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Specific Objective Content Time Strategies Evaluation

To be able to differentiate Sensation 15mins Give examples of Ask the student if they
sensation and perception, - When special receptors in sensation and perception. can give an example of
and to be able to see the the sense organ- the eyes, sensation and perception
importance of studying ear, nose, skin and taste Relate it to real life that they experience day
both sensation and buds- are activated, situation. to day.
perception. allowing various forms of
outside stimuli to become
neural signals in the brain
- Method by which the
brain interprets the
sensations people

Relating sensation and perception

to real life situation.
To look into sensation and Transduction 20mins Give examples of sensory Ask the students if they
differentiate habituation - Process of converting thresholds. can give an example for
from sensory adaptation outside stimuli into neural sensory threshold.
activity. Give examples of
Sensory Receptors habituation and sensory Give the students a
- Specialized forms of adaptation that can be situation and ask them if
neurons. seen in the life of a it is habituation or
- Each organ has its own student or in real life. sensory adaptation.
sensory receptor and these
receptors are stimulated
by different kinds of
Sensory Threshold

Weber’s Law of Just noticeable

difference (difference threshold)
- The smallest difference
between two stimuli that
is detectable 50 percent of
the time.
- The difference is always
Absolute Threshold
- The lowest level of
stimulation that a person
can consciously detect 50
percent of the time the
stimulation is present.

- Tendency of the brain to
stop attending to constant,
unchanging information.
Sensory Adaptation
- Tendency of sensory
receptors cells to become
less responsive to a
stimulus that is
To look into the Science of Light 25 mins Discuss about light. Ask the students to once
Seeing. - It is a physical stimulus Show a picture of the again trace the pathway
with properties of both structure of the eyes and of light.
waves and particles. trace the pathway of light
- Processed by the eye. Ask some questions
- It has psychological Show pictures related to related to the science of
properties: brightness, the perception of color seeing and let them
color/hue and saturation. and theories of color answer.
Structure of the eyes and how light
enters the eyes to the brain.

How the eyes see and the

perception of color.

- Begins with retinal
receptor cells.
- These cells are Rods and
- Found in periphery of
- See black and white or
shades of gray
- Work well in low light
- Found all over but most in
the center of the retina
- See colors
- Work best in bright light
- Responsible for color
Theories of Color Vision

Trichromatic theory
- Proposed three types of
cones: red, blue, green

Opponent-process theory
- Proposed visual neurons
are stimulated by light of
one color and inhibited by
light of another color

Types of Color Blindness

Monochrome color blindness

- No cones or have cones
that are not working at all.
- See shades of gray.
- Red-green color deficiency
- Red cones doesn’t function
- Red-green color deficiency
- Green cones doesn’t
function properly
- Blue-yellew color
- Blue cones doesn’t
function properly
To look into the Science of Perception of Sound 20 mins Relate real life situations Allow a student to trace
Hearing. to the topic. the pathway of sound.
Vibration of molecules that of air Show a picture of the Show a list of question
that surrounds us. structure of the ear and and let the students
Three Properties: wavelength, trace the pathway of answer.
amplitude and purity. sound.

Structure of the Ear, and how

sound enters and its pathway.

Perception of Pitch

How high and how low a sound is

Theories of Pitch Perception

Place Theory
- Different pitches are
experienced by the
stimulation of hair cells in
different locations on the
organ of Corti.
Frequency Theory
- Pitch is related to the
speed of vibration in the
basilar membrane.
Volley Principle
- Frequencies from about
400 Hz to 4000 Hz cause
the hair cells (auditory
neurons) to fire in a volley
pattern (take turns firing).
To look into the Science of Smelling (Olfaction) and Tasting 20mins Give examples of foods Show a list of questions
Tasting and Smelling. (Gustation) works together. with its corresponding and let the students
taste and objects with its answer.
The pathway of flavors and scents corresponding scent.
to the brain, to be interpreted. Allow them to give more
Show a picture of the examples related to the
Taste tongue and of the nose. topic.
- Chemical sense because it
works with the molecules
of foods.
- Site of taste receptor cells
Taste buds
- Taste receptor cells

Five Basic Taste

- Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter
and Umami

Olfactory receptor cells

- Contains cilia that send
signals to the brain

Olfactory mucosa
- Site of olfactory receptor

Olfactory bulbs
- Part of the brain where the
sense of smell sends it’s
To look into the Science of Somesthetic Senses 25mins Give examples of The Show a list of questions
Touching (body sense). Body senses three Somesthetic Sense and let the students
Soma “Body”, esthetic “feeling” Systems. answer.

Three Somesthetic Sense Systems:

Skin senses
Touch, pressure, temperature and
Biggest organ and location of the
sensory receptor cells.

Perception of Pain

Visceral Pain
Pain in the organs
Somaticc Pain
Pain in the skin, muscles, tendons
and joints.
Phantom Limb Pain
Pain sensations at the area where
the amputated limb used to be
Inability to perceive pain:
Congenital analgesia
Congenital insensitivity to pain
with anhidrosis

Theory of Pain

Gate-Control Theory
Pain signal must pass through a
gate located in the spinal cord to
the brain and back to the body.

Kinisthetic sense
Location of body parts in relation
to each other.
Special receptors
(Proprioreceptors) in the muscles,
tendons, and joints
Kinesthesia (Kinein “to move”,
aesthesis “sensation”)

Vestibular senses
Movement of body position
Sense of balance
Latin word that means entrance or
Located in the innermost layer of
the ear.

Vestibular Organs:

Otolith Organs
Tiny sacs found just above the
Contains gelatin-like fluid within
which tiny crystals are suspended.
These crystals are tells a person
that he or she is moving.
Semicirular Canals
Three circular tubes that are filled
with fluid that will stimulate hair-
like receptors.

Motion Sickness
Tendency to get nauseated when
in an irregular movement.
Sensory Conflict Theory
Information from the eyes is in
conflict with the information from
the vestibular senses resulting to

To look into perception The Constancies: 25mins Show pictures related to Show a list of questions
Size the topic. and let the students
The tendency to interpret an answer.
object as always being the same Give simple activities
size, regardless of its distance from related to the topic.
the viewer.
The tendency to interpret the
shape of the object as constant,
even when it changes in the retina.
The tendency to perceive the
apparent brightness of an object as
the same even when the light
conditions change.
Gestalt Principles
Tendency to perceive objects that
are close to each other as part of
the same group.
Tendency to perceive objects that
looks similar to each other as being
part of the same group.
Tendency to complete the figures
that are incomplete.
Tendency to perceive things as
simply as possible with a
continuous pattern rather than
with a complex, broken-up
Tendency to perceive two things
that happen close together in time
as being related

The tendency to perceive objects
or figures as existing on a

Depth Perception
The capability to see the world in
Two types of depth perception

Monocular Cues (pictorial depth

Cues for perceiving depth based on
one eye only.

Types of Monocular Cues:

Linear Perspective
Tendency for parallel lines to
appear to converge on each other.
Relative Size
Objects that appear small are
assumed to be much farther while
objects that appear large are much
Assumption that an object that
appears to be blocking part of
another object is in front of that
object and closer to the viewer.
Aerial Perspective
The haziness that surrounds
objects that are farther away from
the viewer.
Texture Gradient
Tendency for the textured surfaces
to appear to become smaller and
finer as distance from the viewer
Motion Parallax
Perception of motion of objects in
which close objects appear to
move more quickly than objects
that are farther away.
Tendency of the lens of the eye to
change its shape or thickness in
response to objects near or far

Type of Binocular Cues:

The rotation of the two eyes in
their sockets to focus on a single
object, resulting in greater
convergence for closer objects and
lesser convergence if objects are

Binocular disparity
The difference in images between
the two eyes, which is greater for
object that are close and smaller
for distant objects.

Perceptual Illusion

The Hermann Grid

Muller-Lyer Illusion
Moon Illusion

Factors Influencing Perception

Perceptual sets and expectancies
The Tendency to perceive things a
certain way because previous
experiences or expectations
influence those perceptions.

Top-Down Processing
The use of pre-existing knowledge
to organize individual features into
a unified whole.

Bottom-Up Processing
The Analysis of the smaller
features to build up to a complete
To relate sensation and Relating Everything that is 10mins Relating everything to life Allow the students to site
perception to psychology discussed to real life situations or situations. examples.
day to day living

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