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CONVENTIONAL

ENERGY
REPORT
26th January 2017

Bethany Pearson 1548561


Charlotte Warnes 1529343
Madison Brownley 1521189
Nokuthaba Simbani 1525115

School of Chemical Engineering - University of Birmingham

Executive Summary

The document enclosed provides the analysis of energy usage in a student house over a
thirteen-week period. The data for electricity and gas energy usage was extrapolated to
provide an estimation of the trends found over a year. Methods of reducing energy usage
were then investigated and their potential energy savings calculated to indicate their
feasibility. Potential energy savings of 75% for both electricity and gas were found to be
possible when all energy saving solutions investigated were implemented, however,
feasibility limited the potential to achieve these savings. It was found that behavioural
changes were the most advantageous to implement as they did require any financial
investment. The existing household appliances are of high efficiency so replacing them
would not be economically viable for the landlord.
Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.1 Report Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4
1.2 House Overview ................................................................................................................. 4
1.3 Occupants Behaviours ........................................................................................................ 4
1.4 Calculations........................................................................................................................ 5
2. Overview of Weather ........................................................................................................... 6
2.1 October.............................................................................................................................. 6
2.2 November .......................................................................................................................... 6
2.3 December .......................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 2016................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.1 UK .......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.4.2 Midlands ................................................................................................................................ 7
2.5 Daylight Hours.................................................................................................................... 7
3. Results and Analysis ............................................................................................................. 8
3.1 Gas Consumption ............................................................................................................... 8
3.2 Temperature and Gas ......................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Electricity ........................................................................................................................... 9
3.4 Temperature and Electricity .............................................................................................. 10
3.5 Daylight Hours and Electricity ........................................................................................... 10
3.6 General trend ................................................................................................................... 11
4. Extrapolation ..................................................................................................................... 12
4.1 Calculation Data ............................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Gas extrapolation data ..................................................................................................... 12
4.3 Electricity Extrapolation.................................................................................................... 13
5. Comparison with Averages ................................................................................................. 14
5.1 Comparison with UK Averages .......................................................................................... 14
5.1.1 Electricity ............................................................................................................................. 14
5.1.2. Gas ...................................................................................................................................... 15
5.2 Local student area ............................................................................................................ 15
5.2.1 Electricity ............................................................................................................................. 15
5.2.2 Gas ....................................................................................................................................... 16
5.3 Variations in Energy Consumption within the UK............................................................... 17
5.3.1 Gas Consumption ................................................................................................................ 17
5.3.2 Electricity Consumption ...................................................................................................... 17
6. Ways to Save Energy .......................................................................................................... 19
6.1 Electrical Appliances ......................................................................................................... 19
6.1.1 Washing Machine and Tumble Dryer .................................................................................. 19
6.1.2 Dishwasher .......................................................................................................................... 19
6.1.3 Fridge and Freezer............................................................................................................... 19
6.1.4 Oven .................................................................................................................................... 20
6.1.5 Lightbulbs ............................................................................................................................ 20
6.1.6 Kitchen Appliances .............................................................................................................. 21
6.1.7 Television............................................................................................................................. 21
6.1.8 Personal Appliances ............................................................................................................ 22
6.2 Building Heating Demand ................................................................................................. 23
6.2.1 Reducing heat loss............................................................................................................... 23
6.3 Building Heating Supply .................................................................................................... 26

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6.3.1 Condensing Boilers .............................................................................................................. 26
6.3.2 Thermostats and Controls ................................................................................................... 27
6.3.3 Behavioural Change............................................................................................................. 27
7. Feasibility .......................................................................................................................... 28
7.1 Electrical Appliances ......................................................................................................... 28
7.2 Building Heating Improvements ........................................................................................ 28
7.3 Achievability .................................................................................................................... 29
8. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 29
9. References......................................................................................................................... 30
1. Appendix ........................................................................................................................... 34

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1. Introduction

1.1 Report Introduction


This report analyses the gas and electricity usage of a student house in Selly Oak, with the
aim of reducing the energy used by 75%. Meter readings were taken every Sunday and the
consumption per week calculated. This data was then extrapolated according to weather
patterns to find the average annual energy usage. The consumption can be reduced by
decreasing both the energy supply and demand of the house. Investigations into the boiler,
white goods and consumer electricals were carried out, as well as the house insulation and
double glazing. Improvements were suggested, and the feasibility of them discussed.

1.2 House Overview


The house is a seven-bedroom terraced house, in the Selly Oak area of Birmingham. It has
two extensions attached at the back, as well as a loft conversion. There are 2 bathrooms
located on the middle and top floors. There are two bedrooms on the bottom floor, three on
the middle floor and two on the top floor. All side walls are attached to the adjacent houses
apart from the lower left wall as this has an alleyway beside it. The front door and all internal
doors are wooden, and the back doors are French double doors. The house contains a
fridge; freezer; washing machine; tumble dryer; dishwasher. The boiler is a gas boiler, and
the cooker has a gas hob, with an electric fan assisted oven. Heating is provided by
radiators in every room of varying size. The lights are all LED lights, with an excellent energy
rating. The occupants have a range of consumer goods, with each of them having at least
one mobile phone and one laptop. There is one communal television placed downstairs.
Each window has black out blinds. The gas and electricity are both supplied by Sainsbury’s
Energy on behalf of British Gas.

1.3 Occupants Behaviours


All seven tenants have approximately 18-25 hours of lectures a week. Therefore, they are on
average out of the house for at least 4 hours a day. Coupled with the contact hours, the
tenants also have extracurricular activities they attend, and as a result are out of the house
for more time than stated above. Due to them each having different timetables, they eat at
different times extending the time that the oven is on for, and use appliances such as
washing machines at different times. Appliances are left on standby, including the TV which
is on standby for approximately 19 hours a day, and in use otherwise. Every tenant also
charges their phone overnight, meaning that it is plugged in for approximately 8 hours. Six of
the tenants regularly use hair straighteners and/or hair dryers. The average shower time is
approximately 10 minutes with five of the seven tenants showering every day.

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1.4 Calculations
The meter readings for gas were taken in cubic feet, the readings for energy were taken in
kWh. To convert cubic feet into kWh, the energy bill was used, as shown in Figure 1. The
equation used in Figure 2 shows how the weekly usage was calculated from the meter
readings. Any prices calculated in the report come from the house energy bill, attached in
the appendix.

Figure 1: Conversion calculations, Figure 2: Method to calculate energy consumption from meter readings
taken from the energy bill as seen (Steinberger-Wilckens, 2016)
in the appendix

All temperature data used in this report was sourced from Met Office Hadley Centre Central
England Temperature Data. The daylight hours were sourced from Sunrise and Sunset
Birmingham.

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2. Overview of Weather
2.1 October
The average temperature across the UK in October 2016 was 9.8°C, which is above the
1981-2010 long-term average. There was just 48.9mm of rainfall which is a 62% drop from
the long-term average (127.1mm). The UK also had a significant 117% of average sunshine
throughout October. In the Midlands, the average temperature was 0.6°C higher than the
average UK temperature and had only 6.3 days of rain throughout the month. Temperatures
in the Midlands reached 14.0°C with a low of 6.8°C. (Met Office, 2016)
2.2 November
November in 2016 was significantly colder than the long-term average, with a UK mean
temperature of just 4.9°C (a 1.3°C drop) and a mean temperature of 5.4°C in the Midlands.
Across the Midlands a low of 2.3°C was recorded. It was a relatively dry month compared to
previous years, with 98.7mm of rainfall in the Midlands, approximately 10% less than the
2016 UK average. There was also 6.1 days of air frost in the Midlands region. (Met Office,
2016)
2.3 December
The average temperature across the UK in December 2016 was 5.9°C, which is a significant
2.0°C above the long-term average, reflected by just 8 days of air frost across the month. In
the Midlands, the mean temperature was 5.6°C, slightly below the UK average. There was
just 69% of average rainfall across the UK and a value well below the average for the
Midlands (45% of long-term regional average). Sunshine across the UK was slightly higher
than the long-term average (104%) and the Midlands had a significant 53.7 hours of sunlight
in total in December. (Met Office, 2016)
2.4 2016
2.4.1 UK

The mean temperature for 2016 was 9.3°C,


0.5°C above the 1981-2010 long-term average.
Figure 3 shows the temperature distribution and
comparison with the long-term average; an
increased mean temperature for most areas
across the UK, with no area showing a decrease
from the mean. Total rainfall across the UK was
slightly lower than average (98%) however, total
sunshine was slightly above average (104%).
Several extreme weather events occurred
throughout 2016, largely occurring January -
March. (Met Office, 2016)

Figure 3: Comparison of 2016 mean


temperature to 1981 - 2010 long-term
average

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2.4.2 Midlands
The mean temperature in the Midlands for 2016 was 10°C, again a 0.5°C above the regional
long-term average. Like the UK, total sunshine in the Midlands was significantly above the
regional average, with the Midlands receiving approximately 87 more hours of sunlight than
this long-term regional average. Total rainfall across the year was 1% more than the regional
average. (Met Office, 2016)

2.5 Daylight Hours


October had an average of 10.5 daylight hours, November an average of 9 daylight hours
and December an average of 8 daylight hours.

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3. Results and Analysis

3.1 Gas Consumption


Table 1 shows the gas consumption in both Ft3 and kWh and the average daily
temperatures. The meter readings were in Ft3 and were taken weekly every Sunday at the
times shown. The consumptions were converted to kWh using the methods outlined in
Section 1.4.
Table 1: Gas meter readings and average temperature, -- indicates no data could be calculated.
CW Date, time: Average Weekly Average Gas (Ft3) Difference Difference
Temperature weekly temp (Ft3) (kWh)
Min/Max (⁰C) (⁰C)
T(min) T(max)
39 02/10/2016, 14:00 9.54 17.09 13.31 3174 -- --
40 09/10/2016, 12:00 10.20 15.97 11.96 3178 4 125.73
41 16/10/2016, 16:00 8.66 14.51 10.36 3184 6 188.60
42 23/10/2016, 08:30 5.60 13.26 9.93 3192 8 251.46
43 30/10/2016, 12:00 5.69 13.69 11.13 3200 8 251.46

44 06/11/2016, 12:30 3.07 10.49 5.77 3211 11 345.76


45 13/11/2016, 17:30 1.34 7.29 5.56 3225 14 440.06

46 20/11/2016, 17:30 4.29 17.47 6.44 3241 16 502.93

47 27/11/2016, 19:00 2.86 8.07 5.69 3264 23 722.96


48 04/11/2016, 19:00 -0.01 6.97 3.49 3289 25 785.82
49 11/11/2016, 18:30 4.87 10.91 7.87 3304 15 471.49
50 18/12/16, 12:00 4.51 9.80 7.16 3310 6 188.60
51 25/12/16, 12:00 3.41 9.67 6.54 3316 6 188.60
52 1/01/17, 12:00 -0.52 6.58 3.02 3322 6 188.60

3.2 Temperature and Gas

Figure 4: Temperature and gas consumption over Calendar weeks 39-52

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Figure 4 shows the mean weekly temperatures (°C) on the primary y axis, the gas
consumption per week (kWh) on the secondary y axis, and the calendar week on the x axis.
There appears to be a correlation between the gas consumption and the temperature. Over
the course of the weeks the average temperature decreased, with the minimum average
temperature recorded in week 48. The gas consumption increased over the weeks with its
maximum also being recorded in week 48. The relationship seen during week 49 indicates
that the correlation between the two is very strong; the temperature increased by 126% and
the gas consumption decreased by 40%. The decrease and subsequent lack of change in
gas consumption in weeks 50, 51 and 52 is due to no one living in the house in these weeks.
This means that no hot water was being consumed for showering or cooking and the only
gas being consumed was by the boiler, which was on a timer for one hour a day. Therefore,
these readings have not been taken into consideration in the analysis or extrapolation.
Not every peak on the average temperature graph however, is followed by a trough in the
gas consumption. This indicates that other factors also affect the gas consumption, which is
to be expected as the consumption is primarily based on the behaviour of the tenants. Some
examples of this are:
 Having guests over for the weekend; there were seven extra people in the house on the
weekend of week 46. This could be the reason for the sharp increase in gas
consumption.
 The heating was not on a timer for weeks 39 to 43 and so was occasionally accidently
left on overnight, increasing the gas consumption unnecessarily.
 Conversely, many of the radiators remained cold for those weeks as they were not bled.
Cold spots of air in the radiators meant that the heat loss from the water was reduced as
it circulated, and the boiler burnt less gas trying to maintain the temperature. They were
eventually bled in week 44, leading to a sharper increase in consumption.
As expected, the gas consumption increased as temperature decreased. During winter,
tenants will want to maintain a comfortable house temperature. The increase in heating
demand will increase the gas used by the boiler, to heat the water required for the radiators.

3.3 Electricity
Table 2: Electricity meter readings and average temperature, -- indicates no data could be calculated.
CW Date, time: Average Weekly Average weekly Electricity Difference
Temperature Min/Max temp (⁰C) (kWh) (kWh)
(⁰C)
T(min) T(max)
39 02/10/2016, 14:00 9.54 17.09 13.31 64045 --
40 09/10/2016, 12:00 10.20 15.97 11.96 64166 121
41 16/10/2016, 16:00 8.66 14.51 10.36 64270 104
42 23/10/2016, 08:30 5.60 13.26 9.93 64374 104
43 30/10/2016, 12:00 5.69 13.69 11.13 64495 121
44 06/11/2016, 12:30 3.07 10.49 5.77 64602 107
45 13/11/2016, 17:30 1.34 7.29 5.56 64700 98
46 20/11/2016, 17:30 4.29 17.47 6.44 64802 102
47 27/11/2016, 19:00 2.86 8.07 5.69 64915 113
48 04/12/2016, 19:00 -0.01 6.97 3.49 65032 117
49 11/12/2016, 18:30 4.87 10.91 7.87 65130 98
50 18/12/16, 12:00 4.51 9.80 7.16 65145 15
51 25/12/16, 12:00 3.41 9.67 6.54 65160 15
52 1/01/17, 12:00 -0.52 6.58 3.02 65175 15

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Table 2 shows the electricity consumption and average temperatures over the course of the
weeks. The readings were taken straight from the meter in kWh, at the same time as the gas
readings were taken.

3.4 Temperature and Electricity

Figure 5: Electricity readings and average temperature over the given weeks

Figure 5 above shows the temperature and electricity consumption over the course of the 13
weeks. The graph indicates that there may not be a correlation between the two data sets.
The electricity consumption appears to fluctuate constantly, reaching a minimum of 98 kWh
in weeks 45 and 49. The temperature reaches a minimum in week 48, with a daily average
of 3.49°C. Like the gas consumption, it was expected that the consumption would increase
as temperatures decreased, due to a potential increase in the number of electrical heating
appliances, and an increase in the use of electrical appliances (as people are more likely to
stay in the house). Again, when looking at the data, weeks 50, 51 and 52 have not been
considered in the analysis as no one was occupying the house. The electrical consumption
therefore was only due to some white goods running, such as the fridge and freezer.
The results obtained suggest that other factors have far more impact on the house’s
electrical consumption than the temperature. These include:
 The number of guests, especially when looking at charging extra appliances such as
phones and laptops. An example of this would be in week 43, where 10 other
students stayed for a night.
 Leaving the television, microwave and occasionally the washing machine/tumble
dryer on standby. This could be the reason for the reduced consumption in week 49,
as on the Friday all appliances were turned off.
 In week 45, only 3 tenants remained in the house over the weekend, causing the
small decrease in energy usage.

3.5 Daylight Hours and Electricity


Figure 6 below shows the relationship between the hours of daylight and the electricity
consumption over the given weeks. It was predicted that as the daylight hours decreased,
the electricity consumption would increase, the cause of this being that the lights are on for a
longer duration each day. In weeks 50 – 52, there are no lights on as the house is
unoccupied and so no pattern is expected.

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Figure 6: Daylight hours (Sunrise and Sunset Birmingham, 2016) and electricity consumption over the
weeks

From analysing Figure 6, the two variables show no correlation. As the number of hours
steadily decreases the electricity fluctuates around the same level. Several reasons for this
pattern could be:
 In two of the bedrooms and the kitchen, the windows are extremely small, therefore
regardless of the daylight hours the lights were used when the rooms were occupied.
The bottom, middle and top hallways have no windows and the lights were used
continuously.
 The light usage isn’t significantly impacted by other factors such as guests as it
makes no difference how many people are in the room.
 The tenants in the house mainly study on campus and do not return home until
approximately 18:00 on an average weekday. This means that the light usage will not
increase dramatically, as even though there is less daylight no one is occupying the
house until this time.

3.6 General trend


Overall, there is a clear pattern seen in the gas consumption as the temperature changes.
The electricity consumption has no clear pattern, and although there is some correlation
seen, it is not enough to conclusively say that there is relationship between the usage and
temperature, or even usage and daylight hours. This is due to the other factors affecting the
electricity usage, e.g. the number of people present in the house, more than the extra
heating/light demand.

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4. Extrapolation

4.1 Calculation Data


To calculate the average gas and electricity consumption over the year, the data needs to be
extrapolated. The method of linear regression is used to calculate the relationship between
consumption and temperature, and then the other modes of function are calculated
depending on the occupancy of the house. The temperature and consumption data were
plotted together, and an excel trend line added. The equation of the line can then be used to
calculate data for given weekly average temperatures. The year is split into sections, mainly
based on term times and the seasons as shown in table 3.

Table 3: Data concerning the season and occupancy of the house.


Season Occupancy Calendar week
Winter Unoccupied 1
Winter/Spring Occupied 2-12
Spring Unoccupied 13-16
Spring/Summer Occupied 17-24
Summer Unoccupied 25-36
Autumn/Winter Occupied 37-49
Winter Unoccupied 50-52

The consumption of the house when it is unoccupied can be seen directly from the data for
weeks 49 to 52. This mode of consumption will need to be updated for the different seasons,
as over the winter the heating was set to come on for one hour a day, to keep the pipes from
freezing. During the summer months when the house is unoccupied, the heating will not be
on at all, reducing the gas consumption for these periods to zero. Electricity consumption
relies less on the season, and so when the house is unoccupied the consumption level
remains constant. This is the electricity used by the fridges, freezers and any devices on
standby.
4.2 Gas extrapolation data

Gas Consumption vs Average Temperature


900.00
800.00
Gas Consumption (kWh)

700.00
600.00
500.00
400.00
300.00
200.00 y = -51.527x + 839.54
100.00 R² = 0.6125
0.00
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00
Average Temperature (deg C)

Figure 7: shows the gas consumption vs temperature relationship. The trend line equation can also be
seen

Using the equation given, the average weekly temperatures and the average yearly gas
consumption can be plotted, shown in Figure 8. In some cases, the model gave gas
consumptions that were negative, obviously these cannot be true. Apart from heating the

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house, gas is used to provide hot water and for cooking purposes. In the summer these
usages will still be there, meaning that the consumption will never be zero. Taking the data
from the first week of term, when the gas was solely used for water and cooking, it can be
estimated that that is the base consumption, regardless of temperature. In any cases where
the consumption falls below this due to the equation, the usage will automatically be given
the base value. The consumption during the winter periods when the house is unoccupied is
given in Table 1, for calendar weeks 50 onwards.

Average Gas Usage Extrapolated over 2016


25.00 1000.00
Average Weekly Temperature

Weekly gas consumption (kWh)


20.00 800.00
(degrees C)

15.00 600.00

10.00 400.00

5.00 200.00

0.00 0.00
0 10 20 30 40 50
Calendar Week Temperature Gas Usage

Figure 8: Extrapolated gas energy data over the year.

In total, the average consumption over the year has been calculated to be 13232 kWh.

4.3 Electricity Extrapolation

Extrapolating the electricity poses problems, as there is no clear correlation between the
usage and the temperature or the daylight hours. Therefore, to calculate a yearly average,
an average value will be taken from the meter readings from week 40 to 49, and this will be
multiplied by all the weeks in which the tenants occupy the house. The equation below was
used:

𝑊𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑠 𝑜𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑝𝑖𝑒𝑑 × 𝐴𝑣. 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 (𝑤𝑘. 40 𝑡𝑜 49) = 32 × 108.5 = 𝟑𝟒𝟕𝟐 kWh

This is the average electricity per year used.

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5. Comparison with Averages

5.1 Comparison with UK Averages

5.1.1 Electricity

Figure 9: Domestic Average electricity consumption per meter by region Invalid source specified.

The data that the house will be compared to is for 2015 not 2016, since the 2016 data has
not been collated and published yet. Overall the average UK electricity consumption in 2015
was 3,958 kWh, 2.1 percent less than 2014 (Department for Business, Energy and Industrial
Strategy, 2016).

In the West Midlands, from Figure 9, the mean domestic electricity consumption was 3927
kWh, which is an averaged based off 2274 thousand domestic meters Invalid source
specified..

The household being analysed consumes on average 3472 kWh per year, which is 486 kWh
(or 12.3 %) less than the UK average for 2015 and 455 kWh (or 11.5%) less than the West
Midlands average.

This could be because it is a student house, and is only occupied for 32 weeks of the year
not 52. Additionally, students often are conscious of billing cost, since they have a smaller
budget, this may mean that they try and use less energy. Also, students are often out of the
house during most of the day either in lectures or other activities, so there is a small number
of hours that the house is occupied for.

The average electricity consumption for the house is rather surprising since it has 7
occupants and the UK average house hold has 2.3 persons Invalid source specified.. So,
it may be expected that for this reason the electricity consumption would be higher not lower.

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5.1.2. Gas

Figure 10: Mean domestic gas consumption per meter by region, 2015 (Department of Business, Energy and
Industrial Strategy, 2016)

The data in Figure 10 shows the 2015 data for gas consumption, since the 2016 data has
not been collated and published yet. The West Midlands average consumption was at
13,190 kWh per household, just 12 kWh lower than the average for Great Britain. It also had
the third lowest mean consumption of the nine English regions analysed.

The extrapolated annual gas consumption for this house is 13,232 kWh, 42 kWh greater
than the West Midlands average of 13,190 kWh. Student houses make up only a small
fraction of households in the West Midlands so a deviation from the average trend is
expected. Student houses hold on average 4-8 residents, with this house holding 7;
compared to the national average of 2.3 people per household recorded from the 2011
national census (Office for National Statistics, 2011). This would suggest that the
extrapolated gas consumption may be higher for a student house than the average regional
consumption. The difference is only small, however, as the average student house is
populated only during term time, which makes up only 32 of 52 weeks per year. This may
mean that annually, less gas is consumed despite the house being more densely populated
than average.

5.2 Local student area


The area in which the house is located is a predominately student housing area. Therefore,
it may be useful to compare it to other houses in the local area. British Gas provides data
based off location – for this data the B29 postcode has been used.

5.2.1 Electricity

Table 4: Data provided by British Gas for average electricity usage in B29 for the 3 months prior
to 29th December 2016.
User Type kWh consumed for 3 months

Low 210
Average 743
High 1945
The house analysed 868

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Based on the averages given in Table 4 and the user types, the house analysed would be
classed as average. The household consumes about 125 kWh more in 3 months, in
comparison to the figure supplied by British gas. This is not enough for the household to be
classed as a high user type. This is as expected, since the house is of average occupancy
for Selly Oak. Selly Oak is predominantly student housing, so other houses in the area will
follow a similar trend in energy consumption to this household.

5.2.2 Gas

Figure 11: A comparison of weekly gas usage against local, similar households

Figure 11 shows the weekly gas energy usage of the house compared to that of similar
homes on the British Gas database (see Appendix 1 for details on source of comparison
data). Between weeks 40 and 45, the gas consumption followed the trend of similar homes
in the UK, increasing as the outside temperature fell. This was expected as the use of the
gas boiler to supply radiators with hot water began to increase. Between weeks 46 and 49,
the temperature dropped to 1.10 ⁰C, its lowest in the period recorded, before rising again.
During this time, a rise in gas consumption in both the house and in similar homes rose
before falling again. At this point, the house gas usage reached 785 kWh in week 48, whilst
the average for similar homes was at 468 kWh. This could be because the house prefers a
warmer house than others in the UK.
From Weeks 50 to 52, the house gas energy consumption was maintained at 188.60 kWh
whilst the house was unoccupied. The temperature fell during this time to 2.60 ⁰C in week
52, however, the gas energy consumption for similar households rose to be 107kWh higher
than it had been at a temperature of 1.10 ⁰C. This can be expected as gas consumption was
increased for cooking on Christmas day.

Table 5: Data provided by British Gas for average gas usage in B29 for the 3 months prior to 29 th
December 2016.
User Type kWh Cost in £’s
Low 945 48
Average 4071 206
High 8839 448
The house analysed 4652.06 133

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Table 5 shows that the gas consumption for the 3 month period was 4652 kWh, greater than
the average for student houses in the area. This shows that even by student housing
standards, the gas energy consumption for this house is high.

5.3 Variations in Energy Consumption within the UK

Domestic energy consumption varies geographically across the UK. There are several
factors that may affect domestic energy consumption including population density and
variations in weather (Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, 2016).
Figures 12 and 13 show the mean domestic electricity and gas consumption per meter by
authority in the UK in 2015.

Figure 12: Mean domestic electricity consumption Figure 13: Mean domestic gas consumption per
per meter (Department of Energy & Climate meter (Department of Energy & Climate Change,
Change, 2015) 2015)

5.3.1 Gas Consumption


The figures above show a larger variation in average domestic gas consumption than
domestic electricity consumption. This variation in gas use across the UK could be due to
varying energy efficiency performance of homes, where houses in newer towns and cities
are more likely to have better energy and environmental performance ratings, and thus less
heating is required.
Another factor that may influence the variation in gas consumption in the UK is household
income. A family with a higher household income is likely to have a larger house than a
family with a smaller disposable income and thus will likely have more radiators and require
more energy to heat the house to the same temperature. This can be seen on Figure 12 in
areas around London.
More significantly, there is a general trend showing that more gas is consumed the further
north the household is. This is likely due to temperature variation; it is often significantly
colder in Scotland and in the North of England than in the South West and so the heating
supply may be used more frequently.

5.3.2 Electricity Consumption


There is a higher electricity use in more northern areas of the UK, specifically the Scottish

17
Highlands. This could be because of slightly shorter daylight hours where the use of lighting
in mornings and evenings will be increased. There is a higher electricity use in rural areas
such as the Scottish Highlands, the South West, Yorkshire and the west coast of Wales.
This could be due to less street lighting in these areas, so households may need more
indoor lighting.
Income also affects electricity usage. In areas where households have a larger income,
houses are often bigger (requiring more lighting) and contain more electrical gadgets such
as TV’s, computers and games consoles, which will consume large amounts of electricity. In
general, people living in the South have a higher gross disposable household income than
those in the North (Office for National Statistics, 2016). These households can afford to pay
higher electricity bills than those with lower disposable incomes.

18
6. Ways to Save Energy
6.1 Electrical Appliances
6.1.1 Washing Machine and Tumble Dryer

Table 6: Energy Consumption Data for Washer and Tumble Dryer used in the house. [1] (Indesit, n.d.) [2]
(NewEnergyLabel, n.d.) [3] (Hoover, n.d.) [4] (Time to Change, 2013)
Energy Stated EU Average Usage Frequency Energy
Appliance Efficiency energy regulations for Per House House total consumption
Rating consumption energy person total per per year (32 for
from consumptions per week week weeks full household
manufacturer occupancy)
Washing A++ [1] 192 220 cycles [2] 1.5 cycles 10.5 336 cycles 293.2
Machine kWh/annum [1] cycles kWh/annum
Tumble C [3] 580 160 cycles [4] 1 cycle 7 cycles 224 cycles 812
Dryer kWh/annum [3] kWh/annum

For the household analysed as shown in Table 6, the total energy consumed is
approximately 293.2 kWh/annum for the washing machine and 812 kWh per year for the
tumble dryer alone.

One method of reducing the energy consumption would be to replace the washing machine
with an A+++ rated machine such as the Indesit LWC 71453 W. This model consumes an
average of 174 kWh/annum (Indesit, n.d.). Therefore, for this household, it would consume a
total of 265.75 kWh per year. Thus, purchasing the more efficient machine saves 27.45 kWh
per year.

This may not be the most beneficial improvement to make as economically it would make a
saving of £2.63 per annum (based on a £0.0957 usage charge – see bill in appendix). This
would not outweigh the cost incurred from buying a new machine. Even though purchasing a
new machine with higher efficiency would save on energy, it would not be economically
beneficial. ADD TO FEASIBILITY?

Behaviourally, the household could adjust the way in which they wash, by not using the
machine if it’s only half full and using a lower temperature setting to reduce energy
consumption.

For the tumble dryer, the energy consumption could be reduced to 0, as it is not necessary
to dry clothes in a tumble dryer when they can be air dried. This would therefore reduce
energy consumption by 812 kWh per year. Alternatively, if the tenants are not happy with
completely getting rid of the tumble dryer, they could reduce the frequency that they use the
machine. For example, reducing it to 3 times a week would save a total of 464 kWh/annum.

6.1.2 Dishwasher
The household have a dishwasher; however, it is not used and is turned off. Therefore, there
are no ways to save energy with this appliance since no energy is consumed.

6.1.3 Fridge and Freezer


The fridge in the house hold is a Beko Freestanding Tall Larder Fridge LRP1685 which has
an A+ energy efficiency rating and consumes 150 kWh/annum (Beko, 2007-2017). The
freezer in the house hold is a Beko Freestanding Tall Frost Free Freezer FFP1671 it has an
A+ energy efficiency rating and consumes 307 kWh/annum (Beko, 2007-2017).

19
One method to reduce the energy consumption from both the fridge and freezer would be to
replace them with A++ rated appliances. A fridge of this rating would consume around 131
kWh/annum (Beko, 2007-2017), saving 29 kWh per year. A freezer with an A++ rating such
as the BOSCH Series 4 GSN36VW30G consumes 234 kWh/annum (Currys, n.d.).
Therefore, saving a total of 73 kWh/annum.

Making these changes would save the tenants approximately £10 per annum on their energy
bill. However, since it is rented accommodation the main cost would be incurred to the
landlord, as they would be the ones purchasing the appliance. The landlord may not agree
to replacing the appliances since they see no economic benefit in doing so.

6.1.4 Oven
The oven in the household is a Lamona single fan assisted oven, it consumes 0.85
kWh/cycle and has an A energy efficiency rating (Howdens, n.d.). One significant way to
save energy with an oven would be for the occupants to use the oven at the same time and
try to open the oven door as little as possible. Since the oven currently used in the house is
built in, it would require a large expense on behalf of the landlord to replace the oven.
Therefore, it would be wise to suggest that in the future when the oven needs replacing
energy can be saved by purchasing an oven with a higher efficiency rating such as A+ or A++.

6.1.5 Lightbulbs
In the house, there are 36 GU10 LED light bulbs and there are 11 lamps which each have a
30W halogen bulb in.

Table 7: Lighting data for the household.


Type of Lightbulb GU10 LED Standard Halogen
Wattage of Lightbulb 5 W 20 W
Number of Lightbulbs in 36 11
house
Average hours each 35 hours 10.5 hours
lightbulb is on per week
Average hours each 1120 hours 336 hours
lightbulb is on per year
Average hours of total light 40320 hours 3696 hours
supplied for bulb type
Energy Consumption for 201.6 kWh 79.38 kWh
bulb type per year

As seen in Table 7, the LED bulbs in the house consume approximately 201.6 kWh per year
and the halogen bulbs that are in the 11 lamps in the house consume approximately 29.38
kWh per year. Thus, in total lighting in the house approximately consumes 280.98
kWh/annum.

Changing the halogen bulbs to LED bulbs would save approximately 59.535 kWh per year,
assuming use of the lamps is constant.

Furthermore, ensuring that lights are always switched off when not in use, even if leaving the
room for a short amount of time, would contribute to the energy reduction. An exact figure is
difficult to calculate as is it subjective for each household. Since the bulbs are LED, they are
not damaged when being turned on or off for a short amount of time, unlike CFL bulbs (U.S.
Department of Energy , n.d.).

20
6.1.6 Kitchen Appliances
Such appliances include the toaster, kettle and microwave as shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Kitchen Appliance Data for the household.


Appliance Kettle Toaster Microwave
Frequency of use  73.5  12  23
per week
Time for one use  2 minutes  3 minutes  3 minutes
Total time of use per 2.45 hours  0.6 hours  1.15 hours
week
Total time of use per  78.4 hours  19.2 hours  36.8 hours
annum (32 weeks of
the year)
kW of Appliance 1.8 1.1 0.75
Total energy 141.12 kWh/annum 21.12 kWh/annum 27.6 kWh/annum
consumption

From Table 8, it can be seen that the household consumes a total of approximately 189.84
kWh of electricity per year.

Electricity consumption could be reduced by using the kettle less frequently, or seeking other
methods of heating water such as a gas hob. Use of a gas hob may be more economically
beneficial since gas is approximately half the price of electricity per kWh.

The other appliances use a relatively small amount of electricity in total so any
improvements that could be made here would be marginal.

Reducing use of the kettle, toaster and microwave by half would save 94.9 kWh per annum

6.1.7 Television

The television in the house is an LG Smart and has the energy label shown in Figure 13,
which shows that the TV has an energy use of 37 kWh/annum. This is based on an average
energy use of 4 hours a day, which totals 1456 hours per year. The tenants on average
watch 6 hours of TV per day; for the 32 weeks the house is occupied, this totals 1344 hours.
Therefore, per year the TV consumes approximately 34.15 kWh when turned on.
When it is on standby mode the TV consumes 0.5 W (LG, 2016 ). The TV is
on standby when not in use, but it is turned off over the holidays i.e. when
32LH570U-ZB
the house is unoccupied. Therefore, the energy consumed, based on the
18 hours it is approximately on standby per day uses 2.016 kWh per year.
Thus, per year the TV consumes approximately 36.076 kWh of electricity in
total.

The TV has an A+ efficiency rating, as shown in Figure 14 and consumes a


relatively small amount of electricity. The large cost incurred by the landlord
37
25 to increase the efficiency rating (by purchasing a new TV), would not be
80 32
economically viable. It can be recommended that to reduce energy
consumption the TV is never left on standby saving the house 2.016 kWh
per year.
Figure 14: Energy
Efficiency Label for the Furthermore, reducing the number of hours the TV is on for by half would
TV in the house. (LG, reduce the energy consumption by approximately 17 kWh per year.
2016 )

21
6.1.8 Personal Appliances

6.1.8.1 Home Computing


Each member of the house owns a laptop and on average each laptop requires 72
kWh/annum (Helman, 2013) to be powered. In total, for the seven tenants 504 kWh is
required each year to power the laptops. This figure could be reduced to 0 kWh if each
student used the computers supplied by the university, which can be used for personal
reasons as well as for university related work.

6.1.8.2 Mobile Phones


There is a total of 7 people in the house, each with a smart phone. Each night every person
charges their phone from no power to full. On average a phone has a 5 Wh battery (Helman,
2013). Since every phone is charged each night, a total of 35 Wh is consumed per day
(calculated by 5*7), therefore, per year 7,840 Wh/annum or 7.84 kWh/annum is consumed
(calculated by 35 Wh*7 days in a week *32 weeks the house is occupied).

This is a relatively small amount of energy in comparison to the total consumed by the
house. One way to reduce this may be to use the phone less throughout the day, to prolong
the battery life, so it would only need charging once every other day. This would half the
energy consumption from the charging of mobile phones in the house to 3.92 kWh/annum.
However due to mobile phones becoming essential to modern lifestyles and by extension
student living, this behavioural change could be difficult to implement.

6.1.8.3 Personal Care


Each of the tenants own a hairdryer and straighteners, on average the hair dryer is used for
approximately 10 hours a week, and straighteners for approximately 4 hours a week. The
hair dryer consumes approximately 2.5 kWh per hour of use and the hair straighteners use
approximately 1.9 kWh per hour of use (Jones, 2010). Therefore, the hair dryer consumes
800 kWh per year and the hair straighteners 243 kWh per year.

One simple method to reduce the energy consumed would be for the tenants to let their hair
air dry, eliminating the use of hair dryers completely. This would save 400 kWh per year.
Reducing the number of hours the hair straighteners are used for or not using them at all
could further reduce energy consumption up to 243 kWh per year.

22
6.2 Building Heating Demand

Heat is lost from a house via two mechanisms:


1) Conduction
Heat is lost by flowing through walls, windows and doors.
2) Ventilation
Heat flows through a building by natural means, such as through cracks or small
openings.
(Mackay, 2009)
The rate of both types of heat flow is proportional to the temperature difference between the
air on the inside and outside, however heat loss by conduction is much more significant than
heat loss by ventilation (Mackay, 2009).

For the purpose of this section, it is assumed that heating is required from October – March;
for 6 months of the year. The average temperature within the house during these 12 weeks
is assumed to be 18.1C (Department of Energy & Climate Change, 2013) and the mean
external temperature during this period, calculated using data from Section 4.2, is 6.1C.
Therefore, average temperature difference T = 18.1 – 6.1 = 12.0C.

6.2.1 Reducing heat loss


There are several ways to reduce the heat lost in a house by conduction. These include the
use of curtains instead of blinds, the position of radiators, installing loft and cavity insulation
and by reducing heat loss through windows and doors.

6.2.1.1 Roof Insulation


The roof of the house is comprised of a pitched roof and a flat roof. According to the Energy
Performance Certificate for the house, all three roof insulations are classified as ‘good’. The
area of the pitched roof is around 95 m2 and the area of the flat roof is 15 m2.

1. Pitched roof (including roof room) - 200 mm loft insulation


U-value ~ 0.16 W m-2 K-1 (Rockwool, n.d.)
However, upgrading this insulation to 440mm could reduce the U-value to 0.10 W m-2
K-1.
Assuming temperature difference T = 12.0C, the heat loss that could be saved
from increasing the thickness of loft insulation from 200mm to 440mm is:
Qloss = Area x U x (T)
= 95 x (0.16 – 0.10) x (12)
= 69.1 W
Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 39.6/1000 x 4032
hours in 12 weeks = 278.7 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 278.7
kWh per year by increasing the thickness of insulation on the pitched roof.

2. Flat - 200 mm single ply insulation


U-value ~ 0.18 W m-2 K-1 (Rockwool, n.d.)
However, upgrading this insulation to 370mm could reduce the U-value to 0.10 W m-2
K-1.
Assuming temperature difference T = 12.0C, the heat loss that could be saved
from increasing the thickness of loft insulation from 200mm to 370mm is:
Qloss = Area x U x (T)
= 15 x (0.18-0.10) x 12
= 14.4 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 9.6/1000 x 4032

23
hours in 12 weeks = 58.1 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 58.1 kWh
per year by increasing the thickness of insulation on the flat roof.

Summing the gas consumption savings from implementing both pitched and flat roof
insulation improvements could save 336.8 kWh per annum.

6.2.1.2 Cavity Insulation


The house has a timber frame with solid brick walls and internal insulation. The U-value is
around 0.25 W m-2 K-1. The addition of a high-performance breather membrane with 230mm
insulation could reduce the U-value to around 0.14 W m-2 K-1 (Rockwool, n.d.). The area of
the external walls in the house is 2 x 3m (width) x 11m (height). Assuming a temperature
difference T = 12.0C, the heat loss that could be saved by improving cavity insulation is:

Qloss = Area x U x (T)


= 66 x (0.25 – 0.14) x 12
= 87.1 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 87.1/1000 x 4032 hours in
12 weeks = 351.3 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 351.3 kWh per year by
improving cavity insulation on the building’s external walls.

It is assumed that neighbouring terraced houses have a similar internal temperature to the
house being investigated and so there is little driving force for heat transfer, hence negligible
heat loss this way.

6.2.1.3 Floor Insulation


The floor is suspended and insulated with 60m2 of carpeted flooring and 50m2 of engineered
wood flooring (totalling 110m2). The wood flooring has a U-value of approximately 1.5
W m-2 K-1 (Virtualmaths, n.d.) and the carpet flooring has a U-value of approximately 1 W m-2
K-1 (Radiant Professionals Alliance, 2017). Assuming an average soil temperature of 10.6°C
(Natural Environment Research Council, 2011) and an internal temperature of 18.1°C
(ignoring that this may be higher during summer months), heat loss through the floor is:
Qloss = Area x U x (T)
= (60 x 1 x (18.1 – 10.6)) + (50 x 1.5 x (18.1 – 10.6))
= 412.5 W

However, the floor is also insulated, reducing the U-value for the wooden flooring to

There are many ways to reduce heat loss through the floor, such as improving under-floor
insulation or introducing under-floor heating. However, replacing all current flooring with a
rug plush carpet of thickness 1/2" (U-value = 0.46 W m-2 K-1) (Radiant Professionals
Alliance, 2017) is a relatively inexpensive method. Heat loss through the floor would then be:

Qloss = Area x U x (T)


= 110 x 0.46 x (18.1 – 10.6)
= 379.5 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is (412.5-379.5)/1000 x 4032
hours in 12 weeks = 6332.3 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 133.1 kWh per
year by improving floor insulation.

6.2.1.4 Windows
Approximately 10% of heat escapes from a typical house through doors and windows (Peak
District National Park Authority, 2010), therefore it is important to consider the savings that

24
could be made by making improvements to doors and windows.

There are 13.9 m2 of fully double-glazed windows in the house. The average U-Value for
double-glazed windows is 2.9 W m-2 K-1, however with triple-glazed windows this could
potentially reduce to 0.7 W m-2 K-1. Assuming temperature difference T = 12.0C, the heat
loss that could be saved from converting from double-glazed windows to triple-glazed
windows is:

Qloss = Area x U x (T)


= 13.9 x (2.9 – 0.7) x (12)
= 366.96 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 366.96/1000 x 4032 hours
in 12 weeks = 1479.6 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 1479.6 kWh per year
by replacing double-glazed windows with triple-glazed windows.

6.2.1.5 Curtains
Each window in the house is fitted with vertical PVC blinds. A cheaper option to reduce the
U-value of the windows than fitting triple-glazed windows is to replace blinds with thick,
thermally-backed curtains. These should be double-layered, wider than the window frame
and fit tightly against the wall to trap the air in the gap between them and the window
(EECA, 2015). It is possible that good curtains can reduce heat loss for double glazed
windows by up to 50% (EECA, 2015). The U-value would be reduced from 2.9 to 1.45
W m-2 K-1 and so the heat loss that could be saved from swapping blinds to curtains is:

Qloss = Area x U x (T)


= 13.9 x (2.9 – 1.45) x (12)
= 241.86 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 241.86/1000 x 4032 hours
in 12 weeks = 975.18 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 975.18 kWh per year
by replacing blinds with thick curtains. This option will likely be substantially cheaper than
replacing the windows with triple-glazed windows. It is possible to swap the windows and the
curtains, but it is unlikely that the addition of curtains to triple-glazed windows will further
reduce the U-value by much.

6.2.1.6 Doors
Heat is lost from doors by conduction as well as by ventilation around the frames, however
the most significant heat loss is through opening doors. Substantial savings can be made
therefore, by ensuring that doors are closed where possible (Peak District National Park
Authority, 2010). The doors in the house are wooden with a U-value of around 3.0 W m-2 K-1.
Replacing these doors with uPVC doors would reduce this U-value to 1.8 W m-2 K-1
(YouGen, n.d.). Replacing the wooden front door (area = 1.71 m2) with a uPVC would
therefore save approximately:

Qloss = Area x U x (T)


= 1.71 x (3.0 – 1.8) x (12)
= 24.65 W

Therefore, the amount of energy that could be saved per year is 24.65/1000 x 4032 hours in
12 weeks = 99.4 kWh, thus gas consumption could be reduced by 99.4 kWh per year by
replacing the wooden front door with a uPVC door.

Other adjustments such as draught-proofing on letter boxes and ensuring that doors are

25
tightly sealed around the rim would also save heat loss by ventilation, but the savings are
negligible compared to the amount saved by changing the door’s material.

6.2.1.7 Position of radiators


In this house, all radiators are positioned on external walls under windows. Heat loss is
lower when a radiator is placed on an internal wall in a house rather than an external wall
and so heating demand may be lower. However, it is common that internal wall radiators get
blocked with furniture and so significant heat is wasted as heat cannot convect around the
room. Also, placing a radiator on the opposite side of a room to the window may create a
convective current around the room, creating a draught. Radiators on external walls have
advantages too; cool air from the window can be heated before it enters the room (diyfixit,
1999). The repositioning of radiators within a house is very challenging as pipes would have
to be added or repositioned and the advantage of moving radiators to internal walls also
comes with disadvantages. Thus, the position of radiators in the house is insignificant.

6.2.1.8 Draught proofing


Draught proofing is an inexpensive way to reduce heat loss by ventilation in a house. Doors,
windows, electrical fittings, floorboards, ceiling to wall joints, old extractor fans, wall cracks,
chimneys and pipework leading to outside of the building can all be draught proofed. It is
estimated that £60 per year could be saved by a household on heating bills (thegreenage,
2014).

6.3 Building Heating Supply


6.3.1 Condensing Boilers
Heating the average UK household accounts for 60% of the annual expenditure on energy
bills (Energy Saving Trust, 2015). Boilers today are more efficient than ever before, since
they are all condensing boilers. The large heat exchanger of a condensing boiler allows it to
recover large amounts of heat energy, making it highly efficient.

6.3.1.1 Replacing the Current Boiler


The boiler installed in the house is the Vaillant ecoTech pro 28. With an efficiency of 89.3%,
it has an ErP A rating (Vaillant , 2012) and retails at £925 (PlumbNation, 2017). An
improvement on this would be the 94% efficient ecoTEC exclusive Green iQ by Vaillant
(Vaillant, 2015), retailing at £1838 (PlumbNation, 2017), 99% more in price than the
currently installed boiler. It is unlikely that this improvement could be implemented, as the
current boiler is of a good efficiency and fairly new to the home. Replacing it would not be a
cost-effective choice for the landlord.

6.3.1.2 Heat Recovery Systems


The flue is the point of escape for some of the heat generated by the boiler, with flue gas
temperatures exceeding 60°C (GasSaver from Zenex Technologies, 2013) . Passive flue
gas heat recovery systems are a method of heating water by capturing some of this lost
energy, reducing the escaping flue gas temperature. The device is a heat exchanger coming
from the boiler, fitted around the flue that has mains cold water passed through it for heating.
This increases the efficiency of the boiler system, saving money (Energy Saving Trust,
2015).

Heat recovery systems can be easily installed to the top of an existing boiler, requires zero
maintenance and no connection to mains electricity and can reduce water usage by 7% in
the process (GasSaver from Zenex Technologies, 2013). The device can save an average
of 37% of energy requirement for generating domestic hot water, resulting in an overall
boiler efficiency of 97% and upwards, (GasSaver from Zenex Technologies, 2013) and
produce savings of around 10% on energy bills (GasSaver from Zenex Technologies, 2013).

26
The Zenex Technologies GasSaver retails at £675. When added to the cost of the existing
boiler, the entire boiler system would cost £1600, which is £238 lower than the ecoTEC
exclusive Green iQ, but with a greater efficiency. With annual gas consumption extrapolated
to 13232 kWh (as per Section 4.2) it is expected that gas energy savings will reach up to
4,896 kWh (37% saving). This would produce annual savings of £140, resulting in a
payback time of 4 years and 10 months. This makes the installation of a heat recovery
system advantageous for tenants, and also cost effective for the landlord.

6.3.2 Thermostats and Controls


The effective use of heating controls can produce significant savings on energy bills,
reaching £75-£155 per annum (Energy Saving Trust, 2015). The installation of room
thermostats ensures that heating is not supplied in excess of what is necessary. They switch
the heating off once the desired temperature is reached and only switch it back on once the
temperature drops by a programmed amount. Room thermostats prevent the user from
overcompensating for heating on colder days; they will always increase the room
temperature to the regular comfortable temperature set by the user. This can also be useful
in preventing upstairs rooms from becoming too hot due to the combination of downstairs
heat rising and upstairs radiators.

Using the lower end of savings (£75) that could be made with the effective use of heating
control, £75 / £0.0286 per kWh (from bill in appendix) = 2622.4 kWh.

Installation of thermostatic radiator valves on individual radiators allows different


temperatures to be set in different rooms by producing differing flow rates through the
radiators. The lower the flow rate, the greater the saving in energy (Energy Saving Trust,
2015).

6.3.3 Behavioural Change


To reduce the energy usage in terms of heating, the central heating timer should be used to
switch the radiators on and off instead of the boiler thermostat. This reduces the chances of
heating being left on unnecessarily once the house is at a comfortable temperature. Keeping
radiators clear of furniture, for example sofas, can reduce energy loss by absorption into the
obstructions, reducing the overall temperature rise in the room per kWh (British Gas, 2014).

27
7. Feasibility

7.1 Electrical Appliances


The electricity usage is 3472 kWh per annum. Implementing the energy saving solutions
discussed in Section 6.1 are tabulated in Table 9 below.

Table 9: Summary of electrical energy saving solutions


Solution Saving (kWh per annum)
Washing machine behavioural change 464.0
Tumble dryer removal 812.0
Fridge upgrade 29.0
Freezer upgrade 73.0
Halogen bulb upgrade to LED (lamps) 59.5
Kitchen appliances 94.9
TV behavioural change 19.0
Mobile phone behavioural change 3.9
Personal care 1043.0
Total saving 2598.3

The percentage gas consumption that could be saved = 2598.3/3472 x 100 = 74.8%

Reduction in electricity consumption can be achieved largely due to behavioural changes.


Upgrades on electrical appliances are expensive with long payback periods, which may not
be worth the investment on the landlord’s behalf.

7.2 Building Heating Improvements


The gas usage is 13232 kWh per annum. Implementing the energy saving solutions
discussed in Section 6.2 and 6.3 are tabulated in Table 10 below.

Table 10: Summary of gas energy saving solutions


Solution Saving (kWh per annum)
Roof insulation improvement 336.8
Cavity insulation improvement 351.3
Floor insulation improvement 133.1
Triple glazed windows (instead of curtains) 1479.6
Door improvement 99.4
Boiler Heat Recovery System 4896.0
Thermostat and heating controls 2622.4
Total saving 9918.6

The percentage gas consumption that could be saved = 9918.6/13232 x 100 = 75.0%

Reduction in gas consumption may require a significant investment, however the total
savings that could be made from implementing these solutions equate to £283.70, and so
some of these solutions, such as the door upgrade and use of curtains instead of blinds may
be feasible.

28
7.3 Achievability
Although there is the potential to reduce both consumptions by 75%, the probability of
achieving this is very low. The tenants are more likely to implement the behavioural changes
suggested in the sections above, such as not using the tumble dryer and personal care.
However, they may not be as inclined to implement the changes that require financial
investment, such as installing a new boiler, due to their short tenancy and it being beyond
the boundaries of their contract.
Given that the electrical appliances in the household already are of a high energy efficiency
rating, the landlord may not see it necessary to purchase more efficient appliances.
Additionally, the landlord will see no financial benefit from making improvements to the
house since they do not pay the energy bills.

8. Conclusion
In conclusion, the report has highlighted several methods that when combined can reduce
the energy consumption (both gas and electricity) by 75%. However, this 75% reduction may
not be feasible due to the limitations of the tenant’s contract with the landlord and a lack of
monetary incentive on the landlord’s behalf. Furthermore, the original data collected is for 13
weeks and has been extrapolated for the entire year, thus the data may be unreliable.
Increasing the time for which the data is recorded, such as for a whole or several years,
would improve the reliability of the data.

29
9. References

Armand Products Company, 2015. Safety Data Sheet - Potassium Carbonate. [Online]
Available at:
http://www.armandproducts.com/pdfs/potassiumcarbonateanhydrousallgrade.pdf
Arthur D Little, 2016. Safety and Loss Prevention / Hazard Studies, s.l.: s.n.
ATSDR, 2008. Chromium Toxicity. [Online]
Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=10&po=10
Australian Maritime Safety Authority, 2008. Coal Tar. [Online]
Available at: www.asma.gov.ac/environment/maritime-environmental-emergencies/national-
plan/supporting-documents/documents/Coal%20Tar%20MSDS.pdf
Beko, 2007-2017. Freestanding Tall Frost Free Freezer FFP1671. [Online]
Available at: http://www.beko.co.uk/tall-frost-free-freezer-ffp1671-black-silver-white
[Accessed 21 January 2017].
Beko, 2007-2017. Freestanding Tall Larder Fridge LNP2685ED. [Online]
Available at: http://www.beko.co.uk/tall-larder-fridge-lnp2685ed-black-white
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33
10. Appendix

Appendix 1: British Gas customer account energy usage comparison tool

34
Energy Performance Certificate

217, Dawlish Road, Dwelling type: Mid-terrace house


BIRMINGHAM, B29 7AS Date of assessment: 20 November 2008
Date of certificate: 20 November 2008
Reference number: 8648-6529-5479-7450-9022
Total floor area: 110 m²
This home's performance is rated in terms of the energy use per square metre of floor area, energy efficiency based
on fuel costs and environmental impact based on carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions.

Energy Efficiency Rating Environmental Impact (CO2) Rating


Current Potential Current Potential
Very energy efficient - lower running costs Very environmentally friendly - lower CO2 emissions

(92 plus) (92 plus)

(81-91) (81-91)

(69-80) (69-80)

(55-68) (55-68)

(39-54) (39-54)

(21-38) (21-38)

(1-20) (1-20)

Not energy efficient - higher running costs Not environmentally friendly - higher CO2 emissions

EU Directive EU Directive
England & Wales 2002/91/EC
England & Wales 2002/91/EC
The energy efficiency rating is a measure of the The environmental impact rating is a measure of this
overall efficiency of a home. The higher the rating the home’s impact on the environment in terms of
more energy efficient the home is and the lower the Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The higher the
fuel bills are likely to be. rating the less impact it has on the environment.

Estimated energy use, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel costs of this home

Current Potential
Energy use 200 kWh/m² per year 180 kWh/m² per year

Carbon dioxide emissions 3.6 tonnes per year 3.3 tonnes per year

Lighting £100 per year £50 per year

Heating £413 per year £400 per year

Hot water £104 per year £98 per year

Based on standardised assumptions about occupancy, heating patterns and geographical location, the above table
provides an indication of how much it will cost to provide lighting, heating and hot water to this home. The fuel costs
only take into account the cost of fuel and not any associated service, maintenance or safety inspection. This
certificate has been provided for comparative purposes only and enables one home to be compared with another.
Always check the date the certificate was issued, because fuel prices can increase over time and energy saving
recommendations will evolve.

To see how this home can achieve its potential rating please see the recommended measures.

The address and energy rating of the dwelling in this EPC may be given to EST to provide
information on financial help for improving its energy performance.

For advice on how to take action and to find out about offers available to make your home more
energy efficient, call 0800 512 012 or visit www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/myhome

Page 1 of 5

35
Appendix 2: Energy Performance Certificate (relevant sections to the report)

36
Appendix 3: Section of house energy bill

37