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What is Anthropology?

Physical Anthropology – examines the ways humans are

biologically similar to and different from other animals.
 Is the study of humans-- their origins, biological, – Primatology
characteristics and cultural development, social – Human Evolution
relationships, and more-- based in scientific
methods. Archaeology:
 Anthropology is the broad study of humankind  Prehistory and early history of cultures around
around the world and throughout time the world
 It is concerned with both the biological and  Major trends in cultural evolution
cultural aspects of the humans.
 Techniques for finding, excavating, dating, and
analyzing material remains of past societies –
used to help prove theories, i.e. evolution,

Archaeology – Studies the ways humans manipulate

their material environment
– Examines material environment of past
societies for clues about their lives

Cultural Anthropology:

 Culture and traditions of a group of people

Physical Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology:  Ethnocentrism – comparing other cultures to
your own, believing that one’s own culture is
• Theory of Evolution • Definition and Aspects of superior to others –based on lack of knowledge
Culture and understanding –leads to stereotypes,
• Origin of Humans • Race as a Social Construct
prejudice and discrimination
• Primatology • Race and Adaptation
• Evolutionary Timeline • Participation/Observation Cultural Anthropology – Describes and analyzes the
• Genetic Inheritance • Anthropologists: beliefs people have about their social and material
– Jane Goodall worlds, and the ways these affect human action.
• Physical Adaptations
• Anthropologists: – Franz Boas
– Margaret Mead Linguistic Anthropology:
– Darwin
– Leakey's  The human communication process
 Verbal and nonverbal communication
Physical Anthropology:  The structure, function, and history of
 How the human species has changed physically
over time (hundreds of millions of years) – Linguistic Anthropology – How humans use language to
called Biological evolution communicate
 Study of Primatology – primates (apes, chimps – The spread and
as ancestors of humans) transformation of language
 Why we have certain physical characteristics – Language acquisition
from our ancestors (i.e. skin colour…) - called – Language revitalization
Genetic inheritance Linguistics studies:
 Evolution refers to change or transformation  The human communication process
over time - how have humans changed and  Verbal and nonverbal communication
adapted over time – called Adaptation  The structure, function, and history of
 Fossil record of human evolution languages
Communication: ANTHROPOLOGY
 Communication allows us to express feelings,  “The Comparative and Holistic Study of
describe tasks, argue or discuss a position or Humankind”
ideas  Comparative: Tries to answer the questions of
 Communication was an essential skill for our why cultures are the way they are:
ancestors – Holistic: Asks two questions:
–Co-operation during the hunt – Ethnographic Holism: Asks whether, and if so
–Warning of potential danger how, all parts of a culture fit together.
– Disciplinary Holism: Ask how all the four
subfields of anthropology fit together.
 Cultural Anthropology:
What is Anthropology? – The comparative study of cultures
 The word is from two Greek terms: around the world
– Anthropos: “man “or by extension “human”  Archaeology:
– Logos: “study of” or “science of” – The comparative study of past
 But any field from medicine to law is about cultures through its material cultural remains
humans.  Physical Anthropology:
– The comparative study of human
Anthropology: attributes, past and present
 Study of Culture  Linguistics:
 We might define anthropology as: – The study of spoken language, a
- The holistic and comparative study of distinctly human trait
humankind – How they fit: all involve a question
- And its culture as observed in the field about culture: where it came from, what it
- As reconstructed in the past entails
- As reflected in language that carries it
- And as shown in the biological capacity Skills and Methods used by Anthropologists
for it  Participation-observation
CULTURE  Collection of statistics
 Field interviews
Culture:  Rigorous compilation of detailed notes
 Anthropology’s Main Concept  Fieldwork on anthropologists is known as
 E.B. Tylor , anthropology’s founder, gave a “ethnography”: the scientific study of human
definition to start with: races and cultures
“That complex whole which includes:
Knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law, custom
and any other capabilities and habits acquired
by man both genders as a member of society.” Meaning of SOCIOLOGY
Concept of CULTURE  Sociology is derived from the French word
 All cultures have at least five characteristics in “sociologie” coined by Auguste Comte. The
common: term is taken from the Latin word “socius”
– Culture is learned meaning „partner or group‟ and the Greek
– Culture is based on symbols word „logos‟ meaning “study/science of” i.e.
– Culture is shared study of group.
– Culture is patterned or integrated  It is not just a scientific study of social
– Culture is usually adaptive. interactions but it studies how people interact
with one another and how such interaction
affects their behaviors.
– Societies are formed towards a particular
IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGY purpose. Human person is not self-sufficient
 It examines the relationship between the because being is capable of producing
different structures and institutions in a society everything that a person needs for survival.
and its contribution as a whole. Societies are formed out of individual necessity.
 It helps in the solution of societal problems People form a community because of their
which are believed to hinder society’s progress interdependence on one another. Societies are,
and development. formed for mutual benefit.
 It is a tool in disseminating information on what – Each uniqueness/ field of specialization will
is happening around us. determine a person’s role in the society.
 Through sociology, an individual is able to – A potentiality of a person will be maximized
understand the behavior of human beings in a within the realm of his/her society.
society. – It will also lead to smooth operation of the
 It is indispensable vehicle toward world whole society.
understanding. – The principle of specialization led Plato to
classify into three classes namely:
 Socioeconomics is the study of the relationship 1. Rulers: are responsible in making
between economic activities and social life. It decisions. They must possess the virtue
focuses on wealth, trade, consumption and of wisdom, understand realty and be
behavior patterns of society. impartial in making decision.
 Sociology of education is a branch of sociology 2. Soldiers: are tasked in defending that
that is concerned with the role and functions of state against threats to domestic and
the educational system in a society. external security. They must possess
 Sociology of the family studies the very the virtue of courage and be obedient
foundation of the family as an institution and in carrying out orders despite personal
how it relates to its environment. risk.
 Criminology studies the nature and causes of 3. People: are the governed. They must
crime and deviant behavior and activities of exhibit the virtue of moderation and
criminals and the criminal justice system. the ability to set aside personal desires
for a higher purpose.
 Sociology of religion is concerned with the role
of religion in society specifically its practices,
historical backgrounds, developments and  ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.)
universal themes.
– A student of Plato and the teacher of
 Industrial sociology/ Sociology of work tackles
Alexander the Great.
theoretical and empirical issues and covers such
– For him, the aim of the city is not just to
as spirituality and community and religion in
avoid injustices or to attain economic
multicultural societies.
stability rather to enable the citizens to
 Political sociology is the study of the
live a good life and to do noble deeds or
relationship between society and politics.
 Environmental Sociology is the study of mutual
– Contrary to his teacher (Plato), Aristotle
interactions among the physical environment,
thought that the middle class must rule
social organization, and social behavior.
the city because they are capable of
checking the tendency of the few to
accumulate wealth; they have some
stake in the society because they
possess property and they are more
 PLATO (429-347 B.C.E)
likely to take care of the basic needs of
– Plato is a student of Socrates and is one of
the poor.
the world’s best-known Philosophers.
– Similar to his teacher, he believed that
rulers must be wise and educated
– A famous Chinese philosopher, teacher and
political analyst whose tenets and teachings
became the foundation of Confucianism.
– He believed that it is intrinsic to every
individual to be in the company of the other
people i.e. society.
– It is only in society that an individual will be
able to maximize his/her potentials.
– It is imperative, therefore, for people to
learn how to behave in the society where
they belong.
– Confucius grouped the people into five
1. Ruler and subject
2. Father and son
3. Elder brother and younger brother
4. Husband and wife
5. Friend and friend

Society will prosper through out of love and


“Doing what is right/wrong is a matter of choice to

every individual”

 THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)

A person can do
he/she pleases
to do without
fear of being Absence of War
punished. Authority
Egoism i.e.
promoting and
preserving own

– In LEVIATHAN, he offered a solution to

enable people to escape from the „state of
nature. He argued that war will not benefit
anyone. Thus, people living in a state of
nature agreed to social contract and
formed a civil society.