Anda di halaman 1dari 64

2/24/2018

High Voltage
Direct Current Transmission
Lecture 2
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 1

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 2

1
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 3

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 4

2
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 5

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 6

3
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 7

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 8

4
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 9

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 10

5
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 11

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 12

6
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 13

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 14

7
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 15

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 16

8
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 17

AC

9
2/24/2018

DC

DC

10
2/24/2018

1. Comparison of a.c and d.c transmission


1.1 Advantages of d.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 21

(a) More power can be transmitted per


conductor per circuit.
(b) Use of Ground Return Possible
(c) Smaller Tower Size
(d) Higher Capacity available for cables
(e) No skin effect

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 22

11
2/24/2018

(g) No Stability Problem


(h) Asynchronous interconnection possible
(i) Lower short circuit fault levels
(j) Tie line power is easily controlled

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 23

(a) More power can be transmitted per


conductor per circuit.
 The capabilities of power transmission of an
a.c. link and a d.c. link are different.
 For the same insulation, the direct voltage
Vd is equal to the peak value (√2 x rms
value) of the alternating voltage Va.
Vd = √2 Va

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 24

12
2/24/2018

 For the same conductor size, the same


current can be transmitted with both d.c.
and a.c. if skin effect is not considered.
Id = Ia
 Thus the corresponding power transmission
using 2 conductors with d.c. and a.c. are as
follows:
 dc power per conductor Pd = Vd Id
 ac power per conductor Pa = Va Ia cos φ

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 25

The greater power transmission with d.c. over a.c.


is given by the ratio of powers.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 26

13
2/24/2018

 In practice, a.c. transmission is carried out


using either single circuit or double circuit 3
phase transmission using 3 or 6 conductors.
 In such a case the above ratio for power
must be multiplied by 2/3 or by 2/6.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 27

 In general, we are interested in transmitting


a given quantity of power at a given
insulation level, at a given efficiency of
transmission.
 Thus for the same power transmitted P,
same losses PL and same peak voltage V, we
can determine the reduction of conductor
cross-section Ad over Aa.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 28

14
2/24/2018

 Let Rd and Ra be the corresponding values


of conductor resistance for d.c. and a.c.
respectively, neglecting skin resistance.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 29

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 30

15
2/24/2018

 The result has been calculated at unity


power factor and at 0.8 lag to illustrate the
effect of power factor on the ratio.
 It is seen that only one-half the amount of
copper is required for the same power
transmission at unity power factor, and less
than one-third is required at the power factor
of 0.8 lag.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 31

Example Losses on Optimized


Systems for 1200 MW

16
2/24/2018

(b) Use of Ground Return Possible


 In the case of hvdc transmission, ground
return (especially submarine crossing) may
be used, as in the case of a monopolar d.c.
link.
 Also the single circuit bipolar d.c. link is
more reliable, than the corresponding a.c.
link, as in the event of a fault on one
conductor, the other conductor can continue
to operate at reduced power with ground
return.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 33

 For the same length of transmission, the


impedance of the ground path is much less
for d.c. than for the corresponding a.c.
because d.c. spreads over a much larger
width and depth.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 34

17
2/24/2018

 In fact, in the case of d.c. the ground path


resistance is almost entirely dependant on
the earth electrode resistance at the two
ends of the line, rather than on the line
length.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 35

Ground return has the following


disadvantages:
 The ground currents cause electrolytic
corrosion of buried metals, interfere with the
operation of signaling and ships' compasses,
and can cause dangerous step and touch
potentials.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 36

18
2/24/2018

(c) Smaller Tower Size


 The d.c. insulation level for the same power
transmission is likely to be lower than the
corresponding a.c. level.
 Also the d.c. line will only need two
conductors whereas three conductors (if not
six to obtain the same reliability) are
required for a.c.
 Thus both electrical and mechanical
considerations dictate a smaller tower.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 37

Typical tower structures


and rights-of-way for
alternative transmission
systems of 2,000 MW
capacity.

19
2/24/2018

‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻛﻬﺭﺑﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺟﺩﺩﺓ‬


 http://www.moee.gov.eg/english_new/Home.a
spx
 http://www.moee.gov.eg/english_new/EEHC_
Rep/2015-2016en.pdf

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 39

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 40

20
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 41

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 42

21
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 43

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 44

22
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 45

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 46

23
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 47

The average growth rate of the installed


capacity is 7.52% per year during the period
from 2011/2012 till 2015/2016.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 48

24
2/24/2018

Grid Loads 2014/4/8


Yesterday
Peak Load: 22610 (MW)
Min. Load: 15490 (MW)
Temperature: 29 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 22600 (MW)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 49

Grid Loads 2015/2/19


Yesterday
Peak Load: 23400 (MW)
Min. Load: 15450 (MW)
Temperature: 13 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 23100 (MW)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 50

25
2/24/2018

 Grid Loads 2016/2/29


Yesterday
Peak Load: 23250 (MW)
Min. Load: 15235 (MW)
Temperature: 26 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 23400 (MW)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 51

 Grid Loads 2017/3/12


Yesterday
Peak Load: 23900 (MW)
Min. Load: 15135 (MW)
Temperature: 23 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 24000 (MW)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 52

26
2/24/2018

 Grid Loads 2018/2/24


Yesterday
Peak Load: 23000 (MW)
Min. Load: 16215 (MW)
Temperature: 24 °C
Today
Expected Evening Peak: 24500 (MW)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 53

The 122-mile double-circuit, 345 kV transmission line runs east of Medicine


Lodge, Kan., to Spearville, Kan., and is designed to connect eastern and western
Kansas to improve electric reliability, enable energy developers to tap into the
transmission grid, and promote economic development in the region.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 54

27
2/24/2018

Egypt: 500kV Transposition Steel Tower for EETC

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 55

500kv Double Circuit Lattice Tower

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 56

28
2/24/2018

The tower has the capacity to be expanded to a double circuit


500kV system if needed. The second tower is a 500kV
Intermountain High Voltage Direct Current [HVDC] transmission
line from Delta, Utah, to Adelanto, California).
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 57

Transmission Line

58

29
2/24/2018

Multiple-Circuit TL

59

60

30
2/24/2018

61

62

31
2/24/2018

Direct-Current (HVDC) Transmission Lines


63

(d) Higher Capacity available for cables


 In contrast to the overhead line, in the cable
breakdown occurs by puncture and not by
external flashover.
 Mainly due to the absence of ionic motion,
the working stress of the d.c. cable
insulation may be 3 to 4 times higher than
under a.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 64

32
2/24/2018

 Also, the absence of continuous charging


current in a d.c. cable permits higher active
power transfer, especially over long lengths.

(Charging current of the order of 6 A/km


for 132 kV).
Critical length at 132 kV : 80 km for a.c
cable.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 65

 Beyond the critical length no power can be


transmitted without series compensation in
a.c. lines.
 Thus derating which is required in a.c.
cables, thus does not limit the length of
transmission in d.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 66

33
2/24/2018

 A comparison made between d.c. and a.c.


for the transmission of about 1550 MVA is as
follows.
 Six number a.c. 275 kV cables, in two groups
of 3 cables in horizontal formation, require a
total trench width of 5.2 m, whereas for two
number d.c. ± 500 kV cables with the same
capacity require only a trench width of about
0.7 m.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 67

Cable Capacitance
 Consider the cross-section of a single-core cable with a
metallic sheath (Fig. 12.3a).
 The capacitance per unit length of such a cable can easily be
shown to have the value

q 2Π ε 0 ε r 10 −9 ε r
C= = C= F/m
V log R R
18 ln
e r
r

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 68

34
2/24/2018

 where r is the conductor radius, R the inner


radius of the sheath, ε0 the permittivity of free
space, and εr the relative permittivity of the
cable insulation.
 The determination of capacitance is important
for determining the cable charging current.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 69

 As the charging current flows in the cable


conductor, a severe decrease in the value of load
current transmittable (derating) occurs if the
thermal rating is not to be exceeded: in the
higher voltage range, lengths of the order of 30
km create a need for drastic derating.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 70

35
2/24/2018

 A further current reduction is caused by the


appreciable magnitude of dielectric losses at
higher voltages.
 When the charging current becomes equal to the
rated current, the cable length is termed critical.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 71

 A 345 kV cable with approximately 25.3 mm


thickness of insulation and a relative
permittivity of 3.5 has a critical length of 42
km; the corresponding MVAr requirement is
about 10.6 MVAr per km.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 72

36
2/24/2018

 See The ABB Video (800 kV)

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 73

(e) No skin effect


 Under a.c. conditions, the current is not
uniformly distributed over the cross section of
the conductor.
 The current density is higher in the outer
region (skin effect) and result in under
utilization of the conductor cross-section.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 74

37
2/24/2018

 Skin effect under conditions of smooth d.c.


is completely absent and hence there is a
uniform current in the conductor, and the
conductor metal is better utilized.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 75

 This "skin effect" causes the AC resistance


of a conductor to exceed its DC resistance.
 At 50 Hz, for-example, the increase in
resistance is 2.5% and 7.5% for conductor
diameters of 2.5 and 3.8 cm, respectively.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 76

38
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 77

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 78

39
2/24/2018

 It causes the resistance of the solid


conductor to be greater on a.c than on d.c.
since inductive reactance is directly
proportional to frequency.
 The skin effect is much greater at high
frequency than at 50 Hz.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 79

(f) Less corona and radio interference


 Since corona loss increases with frequency
(in fact it is known to be proportional to
f+25), for a given conductor diameter and
applied voltage, there is much lower corona
loss and hence more importantly less radio
interference with d.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 80

40
2/24/2018

Corona Loss
 If the visual corona voltage is exceeded, the
power loss due to corona is given by Peek's
formulae.
 The expression for the fair weather corona loss
per phase or conductor, P is:
390
P= ( f + 25) r/d (V − V0 ) 2 10 -5 kW/mile/ph.
δ
where V0= disruptive critical voltage to neutral in
kilovolts (rms)
f = frequency in hertz
V= line-to-neutral operating voltage in kilovolts
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 81

 Due to this bundle conductors become


unnecessary and hence give a substantial
saving in line costs.
 Tests have also shown that bundle
conductors would anyway not offer a
significant advantage for d.c as the lower
reactance effect so beneficial for a.c is not
applicable for d.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 82

41
2/24/2018

(g) No Stability Problem


 The d.c. link is an asynchronous link and
hence any a.c. supplied through converters
or d.c. generation do not have to be
synchronized with the link.
 The length of d.c. link is not governed by
stability.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 83

 In a.c. links the phase angle between


sending end and receiving end should not
exceed 30o at full-load for transient stability
(maximum theoretical steady state limit is
90o).

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 84

42
2/24/2018

Ferranti Effect
 The Ferranti effect on an uncompensated
transmission line is given by:

 Where Vr and Vs are the receiving end and


sending end voltages, respectively, and ℓ is
the line length (km).
 β0 is the phase shift constant of the line per
unit length.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 85

 It is equal to the imaginary part of √ZY,


where Z and Y are the impedance and
admittance of the line per unit length.
 For a lossless line β0 = ω√LC where L and C
are the inductance and capacitance of the
line per unit length.
 β0 has a value of about 6º per 100 km at
normal power frequency.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 86

43
2/24/2018

 The phase angle change at the natural load


of a line is thus 0.6o per 10 km.
 The maximum permissible length without
compensation 30/0.06 = 500 km
 With compensation, this length can be
doubled to 1000 km.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 87

(h) Asynchronous interconnection possible


 With a.c. links, interconnections between
power systems must be synchronous.
 Thus different frequency systems cannot be
interconnected.
 Such systems can be easily interconnected
through hvdc links.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 88

44
2/24/2018

 For different frequency interconnections


both converters can be confined to the same
station.
 In addition, different power authorities may
need to maintain different tolerances on
their supplies, even though nominally of the
same frequency.
 This option is not available with a.c.
 With d.c. there is no such problem.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 89

(i) Lower short circuit fault levels


 When an a.c. transmission system is
extended, the fault level of the whole system
goes up, sometimes necessitating the
expensive replacement of circuit breakers
with those of higher fault levels.
 This problem can be overcome with hvdc as
it does not contribute current to the a.c.
short circuit beyond its rated current.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 90

45
2/24/2018

 In fact it is possible to operate a d.c. link in


"parallel" with an a.c. link to limit the fault
level on an expansion.
 In the event of a fault on the d.c line, after a
momentary transient due to the discharge of
the line capacitance, the current is limited
by automatic grid control.
 Also the d.c. line does not draw excessive
current from the a.c. system.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 91

(j) Tie line power is easily controlled


 In the case of an a.c. tie line, the power
cannot be easily controlled between the two
systems.
 With d.c. tie lines, the control is easily
accomplished through grid control.
 In fact even the reversal of the power flow is
just as easy.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 92

46
2/24/2018

1.2 Inherent problems associated with hvdc

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 93

(a) Expensive converters


(b) Reactive power requirement
(c) Generation of harmonics
(d) Difficulty of circuit breaking
(e) Difficulty of voltage transformation
(f) Difficulty of high power generation
(g) Absence of overload capacity

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 94

47
2/24/2018

(a) Expensive converters


 Expensive Converter Stations are required at
each end of a d.c. transmission link, whereas
only transformer stations are required in an
a.c. link.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 95

(b) Reactive power requirement


 Converters require much reactive power,
both in rectification as well as in inversion.
 At each converter the reactive power
consumed may be as much as 50% of the
active power rating of the d.c. link.
 The reactive power requirement is partly
supplied by the filter capacitance, and partly
by static capacitors that need to be installed
for this purpose.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 96

48
2/24/2018

(c) Generation of harmonics


 Converters generate a lot of harmonics both
on the d.c. side and on the a.c. side.
 Filters are used on the a.c. side to reduce the
amount of harmonics transferred to the d.c.
system.
 On the d.c. system, smoothing reactors are
used.
 These components add to the cost of the
converter.
Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 97

(d) Difficulty of circuit breaking


 Due to the absence of a natural current zero
with d.c., circuit breaking is difficult.
 This is not a major problem in single hvdc
link systems, as circuit breaking can be
accomplished by a very rapid absorbing of
the energy back into the a.c. system.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 98

49
2/24/2018

 (The blocking action of thyristors is faster


than the operation of mechanical circuit
breakers).
 However the lack of hvdc circuit breakers
impedes multi-terminal operation.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 99

(e) Difficulty of voltage transformation


 Power is generally used at low voltage, but
for reasons of efficiency must be transmitted
at high voltage.
 The absence of the equivalent of d.c.
transformers makes it necessary for voltage
transformation to be carried out on the a.c.
side of the system and prevents a purely d.c.
system being used.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 100

50
2/24/2018

(f) Difficulty of high power generation


 Due to the problems of commutation with
d.c. machines, voltage, speed and size are
limited.
 Thus comparatively lower power can be
generated with d.c.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 101

(g) Absence of overload capacity


 Converters have very little overload capacity
unlike transformers.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 102

51
2/24/2018

1.3 Economic Comparison


 The hvdc system has a lower line cost per
unit length as compared to an equally
reliable a.c. system due to the lesser number
of conductors and smaller tower size.
 However, the d.c. system needs two
expensive converter stations which may cost
around two to three times the corresponding
a.c. transformer stations.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 103

 Thus hvdc transmission is not generally


economical for short distances, unless other
factors dictate otherwise.
 Economic considerations call for a certain
minimum transmission distance (break-even
distance) before hvdc can be considered
competitive purely on cost.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 104

52
2/24/2018

 Estimates for the break even distance of


overhead lines are around 500 km with a
wide variation about this value depending
on the magnitude of power transfer and the
range of costs of lines and equipment.
 The breakeven distances are reducing with
the progress made in the development of
converting devices.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 105

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 106

53
2/24/2018

 Figure 1 shows the comparative costs of d.c.


links and a.c. links with distance, assuming
a cost variation of ± 5% for the a.c. link and
a variation of ± 10% for the d.c. link.
 For cables, the break-even distance is much
smaller than for overhead lines and is of the
order of 25 km for submarine cables and 50
km for underground cables.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 107

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 108

54
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 109

2. Converter arrangements and operation


 The three-phase six-valve bridge rectifier is
almost exclusively used in high voltage
direct current applications.
 This is shown in figure 2.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 110

55
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 111

 The 6-valve bridge connection gives double


the direct voltage as output compared to the
simple 3-phase rectifier.
 The converter transformer may either be
wound star-star as shown, or as star-delta
(or even as delta star or delta-delta).

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 112

56
2/24/2018

 For the 6-valve bridge, with zero firing


delay, the voltage waveforms across the
thyristors are shown in figure 3.
 At any given instant, one thyristor valve on
either side is conducting.
 The conducting period for the thyristor
valve R1 is shown on the diagram.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 113

 The 6-valve bridge connection gives double


the direct voltage as output compared to the
simple 3-phase rectifier.
 The converter transformer may either be
wound star-star as shown, or as star-delta
(or even as delta star or delta-delta).

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 114

57
2/24/2018

 For the 6-valve bridge, with zero firing


delay, the voltage waveforms across the
thyristors are shown in figure 3.
 At any given instant, one thyristor valve on
either side is conducting.
 The conducting period for the thyristor
valve R1 is shown on the diagram.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 115

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 116

58
2/24/2018

It can be shown that for the 6-valve bridge, the


total r.m.s. ripple is of the order of 4.2% of
the d.c. value (for zero delay α=0 and zero
commutation γ=0).

The ripple of course increases with the delay


angle and has a value of about 30% at α= ̟/2.

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 117

 With the 12 pulse bridge, the r.m.s. ripple is


of the order of 1.03% of the d.c. value (for α
=0 and γ=0) and increases to about 15% at
α= ̟/2.
 The use of a choke reduces the ripple
appearing in the direct current transmitted.
 If E is the r.m.s. line-to-line voltage, then if
α =0 and γ=0) the direct voltage output is
given by Equation (1).

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 118

59
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 119

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 120

60
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 121

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 122

61
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 123

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 124

62
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 125

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 126

63
2/24/2018

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 127

Professor Ahdab Elmorshedy 128

64