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# 2/24/2018

High Voltage
Direct Current Transmission
Lecture 2
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy

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AC

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DC

DC

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## (a) More power can be transmitted per

conductor per circuit.
(b) Use of Ground Return Possible
(c) Smaller Tower Size
(d) Higher Capacity available for cables
(e) No skin effect

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## (g) No Stability Problem

(h) Asynchronous interconnection possible
(i) Lower short circuit fault levels
(j) Tie line power is easily controlled

## (a) More power can be transmitted per

conductor per circuit.
 The capabilities of power transmission of an
 For the same insulation, the direct voltage
Vd is equal to the peak value (√2 x rms
value) of the alternating voltage Va.
Vd = √2 Va

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##  For the same conductor size, the same

current can be transmitted with both d.c.
and a.c. if skin effect is not considered.
Id = Ia
 Thus the corresponding power transmission
using 2 conductors with d.c. and a.c. are as
follows:
 dc power per conductor Pd = Vd Id
 ac power per conductor Pa = Va Ia cos φ

## The greater power transmission with d.c. over a.c.

is given by the ratio of powers.

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##  In practice, a.c. transmission is carried out

using either single circuit or double circuit 3
phase transmission using 3 or 6 conductors.
 In such a case the above ratio for power
must be multiplied by 2/3 or by 2/6.

##  In general, we are interested in transmitting

a given quantity of power at a given
insulation level, at a given efficiency of
transmission.
 Thus for the same power transmitted P,
same losses PL and same peak voltage V, we
can determine the reduction of conductor

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##  Let Rd and Ra be the corresponding values

of conductor resistance for d.c. and a.c.
respectively, neglecting skin resistance.

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##  The result has been calculated at unity

power factor and at 0.8 lag to illustrate the
effect of power factor on the ratio.
 It is seen that only one-half the amount of
copper is required for the same power
transmission at unity power factor, and less
than one-third is required at the power factor
of 0.8 lag.

## Example Losses on Optimized

Systems for 1200 MW

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## (b) Use of Ground Return Possible

 In the case of hvdc transmission, ground
return (especially submarine crossing) may
be used, as in the case of a monopolar d.c.
 Also the single circuit bipolar d.c. link is
more reliable, than the corresponding a.c.
link, as in the event of a fault on one
conductor, the other conductor can continue
to operate at reduced power with ground
return.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 33

##  For the same length of transmission, the

impedance of the ground path is much less
for d.c. than for the corresponding a.c.
because d.c. spreads over a much larger
width and depth.

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##  In fact, in the case of d.c. the ground path

resistance is almost entirely dependant on
the earth electrode resistance at the two
ends of the line, rather than on the line
length.

## Ground return has the following

 The ground currents cause electrolytic
corrosion of buried metals, interfere with the
operation of signaling and ships' compasses,
and can cause dangerous step and touch
potentials.

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## (c) Smaller Tower Size

 The d.c. insulation level for the same power
transmission is likely to be lower than the
corresponding a.c. level.
 Also the d.c. line will only need two
conductors whereas three conductors (if not
six to obtain the same reliability) are
required for a.c.
 Thus both electrical and mechanical
considerations dictate a smaller tower.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 37

## Typical tower structures

and rights-of-way for
alternative transmission
systems of 2,000 MW
capacity.

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## ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻛﻬﺭﺑﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺟﺩﺩﺓ‬

 http://www.moee.gov.eg/english_new/Home.a
spx
 http://www.moee.gov.eg/english_new/EEHC_
Rep/2015-2016en.pdf

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## The average growth rate of the installed

capacity is 7.52% per year during the period
from 2011/2012 till 2015/2016.

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 48

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Yesterday
Temperature: 29 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 22600 (MW)

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 49

Yesterday
Temperature: 13 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 23100 (MW)

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 50

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Yesterday
Temperature: 26 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 23400 (MW)

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 51

Yesterday
Temperature: 23 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 24000 (MW)

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 52

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Yesterday
Temperature: 24 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 24500 (MW)

## The 122-mile double-circuit, 345 kV transmission line runs east of Medicine

Lodge, Kan., to Spearville, Kan., and is designed to connect eastern and western
Kansas to improve electric reliability, enable energy developers to tap into the
transmission grid, and promote economic development in the region.

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## The tower has the capacity to be expanded to a double circuit

500kV system if needed. The second tower is a 500kV
Intermountain High Voltage Direct Current [HVDC] transmission
line from Delta, Utah, to Adelanto, California).
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 57

Transmission Line

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Multiple-Circuit TL

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## (d) Higher Capacity available for cables

 In contrast to the overhead line, in the cable
breakdown occurs by puncture and not by
external flashover.
 Mainly due to the absence of ionic motion,
the working stress of the d.c. cable
insulation may be 3 to 4 times higher than
under a.c.

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##  Also, the absence of continuous charging

current in a d.c. cable permits higher active
power transfer, especially over long lengths.

## (Charging current of the order of 6 A/km

for 132 kV).
Critical length at 132 kV : 80 km for a.c
cable.

##  Beyond the critical length no power can be

transmitted without series compensation in
a.c. lines.
 Thus derating which is required in a.c.
cables, thus does not limit the length of
transmission in d.c.

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##  A comparison made between d.c. and a.c.

for the transmission of about 1550 MVA is as
follows.
 Six number a.c. 275 kV cables, in two groups
of 3 cables in horizontal formation, require a
total trench width of 5.2 m, whereas for two
number d.c. ± 500 kV cables with the same
capacity require only a trench width of about
0.7 m.

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 67

Cable Capacitance
 Consider the cross-section of a single-core cable with a
metallic sheath (Fig. 12.3a).
 The capacitance per unit length of such a cable can easily be
shown to have the value

q 2Π ε 0 ε r 10 −9 ε r
C= = C= F/m
V log R R
18 ln
e r
r

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##  where r is the conductor radius, R the inner

radius of the sheath, ε0 the permittivity of free
space, and εr the relative permittivity of the
cable insulation.
 The determination of capacitance is important
for determining the cable charging current.

##  As the charging current flows in the cable

conductor, a severe decrease in the value of load
current transmittable (derating) occurs if the
thermal rating is not to be exceeded: in the
higher voltage range, lengths of the order of 30
km create a need for drastic derating.

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##  A further current reduction is caused by the

appreciable magnitude of dielectric losses at
higher voltages.
 When the charging current becomes equal to the
rated current, the cable length is termed critical.

##  A 345 kV cable with approximately 25.3 mm

thickness of insulation and a relative
permittivity of 3.5 has a critical length of 42
km; the corresponding MVAr requirement is

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## (e) No skin effect

 Under a.c. conditions, the current is not
uniformly distributed over the cross section of
the conductor.
 The current density is higher in the outer
region (skin effect) and result in under
utilization of the conductor cross-section.

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##  Skin effect under conditions of smooth d.c.

is completely absent and hence there is a
uniform current in the conductor, and the
conductor metal is better utilized.

##  This "skin effect" causes the AC resistance

of a conductor to exceed its DC resistance.
 At 50 Hz, for-example, the increase in
resistance is 2.5% and 7.5% for conductor
diameters of 2.5 and 3.8 cm, respectively.

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##  It causes the resistance of the solid

conductor to be greater on a.c than on d.c.
since inductive reactance is directly
proportional to frequency.
 The skin effect is much greater at high
frequency than at 50 Hz.

## (f) Less corona and radio interference

 Since corona loss increases with frequency
(in fact it is known to be proportional to
f+25), for a given conductor diameter and
applied voltage, there is much lower corona
loss and hence more importantly less radio
interference with d.c.

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 80

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Corona Loss
 If the visual corona voltage is exceeded, the
power loss due to corona is given by Peek's
formulae.
 The expression for the fair weather corona loss
per phase or conductor, P is:
390
P= ( f + 25) r/d (V − V0 ) 2 10 -5 kW/mile/ph.
δ
where V0= disruptive critical voltage to neutral in
kilovolts (rms)
f = frequency in hertz
V= line-to-neutral operating voltage in kilovolts
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 81

##  Due to this bundle conductors become

unnecessary and hence give a substantial
saving in line costs.
 Tests have also shown that bundle
conductors would anyway not offer a
significant advantage for d.c as the lower
reactance effect so beneficial for a.c is not
applicable for d.c.

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## (g) No Stability Problem

hence any a.c. supplied through converters
or d.c. generation do not have to be
 The length of d.c. link is not governed by
stability.

##  In a.c. links the phase angle between

sending end and receiving end should not
exceed 30o at full-load for transient stability
(maximum theoretical steady state limit is
90o).

## Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 84

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Ferranti Effect
 The Ferranti effect on an uncompensated
transmission line is given by:

##  Where Vr and Vs are the receiving end and

sending end voltages, respectively, and ℓ is
the line length (km).
 β0 is the phase shift constant of the line per
unit length.

##  It is equal to the imaginary part of √ZY,

where Z and Y are the impedance and
admittance of the line per unit length.
 For a lossless line β0 = ω√LC where L and C
are the inductance and capacitance of the
line per unit length.
 β0 has a value of about 6º per 100 km at
normal power frequency.

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##  The phase angle change at the natural load

of a line is thus 0.6o per 10 km.
 The maximum permissible length without
compensation 30/0.06 = 500 km
 With compensation, this length can be
doubled to 1000 km.

## (h) Asynchronous interconnection possible

 With a.c. links, interconnections between
power systems must be synchronous.
 Thus different frequency systems cannot be
interconnected.
 Such systems can be easily interconnected

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##  For different frequency interconnections

both converters can be confined to the same
station.
 In addition, different power authorities may
need to maintain different tolerances on
their supplies, even though nominally of the
same frequency.
 This option is not available with a.c.
 With d.c. there is no such problem.

## (i) Lower short circuit fault levels

 When an a.c. transmission system is
extended, the fault level of the whole system
goes up, sometimes necessitating the
expensive replacement of circuit breakers
with those of higher fault levels.
 This problem can be overcome with hvdc as
it does not contribute current to the a.c.
short circuit beyond its rated current.

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##  In fact it is possible to operate a d.c. link in

"parallel" with an a.c. link to limit the fault
level on an expansion.
 In the event of a fault on the d.c line, after a
momentary transient due to the discharge of
the line capacitance, the current is limited
by automatic grid control.
 Also the d.c. line does not draw excessive
current from the a.c. system.

## (j) Tie line power is easily controlled

 In the case of an a.c. tie line, the power
cannot be easily controlled between the two
systems.
 With d.c. tie lines, the control is easily
accomplished through grid control.
 In fact even the reversal of the power flow is
just as easy.

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## (a) Expensive converters

(b) Reactive power requirement
(c) Generation of harmonics
(d) Difficulty of circuit breaking
(e) Difficulty of voltage transformation
(f) Difficulty of high power generation

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## (a) Expensive converters

 Expensive Converter Stations are required at
each end of a d.c. transmission link, whereas
only transformer stations are required in an

## (b) Reactive power requirement

 Converters require much reactive power,
both in rectification as well as in inversion.
 At each converter the reactive power
consumed may be as much as 50% of the
active power rating of the d.c. link.
 The reactive power requirement is partly
supplied by the filter capacitance, and partly
by static capacitors that need to be installed
for this purpose.

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## (c) Generation of harmonics

 Converters generate a lot of harmonics both
on the d.c. side and on the a.c. side.
 Filters are used on the a.c. side to reduce the
amount of harmonics transferred to the d.c.
system.
 On the d.c. system, smoothing reactors are
used.
 These components add to the cost of the
converter.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 97

## (d) Difficulty of circuit breaking

 Due to the absence of a natural current zero
with d.c., circuit breaking is difficult.
 This is not a major problem in single hvdc
link systems, as circuit breaking can be
accomplished by a very rapid absorbing of
the energy back into the a.c. system.

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##  (The blocking action of thyristors is faster

than the operation of mechanical circuit
breakers).
 However the lack of hvdc circuit breakers
impedes multi-terminal operation.

## (e) Difficulty of voltage transformation

 Power is generally used at low voltage, but
for reasons of efficiency must be transmitted
at high voltage.
 The absence of the equivalent of d.c.
transformers makes it necessary for voltage
transformation to be carried out on the a.c.
side of the system and prevents a purely d.c.
system being used.

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## (f) Difficulty of high power generation

 Due to the problems of commutation with
d.c. machines, voltage, speed and size are
limited.
 Thus comparatively lower power can be
generated with d.c.

## (g) Absence of overload capacity

 Converters have very little overload capacity
unlike transformers.

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## 1.3 Economic Comparison

 The hvdc system has a lower line cost per
unit length as compared to an equally
reliable a.c. system due to the lesser number
of conductors and smaller tower size.
 However, the d.c. system needs two
expensive converter stations which may cost
around two to three times the corresponding
a.c. transformer stations.

##  Thus hvdc transmission is not generally

economical for short distances, unless other
factors dictate otherwise.
 Economic considerations call for a certain
minimum transmission distance (break-even
distance) before hvdc can be considered
competitive purely on cost.

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##  Estimates for the break even distance of

overhead lines are around 500 km with a
on the magnitude of power transfer and the
range of costs of lines and equipment.
 The breakeven distances are reducing with
the progress made in the development of
converting devices.

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##  Figure 1 shows the comparative costs of d.c.

a cost variation of ± 5% for the a.c. link and
a variation of ± 10% for the d.c. link.
 For cables, the break-even distance is much
smaller than for overhead lines and is of the
order of 25 km for submarine cables and 50
km for underground cables.

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## 2. Converter arrangements and operation

 The three-phase six-valve bridge rectifier is
almost exclusively used in high voltage
direct current applications.
 This is shown in figure 2.

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##  The 6-valve bridge connection gives double

the direct voltage as output compared to the
simple 3-phase rectifier.
 The converter transformer may either be
wound star-star as shown, or as star-delta
(or even as delta star or delta-delta).

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##  For the 6-valve bridge, with zero firing

delay, the voltage waveforms across the
thyristors are shown in figure 3.
 At any given instant, one thyristor valve on
either side is conducting.
 The conducting period for the thyristor
valve R1 is shown on the diagram.

##  The 6-valve bridge connection gives double

the direct voltage as output compared to the
simple 3-phase rectifier.
 The converter transformer may either be
wound star-star as shown, or as star-delta
(or even as delta star or delta-delta).

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##  For the 6-valve bridge, with zero firing

delay, the voltage waveforms across the
thyristors are shown in figure 3.
 At any given instant, one thyristor valve on
either side is conducting.
 The conducting period for the thyristor
valve R1 is shown on the diagram.

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## It can be shown that for the 6-valve bridge, the

total r.m.s. ripple is of the order of 4.2% of
the d.c. value (for zero delay α=0 and zero
commutation γ=0).

## The ripple of course increases with the delay

angle and has a value of about 30% at α= ̟/2.

##  With the 12 pulse bridge, the r.m.s. ripple is

of the order of 1.03% of the d.c. value (for α
=0 and γ=0) and increases to about 15% at
α= ̟/2.
 The use of a choke reduces the ripple
appearing in the direct current transmitted.
 If E is the r.m.s. line-to-line voltage, then if
α =0 and γ=0) the direct voltage output is
given by Equation (1).

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