Anda di halaman 1dari 40
PATHOFISIOLOGI KELAINAN SISTEM KERDIOVASKULER Ns. YUNIE ARMIYATI., M.Kep., Sp.KMB
PATHOFISIOLOGI KELAINAN
SISTEM KERDIOVASKULER
Ns. YUNIE ARMIYATI., M.Kep., Sp.KMB
THETHE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
THETHE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

 A closed system of the heart and blood vessels

 The heart pumps blood

Blood

vessels allow blood to circulate to all

parts of the body

  The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products

BLOOD CIRCULATION BLOOD CIRCULATION
BLOOD CIRCULATION
BLOOD CIRCULATION

PERUBAHAN KARDIOVASKULER DENGAN BERTAMBAHNYA USIA

PERUBAHAN KARDIOVASKULER DENGAN BERTAMBAHNYA USIA
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY HEART

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY HEART

CORONARY HEART DISEASE CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS & PULMONARY EMBOLISM

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDS) ARE A GROUP OF DISORDERS OF THE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY HEART
1. Coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle 2. 3. Cerebrovascular

1.

Coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle

2.

3.

Cerebrovascular disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain

Peripheral arterial disease disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs

4.

5.

6.

Rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria

Congenital heart disease malformations of heart structure existing at birth.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs.

1. Coronary heart disease disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle 2. 3. Cerebrovascular
FACT • CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually from

FACT

CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause;

Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries and occur almost equally in men and women;

By 2015, almost 20 million people will die from CVDs, mainly from heart disease and stroke. These are projected to remain the single leading causes of death.

FACT • CVDs are the number one cause of death globally: more people die annually from
CAUSE • The causes of CVDs unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. These are called

CAUSE

The causes of CVDs unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. These are called modifiable risk factors .

The effects of unhealthy diet and physical inactivity raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity; these are called intermediate risk factors .

CAUSE • The causes of CVDs unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. These are called
CAUSE • The major modifiable risk factors are responsible for about 80% of coronary heart disease

CAUSE

The major modifiable risk factors are responsible

for about 80% of coronary heart disease and

cerebrovascular disease.

There are also a number of underlying

determinants of chronic diseases, or, if you like,

"the causes of the causes". These are a reflection of

the major forces driving social, economic and

cultural change globalization, urbanization, and

population ageing. Other determinants of CVDs are

poverty and stress.

CAUSE • The major modifiable risk factors are responsible for about 80% of coronary heart disease
PATOFISIOLOGI HIPERTENSI

PATOFISIOLOGI

HIPERTENSI

PATOFISIOLOGI HIPERTENSI
PATOPHYSIOLOGY = CARDIAC OUTPUT X PERIPHERAL RESISTENCE BLOOD PRESSURE HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME HUMORAL CONTROL

PATOPHYSIOLOGY

=

CARDIAC

OUTPUT

X

PERIPHERAL

RESISTENCE

BLOOD

PRESSURE

HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME
HEART RATE X
STROKE VOLUME

HUMORAL

CONTROL

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYS CONTROL

LOCAL

CONTROL

PATOPHYSIOLOGY = CARDIAC OUTPUT X PERIPHERAL RESISTENCE BLOOD PRESSURE HEART RATE X STROKE VOLUME HUMORAL CONTROL
CONTROL SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE • THE ARTERIAL BARORECEPTOR SYSTEM • THE REGULATION OF BODY

CONTROL SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE

THE ARTERIAL BARORECEPTOR SYSTEM THE REGULATION OF BODY FLUID VOLUME THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERON SYSTEM VASCULAR AUTOREGULATION

CONTROL SYSTEM IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE • THE ARTERIAL BARORECEPTOR SYSTEM • THE REGULATION OF BODY

DECREASED VASCULAR TONE

Sympathetic stimulation
Sympathetic
stimulation

ANGIOTENSINOGEN

DECREASED VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation ANGIOTENSINOGEN JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2 ANGIOTENSIN
JG CELLS
JG CELLS
RENIN
RENIN

CONVERTING

ENZYME

ANGIOTENSIN 1

ANGIOTENSIN 2

ANGIOTENSIN 3

ALDOSTERON

Na RETENTION

DECREASED VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation ANGIOTENSINOGEN JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2 ANGIOTENSIN
DECREASED VASCULAR TONE Sympathetic stimulation ANGIOTENSINOGEN JG CELLS RENIN CONVERTING ENZYME ANGIOTENSIN 1 ANGIOTENSIN 2 ANGIOTENSIN

VASOCONSTRICTION

FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK

INCREASED

BLOOD PRESURE

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC

PATOFISIOLOGI MIOCARD INFARC
GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK

GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK

GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK
GAMBARAN EKG ISKEMI, INJURY, INFARK
ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction Systolic

ISCHEMIC CYCLE

Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension
Diastolic Dysfunction
LV diastolic pressure
pulmonary
congestion
pO2
wall tension

Ischemia / infarction

ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction Systolic

Systolic Dysfunction

chest pain

ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction Systolic
cardiac output

cardiac output

catecholamines

catecholamines

ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction Systolic

MVO2

(heart rate, BP)

ISCHEMIC CYCLE Diastolic Dysfunction LV diastolic pressure pulmonary congestion pO2 wall tension Ischemia / infarction Systolic
PATOFISIOLOGI PERICARDITIS

PATOFISIOLOGI

PERICARDITIS

PATOFISIOLOGI PERICARDITIS
•

Idiopathic or nonspecific causes

Infection: usually viral (eg, Coxsackie, influenza); rarely bacterial and

mycotic (fungal)

Disorders of connective tissue: SLE, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid

arthritis, polyarteritis

Hypersensitivity states: immune reactions, medication reactions

Disorders of adjacent structures: myocardial infarction, dissecting

aneurysm pleural and pulmonary disease (pneumonia)

,

Neoplastic disease: caused by metastasis from lung cance or breast

cancer, leukemia

Radiation therapy

Trauma: chest injury, cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization, pacemaker

implantation

Renal failure and uremia

Tuberculosis

• Idiopathic or nonspecific causes • Infection: usually viral (eg, Coxsackie, influenza); rarely bacterial and mycotic
PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE

PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE

PATOFISIOLOGI LEFT HEART FAILURE
PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

PATOFISIOLOGI CARDIOGENIC SHOCK
KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH

KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH

KELAINAN DARAH DAN PEMBULUH DARAH
THETHE VASCULAR SYSTEM VASCULAR SYSTEM Figure 11.8b
THETHE VASCULAR SYSTEM
VASCULAR SYSTEM
Figure 11.8b

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

PATOFISIOLOGI CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

PATOFISIOLOGI

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

PATOFISIOLOGI CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
CORANARY ARTERIAL DISEASE • Pada keadaan normal terdapat keseimbangan antara aliran darah arteri koronaria dengan kebutuhan

CORANARY ARTERIAL DISEASE

Pada keadaan normal terdapat keseimbangan antara aliran darah arteri koronaria dengan kebutuhan miokard.

Pada CAD menunjukkan ketidakseimbangan antar alirandarah arterial dan kebutuhan

miokardium. Keseimbangan ini dipengaruhi oleh

CORANARY ARTERIAL DISEASE • Pada keadaan normal terdapat keseimbangan antara aliran darah arteri koronaria dengan kebutuhan
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
HEMOSTASIS

HEMOSTASIS

HEMOSTASIS
THANK YOU

THANK YOU

THANK YOU