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INTRODUCTION TO

OCCUPATIONAL
SAFETY AND HEALTH
ACT 1994

Dr. Fatehah Mohd Omar


cefatehah@usm.my
Ext: 6293
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• To identify and discuss the risks and hazards at the
occupational working premises.
• To be able to explain the types of accidents at the
occupational working premises.
• To evaluate the employer’s or employee’s roles and
responsibilities associated to safety management at the
occupational working premises.
• To be be able to relate to the safety and health officer’s
responsibility concerning safety and health matters at the
working place.
• To explain legal requirements of OSHA 1994.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
ACT 1994
1. Arrangement of Sections
Part I – Preliminary
Part II – Appointment of Officers
Part III – National Council For Occupational Safety and
Health
Part IV – General Duties of Employers and Self-Employed
Persons
Part V – General Duties of Designers, Manufacturers and
Suppliers
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
ACT 1994
1. Arrangement of Sections
Part VI – General Duties of Employees
Part VII – Safety and Health Organizations
Part VIII – Notification of Accidents, Dangerous
Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Occupational
Diseases, and Inquiry
Part IX – Prohibition Against Use of Plant or Substance
Part X – Industry Codes of Practice
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
ACT 1994
1. Arrangement of Sections
Part XI – Enforcement and Investigation
Part XII – Liability for Offences
Part XIII – Appeals
Part XIV – Regulations
Part XV – Miscellaneous
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
• 1. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994
• Employers/self employed general duties
• Employs Safety and Health Officer
• Make policy, Safe Working Procedure (PKS* Prosedur Kerja Selamat)
• Establish Safety and Health Committee
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

• Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Officer)


Order 1996
• Needs to employ a Safety and Health Officer at the
workplace if the value of the project exceeds RM20
Million whether for:
• a) Building operations
• b) Works of Engineering Construction
Electrical Safety
Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will:


• Be familiar with the basic concepts of electricity.
• Understand the potential effects of electricity on
the human body.
• Be able to recognize common electrical hazards.
• Be familiar with electrical protective devices.
• Be knowledgeable of safe work practices.
Take Electricity Seriously
èElectricity is the second leading cause of death in
construction.

èElectrocutions make up 12% of construction fatalities


annually.

èOver 30,000 non-fatal shocks occur each year.


èOver 600 deaths occur annually due to electrocution.
Electrical Accidents
èLeading Causes of Electrical Accidents:
• Drilling and cutting through cables
• Using defective tools, cables and equipment
• Failure to maintain clearance distance of 10 feet
• Failure to de-energize circuits and follow Lockout/Tagout procedures
• Failure to guard live parts from accidental worker contact
• Unqualified employees working with electricity
• Improper installation/use of temporary electrical systems and
equipment
• By-passing electrical protective devices
• Not using GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupters) devices
• Missing ground prongs on extension cords
Hazards of Electricity
èShock – Most common and can cause electrocution or muscle
contraction leading to secondary injury which includes falls
èFires – Enough heat or sparks can ignite combustible materials
èExplosions – Electrical spark can ignite vapors in the air
èArc Flash - can cause burns ranging from 14,000 degrees f. to
35,000 degrees f
èArc Blast – In a short circuit event copper can expand 67,000
times. The expansion causes a pressure wave. Air also expands
adding to the pressure wave
Fundamentals of Electricity
Like Water In A Garden Hose

Resistance = Diameter of Hose


Example – Larger hose (less resistance),
more water flows

Voltage = Water Pressure Current = Flow Rate


Example – 45 PSI Example – 15 gallons per minute
Fundamentals of Electricity
èElectrical current is the flow of electrons through a
conductor.
èA conductor is a material that allows electrons to
flow through it.
èAn insulator resists the flow of electrons.
èResistance opposes electron flow.
Current Flows in a
Loop or Circuit
èCircuits are AC (alternating current) or
DC (direct current).

èCurrent is usually AC.

èAC current has five parts:

(1) Electrical source


(2) HOT wire to the tool.
(3) The tool itself
(4) NEUTRAL wire returns electricity
from the tool
(5) GROUND
How Shocks Occur
èCurrent travels in closed circuits
through conductors (water, metal, the
human body).
èShock occurs when the body becomes
a part of the circuit.
èCurrent enters at one point & leaves at
another.
Shocks Occur in
Three Ways

èContact with both conductors


èContact with one conductor and
ground
èWith a tool: contact with “hot”
metal part and ground (1), (2) &
(3)
Severity of the Shock
èSeverity of the Shock depends on:
• Amount of current
• Determined by voltage and resistance to flow
• Path through the body
• Duration of flow through the body
• Other factors such as general health and individual
differences.
He sweats - and he dies...
Luling, La. - A man was electrocuted when his sweat
dripped into the electric drill he was using to build a
swing set in his backyard, the coroner said.
Richard Miller was pronounced dead Sunday at
St. Charles Hospital, said David Vial, St. Charles Parish
coroner. Miller, 54, had been using an electric drill in
90 degree heat, Vial said Monday.
“Apparently the man was sweating profusely,”
Vial said. “He probably was pushing against the drill
with his chest and his perspiration went into the drill
itself and made a contact.”
The Associated Press
Photo depicts hazardous condition
Clever Or Foolish?

Photos depict hazardous condition


Effects of Current Flow
Controlling Electrical Hazards

èEmployers must follow the OSHA Electrical Standards


(Subpart K)
èElectrical installation
èSubpart K includes four proactive methods:
• Electrical Isolation
• Equipment Grounding
• Circuit Interruption
• Safe Work Practices
Electrical Isolation

èWe can be safe by keeping electricity away from us. We


can:

• Insulate the conductors.


• Example: The insulation on extension cords.
• Elevate the conductors.
• Example: Overhead powerlines.
• Guard the conductors by enclosing them.
• Example: Receptacle covers, boxes, & conduit.
Insulating the Conductors
èThe first way to safeguard workers from
electrically energized wires is through
insulation.
èRubber and plastic is put on wires to
prevent shock, fires, short circuits and for
strain relief.
èIt is always necessary to check the insulation
on equipment and cords before plugging
them in.
èRemember, even the smallest defect will
allow leakage!
Defective Extension Cords

Photos depict hazardous condition


Defective Cord Incident
èWorker attempted to climb
scaffold with electric drill.
èDrill’s cord was damaged
with bare wires showing.
èThe bare wire contacted the
scaffolding.
èThe worker died!

Depicts hazardous condition


Elevating the Conductors
èThe second way to safeguard workers from
electrically energized wires is by elevating
them.
èWires are often elevated by the power
company.
èIt is always necessary to check the location
of overhead lines before you begin work
each day.
èRemember, never allow yourself, your tools,
or the materials you are working with to be
within 10 feet of energized lines!

Photo depicts hazardous condition


Working Near Overhead Lines
èClearance of worker and any
equipment, tools, materials, or
scaffold near uninsulated lines is 10
feet!

Photo depicts hazardous condition


Overhead Line Incident
èA worker was
attempting to move
mobile scaffold.
èScaffold made
contact with 7200
volt line.
èThe worker died.

Photo depicts hazardous condition


Guarding the Conductors
èThe third way to safeguard workers from
electrically energized wires is by guarding them.
èCovers, boxes, and enclosures are often put
around conductors to prevent worker contact.
èIt is always necessary to check that electrical
boxes and panels are covered and free from
missing “knock-outs”.
èRemember, electric equipment operating at 50
volts or more must be guarded!

Photo depicts hazardous condition


Guarding the Conductors

Photos depict hazardous condition


Guarding the Conductors

Photos depict hazardous condition


Equipment Grounding
èWe can be safe by providing a separate, low
resistance pathway for electricity when it does
not follow normal flow (ground prong).

èGrounding gives the stray current somewhere


to go and keeps you from becoming part of
the circuit.
Can You Rely on Grounding?
èGrounding will not work if the electricity
can flow through you more easily than the
ground. This can happen when:
• Your tool doesn’t have a ground pin.
• You’re working in wet locations.
• You’re touching a metal object.
What Must be Grounded?

èAll circuits and extension


cords.
èAll noncurrent carrying metal
parts.
èPortable & semi-portable
tools and equipment unless
double insulated.
Do Not Eliminate the Ground!

You become the next-best path for current!


Photos depict hazardous condition
Do Not Reverse Polarity
The prongs are different
sized so you can’t turn
the plug around. If you
do, the electrical fields
within the motor are always
energized. If there is
moisture present, the case
is likely to be “hot”. Even
with double-insulated tools,
you still could get a shock.

Photo depicts hazardous condition


Extension Cords and Cables
èMust be in good shape without splices.
èCannot be secured with staples, nails or bare wire.
èMust be protected from damage.
èMust have a ground pin.
èShould be inspected regularly and pulled from
service if defective.
èCannot be repaired with electrical or duct tape.
Must repair with heat-shrink sleeve or
bonding/vulcanizing tape to retain original insulation
properties.

Photos depict hazardous condition


Safe Work Practices
èBefore work begins, the employer must
determine where exposed and concealed
electrical circuits are located.
èOnce found, warning signs/labels must be
posted.
èWorkers need to know the location, hazards,
and protective measures.
Safe Work Practices
èCompetent Person determines if
performance of work could bring contact
with energy.
• Distance of the worker to the energy source
should be considered first.
• Tools, materials, and processes should also be
considered to see if they could potentially
shorten the safe separation distance.
• Examples: Metal Ladders, Re-bar, Forklift, Scaffold
Frames, etc.
CONSTRUCTION
SAFETY
WORK ACTIVITIES AT CONSTRUCTION SITES

Excavation

Concrete work

Piling
WORK ACTIVITIES AT CONSTRUCTION SITES

Demolition
Welding

Brick work
WORK ACTIVITIES AT CONSTRUCTION SITES

Handling/transportation
of construction materials
Transportation of raw
materials

Painting work
WORK ACTIVITIES AT
CONSTRUCTION SITE
Activities at the construction site
• Excavation
• Piling
• Concrete work
• Demolition
• Brick work
• Wire/electric cable, pipe fitment
• Welding work
• Handling/transportation of construction materials.
MACHINERY / TOOLS
AT CONSTRUCTION SITE
Machinery / Tools Use
• Crane (Tower/Moving) • Lift goods
• Skip hoist, passenger hoist • Carry goods or passengers
• Employees “gondola” • Cut and bend
• Bending machine • Cut steel, wood or plywood
• “Cerucuk” (piles) cutting • Digging
machine
• Excavator
MACHINERY / TOOLS
AT CONSTRUCTION SITE

Machinery / Tools Use


• Piling machine & frame • Column/Structure
• Piling machine • Lifts material
• Mobile crane • Mixes and sends
• Batching plant cement
EQUIPMENT / TOOLS
AT CONSTRUCTION SITE
• Hand tools and portable tools (hammer, chisel, drill).
• Ladder.
• Scaffold (stationary and moving)
• Air compressor
• Hammer Drill
• Generator Set
• Welding tools
MACHINERY / EQUIPMENT
“BERPERAKUAN KELAYAKAN” JKKP
CRANE
• (“menara”/moving) / skip hoist
• Passenger hoist
• “Gondola”
• Air compressor
• Lift
• Piling machine and frame
• Skip hoist
• Material hoist
• Aerial platform
TYPES OF MACHINERY/EQUIPMENT

Skip hoist

Material hoist Gondola


TYPES OF MACHINERY/EQUIPMENT

Passenger hoist Aerial Platform


HAZARDS AT CONSTRUCTION
SITE
• Heat exposure
• Noise
• Mineral dust
• Machine (mechanical)
• Electric
• Radiation
• Chemical
HAZARDS AT CONSTRUCTION
SITE
• Ergonomic problems
• Biological
• Working at heights
• Working at a confined space
• Lighting
• Drowning
SAFETY CONSTRUCTION
• Types of Accidents:-
• Fall from heights
• Fall at the same level
• Struck by a falling object
• Burial/structure collapse
• Electric shock
• Drowning
• Knocked by transport
DRIVER BURIED BY 1000 TONNES OF ROCK

Heathstock Haulage Quarry on Limeworks Road. The scene of the digger accident.
Monday June 8 2015, nzherald.con.nz

• The man was operating a 65-tonne machine.


• An overhanging cliff face gave way about 10.40 AM
• An estimation of about 1000 tonnes of lime rock and debris came down
and “buried” the digger.
CONSTRUCTION SITE HAZARDS
• Inhalation of chemical toxic contact with rotating part
of machine
• Trapped in between objects
• Falling from heights
a. Stairs
b. Working platform
c. Root (tip)
d. Through opening floor
e. Opening edges
f. Scaffolding
LADDER SAFETY

From the wall


LADDER SAFETY SUMMARY
• Avoid electrical hazards!
• Inspect ladder prior to using it.
• Always maintain a 3-point (two hands and a foot, or
two feet and a hand) contact on the ladder when
climbing. Keep your body near the middle of the step
and always face the ladder while climbing.
• Ladders must be free of any slippery material on the
rungs, steps or feet
• Do not use the top step/rung of a ladder as a
step/rung unless it was designed for that purpose.
• Do not exceed the maximum load rating of a ladder.
Be aware of ladder’s load rating and of the weight it is
supporting.
MOBILE SCAFFOLDING TOWER
FALLING FROM HEIGHTS
Cause / Factors of accidents
• Workplace is not guarded / fenced.
• Workplace / tools not maintained.
• Workplace / tools not examined before work.
• Tool assembly unsatisfactory.
• Employees not provided with safety belt.
• Poor design / structure.
• Defective stairs / scaffold.
• Unsuitable stairs / scaffold.
• Position of stairs / scaffold.
FALLING FROM THE SAME LEVEL
• Collision with material, wires on the floor (tripping).
• Tripped as a result of wet floor.
• Cause of factors:
- Workplace with poor housekeeping or no housekeeping plan.
- No storage for tools.
STRUCK BY FALLING OBJECTS
• Factors:
1. Workplace with poor housekeeping.
2. No toe-board on working platform.
3. No overhead protection.
4. No safety net installed.
5. Unsafe lifting methods
Toe boards

Guard rails
“Tertimbus Tanah” / “Runtuh” Structure
• Accidents during excavation work, shoring or formwork.
• Cause of Factors:
- No shoring.
- No guidelines & safe working procedure
- Poor shoring design [shoring – temporary structures in
building construction]
“Tertimbus Tanah” / “Runtuh” Structure

• Use of damaged materials.


• Position of shoring unsuitable.
• Shoring not maintained.
• Shoring not inspected thoroughly before work.
• Shoring carried out by incompetent staff.
INHALATION OF CHEMICAL TOXICS
• In painting work, welding.
• Cause of Factors:
1. Failure to wear suitable respirator.
2. Inadequate ventilation.
3. No local exhaust ventilation.
4. Employees not trained.
IN TOUCH WITH ROTATING PART OF MACHINE
OR TRAPPED IN BETWEEN OBJECTS

• Cause of Factors:
1. Machine guarded.
2. Guards not functioning.
3. No training for employees.
4. Guard design unsuitable.
5. Location of guard not strategic.
DROWNING
• In confined space (tank, sewage)
- Lack of oxygen

• In the pond
- Inadvertently swallowing water
DROWNING (CONFINED
SPACE)
• Cause of factors:-
1. Poor ventilation.
2. No exhaust ventilation.
3. No guidelines and no safe working systems.
4. Existence of excessive amount of water.
5. Employees not trained and lack of knowledge.
KNOCKED DOWN BY
TRANSPORT
• Caused of Factors:
1. No dedicated walkways for pedestrians or
employees.
2. No guard / fence to separate employees and
transport.
3. No rules and enforcement on speed limit.
4. No inspection on vehicles.
5. No maintenance on vehicles.
6. Drivers not trained and lack of knowledge.
SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT
• Strategy:
1. Establih Safety and Health Committee.
2. Identify hazards at workplace.
3. Evaluate risks.
4. Plan and arrange safety and health procedures.
SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT
• Employer control:
1. Establish a health policy.
2. Employ safety and health officer (depends on cost
value of project) or site safety supervisor.
3. Have and enforce safety regulations at workplace.
4. Have / allow working permit for high risk activities.
5. Supervise on high risks activities.
SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT
6. Provide safety and health induction training to all
employees.
7. Provide PPE for all employees and make sure they
are worn during work.
8. Prepare safe working procedures for all activities.
9. Prepare suitable and safe tools.
10. Select and choose competent and well-trained
workers for high risks activities. E.g. crane handling,
working in high areas.
SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT
11. Investigate accidents or dangerous incidents.
12. Carry out inspections at workplace.
13. Establish communication system to enable and encourage feedback
from employees.
14. Have scheduled preventive maintenance for all machinery and tools
used.
15. Display safety warnings on signboards.
SAFETY CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY
• Different activities at the construction site are potential
hazards which can cause accidents.
• Safety and health regulations are contained in FMA 1967
and OSHA 1994.
• Employers are responsible for ensuring employees’
safety and health, at the same time comply with
regulations.
• Platforms wide enough for the work to be done there;
fully boarded (three to five boards wide depending on
use).
SAFETY CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY
• Boards supported and not overhang excessively (at least
three supports not more than 1.5m apart).
• A safe ladder access onto the scaffold and between each
level or lift.
• The scaffold inspected at least once a week, or when
substantially altered or after very bad weather.
• Person doing the inspection fully understands scaffold
safety and records the results in the official register form.