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PENGANTAR TEKNIK INDUSTRI Instruksional Objective

(Engineering, Manajemen dan Industri) • Memberikan pemahaman tentang sejarah pertumbuhan


disiplin keilmuan Teknik Industri, logical reasoning
process perkembangannya di masa depan.
• Memberikan gambaran umum konsep-konsep dasar
dalam disiplin Teknik Industri & Manajemen Industri.
• Memberikan konsep dasar, logika berpikir dan metode-
metode yang dipakai dalam disiplin Teknik Industri &
Manajemen Industri.
• Memberikan konsep dasar berpikir secara sistemik dan
pola pemecahan masalah secara komprehensif dan
Sritomo W.Soebroto optimal yang menjadi ciri disiplin Teknik Industri &
Laboratorium Ergonomi & Perancangan Sistem Kerja Manajemen Industri.
Jurusan Teknik Industri - Fakultas Teknologi Industri
• Memperkenalkan teknik-teknik peningkatan produktivi-
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember tas, efektivitas dan efisiensi industri.
SURABAYA
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Engineers or Managers?
Agenda (Teknolog atau Ekonom)

Engineering &
Manajemen
Industri, Manajemen
Industri dan Bisnis
Proses (Pendekatan
CIMOSA)
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Engineering, Mathematicians & Economists?
Engineering ?
• Ingenium
• Ingeniators
• Military Engineering >< Civil Engineering

“The profession in which a knowledge of


mathematical and natural sciences gained by
Engineers solve problems, but so do mathematicians. study, experience and practice is applied with
Engineers analyze, but so do statisticians and economists. judgment to develop ways to utilize,
economically, the materials and forces of
Engineers design systems, do others ? nature for the benefit of mankind”
(Wayne C. Turner, et.al. Introduction to Industrial and Systems Engineering, 2003)

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Basic Engineering Process


Engineering ? Problem Symptom
 The profession in which a knowledge of the (Expression of Need)
mathematical and natural sciences gained by study,
experience, and practice is applied with judgment Problem Definition
to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials (Statement of Desired Outcome)
and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
(Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology – ABET, 1993) Analysis
(Including Experimentation)

 Includes the application of these mathematical and scientific Synthesis


principles to the planning, design, construction, operation, and Of Alternative Design Solutions
maintenance of products, systems, and large fixed work that serve
humankind; as such it also includes the management of such
Decision
activities, research and development related to such output, and the
(selection of the best alternative)
education of persons who will be responsible for these myriad
forms of activity.
Solution, System,
Product, Process or Method
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Engineering Product Design
Engineering Process Engineering
(By Function)

• General activities : (1) Solve problems,


(2) Analyze problems, (3) Design Systems Engineering Research

Increasing Abstraction
(Synthesis/Creativity/Innovative, etc.).
Development

Increasing Practically
• Analysis : menguraikan persoalan dalam Design
elemen-elemen dasarnya (detail), dan terkait (Engineering & Industrial Design)
dengan existing systems.
Production, Mfg & Maintenance

• Synthesis : kebalikan dari analysis, meng


kombinasikan elemen-elemen menjadi satu Sales, Marketing & Distribution
kesatuan sistem yang terintegrasi, dan terkait
dengan new/improved systems. Commercialization
(Economic)
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The Engineering Design Process Skills and Qualities Needed for


INPUTS Engineering Profession
• Quantitative skills
Ergonomics
Engineering

Engineering


Technology

Psychology
Economics

Good and math skills


Aesthetics

Sociology

Ecology
Science
Science

• Strong time management skills •Technical competency


• Mechanical aptitude • Continuous drive for
improvement
• Good common sense
• Listening skills
• A strong desire for
organization and • Negotiation skills
efficiency • Ability to adapt to
• Excellent communi- many environments, wear
cation/ salesmanship many hat and interact
with a diverse group of
• Creative problem solving individuals
• Inquisitive mind • Leadership skills
• Continuous desire to learn • Ethics
Engineering • Passion for improvement, etc.
Design Process A Better World
Needs ? for Us ?
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Engineering VS Management ? Role Differences Between Engineers and Managers
(P. Morrison, “Making Managers of Engineers”, Journal of Management Engineering, Vol.2, No. 4, 1986)

Engineering Management Position Engineer Manager

1. Focus - More concerned with things - More concerned with people.


technical/scientific.
Engineering Management 2. Decision Making - Makes decision with much - Makes decision often with inadequate
information, under conditions of information, under conditions of
greater certainty. greater uncertainty.
3. Involvement - Works on tasks and problem - Directs the work of others to goals.
solving personally.
4. Process Outcome - Work based on facts with - Work based on fewer facts, less
• Problem terdefinisikan jelas • Problem tidak bisa didefinisikan quantifiable outcomes. measurable outcomes.
• Sub-sistem material jelas 5. Effectiveness - Depends on personal technical
expertise, attention to detail,
- Depends on interpersonal skills in
communication, conflict management,
• Penuh dengan faktor/variable • Sub-sistem manusia mathematical/technical problem getting ideas across, negotiating and
serba pasti • Banyak berhadapan dengan solving and designing. Coaching.
6. Dependency - Experiences role as autonomous. - Experiences role as interdependent.
• Asumsi berlaku secara faktor/variable 7. Responsibility Individual accomplishment in one - Many objectives at once, requiring
kontinyu • Asumsi tidak berlaku kontinyu project, task, or problem at a time. orchestrating a broad range of
variables and organizational entities.
• Data bisa dikembangkan baik • Data base tidak lengkap 8. Creativity - Creative with products, design, - Creative with people and organizations
• Keputusan diambil secara • Keputusan lebih banyak diambil and materials.
9. Bottom Line - Will it work? - Will it make/save money for organiza-
analitis berdasarkan intuisi tion?

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Sains, Rekayasa & Teknik Industri


Industri?
Attributes Sains Rekayasa Teknik Industri
(General Engineering) (Industrial Engineering)

Obyek Sistem Alamiah Sistem Buatan Sistem Integral


(Natural) (Mikro/Makro)

Yang Dihasilkan Teori/Pengetahuan Produk/Proses Nilai Tambah


(Value Added)

Ukuran Kinerja Kebenaran Manfaat Produktivitas,


(Benefits for Mankind) Efektivitas dan Efisiensi

Ukuran Nilai Mutlak Relatif Kontekstual


(absolute)

Diawali/Diakhiri Keingin-Tahuan Kebutuhan/Persoalan Kebutuhan/Persoalan


Dengan : (Curiousity) (Needs & Problems) (Needs & Problems)

Ilmuwan Insinyur Insinyur, Manager &


Profesi
(Scientist) (Engineer) Leader

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What is Industry? Labor

INDUSTRY is the way of


satisfying our needs and
wants by using the basic
resources of men, materials,
Goods
and money

Services Land Capital


Industri

Profit ….. industri adalah lokasi (tempat) dimana aktivitas produksi


akan diselenggarakan …..
Aktivitas produksi …. sekumpulan aktivitas yang diperlukan
Private Enterprise untuk merubah satu kumpulan masukan (inputs) menjadi produk
Free Enterprise WE LIVE IN
Capitalism luaran akhir (finished goods output) yang memiliki nilai tambah
AN INDUSTRIAL WORLD
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Diagram Sistem Input-Output Proses Produksi


Sistem Input-Output Proses Produksi
Value Added
(Functional & Economical)
Proses Produksi Finished
“Black Box” Goods
Finished
Proses Produksi Products
- Formulasi Problem yang Menjadi
. Material * Factory
Goods
Inputs Tanggung-Jawab Profesi
Output
. Human * Hospital
Teknik Industri . Machines/ * Bank/Insurance
- Proses Transformasi (Fisik &
Services
Equipment * Transportation/Distribution
Non-Fisik) * Dan Lain-Lain
- Proses Nilai Tambah (Fungsi & . Information
Ekonomis) . Energy
- Aktivitas Produktif >< Non-Produktif
Transformation Process Waste,
Waste (Fisik & Non-Fisik) Defects, etc

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Type of Modern Industry ? “Diagram Sistem Industri” Environment

Manufacturing Standard
Performance
* Quality
Services & Proses Manajemen * Costs
Consultation * Time
Delivery

Finished Goods
Products
. Material
. Human Proses
Distribution & Transportation
. Machines/ Produksi Services
Equipment
. Information
. Energy
Waste,
Communication & Defects, etc
Construction
9/4/2017 Information
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Aktivitas Produksi
Ditinjau dari Proses
Aliran Uang Where are your
manufacturing costs
hiding?
Income Modal Kerja Long Term
(Before Tax)
(Working Capital) Capital Assets

Dividends Bhn Baku Tenaga Energi Informasi, Capital


Tax Kerja dll (Depresiasi)

Proses Produksi/Operasional
(Proses Konversi Uang Menjadi Produk yang Memiliki Nilai Tambah)

Finished Goods Product

Proses Distribusi & Pemasaran/Penjualan


(Proses Konversi Produk Menjadi Uang)

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Mass Production GNP
is the Key to Industrialization (Gross National Product)
Henry Ford developer of
Eli Whitney – the father of mass
the “moving assembly line”
production A Device Used to Measure
the Economic Output of a Country

Prices of Prices of

Interchangeable parts
GOODS + SERVICES =
Provided
GNP
Produced
are exactly alike

Produce more products


in a shorter time period
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PRODUCTIVITY Produktivitas, Unit Costs & Daya Saing


The Goods and Services Produced by a Country
P2 UC1

P C
P1 UC2

t1 t2 t1 t2
1997 2002 1997 2002

Productivity May Rise or Fall


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Four Tasks of Industrial Management Seven Aspects of Successful Industry
Employees who use
machines and materials to
PLANNING Tools and equipment
Management
make the product
to produce the product
Preparing the Future
Objectives and Goals of Manpower
the Company Plan, Organize, Direct and
Machines Evaluate/Control Industrial Operations

DIRECTING ALL SEVEN ASPECTS


Supervising the Workers ARE EQUALLY
While They Carry Out IMPORTANT AND ESSENTIAL Money
CONTROLLING the Objectives
Buys facilities & materials
Insuring That All Operations
and Activities
ORGANIZING Markets Processes used by and pays employees

Deciding What Activities employees


Conform to the Plans to make the product
Must Be Done to Meet Where the product
Established Objectives is sold by the industry Materials
Basics from which
Methods products are made

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Interaksi Proses Perancangan Produk,


Pendekatan Business Process CIMOSA
Proses Produksi, Proses Pemasaran dan (Computer Integrated Manufacturing for Open System Architecture)
Aspek Finansial
Manage Process

Finance Set Direction Set Strategy Direct Business


Fund
Request

Product Design Core Business Process


R&D Marketing
Engineering Develop
Budgeting

Customer Needs
Get Order Fulfill Order Support Product
Product/Service

Production/
Manufacturing Human Resources Financial Information Maintenance
Management Accounting Technology Management

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Support Process
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Pendekatan BP-Cimosa BP – CIMOSA
CBP : Develop Product/Sevices

• Strategi perancangan dan pengembangan


Manage Process produk
• Memahami pentingnya voice of customer dan
menterjemahkannya ke dalam parameter -
Core Business Process parameter teknis dalam rancangan produk (QFD
Methods).
• Tahapan-tahapan perancangan produk dari
Support Process
tahap pencarian ide, konsep sampai dengan
tahap komersialisasi.

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BP – CIMOSA
BP – CIMOSA CBP : Fulfill Order
CBP : Get Order
• Pengenalan berbagai macam proses dan
sistem produksi
• Strategi pemasaran • Teknik tata cara dan pengukuran kerja
• Manajemen pemasaran • Perencanaan fasilitas dan kapasitas produksi
• Sigi pasar sebagai bagian dari strategi • Perencanaan dan pengendalian produksi/
pemasaran operasional
• Strategi perencanaan – Supply Chain
• Teknik-teknik optimasi (operation research)
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BP – CIMOSA BP – CIMOSA
SP : Human Resources Management
CBP : Support Product

• Customer service & satisfaction • Organisasi dan management industri


• Customer relation management • Manajemen SDM

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BP – CIMOSA BP – CIMOSA
SP : Financial & Accounting SP : Information Technology

• Analisa biaya • Peranan teknologi informasi dalam


• Analisa ekonomi teknik mendukung proses produksi
• Manajemen keuangan • Strategi implementasi teknologi
informasi di industri

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BP – CIMOSA
SP : Maintenance Management

• Peranan maintenance management


dalam proses produksi
• Reliability engineering
• Implementasi maintenance management

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Tugas # 1
• Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan proses nilai tambah (added
value) itu? Jelaskan dengan beberapa contoh (masing-masing
minimal tiga) yang bisa dijumpai di sebuah industri manufaktur
dan/atau jasa (service).

• Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan produktivitas itu? Apa kaitannya


produktivitas sebuah negara dengan kemampuan daya saing yang
bisa diberikan dalam konteks persaingan global? Jelaskan jawaban
saudara. Bagaimana pengamatan saudara mengenai kemampuan
daya saing industri nasional kita?

• Industrial & Management engineer is synonymous with systems


integrator ( a big picture thinker, in other words). It’s an employee
who takes what exists today and conceptualizes what exist in the
future). Jelaskan apa yang dimaksudkan dengan kalimat tersebut
diatas dan kompetensi apa yang bisa digunakan untuk mendukung
peran tersebut diatas?
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