARS.

1770

01:34:05,323 --> 01:34:08,024

12 PILLARS.
ONE FOR EACH...

SYMBOLIZING--

1771

01:34:08,093 --> 01:34:09,759

UH, APOSTLE.

EXACTLY.

1772

01:34:11,663 --> 01:34:12,862

ALL OF LALIBELA IS

1773

01:34:12,931 --> 01:34:17,467

A 3-DIMENSIONAL

BIBLICAL ALLEGORY.

1774

01:34:17,536 --> 01:34:19,936

EXACTLY.

YOU CAN EASILY

READ IT.

1775

01:34:23,408 --> 01:34:26,409


HOST: IN FACT, IT'S NOW THOUGHT

THAT THE CHURCHES AT LALIBELA

1776

01:34:26,478 --> 01:34:29,512

WERE BUILT BETWEEN THE SEVENTH

AND 13TH CENTURIES...

1777

01:34:31,182 --> 01:34:35,118

AND THAT SOME WERE ORIGINALLY

PALACES AND EVEN FORTRESSES.

1778

01:34:35,186 --> 01:34:37,954

IT WAS ONLY LATER

THAT THEY BECAME CHURCHES,

1779

01:34:38,023 --> 01:34:41,291

WHICH REMAIN PLACES OF

PILGRIMAGE TO THIS DAY.

1780

01:34:47,632 --> 01:34:49,599


WINDMULLER-LUNA: THESE ARE NOT

BUILDINGS IN THE SENSE

1781

01:34:49,668 --> 01:34:51,568

THAT YOU TAKE BRICKS OR STONES

1782

01:34:51,636 --> 01:34:53,937

AND PUT THEM ONE ON TOP

OF THE OTHER.

1783

01:34:54,005 --> 01:34:56,906

THESE ARE MASSIVE SCULPTURES

1784

01:34:56,975 --> 01:34:59,876

THAT HAVE BEEN CARVED

OUT OF LIVING ROCK.

1785

01:34:59,945 --> 01:35:03,646

LALIBELA IS LIKE

NO OTHER PLACE ON EARTH.


1786

01:35:03,715 --> 01:35:05,281

PRESTON BLIER:

YOU GET A SENSE OF THE CREATION

1787

01:35:05,350 --> 01:35:10,820

OF KIND OF AN IDEAL

PARADISIACAL SETTING

1788

01:35:10,889 --> 01:35:13,389

BECAUSE IT'S HEWN

OF LIVING ROCK,

1789

01:35:13,458 --> 01:35:16,993

AND MUCH LIKE OTHER

AFRICAN ARCHITECTURE,

1790

01:35:17,062 --> 01:35:18,595

IT IS SCULPTURE

IN ITS OWN RIGHT,


1791

01:35:18,663 --> 01:35:21,698

BUT SCULPTURE ONE CAN WALK INTO

AND MOVE AROUND,

1792

01:35:21,766 --> 01:35:24,367

AND WHAT IS PARTICULARLY

REMARKABLE THERE

1793

01:35:24,436 --> 01:35:27,270

IS HOW ONE EXPERIENCES RELIGION

1794

01:35:27,339 --> 01:35:30,907

AND THE PERSONAL PILGRIMAGES

ONE HAS TO TAKE TO GET THERE

1795

01:35:30,976 --> 01:35:33,343

THAT ARE AN ESSENTIAL PART

OF THIS WHOLE TRADITION.


1796

01:35:42,187 --> 01:35:44,921

HOST: 12 CHURCHES

CARVED OUT OF THE GROUND.

1797

01:35:44,990 --> 01:35:48,658

EACH STRUCTURE UNIQUE,

EACH INGENIOUSLY DESIGNED,

1798

01:35:48,727 --> 01:35:52,128

AND EACH CHISELED

BY SKILLED ARTISANS

1799

01:35:52,197 --> 01:35:53,963

FROM A MASTER PLAN.

1800

01:35:57,636 --> 01:36:00,269

THE CHURCHES OF LALIBELA

STAND AS MORE THAN

1801
01:36:00,338 --> 01:36:03,673

JUST A SYMBOLIC JERUSALEM

ON ETHIOPIAN SOIL.

1802

01:36:03,742 --> 01:36:06,809

THIS WAS A NEW JERUSALEM

IN AFRICA.

1803

01:36:06,878 --> 01:36:08,678

[CLANKING]

1804

01:36:08,747 --> 01:36:12,448

120 MILES FROM LALIBELA

SITS A SACRED SITE

1805

01:36:12,517 --> 01:36:17,620

THAT BINDS THE OLD TESTAMENT TO

THE HEART OF ETHIOPIA'S STORY--

1806

01:36:17,689 --> 01:36:21,190


LAKE TANA

IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS.

1807

01:36:21,259 --> 01:36:23,292

THE SOURCE OF THE BLUE NILE,

1808

01:36:23,361 --> 01:36:26,562

WHICH FOR MANY CONJURES

THE SACRED RIVER GIHON

1809

01:36:26,631 --> 01:36:28,998

THAT FLOWED OUT

OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN.

1810

01:36:30,702 --> 01:36:35,004

ON ITS ISLANDS NESTLE

20 ANCIENT MONASTERIES

1811

01:36:35,073 --> 01:36:38,207

DATING FROM THE EIGHTH


TO THE 18TH CENTURIES,

1812

01:36:38,276 --> 01:36:42,145

EACH ONE A PARAGON

OF ETHIOPIAN ART.

1813

01:36:42,213 --> 01:36:44,180

LAKE TANA IS ONE OF THE MOST

1814

01:36:44,249 --> 01:36:47,183

IMPORTANT PLACES FOR BOTH

THE ORTHODOX RELIGION

1815

01:36:47,252 --> 01:36:50,019

AND FOR ORTHODOX ART.

1816

01:36:50,088 --> 01:36:53,156

IT'S A LOCATION IN WHICH

MONASTERIES AND CHURCHES


1817

01:36:53,224 --> 01:36:56,726

WERE ABLE TO REALLY FLOURISH

AND TO REMAIN PROTECTED,

1818

01:36:56,795 --> 01:36:59,362

EVEN IN MOMENTS OF PERIL.

1819

01:36:59,431 --> 01:37:01,898

HOST: IN CHURCHES

AND MONASTERIES SUCH AS THESE,

1820

01:37:01,966 --> 01:37:04,233

THE ETHIOPIAN

ORTHODOX CHURCH DEVELOPED

1821

01:37:04,302 --> 01:37:08,137

ITS SIGNATURE STYLE OF PAINTING,

STILL VISIBLE HERE TODAY.

1822
01:37:10,075 --> 01:37:12,341

PRESTON BLIER:

THERE'S THAT VISUAL COMPLEXITY,

1823

01:37:12,410 --> 01:37:16,279

THE KIND OF SENSUAL POWER

THAT THESE WORKS OFFER

1824

01:37:16,347 --> 01:37:18,514

THAT MAKE YOU WANT

TO LOOK VERY CAREFULLY.

1825

01:37:27,726 --> 01:37:30,793

THIS IS A PAINTING

OF SAINT MARY.

1826

01:37:30,862 --> 01:37:32,061

MARY IS VERY IMPORTANT.

1827

01:37:32,130 --> 01:37:34,097


SHE'S THE MOTHER

OF JESUS CHRIST.

1828

01:37:35,567 --> 01:37:40,303

LIKE AN INTERMEDIARY

BETWEEN MAN AND GOD.

1829

01:37:40,371 --> 01:37:42,472

SO, UH, WE RESPECT MARY.

1830

01:37:42,540 --> 01:37:44,974

YOU SEE THESE

ENORMOUS STARING EYES.

1831

01:37:45,043 --> 01:37:48,277

THERE'S SOMETHING ABOUT

THE ONE-ON-ONE ENGAGEMENT

1832

01:37:48,346 --> 01:37:50,413

BETWEEN THE FIGURES


DEPICTED BOTH

1833

01:37:50,482 --> 01:37:52,348

IN THE MURALS

AND THE MANUSCRIPTS,

1834

01:37:52,417 --> 01:37:54,717

AND A MEANS

TO CONNECT INDIVIDUALLY

1835

01:37:54,786 --> 01:37:56,819

WITH THE WORSHIPPER.

1836

01:37:56,888 --> 01:38:01,057

WHAT YOU CAN ALSO SEE

IS THIS BOLD SET OF COLORS,

1837

01:38:01,126 --> 01:38:03,526

THE RICH REDS,

BLUES, AND GREENS,


1838

01:38:03,595 --> 01:38:07,430

OFTEN WITH

CAREFULLY DELINEATED MARKS

1839

01:38:07,499 --> 01:38:10,500

THAT FRAME ONE PARTICULAR

ELEMENT FROM ANOTHER.

1840

01:38:13,338 --> 01:38:15,538

HOST: BUT ACCORDING TO

ETHIOPIAN TRADITION,

1841

01:38:15,607 --> 01:38:19,108

A MONASTERY ON LAKE TANA,

TANA KIRKOS,

1842

01:38:19,177 --> 01:38:22,311

ONCE HOUSED A DIFFERENT

KIND OF TREASURE,
1843

01:38:22,380 --> 01:38:24,413

AN OBJECT OF IMMENSE POWER

1844

01:38:24,482 --> 01:38:26,149

THAT WOULD SHAPE

THE COUNTRY'S HISTORY

1845

01:38:26,217 --> 01:38:29,819

AND ITS NATIONAL IDENTITY

TO THIS DAY,

1846

01:38:29,888 --> 01:38:32,421

CONNECTING ETHIOPIA ONCE AGAIN

1847

01:38:32,490 --> 01:38:36,159

TO THE QUEEN OF SHEBA--

THE ARK OF THE COVENANT.

1848
01:38:37,395 --> 01:38:39,929

AT LEAST SINCE

THE TENTH CENTURY A.D.,

1849

01:38:39,998 --> 01:38:42,698

ETHIOPIANS HAVE CLAIMED

THAT THE ORIGINAL ARK

1850

01:38:42,767 --> 01:38:45,134

CONTAINING MOSES' STONE TABLETS

1851

01:38:45,203 --> 01:38:47,303

INSCRIBED WITH

THE 10 COMMANDMENTS

1852

01:38:47,372 --> 01:38:50,473

HAS BEEN HOUSED

IN THEIR COUNTRY.

1853

01:38:50,542 --> 01:38:54,343


ACCORDING TO THE NATIONAL EPIC,

THE KEBRA NAGAST,

1854

01:38:54,412 --> 01:38:58,014

WHEN THE QUEEN OF SHEBA VISITED

KING SOLOMON IN JERUSALEM,

1855

01:38:58,082 --> 01:39:01,684

THEY CONCEIVED A SON--MENELIK.

1856

01:39:01,753 --> 01:39:05,788

MENELIK YEARS LATER, RETURNING

FROM A VISIT TO MEET HIS FATHER,

1857

01:39:05,857 --> 01:39:08,224

BROUGHT THE ARK FROM

THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM

1858

01:39:08,293 --> 01:39:10,126

TO ITS NEW RESTING PLACE.


1859

01:39:11,663 --> 01:39:14,664

IN 1270 A.D.,

THIS POWERFUL MYTH

1860

01:39:14,732 --> 01:39:17,166

WAS USED TO JUSTIFY

A VIOLENT COUP

1861

01:39:17,235 --> 01:39:21,571

THAT BOUGHT A NEW DYNASTY

TO POWER IN ETHIOPIA.

1862

01:39:21,639 --> 01:39:23,439

WHEN A RULING ZAGWE KING

1863

01:39:23,508 --> 01:39:26,943

WAS OVERTHROWN BY

A RIVAL--YEKUNO AMLAK--
1864

01:39:27,011 --> 01:39:29,712

THE NEW KING DREW ON THIS

MYSTICAL CONNECTION

1865

01:39:29,781 --> 01:39:32,148

TO THE BIBLE

TO VALIDATE HIS CLAIM.

1866

01:39:33,985 --> 01:39:36,752

THE NEW KING CLAIMED

DIRECT DESCENT

1867

01:39:36,821 --> 01:39:39,488

FROM KING SOLOMON

AND THE QUEEN OF SHEBA

1868

01:39:39,557 --> 01:39:43,226

THROUGH THEIR SON MENELIK,

WHO WAS BORN IN ETHIOPIA


1869

01:39:43,294 --> 01:39:45,728

AFTER HIS MOTHER'S STAY

IN JERUSALEM.

1870

01:39:45,797 --> 01:39:49,498

MENELIK WAS THE LEGENDARY

FOUNDER OF THE AXUMITE DYNASTY.

1871

01:39:49,567 --> 01:39:52,735

BY CLAIMING THIS LINEAGE,

THE KING COULD ARGUE

1872

01:39:52,804 --> 01:39:56,906

THAT HIS SEIZURE OF THE THRONE

WAS ACTUALLY A RESTORATION,

1873

01:39:56,975 --> 01:40:01,377

A RESTORATION OF THE TRUE LINE

OF ETHIOPIAN MONARCHS.
1874

01:40:01,446 --> 01:40:03,679

THE SOLOMONIC DYNASTY,

FOUNDED AS

1875

01:40:03,748 --> 01:40:06,616

AN EXTENSION OF THIS

EXTRAORDINARY LINEAGE,

1876

01:40:06,684 --> 01:40:10,052

DESCENDING FROM KING SOLOMON

AND THE QUEEN OF SHEBA,

1877

01:40:10,121 --> 01:40:14,156

WOULD RULE ETHIOPIA

FOR THE NEXT 700 YEARS.

1878

01:40:14,225 --> 01:40:17,693

THEY ARE CLAIMING DESCENT

FROM A HOLY FAMILY.


1879

01:40:17,762 --> 01:40:18,728

HOST: MM-HMM.

1880

01:40:18,796 --> 01:40:22,798

CHRIST WAS BORN

FROM DAVID'S FAMILY.

1881

01:40:22,867 --> 01:40:25,167

SO, THIS MEANT

THE DYNASTY

1882

01:40:25,236 --> 01:40:27,937

MORE LEGITIMATE,

MORE ACCEPTABLE.

1883

01:40:28,006 --> 01:40:30,973

THE AUDACITY IS

BREATHTAKING TO SAY

1884
01:40:31,042 --> 01:40:32,208

NOT ONLY

ARE WE LEGITIMATE

1885

01:40:32,277 --> 01:40:34,677

BUT WE ARE DESCENDED

FROM KING DAVID

1886

01:40:34,746 --> 01:40:38,748

THROUGH SOLOMON,

FUSED BLOOD LINES

1887

01:40:38,816 --> 01:40:41,651

THROUGH OUR QUEEN,

OUR AXUMITE QUEEN...

YEAH.

1888

01:40:41,719 --> 01:40:44,820

AND BEYOND THAT

TO GOD HIMSELF.
1889

01:40:44,889 --> 01:40:45,855

TO GOD HIMSELF.

1890

01:40:45,924 --> 01:40:48,391

IT'S THE ULTIMATE

GENEALOGICAL CHART.

1891

01:40:48,459 --> 01:40:49,592

[LAUGHS]

1892

01:40:53,298 --> 01:40:56,565

BELCHER: IT IS AN EXTRAORDINARY

WAY OF LEGITIMATING

1893

01:40:56,634 --> 01:41:00,569

THE KINGS OF ETHIOPIA BY TAKING

THE POWER OF THE BIBLE,

1894

01:41:00,638 --> 01:41:03,639


THE POWER OF THE ISRAELITES,

AND ACCRUING IT TO THEMSELVES.

1895

01:41:03,708 --> 01:41:06,943

IT IS PROBABLY THE MOST POWERFUL

NATIONAL MYTH

1896

01:41:07,011 --> 01:41:08,377

THAT HAS EVER BEEN INVENTED.

1897

01:41:12,483 --> 01:41:14,583

HOST: TO THIS DAY,

THE ARK OF THE COVENANT

1898

01:41:14,652 --> 01:41:18,454

PLAYS A PROFOUND ROLE IN

THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF ETHIOPIA.

1899

01:41:18,523 --> 01:41:21,023

EVERY CHURCH HOSTS A TABOT,


1900

01:41:21,092 --> 01:41:24,327

ITS OWN SACRED REPLICA

OF THE ARK.

1901

01:41:24,395 --> 01:41:26,529

BELCHER: IN ETHIOPIA,

THE ARK OF THE COVENANT

1902

01:41:26,597 --> 01:41:31,367

IS OFTEN CALLED ZION, OR ZEON,

AND THIS IS WHERE GOD LIVES.

1903

01:41:32,937 --> 01:41:36,339

EACH ONE OF THEM IS A SIGN

THAT GOD IS HERE,

1904

01:41:36,407 --> 01:41:39,342

GOD IS DWELLING WITH US

AND PROTECTING US.


1905

01:41:42,580 --> 01:41:45,081

HOST: AND ETHIOPIANS CELEBRATE

THEIR DEEP-ROOTED CONNECTION

1906

01:41:45,149 --> 01:41:49,018

TO THE ARK EVERY YEAR

AT THE FESTIVAL OF TIMKAT,

1907

01:41:49,087 --> 01:41:52,154

THE ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX

CHURCH'S CELEBRATION

1908

01:41:52,223 --> 01:41:55,057

OF THE BAPTISM OF JESUS

IN THE RIVER JORDAN.

1909

01:42:01,265 --> 01:42:03,132

[CHEERING]
1910

01:42:11,242 --> 01:42:13,342

HOST: OVER CENTURIES,

THE DEEP ROOTS

1911

01:42:13,411 --> 01:42:15,277

OF ETHIOPIAN CHRISTIANITY

1912

01:42:15,346 --> 01:42:18,447

AND ITS UNIQUE TRADITIONS

WOULD BE A POWERFUL

1913

01:42:18,516 --> 01:42:20,983

UNIFYING FORCE FOR THE KINGDOM.

1914

01:42:21,052 --> 01:42:24,820

PRESTON BLIER:

THE BOND AND THE SOLIDARITY

1915

01:42:24,889 --> 01:42:29,158


OF THE ETHIOPIAN POPULATION

FRAMED AROUND CHRISTIANITY

1916

01:42:29,227 --> 01:42:31,727

WAS SOMETHING THAT

GAVE THEM A REAL STRENGTH

1917

01:42:31,796 --> 01:42:35,965

AND A REAL, UM, SORT OF

POLITICAL HOLD ON THAT AREA

1918

01:42:36,034 --> 01:42:39,001

THAT MADE THIS ONE OF

THE ONLY PLACES IN AFRICA,

1919

01:42:39,070 --> 01:42:41,537

INDEED THE ONLY PLACE

THAT NEVER WAS COLONIZED.

1920

01:42:42,740 --> 01:42:45,408


THE WHOLE SORT OF

POPULATION OF ETHIOPIA

1921

01:42:45,476 --> 01:42:48,811

WAS ABLE TO COME TOGETHER

TO SAFEGUARD ITS TRADITIONS,

1922

01:42:48,880 --> 01:42:52,314

AND CERTAINLY CHRISTIANITY PLAYS

AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THAT.

1923

01:42:57,722 --> 01:43:00,423

HOST: ETHIOPIAN CHRISTIANS

STILL BELIEVE

1924

01:43:00,491 --> 01:43:04,260

THAT THE ARK OF THE COVENANT

RESIDES IN ETHIOPIA,

1925

01:43:04,328 --> 01:43:08,330


HIDDEN FROM VIEW

IN A SMALL CHURCH IN AXUM,

1926

01:43:08,399 --> 01:43:10,733

THE CITY WHERE

ONE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD'S

1927

01:43:10,802 --> 01:43:14,170

GREATEST CIVILIZATIONS

WAS BORN.

1928

01:43:14,238 --> 01:43:15,604

THE MYTH OF THE KING'S DESCENT

1929

01:43:15,673 --> 01:43:18,140

FROM KING SOLOMON

AND THE QUEEN OF SHEBA,

1930

01:43:18,209 --> 01:43:20,509

AND THE LEGENDARY PRESENCE


OF THE ARK OF THE COVENANT

1931

01:43:20,578 --> 01:43:23,212

HERE AT ST. MARY'S CHURCH

IN AXUM,

1932

01:43:23,281 --> 01:43:26,615

ARE THE CORNERSTONES OF

THE ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH.

1933

01:43:26,684 --> 01:43:30,519

THESE STORIES ASSERT ETHIOPIA'S

DIRECT HISTORICAL LINK

1934

01:43:30,588 --> 01:43:32,421

TO THE WIDER

CHRISTIAN WORLD, OF COURSE,

1935

01:43:32,490 --> 01:43:34,824

BUT ALSO THE NATION'S


SPECIAL DUTY

1936

01:43:34,892 --> 01:43:37,326

AS GUARDIAN

OF THE CHRISTIAN FAITH.

1937

01:43:41,399 --> 01:43:43,032

FROM THEIR EARLIEST DAYS,

1938

01:43:43,101 --> 01:43:45,101

TWO OF THE WORLD'S

GREAT RELIGIONS--

1939

01:43:45,169 --> 01:43:49,305

CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM--

PUT DOWN ROOTS IN AFRICA.

1940

01:43:49,373 --> 01:43:51,407

THESE REVOLUTIONARY NEW FAITHS


1941

01:43:51,476 --> 01:43:54,076

NOT ONLY TRANSFORMED

THE HISTORY OF AFRICANS,

1942

01:43:54,145 --> 01:43:58,881

THEY WERE SHAPED

IN TURN BY AFRICANS,

1943

01:43:58,950 --> 01:44:01,584

WHO CREATED AND BEQUEATHED

TO THE WORLD

1944

01:44:01,652 --> 01:44:04,653

SOME OF OUR MOST PROFOUND

CULTURAL LEGACIES.

1945

01:44:09,694 --> 01:44:11,660

SALAAM ALAIKUM.

1946
01:44:11,729 --> 01:44:15,498

CONNECTIONS FORGED

BY CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM

1947

01:44:15,566 --> 01:44:19,034

WOULD LEAD NOT ONLY TO THE

EXCHANGE OF BELIEFS AND IDEAS,

1948

01:44:19,103 --> 01:44:21,303

THEY WOULD HELP

LAY THE FOUNDATIONS

1949

01:44:21,372 --> 01:44:24,240

OF NEW NETWORKS

OF COMMERCE AND TRADE

1950

01:44:24,308 --> 01:44:26,775

THAT WOULD PLACE AFRICA

AND ITS RICHES

1951
01:44:26,844 --> 01:44:29,311

AT THE HEART

OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD.

1952

01:44:32,015 --> 01:44:33,949

ANNOUNCER: ON "AFRICA'S

GREAT CIVILIZATIONS"...

1953

01:44:34,018 --> 01:44:34,683

DR. HENRY LOUIS GATES, JR.:

THE REGIONS OF NORTH

1954

01:44:34,752 --> 01:44:35,851

AND WEST AFRICA UNDERGO

1955

01:44:35,920 --> 01:44:38,020

A DRAMATIC TRANSFORMATION.

1956

01:44:38,089 --> 01:44:41,524

GREAT SCHOLARS WRITE BOOKS


THAT FILL LIBRARIES.

1957

01:44:41,592 --> 01:44:46,595

WEALTH FROM TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE

GROWS ON A SPECTACULAR SCALE.

1958

01:44:46,664 --> 01:44:49,932

AFRICAN SOCIETIES

NOT ONLY ENJOY NEWFOUND WEALTH,

1959

01:44:50,001 --> 01:44:52,468

THEY ENCOUNTER NEW CONFLICTS

WITH EACH OTHER

1960

01:44:52,537 --> 01:44:54,770

AND WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD.

1961

01:44:54,839 --> 01:44:57,106

ANNOUNCER:

"AFRICA'S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS,"


1962

01:44:57,175 --> 01:44:59,208

COMING UP NEXT, ONLY ON PBS.

1963

01:45:10,854 --> 01:45:14,790

AFRICA'S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS

IS AVAILABLE ON BLU-RAY AND DVD.

1964

01:45:14,859 --> 01:45:20,062

TO ORDER VISIT shopPBS.org

OR CALL 1-800-PLAY-PBS.

1965

01:45:20,131 --> 01:45:24,066

THIS SERIES IS ALSO AVAILABLE

FOR DOWNLOAD FROM ITUNES.