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RESULT

Data Analysis

A) Determination of Mass of sand in the cone

Volume of calibrating container (Vc) 176.7 cm^3


Mass of sand in cylinder before pouring(Mo) 3.5 g
Mean mass of sand in cone ( M1 ) 0.45 g

B) Determination of bulk density of sand

Mean mass of sand left in cylinder after pouring (M2) 2.15 g


Mass of sand filling calibrating container = Mc=Mo-M1-M2 0.9 g
Bulk density of sand Ps = Mc/Vc 5.09 x 10−3g/𝑐𝑚3

C) Bulk density and unit weight of soil

Mass of wet soil from hole, M 0.85 g


Mass of sand in cylinder after pouring, 𝑀3 1.55 g
Mass of sand in the hole Ms =𝑀0 -𝑀1 -𝑀3 1.50 g
Bulk density of soil,P = M/𝑀𝑠 x 𝑝𝑠 2.88 x 10−3g/𝑐𝑚3
Dry density of soil, Pd = p/ 1+w 6.67 x 10−5g/𝑐𝑚3

D) Moisture content determination:

Mass of can 3.4 g


Mass of can + wet sample 7.9 g
Mass of can + dry sample 6.0 g
Moisture content 42.2 %
CALCULATION

From the data:

Height of cylinder, H: 20cm

Diameter of cylinder: 15cm

Hence the volume is:

π𝑑 2
V=
4

2
π( 15)
= 4

= 176.7𝑐𝑚3

1. Mass of sand filling calibrating container, Mc

Mc = Mo – Mi – 𝑀2

= 3.5 g – 0.45 g – 2.15 g

= 0.9 g

2. Bulk density of sand, Ps

𝑀𝑐
Ps =
𝑉𝑐

0.9
=
176.7

= 5.09 x 10−3 g/𝑐𝑚3

3. Mass of sand in the hole, Ms

Ms = Mo – Mi – 𝑀3
= 3.5 g – 0.45 g – 1.55 g

= 1.50 g

4. Bulk density of soil, P

𝑀
P= x Ps
𝑀𝑠

0.85
= g x (5.09 x10−3)
1.50

= 2.88 x 10−3 g/𝑐𝑚3

5. Dry density of soil, Pd

𝑝
𝑃𝑑 =
1+𝑤

2.88 𝑥 10−5
=
1+42.2

= 6.67 x 10−5
QUESTIONS

1.

Field engineers are often found talking of optimum moisture content (OMC) conditions while
constructing of sub- grade. When the values of the dry density and moisture content are
plotted the resulting curve has a peak value of dry density. The corresponding moisture
content is known as the optimum moisture content (OMC). The reason for this is that at low
w values the soil is stiff and difficult to compact, resulting in a low dry density with a high
void ratio; as w is increased the water lubricates the soil, increasing the workability and
producing high dry density and low void ratio, but beyond OMC pore water pressures begin
to develop and the water tends to keep the soil particles apart resulting in low dry densities
and high void ratios. With all soils an increase in the comp active effort results in an increase
in the maximum dry density and a decrease in the optimum moisture content.

Once the ideal moisture content and bulk density are determined in the lab this information
can then be used during field compaction of the fill material. Then, field moisture and density
is determined. The engineer on site can use this information to determine when field density
is 90% of the lab derived value. At this point field compaction may be considered sufficient.

Controlling the moisture content of road sub-grade during construction will reduce the risk of
damage to the sub-grade. The stability of unbound pavement materials generally decreases
with increasing moisture content or the Degree of Saturation (DOS). The DOS is a measure
of the ratio of the volume of water to the combined volume of air voids and water within a
material. A material with a DOS of 100% is fully saturated and has a very high pore pressure
and high instability under load. As the DOS reduces, the reduction in pore water pressure also
reduces with a corresponding increase in stability.

2.

Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In
construction, this is a significant part of the building process. If performed improperly,
settlement of the soil could occur and result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure
failure. Almost all types of building sites and construction projects utilize mechanical
compaction techniques.
 There are five principle reasons to compact soil:
 Increases load-bearing capacity
 Prevents soil settlement and frost damage
 Provides stability
 Reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction
 Reduces settling of soil

There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt:

 Vibration
 Impact
 Kneading
 Pressure

Type Appearance/feel Water When moist... When dry...


movement

Granular soils, Coarse grains When water and Very little or no Little or no
fine can be seen. soil are shaken plasticity cohesive
sands and silts. Feels gritty when in palm of hand, strength when
rubbed between they mix. When dry. Soil sample
fingers shaking is will
stopped, they crumble easily
separate
Cohesive soils, Grains cannot be When water and Plastic and Has high
mixes and clays seen by eye. soil are shaken sticky. strength
Feels smooth in palm of hand, Can be rolled. when dry.
and greasy they will not Crumbles with
when rubbed mix difficulty. Slow
between fingers. saturation in
water.
The desired level of compaction is best achieved by matching the soil type with its proper
compaction method. Other factors must be considered as well, such as compaction specs and
job site conditions.

Cohesive soils Granular soils

Clay is cohesive, its particles stick together. Since granular soils are not cohesive and the
Therefore, a machine with a high impact particles require a shaking or vibratory action
force is required to ram the soil and force the to move them. Vibratory plates (forward
air out, arranging the particles. A rammer is travel) are the best choice.
the best choice or a pad-foot vibratory roller
if higher production is needed.
DISCUSSION

The objective of sand replacement test is to determine the field density of natural using sand
pouring cylinders. The relationship between the dry densities with known moisture content is

𝝆
𝝆𝒅=
𝟏+𝒘

𝜌𝑑= Dry density

ρ = Density of the excavated soil

W = Moisture content

Dry density, 𝜌𝑑 is a dry density of the soil, density of the excavated soil, ρ is a bulk density of
the soil that we get from measurement of soil density and moisture content, W is a percent of
the water content from sample that we heated for 24 hours in the oven. If the amount of
moisture content is lowest, the amount of dry density is highest.

There are several error in this experiment that we must to correct. In stage 2, which is
measurement of soil density, make sure the excavated hole must be equal to the volume of
the calibrating container. While calibrating the bulk density of sand, make sure great care has
to be taken.

The apparatus that we need in this test are sand pouring cylinder, tools for excavating holes,
cylindrical calibrating container, metal tray and weighing balance. The different method for
the determination of field density of soils instead of sand replacement method such as core
cutter method which is suitable for cohesive soil, rubber balloon method which is like as sand
replacement method but it use water in this experiment and nuclear gauge method which is
the easier way to measure both bulk and water content of in situ soil.
CONCLUSION

After conducting experiments sand fibre method, the data obtained is to determine the density
of dry soil. The purpose of this experiment determine the density of natural soil or compacted
with sand pouring cylinder. In the course of this experiment, the possibility of experimental
error there is in progress. Of them is in terms of the amount of sand taken is less, the land
taken as a sample is not enough, a hole dug with a slightly different depth and soil also
contain impurities which may cause different densities.