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Student ID: 15517902

TITLE: Home Test



Difference in Environmental Management between Malaysia and Indonesia
In Malaysia, government has set up legal and institutional framework for environmental
protection. The investor or operators need to consider the environmental factors in the early
stages of their project planning. The Environmental Quality Act 1974, and other relevant
regulations required environmental impact assessment, project siting evaluation, pollution
control assessment, monitoring and self-enforcement.
In Indonesia, any business or human activities in Indonesia which impact the environment
require an environmental licence. The approval process for such a licence involves three stages.
Drafting an Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) or Environmental Management Efforts
and Environment Monitoring Efforts (UKL-UPL), AMDAL approval or UKL-UPL
recommendation and application for an Environmental Licence. The application for the
Environmental Licence will be submitted to the national Minister for the Environment, the
Governor of the relevant Province or the Regent/Mayor of the relevant regency/city.

In Malaysia, the activities require an Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) under the

Environmental Quality Order 1987 which are agricultural land development(>500hectar),
airport or port construction, Dam or man-made lake construction, Land reclamation, housing
development, logging(>500hectares), industry, infrastructure construction, Mineral mining,
Oil and Gas Development and many others. It must carry out by person who are registered with
the Department of Environment (DOE) under the EIA Consultant Registration Scheme.
Meanwhile in Indonesia, the Indonesia Environment Law stated that AMDAL is necessary for
activities or business that will causes changes the form and contour of the environment, exploit
a natural resource may cause environmental pollution and degradation of natural resources,
social and cultural impacts, introduce of new species of plants, animals and micro-organisms,
And implement new technology which is predicted to have a large impact on the environment.

The authority of environmental management in Malaysia including the Economy Planning Unit,
National Planning Council, Department of Environment(DOE) with the environmental
administration under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE).
coordination between the Federal and the State Government is essential for smooth operation.
In Indonesia, Central Government, Provincial Government and Local Government play
different role. Central Government formulate regulation to control natural resources extraction
and environmental conservation; provincial government in charge of environmental control
life cross district/city and local government control EIA for activity in local administrative area.
There are also different standards and policies in different aspects of environment management:
A) Air Quality Management
In Malaysia, the department of Environment has set up a set of
air quality guideline named the Recommended Malaysian Air
Quality Guidelines(RMG) in 1989 and modify into Malaysian
Air Quality Index (MAQI) in 1993. For the Mobile Source, the
Government The Motor Vehicle Rules which enabled the
control of excessive black smoke emitted from diesel vehicles.
Malaysia has adopted Euro 1 emissions standards for new light-
duty vehicles in 1997 and has adopted Euro 2 standards
Figure 1 Air Quality Index in Malaysia
for gasoline vehicles in 2000.

For stationary Source the Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations of 1978 was set to
controlling emissions from stationary sources. The Government also endorsed an
Environmental Quality Rule in 2003 to reduce the occurrence of haze from open burning.
Meanwhile in Indonesia, the Government Decree No.41
had established a set of National Ambinet Air Quality
Standard. While the city of Jakarta has developed the
standard that are more higher than the national standard.
For Mobile sources of air pollutants, the government has
national standard for vehicle emissions at the national
level on motor vehicle exhaust emissions standards
which stipulate the permissible limits for CO Figure 2 Ambient Air Quality in whole
Indonesia and Jakarta Area.
and Hydrocarbon.
Indonesia also supply unlead gasoline thoroughout the nation and Pertamina stop the
production od leaded gasoline since year of 2006. For stationary source, BAPEDAL Decree
No. Kep-205/BAPEDAL/07/1996 provides the technical guidelines regarding the emissions
standards for stationary sources. However, due to human error, limited resources for
firefighting and weak law law enforcement, Indonesia still suffer with haze problem.
Generally for the air quality management, Malaysia has setting up higher air quality standard
than Indonesia. Besides, Malaysia also implement more advance policy than Indonesia due to
different economy conditon and demand of the country.
B) Solid Waste Management
In Malaysia, solid waste management is handled by several government agencies from the
federal to state and to local authorities. In the year 2007, Solid Waste and Public Cleansing
Management Act 2007 is established whilst there are two federal institutions has implemented
the policy which are National Solid Waste Management Department & Solid Waste
Management and Public Cleansing Corporation. The 3R programme: reduce, recycle and reuse
has been promoted by Malaysia government since 1980’, government officials believe that the
rate of recycling could be 15%. Majority of the waste disposal is handle by sanitary lanfill
followed by open dumpsite. The conducting of waste Management Hierarchy is to minimize
the amount of waste from entering the landfill/dump sites with the 3Rs initiative. A waste
generator may store scheduled wastes generated by him for 180 days or less after its generation,
quantity accumulated on site shall not exceed 20 metric tonnes. Land farming, incineration,
disposal and off-site facilities for recovery, storage and treatment can only be carried out at
premises licensed by the DOE. On-site incineration of scheduled wastes is not encouraged.

For Indonesia, the solid waste were collected and transport to the central dumpsite(TPA). Most
dumpsites lack of protection in term of lining, soil or groundwater protection cauisng directly
negative impact to adjacent water resources and environmnet. There are also limited number
of municipalities operate modest composting or incineration facilities. The Government has
been promoting 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycling) since 2007 as a means to increase material
recovery and to reduce waste disposed in landfills. Unofficially up to 10% of the waste were
withdrawn from the municipal waste streams and recycled by scavengers at the TPS sites or
dump sites (TPA). Since the solid waste management in national level is very limited after the
decentralized of the responsibility of solid waste management fully to local government. The
Ministry of Public Works to encourage Local Governments on having a Regional Sanitary
Landfill, which is jointly operated by the relevant LGs.
Regional sanitary landfill development has been
initiated in several big cities, such as Denpasar,
Kabupaten and Metropolitan Bandung. Indonesia
government also set up a set of rule and policy for the
storage,collection, transportation and management of
solid waste such as permission from BAPEDAL, Figure 3 Waste treatment priorities in
AMDAL document, required facilities and others.
Generally, we can have said that Malaysia and Indonesia government has different system in
the environmental management. Malaysia government supervise an activity which possibly
cause an environmental impact by Environmental Impact Assessment, and others including
project siting evaluation, pollution control assessment, monitoring and self-enforcement. While
Indonesia Government does it generally based on Environmental Impact Assessment(AMDAL)
but with different procedure which including ANDAL, RKL and RPL before releasing of
license to any activities. In the set up and implementation of environment regulation, in
Malaysia it was usually done by central government such as Department of Environment(DOE)
and Economy Planning Units. Meanwhile in Indonesia the Environmental Management of the
central government, provincial government and local government.
In this report, we also discuss the difference in of environmental management in several aspects
which including air quality and solid waste management. For Air Quality Management,
Malaysia have a higher standard for ambient air and strict regulation compare to Indonesia.
Due to the geographical and economy factor, the implement of new technology and new policy
are slower in Indonesia. For the solid waste management, both countries have similar method
to process the waste including 3R, Waste hierarchy and landfill. However, in recent year,
Malaysia have increase in recycling rate, improvement in waste handling facilities including
construction of new incinerator and apply of green technology. In Indonesia, there is also a
good improvement in the sanitary landfill site by controlling the leachate and biogas. There are
also different between the effluent standard, forest management, land management, water
management, coastal management and many others due to different law and condition of
country. However, in some especially like water management, it can be said that Malaysia has
achieve a better management or quality due to awareness of government since early(70’s),
stronger enforcement of law and policies. Good facilities and resources are prepared for the
environment management, like better water treatment facilities, sewage treatment facilities,
wastewater laboratory, irrigation system and river restoration (i.e. Klang River, Segget River.
Etc.) Compare to developed country, Malaysia and Indonesia still faced many challenges, issue
and gap that need to be overcome to achieve a good environment management.